Science.gov

Sample records for embedded electricity generation

  1. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  2. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  3. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-07-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ``sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter.

  4. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  5. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  6. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Kay H; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual-parietal-prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual-parietal-prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model of

  7. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  8. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  9. Wave Motion Electric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, E. F.; Winkler, R. J.

    1983-12-27

    Set out herein is an electrical generator conformed for installation in a buoy, the generator comprising an inverted pendulum having two windings formed at the free end thereof and aligned to articulate between two end stops each provided with a magnetic circuit. As the loops thus pass through the magnetic circuit, electrical current is induced which may be rectified through a full way rectifier to charge up a storage battery. The buoy itself may be ballasted to have its fundamental resonance at more than double the wave frequency with the result that during each passing of a wave at least two induction cycles occur.

  10. Winning in electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, L.; Jansen, P.; Geyn, G. van

    1996-08-01

    Should you be a buyer or a seller of generation? In general, spot buyers should do very well, while many generation owners will be fortunate to recover their stranded costs. Successful generators will capitalize on superior operating performance and market knowledge. The smartest natural gas strategy in the early 1980`s was to short natural gas. Will this lesson of restructuring be written again of the electricity generation business of the late 1990`s? The authors will examine whether and how winners might emerge in the generation business of the future. The U.S. electric generation market, already marked by intense competition for new capacity and industrial demand, will become even more competitive as it makes the transition from regulated local monopoly to marketbased commodity pricing. At risk is up to $150 billion of shareholder equity and the future viability of half of the country`s investor-owned utilities. The winners in year 2005 will be those who early on developed strategies that simultaneously recovered existing generation investments while restructuring their asset portfolios and repositioning their plants to compete in the new market. Losers will have spent the time mired in indecision, their strategies ultimately forced upon them by regulators or competitors.

  11. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  12. Electrical pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating high-voltage, wide dynamic range, shaped electrical pulses in the nanosecond range. Two transmission lines are coupled together by resistive elements distributed along the length of the lines. The conductance of each coupling resistive element as a function of its position along the line is selected to produce the desired pulse shape in the output line when an easily produced pulse, such as a step function pulse, is applied to the input line.

  13. Electricity generation and health.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2007-09-15

    The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on lignite, coal, and oil). The health burdens are appreciably smaller for generation from natural gas, and lower still for nuclear power. This same ranking also applies in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions and thus, potentially, to long-term health, social, and economic effects arising from climate change. Nuclear power remains controversial, however, because of public concern about storage of nuclear waste, the potential for catastrophic accident or terrorist attack, and the diversion of fissionable material for weapons production. Health risks are smaller for nuclear fusion, but commercial exploitation will not be achieved in time to help the crucial near-term reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. The negative effects on health of electricity generation from renewable sources have not been assessed as fully as those from conventional sources, but for solar, wind, and wave power, such effects seem to be small; those of biofuels depend on the type of fuel and the mode of combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage is increasingly being considered for reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel plants, but the health effects associated with this technology are largely unquantified and probably mixed: efficiency losses mean greater consumption of the primary fuel and accompanying increases in some waste products. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the health effects of different methods of generating electricity. PMID:17876910

  14. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbine and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.

  15. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  16. ELECTRIC PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Buntenbach, R.W.

    1959-06-01

    S>An electro-optical apparatus is described which produces electric pulses in programmed sequences at times and durations controlled with great accuracy. An oscilloscope CRT is supplied with signals to produce a luminous spot moving in a circle. An opaque mask with slots of variable width transmits light from the spot to a photoelectric transducer. For shorter pulse decay times a CRT screen which emits UV can be used with a UVtransmitting filter and a UV- sensitive photoelectric cell. Pulses are varied by changing masks or by using masks with variable slots. This device may be used in multiple arrangements to produce other pulse aT rangements, or it can be used to trigger an electronic pulse generator. (T.R.H.)

  17. Solar thermal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  18. Method for protecting an electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  19. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  20. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  1. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of the rotor cell was employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of the cell. An electrical conductor was placed in surrounding proximity to the cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement was provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively.

  2. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  3. Exploring packaging strategies of nano-embedded thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Aniket; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2015-10-01

    Embedding nanostructures within a bulk matrix is an important practical approach towards the electronic engineering of high performance thermoelectric systems. For power generation applications, it ideally combines the efficiency benefit offered by low dimensional systems along with the high power output advantage offered by bulk systems. In this work, we uncover a few crucial details about how to embed nanowires and nanoflakes in a bulk matrix so that an overall advantage over pure bulk may be achieved. First and foremost, we point out that a performance degradation with respect to bulk is inevitable as the nanostructure transitions to a multi moded one. It is then shown that a nano embedded system of suitable cross-section offers a power density advantage over a wide range of efficiencies at higher packing fractions, and this range gradually narrows down to the high efficiency regime, as the packing fraction is reduced. Finally, we introduce a metric - the advantage factor, to elucidate quantitatively, the enhancement in the power density offered via nano-embedding at a given efficiency. In the end, we explore the maximum effective width of nano-embedding which serves as a reference in designing generators in the efficiency range of interest.

  4. Exploring packaging strategies of nano-embedded thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Aniket; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Mahanti, Subhendra D.

    2015-10-15

    Embedding nanostructures within a bulk matrix is an important practical approach towards the electronic engineering of high performance thermoelectric systems. For power generation applications, it ideally combines the efficiency benefit offered by low dimensional systems along with the high power output advantage offered by bulk systems. In this work, we uncover a few crucial details about how to embed nanowires and nanoflakes in a bulk matrix so that an overall advantage over pure bulk may be achieved. First and foremost, we point out that a performance degradation with respect to bulk is inevitable as the nanostructure transitions to a multi moded one. It is then shown that a nano embedded system of suitable cross-section offers a power density advantage over a wide range of efficiencies at higher packing fractions, and this range gradually narrows down to the high efficiency regime, as the packing fraction is reduced. Finally, we introduce a metric - the advantage factor, to elucidate quantitatively, the enhancement in the power density offered via nano-embedding at a given efficiency. In the end, we explore the maximum effective width of nano-embedding which serves as a reference in designing generators in the efficiency range of interest.

  5. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m‑1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m‑1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m‑2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m‑2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  6. Piezoelectric transducer embedded in a composite plate: Application to Lamb wave generation

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, E.; Assaad, J.; Delebarre, C.; Kaczmarek, H.; Balageas, D.

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that Lamb waves may be effectively generated using piezoelectric transducers embedded inside a composite plate, for nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring applications. A cylindrical transducer embedded in a composite host plate is considered. The electrical impedance of the transducer alone in vacuum and then of the embedded transducer, which allows the identification of the resonance modes, have been obtained by the finite element method (FEM). Moreover, the displacement fields in the plate, which allow the identification of the types of Lamb waves, have been computed at the resonance frequencies. Comparison between the FEM results and the Lamb wave dispersion curves of the host material are in good agreement. Experimental results (electrical impedance, frequency response, and phase velocities) concerning a composite plate specimen containing the same piezoelectric transducer inside it are shown. A good agreement is generally obtained between numerical and experimental results. In addition, it has been shown that the radial mode of the embedded transducer, which has a high coupling coefficient (around 50{percent}), can be used to generate S{sub 0} Lamb waves. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Characteristics of decentralized electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Bereano, P.L.; King, S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of decentralized electricity generation are examined at several different levels with the aid of twenty-three independent variables. This approach provides a systematic framework for assessing and comparing the decentralized nature of power generation facilities and systems. While the analysis reveals that decentralization is not an explicit measure of performance, the taxonomy provides a useful tool for improving the quality of the debate on this issue. 30 references, 2 figures.

  8. Characteristics of decentralized electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Bereano, P.L.; King, S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of decentralized electricity generation are examined at several different levels with the aid of twenty-three independent variables. This approach provides a systematic framework for assessing and comparing the decentralized nature of power generation facilities and systems. While the analysis reveals that decentralization is not an explicit measure of performance, the taxonomy provides a useful tool for improving the quality of the debate on this issue.

  9. Electric signals generated by tornados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, John R.; Schmitter, Ernst D.

    2009-04-01

    Severe weather events generate electrical phenomena beyond those related to lightning discharges. In the present letter we suggest that as precipitation like rain, hail stones, and dirt move in the thunderstorm they generate an electrical signature that is characteristic for the rotation properties of the associated storm. A case study is offered which clearly demonstrates that this electrical signature is present and detectable, though it is quite weak. It can be observed that as the speed of rotation increases and diameter decreases the emitted frequency increases as would be anticipated. Comparison to synchronous radar, surface and visual data suggest that developing tornadoes in this way can be detected earlier than currently feasible weather surveillance radars.

  10. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  11. Laser-generated plasma by carbon nanoparticles embedded into polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Cutroneo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanoparticles have been embedded into polyethylene at different concentrations by using chemical-physical processes. The synthesized material was characterized in terms of physical modifications concerning the mechanical, compositional and optical properties. Obtained flat targets have been irradiated by Nd:YAG laser at intensities of the order of 1010 W/cm2 in order to generate non-equilibrium plasma in vacuum. The laser-matter interaction produces charge separation effects with consequent acceleration of protons and carbon ions. Plasma was characterized using time-of-flight measurements of the accelerated ions. Applications of the produced targets in order to generate carbon ion beams from laser-generated plasma are presented and discussed.

  12. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  13. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  14. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit

  15. Mini-biomass electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, G.

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  16. Electricity generation from defective tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Fogg, Alex; Wilder, Joseph; Franco, Daniel; Komisar, Simeon; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2016-12-01

    The United States faces a significant burden in treating 0.61billionkg of defective tomatoes (culls) every year. We present a proof-of-concept for generating electricity from culled tomatoes in microbial-electrochemical systems (MESs). This study delineates impedance behavior of the culled tomatoes in MESs and compares its impedance spectra with that of soluble substrates (dextrose, acetate, and wastewater). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests have revealed the superior performance of the culled tomatoes compared to the pure substrates. Cyclic voltammetry results have indicated the active role of indigenous, diffusible redox-active pigments in the culled tomatoes on overall electricity production. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have elucidated the role of peel and seed on the oxidation behavior of the culled tomatoes. PMID:27474917

  17. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  18. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  19. Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

  20. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  1. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  2. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

  3. "Beating speckles" via electrically-induced vibrations of Au nanorods embedded in sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Ritenberg, Margarita; Beilis, Edith; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Barkai, Zehava; Shahmoon, Asaf; Richter, Shachar; Zalevsky, Zeev; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-01-01

    Generation of macroscopic phenomena through manipulating nano-scale properties of materials is among the most fundamental goals of nanotechnology research. We demonstrate cooperative "speckle beats" induced through electric-field modulation of gold (Au) nanorods embedded in a transparent sol-gel host. Specifically, we show that placing the Au nanorod/sol-gel matrix in an alternating current (AC) field gives rise to dramatic modulation of incident light scattered from the material. The speckle light patterns take form of "beats", for which the amplitude and frequency are directly correlated with the voltage and frequency, respectively, of the applied AC field. The data indicate that the speckle beats arise from localized vibrations of the gel-embedded Au nanorods, induced through the interactions between the AC field and the electrostatically-charged nanorods. This phenomenon opens the way for new means of investigating nanoparticles in constrained environments. Applications in electro-optical devices, such as optical modulators, movable lenses, and others are also envisaged. PMID:24413086

  4. Installation of electric generators on turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demel, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The installation of generators on turbine aircraft is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of the samarium cobalt generator. Potential advantages of an electric secondary power system at the engine level are listed. The integrated generator and the externally mounted generator are discussed. It is concluded that the integrated generator is best used in turbojet and low bypass ratio engines where there is no easy way of placing generators externally without influencing frontal areas.

  5. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  6. Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and DeliveryInfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2006-02-01

    The legacy paradigm for electricity service in most of the electrified world today is based on the centralized generation-transmission-distribution infrastructure that evolved under a regulated environment. More recently, a quest for effective economic investments, responsive markets, and sensitivity to the availability of resources, has led to various degrees of deregulation and unbundling of services. In this context, a new paradigm is emerging wherein electricity generation is intimately embedded with the load in microgrids. Development and decay of the familiar macrogrid is discussed. Three salient features of microgrids are examined to suggest that cohabitation of micro and macro grids is desirable, and that overall energy efficiency can be increased, while power is delivered to loads at appropriate levels of quality.

  7. Entanglement generation by electric field background

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadi, Zahra Mirza, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    The quantum vacuum is unstable under the influence of an external electric field and decays into pairs of charged particles, a process which is known as the Schwinger pair production. We propose and demonstrate that this electric field can generate entanglement. Using the Schwinger pair production for constant and pulsed electric fields, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spins and Dirac fermions. One can observe the variation of the entanglement produced for bosonic and fermionic modes with respect to different parameters.

  8. Electrical Power Generation by Mechanically Modulating Electrical Double Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Moon, Jong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system and for understanding the interfacial charge distribution in solid-liquid interfaces in the near future. This work was supported by Center for Soft and Living Matter through IBS prgram in Korea.

  9. Electricity generation by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with the production of electricity by wind and photovoltaic (PV) power mostly in Germany. The German data of 2012 are scaled to a 100% supply of the electricity consumption by renewable sources. Wind and PV power are mixed in a ratio which minimises back-up energy. The 100%, optimal mix data are used to identify the powers to be installed, the accumulating backup and surplus energies, the size of storage to replace thermal back-up power, the possibilities of demand-side-management, and the specific CO2 production. The benefits of using an EU-wide field of renewable energies (RES) instead of the national one are quantified and the interconnection capacities specified. Finally, the costs of installing RES are discussed. The conclusion is that a 100% supply by RES may not be meaningful. Large-scale supply by RES alone has deficiencies and it will remain a major task for science and technology to either improve such a system or find a suitable replacement.

  10. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

    2013-04-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF-4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

  11. Electric field generation in martian dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Mars in situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the Macroscopic Triboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system. Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  12. Generation of Electric and Magnetic Fields During Detonation of High Explosive Charges in Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, S; Sweeney, J

    2004-06-04

    We present experimental results of a study of electromagnetic field generation during underground detonation of high explosive charges in holes bored in sandy loam and granite. Test conditions and physico-mechanical properties of the soil exert significant influence on the parameters of electromagnetic signals generated by underground TNT charges with masses of 2 - 200 kg. The electric and magnetic field experimental data are satisfactorily described by an electric dipole model with the source embedded in a layered media.

  13. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Youngjun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-10-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug.

  14. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  15. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  16. Design and evaluation of brushless electrical generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, F. A.; Ellis, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Ten design manuals assembled and nine computer programs are developed for evaluation of proposed designs of brushless rotating electrical generators. Design manual package provides all information required for generator design, and computer programs permit calculation of performance of specific designs including effects of materials.

  17. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  18. Floating Oscillator-Embedded Triboelectric Generator for Versatile Mechanical Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Meyyappan, M; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A versatile vibration energy harvesting platform based on a triboelectricity is proposed and analyzed. External mechanical vibration repeats an oscillating motion of a polymer-coated metal oscillator floating inside a surrounding tube. Continuous sidewall friction at the contact interface of the oscillator induces current between the inner oscillator electrode and the outer tube electrode to convert mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. The floating oscillator-embedded triboelectric generator (FO-TEG) is applicable for both impulse excitation and sinusoidal vibration which universally exist in usual environment. For the impulse excitation, the generated current sustains and slowly decays by the residual oscillation of the floating oscillator. For the sinusoidal vibration, the output energy can be maximized by resonance oscillation. The operating frequency range can be simply optimized with high degree of freedom to satisfy various application requirements. In addition, the excellent immunity against ambient humidity is experimentally demonstrated, which stems from the inherently packaged structure of FO-TEG. The prototype device provides a peak-to-peak open-circuit voltage of 157 V and instantaneous short-circuit current of 4.6 μA, within sub-10 Hz of operating frequency. To visually demonstrate the energy harvesting behavior of FO-TEG, lighting of an array of LEDs is demonstrated using artificial vibration and human running. PMID:26553524

  19. Floating Oscillator-Embedded Triboelectric Generator for Versatile Mechanical Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Meyyappan, M.; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-11-01

    A versatile vibration energy harvesting platform based on a triboelectricity is proposed and analyzed. External mechanical vibration repeats an oscillating motion of a polymer-coated metal oscillator floating inside a surrounding tube. Continuous sidewall friction at the contact interface of the oscillator induces current between the inner oscillator electrode and the outer tube electrode to convert mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. The floating oscillator-embedded triboelectric generator (FO-TEG) is applicable for both impulse excitation and sinusoidal vibration which universally exist in usual environment. For the impulse excitation, the generated current sustains and slowly decays by the residual oscillation of the floating oscillator. For the sinusoidal vibration, the output energy can be maximized by resonance oscillation. The operating frequency range can be simply optimized with high degree of freedom to satisfy various application requirements. In addition, the excellent immunity against ambient humidity is experimentally demonstrated, which stems from the inherently packaged structure of FO-TEG. The prototype device provides a peak-to-peak open-circuit voltage of 157 V and instantaneous short-circuit current of 4.6 μA, within sub-10 Hz of operating frequency. To visually demonstrate the energy harvesting behavior of FO-TEG, lighting of an array of LEDs is demonstrated using artificial vibration and human running.

  20. Floating Oscillator-Embedded Triboelectric Generator for Versatile Mechanical Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Meyyappan, M.; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A versatile vibration energy harvesting platform based on a triboelectricity is proposed and analyzed. External mechanical vibration repeats an oscillating motion of a polymer-coated metal oscillator floating inside a surrounding tube. Continuous sidewall friction at the contact interface of the oscillator induces current between the inner oscillator electrode and the outer tube electrode to convert mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. The floating oscillator-embedded triboelectric generator (FO-TEG) is applicable for both impulse excitation and sinusoidal vibration which universally exist in usual environment. For the impulse excitation, the generated current sustains and slowly decays by the residual oscillation of the floating oscillator. For the sinusoidal vibration, the output energy can be maximized by resonance oscillation. The operating frequency range can be simply optimized with high degree of freedom to satisfy various application requirements. In addition, the excellent immunity against ambient humidity is experimentally demonstrated, which stems from the inherently packaged structure of FO-TEG. The prototype device provides a peak-to-peak open-circuit voltage of 157 V and instantaneous short-circuit current of 4.6 μA, within sub-10 Hz of operating frequency. To visually demonstrate the energy harvesting behavior of FO-TEG, lighting of an array of LEDs is demonstrated using artificial vibration and human running. PMID:26553524

  1. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. )

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  2. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding.

    PubMed

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries. PMID:25527922

  3. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  4. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    SciTech Connect

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  5. Computer-generated electrically switchable holographic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tony; Jauniskis, Linas; Domash, Lawrence H.

    1995-04-01

    Electrically switched holographic composites (ESHC) based on Polaroid photopolymer materials were described previously using optically generated holograms. These techniques have now been extended to include computer generated holograms. A highly accurate laser writing engine was utilized to write multi-phase level diffractive gratings in Polaroid type DMP-128 photopolymer film. After compositing with liquid crystals and applying an electric field, the diffraction efficiency of the elements could be switched or tuned continuously over approximately a 100:1 range of diffraction efficiencies, opening a new range of interconnect applications.

  6. Subabul: A wood species for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    In view of energy and environmental considerations, efforts have been made in this article to suggest the use of biomass as a renewable and nonpolluting source of energy for power generation. This article presents the results of the proximate analyses and energy contents of various components of the Subabul tree and their impact on land requirements to generate necessary biomass for small-scale electricity generation units. The results have shown that for the Subabul-wood-based thermal power plant, approximately 400 ha of land are required to generate 2,000 kWh/d.

  7. Automated Testcase Generation for Numerical Support Functions in Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Schnieder, Stefan-Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a tool for the automatic generation of test stimuli for small numerical support functions, e.g., code for trigonometric functions, quaternions, filters, or table lookup. Our tool is based on KLEE to produce a set of test stimuli for full path coverage. We use a method of iterative deepening over abstractions to deal with floating-point values. During actual testing the stimuli exercise the code against a reference implementation. We illustrate our approach with results of experiments with low-level trigonometric functions, interpolation routines, and mathematical support functions from an open source UAS autopilot.

  8. Machine-Checked Sequencer for Critical Embedded Code Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izerrouken, Nassima; Pantel, Marc; Thirioux, Xavier

    This paper presents the development of a correct-by-construction block sequencer for GeneAuto a qualifiable (according to DO178B/ED12B recommendation) automatic code generator. It transforms Simulink models to MISRA C code for safety critical systems. Our approach which combines classical development process and formal specification and verification using proof-assistants, led to preliminary fruitful exchanges with certification authorities. We present parts of the classical user and tools requirements and derived formal specifications, implementation and verification for the correctness and termination of the block sequencer. This sequencer has been successfully applied to real-size industrial use cases from various transportation domain partners and led to requirement errors detection and a correct-by-construction implementation.

  9. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOEpatents

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  10. Gravitational electrical generator on magnetic fluid cushion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Călin Popa, Nicolae; Siblini, Ali; Jorat, Luc

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes the possibility to capture the energy of the vertical movement of the ocean waves, using a gravitational electrical generator on magnetic fluid cushion. This is constructed from a permanent magnet in a magnetic fluid shell, which, under the ocean waves action, is moving by translation inside a hermetically sealed tube.

  11. Partnership for electrical generation technology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R. S.; Beaty, L.; Holman, R.

    2006-07-01

    This Engineering Technician education effort adapts an existing two-year Instrumentation and Control (I and C) education program into a model that is focused on electrical-generation technologies. It will also locally implement a program developed elsewhere with National Science Foundation funding, aimed at public schools, and adapt it to stimulate pre-college interest in pursuing energy careers in general. (authors)

  12. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  13. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  14. Antifungal Properties of Electrically Generated Metallic Ions

    PubMed Central

    Berger, T. J.; Spadaro, J. A.; Bierman, Richard; Chapin, S. E.; Becker, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative investigation was undertaken to study the susceptibility of unicellular eucaryotic organisms (yeasts) to metallic cations generated by low levels of direct current. Results were characteristic of effects obtained previously using clinical and standard bacteria test organisms. The present study demonstrated that anodic silver (Ag+) at low direct currents had inhibitory and fungicidal properties. Broth dilution susceptibility tests were made on several species of Candida and one species of Torulopsis. Growth in all isolates was inhibited by concentrations of electrically generated silver ions between 0.5 and 4.7 μg/ml, and silver exhibited fungicidal properties at concentrations as low as 1.9 μg/ml. The inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of electrically generated silver ions are lower than those reported for other silver compounds. Images PMID:1034467

  15. Pneumatic artificial rubber muscle using shape-memory polymer sheet with embedded electrical heating wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Kazuto; Sugitani, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Naohiro; Sakaguchi, Seiya; Noritsugu, Toshiro; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-12-01

    Shape-memory polymer (SMP) can be deformed by applying a small load above its glass transition temperature (Tg). Shape-memory polymer maintains its shape after it has cooled below Tg and returns to a predefined shape when subsequently heated above Tg. The reversible change in the elastic modulus between the glassy and rubbery states of an SMP can be on the order of several hundred times. Based on the change in stiffness of the SMP in relation to the change in temperature, the present study attempts to evaluate the application of the SMP to soft actuators of a robot. In order to control the temperature of the SMP, we developed an SMP sheet with an embedded electrical heating wire. We formed a uniform, thin SMP sheet without air bubbles using a heat press. The SMP sheet with a heating wire can be heated quickly and can be maintained at a constant temperature. Moreover, the effects of the embedded wire on the mechanical properties in bending and tensile tests were small. Then, we applied the SMP sheet with the embedded electrical heating wire to a pneumatic artificial rubber muscle. The enhanced versatility of SMP sheet applications is demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted using a prototype. The initial shape and bending displacement of the pneumatic artificial rubber muscle can be changed by controlling the temperature of the SMP sheet.

  16. Electric voltage generation by antiferromagnetic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Yuta; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Sinova, Jairo

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically demonstrate dc and ac electric voltage generation due to spin motive forces originating from domain wall motion and magnetic resonance, respectively, in two-sublattice antiferromagnets. Our theory accounts for the canting between the sublattice magnetizations, the nonadiabatic electron spin dynamics, and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, with the intersublattice electron dynamics treated as a perturbation. This work suggests a way to observe and explore the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures by electrical means, an important aspect in the emerging field of antiferromagnetic spintronics, where both manipulation and detection of antiferromagnets are needed.

  17. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  18. Electric field control of the magnetic order parameter of magnetic pillars embedded in a ferroelectric matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael; Wang, Q.; Chen, A.; Lookman, T.; Jia, Q. X.; Gilbert, D. A.; Borchers, J. A.; Holladay, B.; Sinha, S.

    Using polarized beam small angle neutron scattering (SANS) we quantitatively measured the influence of an electric field on correlation of magnetism in a ferroelectric/ferrimagnetic nanocomposite. The nanocomposite consists of ~12 nm wide pillars of CoFe2O4 (dark regions, inset figure left), a room temperature ferrimagnet, embedded in a ferroelectric, BaTiO3, matrix (light regions, inset figure right). We used a model-free method to extract the correlations of the magnetic structure from the SANS data (figure below). We found a 700 kV/cm electric field induced a change of magnetization of ~2% (scattering geometry, inset figure left). We explain our results using a simple representation for free energy that attributes coupling between electric polarization and magnetic order parameters to strain.

  19. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  20. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  1. Mechanically Stretchable and Electrically Insulating Thermal Elastomer Composite by Liquid Alloy Droplet Embedment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Chen, Si; Huo, Jinxing; Gamstedt, Erik Kristofer; Liu, Johan; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Stretchable electronics and soft robotics have shown unsurpassed features, inheriting remarkable functions from stretchable and soft materials. Electrically conductive and mechanically stretchable materials based on composites have been widely studied for stretchable electronics as electrical conductors using various combinations of materials. However, thermally tunable and stretchable materials, which have high potential in soft and stretchable thermal devices as interface or packaging materials, have not been sufficiently studied. Here, a mechanically stretchable and electrically insulating thermal elastomer composite is demonstrated, which can be easily processed for device fabrication. A liquid alloy is embedded as liquid droplet fillers in an elastomer matrix to achieve softness and stretchability. This new elastomer composite is expected useful to enhance thermal response or efficiency of soft and stretchable thermal devices or systems. The thermal elastomer composites demonstrate advantages such as thermal interface and packaging layers with thermal shrink films in transient and steady-state cases and a stretchable temperature sensor. PMID:26671673

  2. Mechanically Stretchable and Electrically Insulating Thermal Elastomer Composite by Liquid Alloy Droplet Embedment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Chen, Si; Huo, Jinxing; Gamstedt, Erik Kristofer; Liu, Johan; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Stretchable electronics and soft robotics have shown unsurpassed features, inheriting remarkable functions from stretchable and soft materials. Electrically conductive and mechanically stretchable materials based on composites have been widely studied for stretchable electronics as electrical conductors using various combinations of materials. However, thermally tunable and stretchable materials, which have high potential in soft and stretchable thermal devices as interface or packaging materials, have not been sufficiently studied. Here, a mechanically stretchable and electrically insulating thermal elastomer composite is demonstrated, which can be easily processed for device fabrication. A liquid alloy is embedded as liquid droplet fillers in an elastomer matrix to achieve softness and stretchability. This new elastomer composite is expected useful to enhance thermal response or efficiency of soft and stretchable thermal devices or systems. The thermal elastomer composites demonstrate advantages such as thermal interface and packaging layers with thermal shrink films in transient and steady-state cases and a stretchable temperature sensor. PMID:26671673

  3. Mechanically Stretchable and Electrically Insulating Thermal Elastomer Composite by Liquid Alloy Droplet Embedment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Chen, Si; Huo, Jinxing; Gamstedt, Erik Kristofer; Liu, Johan; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-12-01

    Stretchable electronics and soft robotics have shown unsurpassed features, inheriting remarkable functions from stretchable and soft materials. Electrically conductive and mechanically stretchable materials based on composites have been widely studied for stretchable electronics as electrical conductors using various combinations of materials. However, thermally tunable and stretchable materials, which have high potential in soft and stretchable thermal devices as interface or packaging materials, have not been sufficiently studied. Here, a mechanically stretchable and electrically insulating thermal elastomer composite is demonstrated, which can be easily processed for device fabrication. A liquid alloy is embedded as liquid droplet fillers in an elastomer matrix to achieve softness and stretchability. This new elastomer composite is expected useful to enhance thermal response or efficiency of soft and stretchable thermal devices or systems. The thermal elastomer composites demonstrate advantages such as thermal interface and packaging layers with thermal shrink films in transient and steady-state cases and a stretchable temperature sensor.

  4. Why do particle clouds generate electric charges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, T.; Herrmann, H. J.; Shinbrot, T.

    2010-05-01

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  5. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. The Birth of Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1999-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I), built in Idaho in 1949, generated the first usable electricity from nuclear power on December 20, 1951. More importantly, the reactor was used to prove that it was possible to create more nuclear fuel in the reactor than it consumed during operation -- fuel breeding. The EBR-I facility is now a National Historic Landmark open to the public.

  7. An overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, T.J.

    1999-09-09

    This paper provides an overview of the developments in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity that have occurred relatively recently-from about 1994 to October 1998. The components considered are the semiconductor converter; the radiator; and the means of recirculating unusable, long-wavelength photons. A short account of the functions and performance of each of these components is given. Also discussed are operational systems and progress in modeling TPV systems.

  8. Power generation from thermoelectric system-embedded Plexiglas for green building technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayat, Salman Bin; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Thermoelectric materials embedded through or inside exterior glass windows can act as a viable source of supplemental power in geographic locations where hot weather dominates. This thermoelectricity is generated because of the thermal difference between the high temperature outside and the relatively cold temperature inside. Using physical vapor deposition process, we experimentally verify this concept by embedding bismuth telluride and antimony telluride through the 5 mm Plexiglas to demonstrate 10 nW of thermopower generation with a temperature gradient of 21 °C. Albeit tiny at this point with non-optimized design and development, this concept can be extended for relatively large-scale power generation as an additional power supply for green building technology.

  9. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K.; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer. PMID:26530817

  10. A Gas Embedded Z-pinch Driven by SPEED2 Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, Jose; Sylvester, Gustavo; Silva, Patricio; Zambra, Marcelo; Pavez, Cristian; Clausse, Alejandro

    2006-12-04

    A gas embedded Z-pinch has been implemented using the SPEED2 generator (4.1 {mu}F equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt{approx}1013 A/s). Initial conditions to produce a gas embedded z-pinch with enhanced stability by means resistive effects and by finite Larmor radius effects were obtained and electrodes were constructed in order to obtain a double column Z-pinch and a hollow discharge. Experiments were carried out in deuterium at mega amperes currents. Current derivative and voltage signals have been obtained. In addition interferograms have been obatined using a pulse Nd-YAG laser (8ns FWMH at 532nm). Preliminary results on neutron emission were also obtained.

  11. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. 92 references.

  12. Reconfigurable embedded system architecture for next-generation Neural Signal Processing.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Obeid, Iyad

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new architectural framework for next generation Neural Signal Processing (NSP). The essential features of the NSP hardware platform include scalability, reconfigurability, real-time processing ability and data storage. This proposed framework has been implemented in a proof-of-concept NSP prototype using an embedded system architecture synthesized in a Xilinx(®)Virtex(®)5 development board. The prototype includes a threshold-based spike detector and a fuzzy logic-based spike sorter. PMID:21096398

  13. Third Generation Flywheels for electric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Michael, R.; Fiske, O. James

    2008-02-29

    Electricity is critical to our economy, but growth in demand has saturated the power grid causing instability and blackouts. The economic penalty due to lost productivity in the US exceeds $100 billion per year. Opposition to new transmission lines and power plants, environmental restrictions, and an expected $100 billion grid upgrade cost have slowed system improvements. Flywheel electricity storage could provide a more economical, environmentally benign alternative and slash economic losses if units could be scaled up in a cost effective manner to much larger power and capacity than the present maximum of a few hundred kW and a few kWh per flywheel. The goal of this project is to design, construct, and demonstrate a small-scale third generation electricity storage flywheel using a revolutionary architecture scalable to megawatt-hours per unit. First generation flywheels are built from bulk materials such as steel and provide inertia to smooth the motion of mechanical devices such as engines. They can be scaled up to tens of tons or more, but have relatively low energy storage density. Second generation flywheels use similar designs but are fabricated with composite materials such as carbon fiber and epoxy. They are capable of much higher energy storage density but cannot economically be built larger than a few kWh of storage capacity due to structural and stability limitations. LaunchPoint is developing a third generation flywheel — the "Power Ring" — with energy densities as high or higher than second generation flywheels and a totally new architecture scalable to enormous sizes. Electricity storage capacities exceeding 5 megawatt-hours per unit appear both technically feasible and economically attractive. Our design uses a new class of magnetic bearing – a radial gap “shear-force levitator” – that we discovered and patented, and a thin-walled composite hoop rotated at high speed to store kinetic energy. One immediate application is power grid

  14. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thermoelectric generating stations. Increased demands for electric power throughout the East Coast can be... and thermoelectric generation. The direct and indirect effects of existing and proposed...

  15. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thermoelectric generating stations. Increased demands for electric power throughout the East Coast can be... and thermoelectric generation. The direct and indirect effects of existing and proposed...

  16. Gene-Auto: Automatic Software Code Generation for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugina, A.-E.; Thomas, D.; Olive, X.; Veran, G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Gene-Auto ITEA European project, which aims at building a qualified C code generator from mathematical models under Matlab-Simulink and Scilab-Scicos. The project is driven by major European industry partners, active in the real-time embedded systems domains. The Gene- Auto code generator will significantly improve the current development processes in such domains by shortening the time to market and by guaranteeing the quality of the generated code through the use of formal methods. The first version of the Gene-Auto code generator has already been released and has gone thought a validation phase on real-life case studies defined by each project partner. The validation results are taken into account in the implementation of the second version of the code generator. The partners aim at introducing the Gene-Auto results into industrial development by 2010.

  17. Formulas for predicting the dynamic performance of ROCOF relays for embedded generation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.C. M.; Freitas, Walmir; Huang, Zhenyu; Xu, Wilsun; Morelato, A.

    2006-07-13

    A set of formulas directly predict the performance of rate-of-change-of-frequency (ROCOF) relays used to detect islanding of embedded synchronous generators. The formulas are analytically derived from the dynamic model of the generator and relay. Dynamic simulation results obtained using a representative distribution system confirm the validity and accuracy. The formulas presented are a useful tool for protection engineers; they can be used, for example, to assess the effectiveness of anti-islanding schemes based on ROCOF relays, or to assist the selection of relay settings, significantly reducing the number of repeated dynamic simulations necessary to carry out such studies.

  18. Electrical Generating Capacities of Geothermal Slim Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented to estimate the electrical generating capacity of the hot fluids discharged from individual geothermal wells using small wellhead generating equipment over a wide range of reservoir and operating conditions. The purpose is to appraise the possibility of employing slim holes (instead of conventional production-size wells) to power such generators for remote off-grid applications such as rural electrification in developing countries. Frequently, the generating capacity desired is less than one megawatt, and can be as low as 100 kilowatts; if slim holes can be usefully employed, overall project costs will be significantly reduced. This report presents the final results of the study. Both self-discharging wells and wells equipped with downhole pumps (either of the ''lineshaft'' or the ''submersible'' type) are examined. Several power plant designs are considered, including conventional single-flash backpressure and condensing steam turbines, binary plants, double-flash steam plants, and steam turbine/binary hybrid designs. Well inside diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm are considered; well depths vary from 300 to 1200 meters. Reservoir temperatures from 100 C to 240 C are examined, as are a variety of reservoir pressures and CO2 contents and well productivity index values.

  19. Electrical dark compacton generator: theory and simulations.

    PubMed

    Kenmogne, Fabien; Yemélé, David; Woafo, Paul

    2012-05-01

    A modified Colpitts oscillator (MCO) associated with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) with intersite nonlinearity is introduced as a self-sustained generator of a train of modulated dark signals with compact shape. Equations of state describing the dynamics of the MCO part are derived and the stationary state is obtained. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, the result of a stability analysis indicates the existence of a limit cycle in certain parameter regimes and there the oscillation of the circuit delivers pulselike electrical signals. The train of generated signals is then transformed into a train of compact modulated dark voltage solitons by the NLTL. The exactness of this analytical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations performed on the circuit equations. Finally, simulations show the capacity of this circuit to work as a generator of compactlike dark voltage solitons. The performance of the generator, namely, the pulse width and the repetition rate, is controlled by the magnitude of the characteristic parameters of the electronic components of the device. PMID:23004894

  20. 78 FR 36277 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) E.2.5.04.05.05.01, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 ] (ADAMS Accession No. ML13032A592). This ITAAC was approved...

  1. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  2. Enabling Multiphoton and Second Harmonic Generation Imaging in Paraffin-Embedded and Histologically Stained Sections

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael G.; Kroll, Sebastian; Brucker, Sara Y.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear microscopy, namely multiphoton imaging and second harmonic generation (SHG), is an established noninvasive technique useful for the imaging of extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, measurements are performed in vivo on freshly excised tissues or biopsies. In this article, we describe the effect of rehydrating paraffin-embedded sections on multiphoton and SHG emission signals and the acquisition of nonlinear images from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections before and after a destaining protocol. Our results reveal that bringing tissue sections to a physiological state yields a significant improvement in nonlinear signals, particularly in SHG. Additionally, the destaining of sections previously processed with H&E staining significantly improves their SHG emission signals during imaging, thereby allowing sufficient analysis of collagen in these sections. These results are important for researchers and pathologists to obtain additional information from paraffin-embedded tissues and archived samples to perform retrospective analysis of the ECM or gain additional information from rare samples. PMID:27018844

  3. Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Mei, Yushan

    2015-12-01

    Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine currently consists of micro-controller and peripheral devices. The structure has the problems which include low integration, single signal processing algorithms and great measurement error. Therefore, electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization is presented in the paper. Firstly, the device control electrical measuring system by ARM subsystem of OMAP dual-core architecture and DSP subsystem realizes digital signal processing and unbalance computing. Also, the low-pass filtering circuit is designed for solving frequency interference. Secondly, the system implement digital band-pass tracking filter based on harmonic wavelet packet. Thirdly, the system extracts any period of weak signal characteristics using the unlimited segmentation features harmonic for wavelet packet signal in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the system effectively inhibits nearly frequency signal interference, improves signal to noise ratio, and reduces the initial imbalance signal characteristics. And test results improve that precision indexes and technical specifications could meet the design goals.

  4. Electric bistability in pentacene film-based transistor embedding gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chiao-Wei; Tao, Yu-Tai

    2009-09-01

    Pentacene films were deposited on a silica surface decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The crystallinity and packing orientation of the film are critically dependent on the surface properties of the nanoparticles, which can be tuned by a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of organic thiolate on the nanoparticles. High-performance field-effect transistors based on the Au-NPs-embedded pentacene films can be prepared if the nanoparticles are made "hydrophobic" as well as "oleophobic" by appropriate SAMs. Electrical bistability was observed in these devices, with a memory window that depends on the size and surface modification of the Au-NPs. The structural characterization and electronic characteristics of the devices will be detailed. PMID:19655797

  5. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  6. SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  9. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  10. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  11. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those `necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.` The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC`s landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that

  12. Electric field-free gas breakdown in explosively driven generators

    SciTech Connect

    Shkuratov, Sergey I.; Baird, Jason; Talantsev, Evgueni F.; Altgilbers, Larry L.

    2010-07-15

    All known types of gas discharges require an electric field to initiate them. We are reporting on a unique type of gas breakdown in explosively driven generators that does not require an electric field.

  13. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  14. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  15. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Axial current generation from electric field: chiral electric separation effect.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Guang; Liao, Jinfeng

    2013-06-01

    We study a relativistic plasma containing charged chiral fermions in an external electric field. We show that with the presence of both vector and axial charge densities, the electric field can induce an axial current along its direction and thus cause chirality separation. We call it the chiral electric separation effect (CESE). On a very general basis, we argue that the strength of CESE is proportional to μ(V)μ(A) with μ(V) and μ(A) the chemical potentials for vector charge and axial charge. We then explicitly calculate this CESE conductivity coefficient in thermal QED at leading-log order. The CESE can manifest a new gapless wave mode propagating along the electric field. Potential observable effects of CESE in heavy-ion collisions are also discussed. PMID:25167486

  17. The General Electric MOD-1 wind turbine generator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poor, R. H.; Hobbs, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, installation and checkout of MOD-1, a megawatt class wind turbine generator which generates utility grade electrical power, is described. A MOD-1/MOD-1A tradeoff study is discussed.

  18. Effects of Embedded Dipoles on the Electrical Response of Self Assembled Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. P.; Cabarcos, O. M.; Daniel, T. A.; Weiss, P. S.; Allara, D. L.

    2009-03-01

    There has been recent interest in the use of polar molecules assembled at electrodes for tuning work functions and engineering charge injection barriers in organic electronic devices. With this in mind we have been investigating the electrostatic properties of simple model systems prepared from self-assembled alkanethiolate monolayers on Au111 with the incorporation of an embedded ester moiety [-(CO2)- = E] in the adsorbate molecules. The intrinsic static dipole moment of the ester moiety of ˜1 Debye magnitude leads to the formation of a strong, highly organized, planar electric dipole layer in the SAM. From our previous X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data we observe a consistent shift of the C 1s photoelectron kinetic energies between the top and bottom alkyl segments, defined as -(CH2)m-E-(CH2)nCH3, regardless of the relative lengths m and n. This shift correlates well with the value of the electrostatic potential across the E layer. Our recent surface potential AFM measurements, however, reveal an apparently anomalous strong dependence of surface potential on the sizes and ratios of m and n, in contrast to the constant electrostatic potential observed in XPS measurements. Mechanisms underlying these effects will be discussed, with possible implications for the electrostatic behavior of more complicated organic and biological systems.

  19. The Highly Robust Electrical Interconnects and Ultrasensitive Biosensors Based on Embedded Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Cassell, Alan; Koehne, Jessica; Chen, Hua; Ng, Hou Tee; Ye, Qi; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on our recent breakthroughs in two different applications using well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on Si chips, including (1) a novel processing solution for highly robust electrical interconnects in integrated circuit manufacturing, and (2) the development of ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA sensors. Both of them rely on the invention of a bottom-up fabrication scheme which includes six steps, including: (a) lithographic patterning, (b) depositing bottom conducting contacts, (c) depositing metal catalysts, (d) CNT growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), (e) dielectric gap-filling, and (f) chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Such processes produce a stable planarized surface with only the open end of CNTs exposed, whch can be further processed or modified for different applications. By depositing patterned top contacts, the CNT can serve as vertical interconnects between the two conducting layers. This method is fundamentally different fiom current damascene processes and avoids problems associated with etching and filling of high aspect ratio holes at nanoscales. In addition, multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are highly robust and can carry a current density of 10(exp 9) A/square centimeters without degradation. It has great potential to help extending the current Si technology. The embedded MWCNT array without the top contact layer can be also used as a nanoelectrode array in electrochemical biosensors. The cell time-constant and sensitivity can be dramatically improved. By functionalizing the tube ends with specific oligonucleotide probes, specific DNA targets can be detected with electrochemical methods down to subattomoles.

  20. Concepts for central solar electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintigh, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to select the best conceptual design of a power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar heat to electricity. Conversion of thermal energy to electricity was to be an accomplished with conventional turbomachinery. Questions of site selection are discussed along with solar energy collection systems, aspects of candidate system definition, and reference systems.

  1. Polymer embedded nanocrystalline titania sorbent for 99Mo-99mTc generator.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Shukla, Rakesh; Gandhi, Shyamla; Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera; Tyagi, A K

    2008-09-01

    A new sorbent material, polymer embedded nano crystalline titania (Titanium Polymer-TiP) has been developed, from titanium (IV) chloride and isopropyl alcohol, for the adsorption of 99Mo, which is a precursor to 99mTc, a workhorse in radio-pharmaceuticals. The infrared absorption spectra of the TiP showed peaks corresponding to Ti-O groups. X-ray diffraction pattern of the adsorbent corresponded to rutile TiO2. The surface area of this polymer was 30 m2/g with an average pore size of 40 nm. The average crystallite size of TiO2, embedded in polymer, was found to be 5 nm. TEM micrograph of the adsorbent revealed the network of polymer with dispersed titania phase. Potential of this adsorbent for the preparation of 99Mo-99mTc generator has been explored. 99Mo could be adsorbed on to the adsorbent column containing TiP at pH 1 from which 99mTC could be eluted with normal (0.9%) saline solution with an elution yield of approximately 80%. The quality of the 99mTcO4 obtained was in accordance with the international specifications applicable for radiopharmaceutical use. A process demonstration run was carried out with 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) 99Mo activity level making use of the above adsorbent and consistent results were obtained over a period of one week, which is generally the shelf life of 99MO-99mTC generator. PMID:19049039

  2. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...OSHA solicits public comments concerning its request for an extension of the information collection requirements specified in its standards on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution (29 CFR...

  3. Global potential for wind-generated electricity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2009-01-01

    The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States. Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3.6-MW turbines deployed in ocean waters with depths <200 m within 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) of closest coastlines. PMID:19549865

  4. Potential for Wind-Generated Electricity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Michael B.; Lu, Xi; Nielsen, Chris P.; Wang, Yuxuan

    2009-09-01

    Wind offers an important alternative to coal as a source of energy for generation of electricity in China with the potential for substantial savings in carbon dioxide emissions. Wind fields derived from assimilated meteorological data are used to assess the potential for wind-generated electricity in China subject to the existing government-approved bidding process for new wind farms. Assuming a guaranteed price of 0.516 RMB (7.6 U.S. cents) per kilowatt-hour for delivery of electricity to the grid over an agreed initial average period of 10 years, it is concluded that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030, about twice current consumption. Electricity available at a concession price as low as 0.4 RMB per kilowatt-hour would be sufficient to displace 23% of electricity generated from coal.

  5. Electrical effects generated by experimental volcanic explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, R.; Roeder, H.; Zimanowski, B.

    1997-04-01

    We report on the experimental study of electrical phenomena during explosive volcanic eruptions, which provides qualitative and quantitative insight into different fragmentation and eruption mechanisms of magmatic melt. The experiments show that air friction and surface enlargement by hydro- and/or aerodynamic magma fragmentation are only minor contributors to electrical charging of erupted particle clouds in comparison to thermo-hydraulic fracturing of magma by explosive magma/water interaction. This process has the potency to explain the frequently observed occurrence of lightning in eruption clouds of explosive volcanic events. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Electricity generation choices for the near term.

    PubMed

    Bodansky, D

    1980-02-15

    Electricity demand is expected to increase during the next few decades, especially if it is accepted that the primary goal of energy conservation is to reduce oil consumption. Although the renewable resources in principle have unlimited potential, it is not clear that they can make a major contribution to electricity expansion within the 20th century. Coal and nuclear power are the practical alternatives. The adverse effects of nuclear power probably remain less than those of coal, despite the impact of the Three Mile Island accident. It is important to explore and exploit all options, especially the endangered nuclear option. PMID:17795990

  7. Voltaic turbine - A paradigm shift proposed in generating electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Meera

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable demand for electric power results in a warehouse that naturally favors development of wind turbines that are significantly quieter and more efficient for generating electricity than today's fleet. Achieving this will require a revolutionary new concept, in particular "Magneto Voltaic Power plant" that generate electricity with the help of repulsive force which cause the turbine blades to rotate. The magneto voltaic power plant triggered the original development of wind turbines raising its energy and output power. This paper outlines the main issues involved in replacing the wind source to that of the repulsive force. It's shown that implementation of repulsive force generates electric power at a feasible cost and this would clearly be the enabling technology for generating electricity of the future.

  8. Generation After Next Propulsor Research: Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arend, David J.; Tillman, Gregory; O'Brien, Walter F.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United Technologies Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic and State University have contracted to pursue multi-disciplinary research into boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsors for generation after next environmentally responsible subsonic fixed wing aircraft. This Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems project first conducted a high-level vehicle system study based on a large commercial transport class hybrid wing body aircraft, which determined that a 3 to 5 percent reduction in fuel burn could be achieved over a 7,500 nanometer mission. Both pylon-mounted baseline and BLI propulsion systems were based on a low-pressure-ratio fan (1.35) in an ultra-high-bypass ratio engine (16), consistent with the next generation of advanced commercial turbofans. An optimized, coupled BLI inlet and fan system was subsequently designed to achieve performance targets identified in the system study. The resulting system possesses an inlet with total pressure losses less than 0.5%, and a fan stage with an efficiency debit of less than 1.5 percent relative to the pylon-mounted, clean-inflow baseline. The subject research project has identified tools and methodologies necessary for the design of next-generation, highly-airframe-integrated propulsion systems. These tools will be validated in future large-scale testing of the BLI inlet / fan system in NASA's 8 foot x 6 foot transonic wind tunnel. In addition, fan unsteady response to screen-generated total pressure distortion is being characterized experimentally in a JT15D engine test rig. These data will document engine sensitivities to distortion magnitude and spatial distribution, providing early insight into key physical processes that will control BLI propulsor design.

  9. A review on the impact of embedded generation to network fault level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, M. S.; Basar, M. F.; Ibrahim, Z.; Nasir, M. N. N.; Lada, M. Y.; Bukhari, W. M.

    2015-05-01

    The line of Embedded Generation (EG) in power systems especially for renewable energy has increased markedly in recent years. The interconnection of EG has a technical impact which needs to considered. One of the technical challenges faced by the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) is the network fault level. In this paper, the different methods of interconnection with and without EG on the network is analyze by looking at the impact of network fault level. This comparative study made to determine the most effective method to reduce fault level or fault current. This paper will gives basic understanding on the fault level effect when synchronous generator connected to network by different method of interconnection. A three phase fault is introduced at one network bus bar. By employ it to simple network configuration of network configurations which is normal interconnection and splitting network connection with and without EG, the fault level has been simulated and analyzed. Developing the network model by using PSS-Viper™ software package, the fault level for both networks will be showed and the difference is defines. From the review, network splitting was found the best interconnection method and greatest potential for reducing the fault level in the network.

  10. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton.

  11. Shock wave generated by high-energy electric spark discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingming; Zhang, Yunming

    2014-10-01

    Shock wave generated by electric spark discharge was studied experimentally and the shock wave energy was evaluated in this paper. A pressure measurement system was established to study the pressure field of the electric spark discharge process. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were carried out and the energy of the electric spark used in present study was in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The shock wave energy released from the electric spark discharge process was calculated by using the overpressure values at different measurement points near the electric spark discharge center. The good consistency of shock wave energies calculated by pressure histories at different measuring points in the same electric spark discharge experiment illustrates the applicability of the weak shock wave theory in calculating the energy of shock wave induced by electric spark discharge process. The result showed that shock wave formed at the initial stage of electric spark discharge process, and the shock wave energy is only a little part of electric spark energy. From the analysis of the shock wave energy and electric spark energy, a good linear relationship between shock wave energy and electric spark energy was established, which make it possible to calculate shock wave energy by measuring characteristic parameters of electric spark discharge process instead of shock wave. So, the initiation energy of direct initiation of detonation can be determined easily by measuring the parameters of electric spark discharge process.

  12. An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elkoury, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

  13. Integrated capacity planning for electricity generation: A fuzzy environmental policy analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, F.; Huang, G.

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes an integrated model for capacity planning in electricity generation. It utilizes a multiple-criteria linear programming to incorporate cost and environmental objectives into the planning. To treat the uncertainties embedded in definition of model parameters, the concept of decision-maker degree of optimism will be used. Optimization of the model provides different planning scenarios. To determine the best compromise plan, a post-optimization assessment based on fuzzy set theory concepts is developed. The proposed methodology is employed for a medium-term capacity planning in Canada's electricity generation sector. The results approve a major capacity growth for natural gas facilities accompanied by retirement of most coal-burning facilities.

  14. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

  15. Bedload sediment transport embedded in seismic signals generated from a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, D. L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Finnegan, N. J.; Turowski, J. M.; Wyss, C. R.; Badoux, A.; Schneider, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We examine broadband (15 - 450 Hz) seismic data from the well-studied Erlenbach stream in the Swiss Prealps, where discharge, precipitation, and bedload transport are independently constrained during flood events. We perform a general linear least squares inversion of seismic data, exploiting times with isolated discharge or rain events, to identify the spectral signals of water turbulence and raindrop impacts. This, in turn, allows us to remove the contributions of turbulence and rainfall from the seismic spectra, thereby isolating the signal of bedload transport. We use one storm to calibrate the regression for bedload transport, then use this regression along with precipitation and discharge data to predict bedload transport rates for the remainder of the two-month campaign. Our predicted bedload transport rates correlate well with transport rates from calibrated geophones embedded in the channel (r2~0.6, p<<10-5). We also find that rain generates a roughly broadband seismic spectrum, while water turbulence and sediment transport exhibit power primarily in lower frequency bands (<100 Hz), due in part to different attenuation path lengths. We use the varying attenuation of water turbulence and bedload transport spectra to infer the locations of the primary sources generating each signal: a downstream waterfall, and the channel bed near the seismometers, respectively. Our results indicate that deconstruction of seismic signals from rivers can provide insight into the component signals generated by water turbulence, rain, and sediment transport. Further, we find that regression of seismic spectra with precipitation, discharge and bedload transport data for a single calibration period enables the estimation of transport for subsequent periods with only precipitation, discharge and seismic data. Since precipitation and discharge are significantly easier to monitor than transport, this represents a potential application for in-field monitoring of bedload activity.

  16. Power costs of thirteen electric generation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.C.; Doyle, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study performed for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to estimate as consistently as possible the cost of future generating technologies using renewable and conventional resources and highly fuel-efficient systems. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate future generating technologies by calculating the 30-yr. levelized busbar power costs of each technology on a consistent basis. Esimates for capital costs, operating costs, project schedules, fuel costs, annual energy generation and cost uncertainty were developed for the busbar power cost analysis. The study was designed to produce the most objective and consistent cost estimates possible for all of the generating technologies. The analysis of the uncertainty in capital cost and project schedule shows that there is a high level of uncertainty in the future costs for the developing technologies. Includes 5 tables.

  17. Private wind powered electricity generators for industry in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabit, S. S.; Stark, J.

    This paper investigates the impact of the provisions of the new Energy Act, 1983 on industrial wind-powered private generators of electricity and the effects of published tariffs on various industrial working patterns. Up to 30 percent savings can be achieved in annual electricity bill costs for an industrial generator/user of electricity working a single daily shift, if located in a favorable, 7 m/s mean annual wind speed regime. Variation of the availability charge between Electricity Boards about a base value of 0.70 pounds sterling/kVA was found to have insignificant (+ or - 1.3 percent) impact on total electricity bill costs. It was also shown that for industrial users of electricity, the simpler two-rate purchase terms were commercially adequate when compared with the four-rate alternative where expensive metering becomes necessary.

  18. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-27

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity.

  19. Electricity generation modeling and photovoltaic forecasts in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengnan

    With the economic development of China, the demand for electricity generation is rapidly increasing. To explain electricity generation, we use gross GDP, the ratio of urban population to rural population, the average per capita income of urban residents, the electricity price for industry in Beijing, and the policy shift that took place in China. Ordinary least squares (OLS) is used to develop a model for the 1979--2009 period. During the process of designing the model, econometric methods are used to test and develop the model. The final model is used to forecast total electricity generation and assess the possible role of photovoltaic generation. Due to the high demand for resources and serious environmental problems, China is pushing to develop the photovoltaic industry. The system price of PV is falling; therefore, photovoltaics may be competitive in the future.

  20. USING A NEURAL NETWORK TO PREDICT ELECTRICITY GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses using a neural network to predict electricity generation. uch predictions are important in developing forecasts of air pollutant release and in evaluating the effectiveness of alternative policies which may reduce pollution. eural network model (NUMOD) that pr...

  1. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  2. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-12

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  3. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  4. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  5. Spin generation by strong inhomogeneous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkler, Ilya; Engel, Hans-Andreas; Rashba, Emmanuel; Halperin, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments [1], we propose a model with extrinsic spin-orbit interaction, where an inhomogeneous electric field E in the x-y plane can give rise, through nonlinear effects, to a spin polarization with non-zero sz, away from the sample boundaries. The field E induces a spin current js^z= z x(αjc+βE), where jc=σE is the charge current, and the two terms represent,respectively, the skew scattering and side-jump contributions. [2]. The coefficients α and β are assumed to be E- independent, but conductivity σ is field dependent. We find the spin density sz by solving the equation for spin diffusion and relaxation with a source term ∇.js^z. For sufficiently low fields, jc is linear in E, and the source term vanishes, implying that sz=0 away from the edges. However, for large fields, σ varies with E. Solving the diffusion equation in a T-shaped geometry, where the electric current propagates along the main channel, we find spin accumulation near the entrance of the side channel, similar to experimental findings [1]. Also, we present a toy model where spin accumulation away from the boundary results from a nonlinear and anisotropic conductivity. [1] V. Sih, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 096605 (2006). [2] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, E.I.Rashba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166605 (2005).

  6. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  7. Rapid embedded wire heating via resistive guiding of laser-generated fast electrons as a hydrodynamic driver

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.; Pasley, J.

    2013-12-15

    Resistively guiding laser-generated fast electron beams in targets consisting of a resistive wire embedded in lower Z material should allow one to rapidly heat the wire to over 100 eV over a substantial distance without strongly heating the surrounding material. On the multi-ps timescale, this can drive hydrodynamic motion in the surrounding material. Thus, ultra-intense laser solid interactions have the potential as a controlled driver of radiation hydrodynamics in solid density material. In this paper, we assess the laser and target parameters needed to achieve such rapid and controlled heating of the embedded wire.

  8. Robustness of Next Generation Sequencing on Older Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Sachs, Michael C.; Altekruse, Sean; Camalier, Corinne; Chuaqui, Rodrigo; Cozen, Wendy; Das, Biswajit; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Lih, Chih-Jian; Lynch, Charles F.; Makhlouf, Hala; McGregor, Paul; McShane, Lisa M.; Phillips Rohan, JoyAnn; Walsh, William D.; Williams, Paul M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Schully, Sheri D.

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are used to detect somatic mutations in tumors and study germ line variation. Most NGS studies use DNA isolated from whole blood or fresh frozen tissue. However, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are one of the most widely available clinical specimens. Their potential utility as a source of DNA for NGS would greatly enhance population-based cancer studies. While preliminary studies suggest FFPE tissue may be used for NGS, the feasibility of using archived FFPE specimens in population based studies and the effect of storage time on these specimens needs to be determined. We conducted a study to determine whether DNA in archived FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries Residual Tissue Repositories (RTR) was present in sufficient quantity and quality for NGS assays. Fifty-nine FFPE tissues, stored from 3 to 32 years, were obtained from three SEER RTR sites. DNA was extracted, quantified, quality assessed, and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Following DNA extraction, 58 of 59 specimens (98%) yielded DNA and moved on to the library generation step followed by WES. Specimens stored for longer periods of time had significantly lower coverage of the target region (6% lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 3-10%) and lower average read depth (40x lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 18-60), although sufficient quality and quantity of WES data was obtained for data mining. Overall, 90% (53/59) of specimens provided usable NGS data regardless of storage time. This feasibility study demonstrates FFPE specimens acquired from SEER registries after varying lengths of storage time and under varying storage conditions are a promising source of DNA for NGS. PMID:26222067

  9. Robustness of Next Generation Sequencing on Older Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Mehaffey, Michele G; Sachs, Michael C; Altekruse, Sean; Camalier, Corinne; Chuaqui, Rodrigo; Cozen, Wendy; Das, Biswajit; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lih, Chih-Jian; Lynch, Charles F; Makhlouf, Hala; McGregor, Paul; McShane, Lisa M; Phillips Rohan, JoyAnn; Walsh, William D; Williams, Paul M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Mechanic, Leah E; Schully, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are used to detect somatic mutations in tumors and study germ line variation. Most NGS studies use DNA isolated from whole blood or fresh frozen tissue. However, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are one of the most widely available clinical specimens. Their potential utility as a source of DNA for NGS would greatly enhance population-based cancer studies. While preliminary studies suggest FFPE tissue may be used for NGS, the feasibility of using archived FFPE specimens in population based studies and the effect of storage time on these specimens needs to be determined. We conducted a study to determine whether DNA in archived FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries Residual Tissue Repositories (RTR) was present in sufficient quantity and quality for NGS assays. Fifty-nine FFPE tissues, stored from 3 to 32 years, were obtained from three SEER RTR sites. DNA was extracted, quantified, quality assessed, and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Following DNA extraction, 58 of 59 specimens (98%) yielded DNA and moved on to the library generation step followed by WES. Specimens stored for longer periods of time had significantly lower coverage of the target region (6% lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 3-10%) and lower average read depth (40x lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 18-60), although sufficient quality and quantity of WES data was obtained for data mining. Overall, 90% (53/59) of specimens provided usable NGS data regardless of storage time. This feasibility study demonstrates FFPE specimens acquired from SEER registries after varying lengths of storage time and under varying storage conditions are a promising source of DNA for NGS. PMID:26222067

  10. The effect of embedded nanopillars on the built-in electric field of amorphous silicon p-i-n devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.; Simmons, C. B.; Akey, A. J.; Tabet, N.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report on the experimental modification of the built-in electric field of a-Si:H p-i-n junctions, resulting from Ag nanopillars embedded within the intrinsic layer (i-layer). Increased open-circuit voltages, from J-V traces, and reduced charge transit-times, from time-of-flight (ToF) measurements, indicate that the built-in electric field within the i-layer is increased with respect to unstructured reference samples. Decreased short-circuit current density values coupled with competing diode J-V characteristics, however, indicate that the charge collection from the i-layer is significantly decreased for the nanopillar samples. Theoretical and functional analysis of the ToF data reaffirms both reduced charge-transit times and decreased charge collection, and is able to quantitatively confirm the enhanced built-in electric field of the nanopillar samples.

  11. Guide for the assessment of technologies for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This guide provides a general understanding of electric power generation, places each technology in perspective with regard to other technologies, refers the reader to supplementary and more detailed information, and provides a framework for future updating of data bases maintained by EIA. The guide includes information on already commercialized technologies for generating electricity and technologies that have not moved beyond the prototype or demonstration state. It does not, however, include nuclear technologies or cogeneration, and does not discuss the fuel costs associated with producing electricity by each technology.

  12. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  13. Electric-arc steam plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  14. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-03-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  15. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  16. Electrical power generation from salinity gradients using pressure retarded osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, A.F.; Yourstone, W.H.

    1983-08-01

    The use of a pressure retarded osmosis system (PRO) to generate electricity form naturally available or artificially generated salt is described. Variations in overall system efficiency are analyzed in terms of freshwater and brine flow rates, fluid pressure levels, and membrane permeability. It is shown that the PRO system is economically competitive with other alternative energy systems.

  17. Electrical power generation from salinity gradients using pressure retarded osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, A. F.; Yourstone, W. H., Jr.

    The use of a pressure retarded osmosis system (PRO) to generate electricity from naturally available or artificially generated salt is described. Variations in overall system efficiency are analyzed in terms of freshwater and brine flow rates, fluid pressure levels, and membrane permeability. It is shown that the PRO system is economically competitive with other alternative energy systems.

  18. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  19. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  20. Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yangfang

    Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not

  1. Gold nanoparticles embedded in organic/inorganic hybrid matrix: electrical and electrochemical behavior (withdrawal notice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Sandra D. F. C.; Silva, J. P. B.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Capan, I.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2013-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different diameters, from 3 to 32 nm, were immobilized in amine-alcohol-silicate matrix by mixing a preformed nanoparticle colloid with the precursors of amine-alcohol-silicate (AAs) prior to the solgel transition. These nanocomposites show high optical quality and optical features dictated by the size of the nanoparticle dopants but also present a high degree of flexibility which can largely enhance the range of practical applications. The current-voltage, impedance and capacitance-voltage characteristics of these materials have been measured. The electrochemical and impedimetric results reveal that AuNPs with different sizes give different signals, thus providing useful information that allows the employment of AuNPs in electrochemical biosensors. Capacitance- voltage measurements showed that these composites embedded AuNPs exhibited a large hysteresis window of 2.4V which indicates the possibility of charge storage in the Au nanoparticles embedded AAs hybrids.

  2. Application of field-modulated generator systems to dispersed solar thermal electric generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakumar, R.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of field modulated generation system (FMGS) is presented, and the application of FMGS to dispersed solar thermal electric generation is discussed. The control and monitoring requirements for solar generation system are defined. A comparison is presented between the FMGS approach and other options and the technological development needs are discussed.

  3. Inactivation of bacteria by electric current in the presence of carbon nanotubes embedded within a polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Anna; Liu, Harris K; Long, Feng; Su, Erzheng; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Uniform conductive composite membranes were prepared using a phase inversion method by blending carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polysulfone polymer. At 6 % of the embedded CNTs, the membrane pore size measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was approximately 50 nm. Electric current in the presence of the composite membranes markedly inactivated the model pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with the extent of bacterial inactivation rising when the current was increased. Over 99.999 % inactivation of both bacteria was observed in deionized water after 40 min at 5 mA direct current (DC); importantly, no appreciable inactivation occurred in the absence of either the electric field or the CNTs within the membranes under otherwise the same conditions. A much lower, although still pronounced, inactivation was seen with alternating current (AC) in a 25 mM NaCl aqueous solution. PMID:25342266

  4. Fresh look at electric-generating reserve margins

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.H.

    1983-04-28

    In recent years, public attention has focused on electric-generating reserve margins as barometers of electric-power cost and service reliability. This article argues that the current definition, based on peak demand, overstates actual reserve capacity and therefore contributes to the perception that reserve margins are excessive. A new definition based on available installed capacity is proposed as a more-precise representation of the system condition. 6 figures.

  5. Unalaska geothermal exploration project. Electrical power generation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most cost-effective power cycle for utilizing the Makushin Volcano geothermal resource to generate electricity for the towns of Unalaska and Dutch Harbor. It is anticipated that the geothermal power plant would be intertied with a planned conventional power plant consisting of four 2.5 MW diesel-generators whose commercial operation is due to begin in 1987. Upon its completion in late 1988, the geothermal power plant would primarily fulfill base-load electrical power demand while the diesel-generators would provide peak-load electrical power and emergency power at times when the geothermal power plant would be partially or completely unavailable. This study compares the technical, environmental, and economic adequacy of five state-of-the-art geothermal power conversion processes. Options considered are single- and double-flash steam cycles, binary cycle, hybrid cycle, and total flow cycle.

  6. Merits of excess bagasse as fuel for generating electricity. [Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Perea, P.

    1981-05-01

    The rising cost of fuel oil improves the economics for sugar factories of using excess bagasse to produce more electricity than they require for sale to the public utility companies. Recently, the United States Sugar Corporation, in Florida, initiated the operation of a 20 MW plant fueled with excess bagasse only, and the electricity it generates is sold to a local utility. This constitutes a saving of 10 million liters of oil per year. The operating cycle is described of a system of high-pressure boilers and automatically controlled turbogenerator for the production of energy from bagasse. This system is a pre-engineered design which is very simple to install and operate and can be fitted in with the electric-generating installations which are normally found in practically any sugar factory without making significant modifications to the factory. An economic analysis is presented of power generation using excess bagasse for a 3MW unit and a 4MW unit.

  7. Vascular effects of free radicals generated by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, F.S.; Webb, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    Electrical field stimulation (9 V, 1.0 ms, 4 Hz) of isolated segments of rat tail arteries and dog coronary arteries inhibits contractile response to exogenous norephinephrine and elevated potassium concentration. This inhibitory effect of electrical stimulation is blocked by various agents that alter oxygen metabolism: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, ascorbate, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observations suggest that the inhibitory effect is due to an action of oxygen free radical metabolites that are generated by the electrical stimulation of the oxygen-rich buffer. These free radical metabolites have two actions: 1) they oxidize drugs in the experimental system, and 2) they exert a direct inhbitory action on vascular smooth muscle.

  8. Road electric generation system with use of solar power

    SciTech Connect

    Meiarashi, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa

    1997-09-01

    The temperature of road pavement surface becomes more than 70 C because of the solar power in summer. The characteristics of asphalt pavement on heat transfer and the relatively huge occupation with urban area have caused the heat-island phenomena. The phenomena increase the temperature and the energy consumption for conditioners. Road administrators have to keep the road pavement surface out of freezing in winter. For the purpose, the use of dusting powder becomes popular in recent days. However, the negative influence of the huge amount of the powder could not be ignored, for instance, corrosion of steel bridge and cars, water pollution, and soil pollution. Another way is a road heating system. The enormous electric energy consumption prevents the system from becoming popular. The authors have devised the new system that generates electric power and works as a road heating system. The authors call the system as ``Road Electric Generation System (REGS).`` The basic principal of the electric generation and road heating is Seebeck and Pertier effect, respectively. In this paper, the authors have calculated the electric power generated by the system, road surface temperature after introducing the system, and the heat radiation from the road surface.

  9. Dispersed solar thermal generation employing parabolic dish-electric transport with field modulated generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of field modulated generator systems (FMGS) to dispersed solar-thermal-electric generation from a parabolic dish field with electric transport. Each solar generation unit is rated at 15 kWe and the power generated by an array of such units is electrically collected for insertion into an existing utility grid. Such an approach appears to be most suitable when the heat engine rotational speeds are high (greater than 6000 r/min) and, in particular, if they are operated in the variable speed mode and if utility-grade a.c. is required for direct insertion into the grid without an intermediate electric energy storage and reconversion system. Predictions of overall efficiencies based on conservative efficiency figures for the FMGS are in the range of 25 per cent and should be encouraging to those involved in the development of cost-effective dispersed solar thermal power systems.

  10. Electro-optic switching in iron oxide nanoparticle embedded paramagnetic chiral liquid crystal via magneto-electric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Puja; Arora, Manju; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2014-03-28

    The variation in optical texture, electro-optic, and dielectric properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) embedded ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) with respect to change in temperature and electrical bias conditions are demonstrated in the current investigations. Improvement in spontaneous polarization and response time in nanocomposites has been attributed to magneto-electric (ME) coupling resulting from the strong interaction among the ferromagnetic nanoparticle's exchange field (due to unpaired e{sup −}) and the field of liquid crystal molecular director. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of FLC material gives a broad resonance signal with superimposed components indicating the presence of a source of spin. This paramagnetic behavior of host FLC material had been a major factor in strengthening the guest host interaction by giving an additional possibility of (a) spin-spin interaction and (b) interactions between magnetic-dipole and electric-dipole moments (ME effects) in the composite materials. Furthermore, the phenomenon of dielectric and static memory effect in these composites are also observed which yet again confirms the coupling of magnetic NP's field with FLC's director orientation. We therefore believe that such advanced soft materials holding the optical and electrical properties of conventional LCs with the magnetic and electronic properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles are going to play a key role in the development of futuristic multifunctional optical devices.

  11. Electro-optic switching in iron oxide nanoparticle embedded paramagnetic chiral liquid crystal via magneto-electric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Puja; Arora, Manju; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2014-03-01

    The variation in optical texture, electro-optic, and dielectric properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) embedded ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) with respect to change in temperature and electrical bias conditions are demonstrated in the current investigations. Improvement in spontaneous polarization and response time in nanocomposites has been attributed to magneto-electric (ME) coupling resulting from the strong interaction among the ferromagnetic nanoparticle's exchange field (due to unpaired e-) and the field of liquid crystal molecular director. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of FLC material gives a broad resonance signal with superimposed components indicating the presence of a source of spin. This paramagnetic behavior of host FLC material had been a major factor in strengthening the guest host interaction by giving an additional possibility of (a) spin-spin interaction and (b) interactions between magnetic-dipole and electric-dipole moments (ME effects) in the composite materials. Furthermore, the phenomenon of dielectric and static memory effect in these composites are also observed which yet again confirms the coupling of magnetic NP's field with FLC's director orientation. We therefore believe that such advanced soft materials holding the optical and electrical properties of conventional LCs with the magnetic and electronic properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles are going to play a key role in the development of futuristic multifunctional optical devices.

  12. 28. HOISTING CHAIN, ELECTRIC GENERATOR (FORMERLY USED TO DRIVE BELTS), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HOISTING CHAIN, ELECTRIC GENERATOR (FORMERLY USED TO DRIVE BELTS), ACETYLENE TANK, ENGINE LATHE, WELDING AREA, SCREW PRESS, AND AIR COMPRESSOR (L TO R)-LOOKING NORTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  13. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Generation: Nuclear vs. Conventional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This minicourse, partially supported by the Division of Nuclear Education and Training of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is an effort to describe the benefit-to-risk ratio of various methods of generating electrical power. It attempts to present an unbiased, straightforward, and objective view of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear…

  14. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  15. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  17. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

  18. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  1. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    SciTech Connect

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  2. Local electric fields and molecular properties in heterogeneous environments through polarizable embedding.

    PubMed

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-04-21

    In spectroscopies, the local field experienced by a molecule embedded in an environment will be different from the externally applied electromagnetic field, and this difference may significantly alter the response and transition properties of the molecule. The polarizable embedding (PE) model has previously been developed to model the local field contribution stemming from the direct molecule-environment coupling of the electromagnetic response properties of molecules in solution as well as in heterogeneous environments, such as proteins. Here we present an extension of this approach to address the additional effective external field effect, i.e., the manifestations of the environment polarization induced by the external field, which allows for the calculation of properties defined in terms of the external field. Within a response framework, we report calculations of the one- and two-photon absorption (1PA and 2PA, respectively) properties of PRODAN-methanol clusters as well as the fluorescent protein DsRed. Our results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for both the dynamical reaction field and effective external field contributions to the local field in order to reproduce full quantum chemical reference calculations. For the lowest π→π* transition in DsRed, inclusion of effective external field effects gives rise to a 1.9- and 3.5-fold reduction in the 1PA and 2PA cross-sections, respectively. The effective external field is, however, strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the protein matrix, and the resulting effect can lead to either screening or enhancement depending on the nature of the transition under consideration. PMID:27007060

  3. Direct electrical transport measurement on a single thermoelectric nanowire embedded in an alumina template.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedim, Meriam; Cagnon, Laurent; Garagnon, Christophe; Serradeil, Valerie; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-04-28

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter to increase the performance of thermoelectric materials. However, the measurement of such performance remains complex for 1D structures, involving tedious processing. In this study, we present a non-destructive, rapid and easy approach for the characterization of electrical conductivity of Bi2Te3 based single nanowires. By controlling the nanowire overgrowth, each nanowire emerges in the form of a micrometric hemisphere constituting a unique contact zone for direct nanoprobing. As nanowires need no preliminary preparation and remain in their template during measurement, we avoid oxidation effects and time-consuming processing. Electrical transport results show a low nanowire resistivity for compact nanowires obtained at low overpotential. Such values are comparable to bulk materials and thin films. This method not only confirmed its reliability, but it could also be adopted for other semiconducting or metallic electrodeposited nanowires. PMID:27086560

  4. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  5. Efficiency Investigation of Electrical Generator-Converter Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchter, Jan; Bauer, Pavol

    The efficiency of the electrical GEN-SET (EGS) for speeds with diesel generator (∼3000rpm) and feasibility of high-speed generator with gas turbine (∼30000rpm) and permanent magnet synchronous generator is investigated. Three different configurations of power converter are considered. The paper given an answer to the question if a a full controlled rectifier should be employed or a version with diode rectifier is satisfactory? This is investigated also for high-speed generation. Different current forms for the three defined configurations with their harmonics and influence on generator is given. The efficiency of the overall system is here investigated and an optimal topology is selected. Since the EGS operates very often under low load which does not exceed in average more than 30% of the rated permanent load, a new topology of converter of EGS with high efficiency and low cost is suggested and studied theoretically and experimentally in the paper.

  6. Effect of gas atmosphere on Ag-embedded ZnO nanofilms: structural, optical and electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Haslin; Vaseem, Mohammed; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gas atmosphere and sputter time for depositing silver (Ag) on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag/ZnO transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have been investigated with sputtering Ag target in Ar or N2. It was found that the properties of the Ag and ZnO/Ag/ZnO films are quite dependent on the gas environment and the sputter time. The optical transparency of ZnO/Ag/ZnO films was easily controllable when sputtering the Ag target in N2 rather than in Ar. With optimizing the sputter time and atmosphere for Ag adsorption, the ZnO-based TCO films where the Ag layer was embedded in N2 yielded low resistance of 6.1-9.1 omega/sq and high transmittance of 93-96% over the visible range of wavelengths. PMID:24245155

  7. Electrical Bistabilities and Memory Mechanisms of Organic Bistable Devices Fabricated Utilizing CdSe/ZnS Nanoparticles Embedded in Polystyrene and Poly(4-vinylphenol) Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Dong Ick; Yoo, Chan Ho; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2010-01-01

    The electrical bistabilities of core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) hybrid polymer composites were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were formed inside the hybrid polymer matrix. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement at 300 K of Al/(PS + PVP)/(CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles)/(PS + PVP)/indium-tin oxide/glass devices showed electrical bistability behavior. The memory mechanisms of the organic bistable devices fabricated utilizing CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in hybrid polymer composites are described on the basis of the I-V results.

  8. Embedding Academic Literacy Support within the Electrical Engineering Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, I.; Mort, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the integration of supplementary training in academic literacy, for those without the assumed entry standard, into a standard electrical engineering program without compromising any other educational objectives. All students who commenced an engineering degree were tested as part of their first session's assessment activities.…

  9. Electrical properties of silver iodide nanoparticles system embedded into opal porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, A. E.; Ivanova, E. N.; Pan'kova, S. V.; Solovyev, V. G.; Veisman, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    Opal-based composite with silver iodide nanoparticles (AgI/opal) has been prepared by host-guest technology. Temperature and frequency dependences of electrical conductivity and those of dielectric permittivity of AgI/opal samples were measured. Size effects in this opal-based nanocomposite have been discussed.

  10. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  11. Identification and definition of unbundled electric generation and transmission services

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Vancoevering, J.

    1995-03-01

    State and federal regulators, private and public utilities, large and small customers, power brokers and marketers, and others are engaged in major debates about the future structure of the electric industry. Although the outcomes are far from certain, it seems clear that customers will have much greater choices about the electric services they purchase and from whom they buy these services. This report examines the ``ancillary`` services that are today buried within the typical vertically integrated utility. These ancillary services support and make possible the provision of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These ancillary services include: Management of generating units; reserve generating capacity to follow variations in customer loads, to provide capacity and energy when generating units or transmission lines suddenly fall, to maintain electric-system stability, and to provide local-area security; transmission-system monitoring and control; replacement of real power and energy losses; reactive-power management and voltage regulation; transmission reserves; repair and maintenance of the transmission network; metering, billing, and communications; and assurance of appropriate levels of power quality. Our focus in this report, the first output from a larger Oak Ridge National Laboratory project, is on identification and definition of these services. Later work in this project will examine more closely the costs and pricing options for each service.

  12. MEMS CLOSED CHAMBER HEAT ENGINE AND ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A heat engine, preferably combined with an electric generator, and advantageously implemented using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies as an array of one or more individual heat engine/generators. The heat engine is based on a closed chamber containing a motive medium, preferably a gas; means for alternately enabling and disabling transfer of thermal energy from a heat source to the motive medium; and at least one movable side of the chamber that moves in response to thermally-induced expansion and contraction of the motive medium, thereby converting thermal energy to oscillating movement. The electrical generator is combined with the heat engine to utilize movement of the movable side to convert mechanical work to electrical energy, preferably using electrostatic interaction in a generator capacitor. Preferably at least one heat transfer side of the chamber is placed alternately into and out of contact with the heat source by a motion capacitor, thereby alternately enabling and disabling conductive transfer of heat to the motive medium.

  13. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  14. Small-scale electric generators for arctic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamp, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10-120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conductd an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistics costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operational reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment and compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that RGTs are clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to assess locations. The assessment also indicated that the logistics costs associated with combustion driven generator systems could be substantially reduced through the use of conversion technologies which have been previously developed for space power applications.

  15. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  16. InAs Quantum Dots embedded in GaAs: Properties from Basic Electrical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellai, Azzouz; Mesli, Abdelmadjid

    C-V and I-V data from a GaAs Schottky diode in which InAs quantum dots (QDs) were embedded are analyzed. The capacitance due to QDs is fitted with an analytical equation that takes into account Gaussian broadening of sub-band levels and contribution of the wetting layer. The voltage range over which the excess capacitance extends is used to estimate the number of charges contained in the QDs. The energy levels of electrons, entirely confined in the QDs, are computed based on a model in which InAs dots are considered of conical shapes and where the effective mass is taken as both position- and energy-dependent. To reconcile the computed energy values with those from the C-V fits, one has to consider a confinement potential other than the potential due to the GaAs/InAs band discontinuity. I-V data could be analyzed using a model that combines field and thermionic emission processes with two distinct behaviors depending on the temperature and bias. Deviations occur at temperatures above 200 K and voltages above 0.4 V. In comparison with the structure with only the wetting layer, the structure with QDs exhibits an excess current in the low-bias forward regime, an indication of contributions from tunneling electrons.

  17. Intense ionospheric electric and magnetic field pulses generated by lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Ding, J. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field measurements have been made in the ionosphere over an active thunderstorm and an optical detector onboard the same rocket yielded an excellent time base for the study of waves radiated into space from the discharge. In addition to detection of intense, but generally well understood whistler mode waves, very unusual electric and magnetic field pulses preceded the 1-10 kHz component of the radiated signal. These pulses lasted several ms and had a significant electric field component parallel to the magnetic field. No known propagating wave mode has this polarization nor a signal propagation velocity as high as those measured here. This study investigated and rejected an explanation based on an anomalous skin depth effect. Although only a hypothesis at this time, a more promising explanation involving the generation of the pulse via a nonlinear decay of whistler mode waves in the frequency range 10-80 kHz is being investigated.

  18. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  19. [Real-time Gait Training System with Embedded Functional Electrical Stimulation].

    PubMed

    Gu, Linyan; Ruan, Zhaomin; Jia, Guifeng; Xla, Jing; Qiu, Lijian; Wu, Changwang; Jin, Xiaoqing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-07-01

    To solve the problem that mostly gait analysis is independent from the treatment, this work proposes a system that integrates the functions of gait training and assessment for foot drop treatment. The system uses a set of sensors to collect gait parameters and designes multi-mode functional electrical stimulators as actuator. Body area network technology is introduced to coordinate the data communication and execution of the sensors and stimulators, synchronize the gait analysis and foot drop treatment. Bluetooth 4.0 is applied to low the power consumption of the system. The system realizes the synchronization of treatment and gait analysis. It is able to acquire and analyze the dynamic parameters of ankle, knee and hip in real-time, and treat patients by guiding functional electrical stimulation delivery to the specific body locations of patients. PMID:26665943

  20. Algorithm for Public Electric Transport Schedule Control for Intelligent Embedded Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alps, Ivars; Potapov, Andrey; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In this paper authors present heuristics algorithm for precise schedule fulfilment in city traffic conditions taking in account traffic lights. The algorithm is proposed for programmable controller. PLC is proposed to be installed in electric vehicle to control its motion speed and signals of traffic lights. Algorithm is tested using real controller connected to virtual devices and real functional models of real tram devices. Results of experiments show high precision of public transport schedule fulfilment using proposed algorithm.

  1. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim)

    SciTech Connect

    DRENNEN, THOMAS E.; KAMERY, WILLIAM

    2002-11-01

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit

  2. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Kamery, William; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2003-07-01

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercuty. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit

  3. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  4. Reducing electricity generation costs by improving coal quality: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The costs of generating electricity at a coal-fired power plant are significantly influenced by the characteristics of the coal that feeds the plant. Upgrading coal quality or assuring a consistent-quality coal can improve plant performance, increase boiler capacity, and raise plant availability. Sixteen papers presented at an EPRI seminar, ''Reducing Electricity Generation Costs by Improving Coal Quality,'' address how to determine which coal to burn to produce the lowest busbar costs. These papers include case histories of utilities that have switched to higher-quality coal. They also describe computer models to assess coal quality effects and estimate coal cleaning costs. In addition, they examine various methods to predict how a given coal will perform in a particular boiler, and how coal quality can reduce emission control costs. This unique gathering of coal quality information was presented by speakers from US utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the electric power industry. The seminar, sponsored by EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center, formerly the Coal Cleaning Test Facility, was held in November 1986. It drew approximately 80 representatives from US utilities, coal companies, and engineering firms.

  5. Displacement current and the generation of parallel electric fields.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Lysak, Robert L

    2006-04-14

    We show for the first time the dynamical relationship between the generation of magnetic field-aligned electric field (E||) and the temporal changes and spatial gradients of magnetic and velocity shears, and the plasma density in Earth's magnetosphere. We predict that the signatures of reconnection and auroral particle acceleration should have a correlation with low plasma density, and a localized voltage drop (V||) should often be associated with a localized magnetic stress concentration. Previous interpretations of the E|| generation are mostly based on the generalized Ohm's law, causing serious confusion in understanding the nature of reconnection and auroral acceleration. PMID:16712084

  6. Displacement Current and the Generation of Parallel Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Song Yan; Lysak, Robert L.

    2006-04-14

    We show for the first time the dynamical relationship between the generation of magnetic field-aligned electric field (E{sub parallel}) and the temporal changes and spatial gradients of magnetic and velocity shears, and the plasma density in Earth's magnetosphere. We predict that the signatures of reconnection and auroral particle acceleration should have a correlation with low plasma density, and a localized voltage drop (V{sub parallel}) should often be associated with a localized magnetic stress concentration. Previous interpretations of the E{sub parallel} generation are mostly based on the generalized Ohm's law, causing serious confusion in understanding the nature of reconnection and auroral acceleration.

  7. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  8. Extreme harmonic generation in electrically driven spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Stehlik, J; Schroer, M D; Maialle, M Z; Degani, M H; Petta, J R

    2014-06-01

    We report the observation of multiple harmonic generation in electric dipole spin resonance in an InAs nanowire double quantum dot. The harmonics display a remarkable detuning dependence: near the interdot charge transition as many as eight harmonics are observed, while at large detunings we only observe the fundamental spin resonance condition. The detuning dependence indicates that the observed harmonics may be due to Landau-Zener transition dynamics at anticrossings in the energy level spectrum. PMID:24949787

  9. TEC as electric generator in an automobile catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, R.; Holmlid, L.

    1996-12-31

    Modern cars use more and more electric power due to more on-board electric systems, e.g., ABS brakes, active suspension systems, electric windows, chair adjustment systems and electronic engine control systems. One possible energy source for electricity generation is to use the waste heat from the car`s engine, which generally is as much as 80% of the total energy from the combustion of the gasoline. Maybe the best location to tap the excess heat is the Catalytic Converter (Cat) in the exhaust system or perhaps at the exhaust pipes close to the engine. The Cat must be kept within a certain temperature interval. Large amounts of heat are dissipated through the wall of the Cat. A Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) in coaxial form could conveniently be located around the ceramic cartridge of the Cat. Since the TEC is a rather good heat insulator before it reaches its working temperature the Cat will reach working temperature faster, and the final temperature of it can be controlled better when encapsulated in a concentric TEC arrangement. It is also possible to regulate the temperature of the Cat and the TEC by controlling the electrical load of the TEC. The possible working temperatures of present and future Cats appear very suitable for the new low work function collector TEC, which has been demonstrated to work down to 470 K.

  10. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    SECTION 01000—SUMMARY OF WORK PART 1—GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY The work to be performed under this project consists of providing the labor, equipment, and materials to perform "Buildout and Upgrade of Central Emergency Generator System, Generator 3 and 4 Electrical Installation" for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Dryden Flight Research Center (NASA/DFRC), Edwards, California 93523. All modifications to existing substations and electrical distribution systems are the responsibility of the contractor. It is the contractor’s responsibility to supply a complete and functionally operational system. The work shall be performed in accordance with these specifications and the related drawings. The work of this project is defined by the plans and specifications contained and referenced herein. This work specifically includes but is not limited to the following: Scope of Work - Installation 1. Install all electrical wiring and controls for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing electrical installation for generators 1 and 2 and in accordance with drawings. Contractor shall provide as-built details for electrical installation. 2. Install battery charger systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing battery charging equipment and installation for generators 1 and 2. This may require exchange of some battery charger parts already on-hand. Supply power to new battery chargers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 3. Install electrical wiring for fuel/lube systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Supply power to lube oil heaters and fuel system (day tanks) from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to

  11. Noise-induced resonance-like phenomena in InP crystals embedded in fluctuating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persano Adorno, D.; Pizzolato, N.; Spagnolo, B.

    2016-05-01

    We explore and discuss the complex electron dynamics inside a low-doped n-type InP bulk embedded in a sub-THz electric field, fluctuating for the superimposition of an external source of Gaussian correlated noise. The results presented in this study derive from numerical simulations obtained by means of a multi-valley Monte Carlo approach to simulate the nonlinear transport of electrons inside the semiconductor crystal. The electronic noise characteristics are statistically investigated by calculating the correlation function of the velocity fluctuations, its spectral density and the integrated spectral density, i.e. the total noise power, for different values of both amplitude and frequency of the driving oscillating electric field and for different correlation times of the field fluctuations. Our results show that the nonlinear response of electrons is strongly affected by the field fluctuations. In particular, crucially depending on the relationship between the correlation times of the external Gaussian noise and the timescales of complex phenomena involved in the electron dynamical behavior: (i) electrons self-organize among different valleys, giving rise to intrinsic noise suppression; (ii) this cooperative behavior causes the appearance of a resonance-like phenomenon in the noise spectra.

  12. Sensing of electrically conductive textiles and capacitance sensor-embedded fabrics for parachutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damplo, Mark; Niezrecki, Christopher; Willis, David; Chen, Julie; Niemi, Eugene; Agnihotra, Srikanthrao; Manohar, Sanjeev K.; Desabrais, Kenneth; Charette, Christine

    2012-04-01

    This paper evaluates the conductive properties and sensing capabilities of various smart materials being considered for enhancing parachute performance. In a previous review of sensing technologies, several materials showed potential for parachute implementation - specifically, electrically conductive textiles and dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs). Past efforts have been focused on mechanically testing and evaluating the sensing performance of conductive fabrics (coated with carbon nanotubes, polypyrrole and polyaniline) and DEAPs. While some of the conductive fabrics demonstrated sufficient sensing capability, they were not conductive enough to implement into an intelligent parachute sensor network for transmitting power or data. Also, attaching or stitching DEAPs to the parachute fabric has proven to be a challenge. The primary goal of this paper is to investigate the use of highly-conductive textiles in an intelligent textile sensor network for sensing and as a means to transmit power or electrical signals. The applications of the materials investigated in this paper may also extend beyond parachutes to any large-scale textile structure.

  13. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  14. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  15. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oettinger, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  16. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing

  17. Biomass resources for electric generation in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Biomass fuels offer a unique energy resource for electric generation in the Pacific Northwest. They are produced as a coproduct from our needs for food, fiber, and structural materials. Many of the fuels are considered as waste products from the major manufacturing process and are available for the cost of transportation. About 1,055 PJ (1,000 TBtu) of biomass residues are generated each year in the Pacific Northwest. Traditional sources of biomass fuels include forest residues, wood manufacturing residues, agricultural field residues, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Woody residues have a long history of being used for electric generation, especially from cogeneration facilities located at pulp mills. MSW facilities were built in the 1980s but interest has declined with the availability of large regional landfills. Forest residues and agricultural field residues are not used in the region but are used in increasing amounts for electric generation in California. Other biomass resources include spent pulping liquors, biogas from animal manure and landfills, and residues from fiber plantations. A major question addressed in this paper is the future availability and cost of biomass fuels. Biomass fuels offer several environmental advantages. With the exception of MSW they are inherently clean burning. Their low sulfur and nitrogen content permits burning without the need for acid gas scrubbers. Their carbon dioxide emissions on an energy basis are comparable to coal but there is one important difference. The biological growth of biomass fuels consumes carbon dioxide as part of the photosynthetic process and thus their net contribution to global warming is zero. The utility industry has increased its interest in biomass fuels because of the carbon dioxide advantages.

  18. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator for Electrical Power Generation from Automotive Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    Filled skutterudites are state-of-the- art thermoelectric (TE) materials for electrical power generation from waste heat. They have suitable intrinsic transport properties as measured by the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = S^2σT/κ (S = Seebeck coefficient, σ = electrical conductivity, T = temperature, and κ = thermal conductivity) and good mechanical strength for operation at vehicle exhaust gas temperatures of >550 C. We have demonstrated TE electrical power generation on a production test vehicle equipped with a fully functional prototype TE generator (TEG). It was assembled with TE modules fabricated from filled skutterudites synthesized at GM. Our results and analysis show that improvement in total power generated can be achieved by enhanced thermal and electrical interfaces and contacts. A substantial T decrease along the exhaust gas flow results in a large variation of voltage, current, and power output for each TE module depending on its position in the module array. Total TEG output power depends directly on the position-dependent T profile via the temperature dependence of both ZT and Carnot efficiency. Total TEG power output also depends on how the modules are connected in parallel or series combinations because mismatch in output voltage and/or internal resistance among the modules degrades the performance of the entire array. Uniform T profiles and consistent TE module internal resistances improve overall TEG performance.

  19. Increased use of reject heat from electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.; Piraino, M.

    1994-02-01

    This study aims to determine existing barriers to greater use of reject heat by electric power producers, including utilities and cogenerators. It includes analytical studies of the technical and economic issues and a survey of several electric power producers. The core analytic findings of the study are that although electric utility- based, cogenerated district heating is sometimes cost competitive with currently common furnaces and boilers, it is not clearly less expensive, and is often more expensive. Since market penetration by a new technology depends on strong perceived advantages, district heating will remain at a disadvantage unless its benefits, such as lowered emissions and decreased reliance on foreign oil, are given overt financial form through subsidies or tax incentives. The central finding from the survey was that electric utilities have arrived at the same conclusion by their own routes; we present a substantial list of their reasons for not engaging in district heating or for not pursuing it more vigorously, and many of them can be summarized as the lack of a clear cost advantage for district heat. We also note that small-scale district heating systems, based on diesel generators and located near the thermal load center, show very clear cost advantages over individual furnaces. This cost advantage is consistent with the explosive growth currently observed in private cogeneration systems.

  20. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications. PMID:27000419

  1. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-03-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications.

  2. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications. PMID:27000419

  3. (Hydroelectric project in Costa Rican rural electric generation and transmission)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-11-28

    On November 6, 1989, I left for San Jose, Costa Rica. My visit was set to accomplish two activities. The first activity was a follow-on mission to gather additional information on a newly identified small hydroelectric project, in support of a rural electric generation and transmission cooperative performed for the Renewable Energy Applications and Training project. Data on stream flows, soils, geologic, and topographic information was gathered for Rio San Lorenzo, near Quesada. A reconnaissance level survey was performed for Rio Naranjillo, a river near San Marcos. The second part of the visit was dedicated to interaction with ICE, the electric utility, discussing plans to establish a comprehensive efficiency program in Costa Rica. I returned to Oak Ridge on November 16, 1989.

  4. Development and Buildup of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator Electrical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.; Spina, Dan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) Simulator for use in a prototype lunar robotic rover. The SRG developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a promising power source for the robotic exploration of the sunless areas of the moon. The simulator designed provides a power output similar to the SRG output of 5.7 A at 28 Vdc, while using ac wall power as the input power source. The designed electrical simulator provides rover developers the physical and electrical constraints of the SRG supporting parallel development of the SRG and rover. Parallel development allows the rover design team to embrace the SRG s unique constraints while development of the SRG is continued to a flight qualified version.

  5. Economic Analysis of the Leveled Cost of Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, J. Ramon; Palacios, Javier C.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear option is currently a cost competitive option due to among other things the high natural gas prices volatility. Currently, the overnight cost for a new nuclear power plant is estimated between 1200 and 1600 USD/kW with an output power between 1100 and 1600 MWe, construction time, from first concrete to commercial operation, is about five years as it has been demonstrated in the last reactors built in Asia (e.g. Japan and China). In this paper a leveled electricity cost analysis is performed to compared different scenarios of electricity generation using combined cycles by using natural gas and nuclear power stations. A nuclear reactor leveled cost analysis for several overnight costs is performed. Also a sensitivity analysis for construction time and capacity factors is offered. The scenarios considered comprise three different discount rates, 5%, 8% and 10%. (authors)

  6. 77 FR 65545 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council and North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice that... petition requesting resolution of the conflict between Western Electric Coordinating Council and...

  7. Microbial Electricity Generation Enhances Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yonggang; Xu, Meiying; He, Zhili; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Due to environmental persistence and biotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), it is urgent to develop potential technologies to remediate PBDEs. Introducing electrodes for microbial electricity generation to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants is highly promising for bioremediation. However, it is still not clear whether the degradation of PBDEs could be promoted by this strategy. In this study, we hypothesized that the degradation of PBDEs (e.g., BDE-209) would be enhanced under microbial electricity generation condition. The functional compositions and structures of microbial communities in closed-circuit microbial fuel cell (c-MFC) and open-circuit microbial fuel cell (o-MFC) systems for BDE-209 degradation were detected by a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, and linked with PBDE degradations. The results indicated that distinctly different microbial community structures were formed between c-MFCs and o-MFCs, and that lower concentrations of BDE-209 and the resulting lower brominated PBDE products were detected in c-MFCs after 70-day performance. The diversity and abundance of a variety of functional genes in c-MFCs were significantly higher than those in o-MFCs. Most genes involved in chlorinated solvent reductive dechlorination, hydroxylation, methoxylation and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in c-MFCs and significantly positively correlated with the removal of PBDEs. Various other microbial functional genes for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycling, as well as energy transformation process, were also significantly increased in c-MFCs. Together, these results suggest that PBDE degradation could be enhanced by introducing the electrodes for microbial electricity generation and by specifically stimulating microbial functional genes. PMID:23940625

  8. Externalities of energy use, analyzed for shipping and electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Heather

    Energy use is central to the modern lifestyle, but producing this energy often comes at an environmental cost. The three studies in this paper look at the tradeoffs involved in energy production. The first looks at transitioning marine vessels to natural gas from current distillate fuels. While natural gas will reduce local air pollutants, such as sulfur oxides and particulate matter, the implications for greenhouse gases depend on how the natural gas is extracted, processed, distributed, and used. Applying a "technology warming potential" (TWP) approach, natural gas as a marine fuel achieves climate parity within 30 years for diesel ignited engines, though it could take up to 190 years to reach climate parity with conventional fuels in a spark ignited engine. Movement towards natural gas as a marine fuel continues to progress, and conditions exist in some regions to make a near-term transition to natural gas feasible. The second study looks at externalities associated with electricity generation. The impact on the surrounding community is one concern when siting new electricity generating facilities. A survey was conducted of residents living near an industrial scale wind turbine and a coal-fired power plant to determine their visual and auditory effects on the residents. Results concluded that respondents living near the wind turbine were in favor of the facility. They were willing to pay an average of 2.56 a month to keep the turbine in its current location. Respondents living near the coal plant were opposed to the facility. They were willing to spend 1.82 a month to have the facility removed. The third study presents a cost effectiveness analysis of three of the main fuels used for electricity generation, namely coal, natural gas, and wind. This analysis adds social costs to the private costs traditionally utilized by investors making decisions. It utilizes previous research on visual and auditory amenity and disamenity values as well as recent published

  9. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  10. Assessment of health impacts in electricity generation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the health effects of concern associated with electricity generation, information from which health effects can be estimated, and how the boundaries of analysis are determined. It also describes advances, new approaches, and trends in the risk assessment process. It discusses the application of these advances to comparative risk studies. Trends in the risk assessment process include more explicit characterization of quantitative uncertainty, the broader application and acceptance of Monte Carlo analysis and other numerical methods to the propagation of uncertainties through the analysis, greater realism in risk assessment, and the application of greatly increased computational capabilities.

  11. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W.

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Three-dimensional electric field visualization utilizing electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I.-Hsiu; Chu, Shi-Wei; Bresson, Francois; Tien, Ming-Chun; Shi, Jin-Wei; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2003-08-01

    An electric-field-induced second-harmonic-generation signal in a nematic liquid crystal is used to map the electric field in an integrated-circuit-like sample. Since the electric-field-induced second-harmonic-generation signal intensity exhibits a strong dependence on the polarization of the incident laser beam, both the amplitude and the orientation of the electric field vectors can be measured. Combined with scanning second-harmonic-generation microscopy, three-dimensional electric field distribution can be easily visualized with high spatial resolution of the order of 1 μm.

  13. 75 FR 53687 - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v... Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. (Complainant) filed a complaint against...

  14. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY SYSTEMS: VOLUME III. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report characterizes multimedia emissions from external combustion sources for electricity generation. Study results indicate that external combustion sources for electricity generation contribute significantly to the nationwide emissions burden. Flue gas emissions of NOx, SO...

  15. Structural and electrical properties of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by ion implantation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Duguay, S.; Grob, J.J.; Slaoui, A.; Le Gall, Y.; Amann-Liess, M.

    2005-05-15

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) on Si layers with embedded germanium nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were fabricated using Ge{sup +} implantation and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry have been used to study the Ge redistribution in the SiO{sub 2} films as a function of annealing temperature. A monolayer of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface was formed under specific annealing conditions. This layer, with a nc density and mean size measured to be, respectively, 1.1x10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} and 5 nm, is located at approximately 4 nm from the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Capacitance-voltage measurements were performed on metal-oxide-semiconductor structures containing such implanted SiO{sub 2} layers in order to study their electrical properties. The results indicate a strong memory effect at relatively low programming voltages (<5 V) due to the presence of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  16. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    DOEpatents

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  17. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  18. Evaluation of High-Performance Space Nuclear Electric Generators for Electric Propulsion Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD (magnetohydrodynamics)) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concept. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles are compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered.

  19. Evaluation of high-performance space nuclear electric generators for electric propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concepts. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles arc compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered. .

  20. Surface anisotropy in optical second harmonic generation II. Embedding approach to Al(111) and vicinal Al(001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, H.; Petukhov, A. V.; Liebsch, A.

    1995-10-01

    The anisotropic nonlinear optical response of Al(111) and vicinal Al(001) surfaces is calculated microscopically with the aim of analyzing second harmonic generation measurements on these systems. The electronic states and currents are evaluated within the embedding approach which provides a more accurate description than the two-band model for Al slabs used previously by Petukhov and Liebsch. Although we find appreciable differences in detail, the qualitative picture derived from these calculations is confirmed. In particular, we verify that the anisotropic current giving rise to the Xxxx( ω) component of the nonlinear surface polarizability exhibits a remarkably large penetration depth and a strong frequency dependence close to the main interband transitions of Al. For Al(111) as well as vicinal Al surfaces, the physical origin of the anisotropy is the nonsymmetric stacking of the lattice planes parallel to the macroscopic surface rather than the corrugation of the outer electronic density profile.

  1. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  2. For Future Generations: Funding Culturally Embedded Higher Education at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clairmont, Tanksi

    2014-01-01

    From their inception, tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) have played a special cultural as well as educational role in Native communities. These dual roles are integral to the preservation of American Indian language and traditions, as they open the door for future generations to acquire and perpetuate cultural knowledge. The American Indian…

  3. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  4. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael; Ramig, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  5. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  6. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  7. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  8. Assessing climate benefits of natural gas and coal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Myhrvold, Nathan; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A transition from a system of coal electricity generation to near-zero emission electricity generation will be central to any effort to mitigate climate change. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a 'bridge fuel' for transitions form coal to near-zero emission energy sources. However, various studies use different metrics to estimate the climate impact of natural gas utilization, and led to differing conclusions. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas and coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiency and methane leakage rate as the key factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. We then develop a power plant GHG emission model, apply available life-cycle parameters to calculate associated CO2 and CH4 emissions and assess climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. If leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. Achieving climate benefits from the use of natural gas depends on building high-efficiency natural gas plants, controlling methane leakage, and on developing a policy environment that assures a transition to future lower-emission technologies. For more information please see http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/11/114022/article .

  9. Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2010-05-12

    We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. PMID:20420409

  10. Low-temperature Stirling Engine for Geothermal Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, Greg; Weaver, Samuel P.

    2013-03-27

    Up to 2700 terawatt-hours per year of geothermal electricity generation capacity has been shown to be available within North America, typically with wells drilled into geologically active regions of the earth's crust where this energy is concentrated (Huttrer, 2001). Of this potential, about half is considered to have temperatures high enough for conventional (steam-based) power production, while the other half requires unconventional power conversion approaches, such as organic Rankine cycle systems or Stirling engines. If captured and converted effectively, geothermal power generation could replace up to 100GW of fossil fuel electric power generation, leading to a significant reduction of US power sector emissions. In addition, with the rapid growth of hydro-fracking in oil and gas production, there are smaller-scale distributed power generation opportunities in heated liquids that are co-produced with the main products. Since 2006, Cool Energy, Inc. (CEI) has designed, fabricated and tested four generations of low-temperature (100°C to 300°C) Stirling engine power conversion equipment. The electric power output of these engines has been demonstrated at over 2kWe and over 16% thermal conversion efficiency for an input temperature of 215°C and a rejection temperature of 15°C. Initial pilot units have been shipped to development partners for further testing and validation, and significantly larger engines (20+ kWe) have been shown to be feasible and conceptually designed. Originally intended for waste heat recovery (WHR) applications, these engines are easily adaptable to geothermal heat sources, as the heat supply temperatures are similar. Both the current and the 20+ kWe designs use novel approaches of self-lubricating, low-wear-rate bearing surfaces, non-metallic regenerators, and high-effectiveness heat exchangers. By extending CEI's current 3 kWe SolarHeart® Engine into the tens of kWe range, many additional applications are possible, as one 20 k

  11. Mitigation of Shear-Induced Blood Damage of Mechanical Bileaflet Heart Valves using Embedded Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Pablo; Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit; Glezer, Ari

    2012-11-01

    The strong transitory shear stress generated during the time-periodic closing of the mechanical prosthetic bileaflet aortic heart valve, is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for complications, associated with thrombosis and thromboembolism. These flow transients are investigated using phase and time-averaged PIV in a low-volume (about 150 ml) test setup that simulates the pulsatile physiological conditions associated with a 23 mm St. Jude Medical valve. The PIV measurements are accompanied by continuous monitoring of the ventricular and aortic pressures and valve flow rate. Following the valve closure, the leakage flow between the valve leaflets is caused by the pressure buildup across the leaflets, leading to the formation of a regurgitation jet starting from the BMHV B-datum line. As in a typical starting jet, a counter-rotating vortex pair is formed along each leaflet edge and the vorticity sheet is associated with high shear stress that may be result in blood platelet activation. The present investigation demonstrates that the placement of arrays of mm-scale vortex generators near the edges of the leaflets diffuses the vortex sheet and suppresses the formation of these vortices, weakening the local velocity gradients and small-scale vortical structures. Supported by NIH and NSF.

  12. Transmission cost minimization strategies for wind-electric generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.

    1997-12-31

    Integrating wind-electric generation facilities into existing power systems presents opportunities not encountered in conventional energy projects. Minimizing outlet cost requires probabilistic value-based analyses appropriately reflecting the wind facility`s operational characteristics. The wind resource`s intermittent nature permits relaxation of deterministic criteria addressing outlet configuration and capacity required relative to facility rating. Equivalent capacity ratings of wind generation facilities being a fraction of installed nameplate rating, outlet design studies contingency analyses can concentrate on this fractional value. Further, given its non-dispatchable, low capacity factor nature, a lower level of redundancy in outlet facilities is appropriate considering the trifling contribution to output unreliability. Further cost reduction opportunities arise from {open_quotes}wind speed/generator power output{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}wind speed/overhead conductor rating{close_quotes} functions` correlation. Proper analysis permits the correlation`s exploitation to safely increase line ratings. Lastly, poor correlation between output and utility load may permit use of smaller conductors, whose higher (mostly off-peak) losses are economically justifiable.

  13. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue. PMID:27200182

  14. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue. PMID:27200182

  15. A novel geometric embedding algorithm for efficiently generating dense polymer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M.; Nievergelt, J.; Santos, S.; Suter, U. W.

    2001-06-01

    A new algorithm for generating starting polymer structures for molecular simulations (e.g., MD) in dense phase is presented. The algorithm yields structures that fulfill to a large extent rotational isomeric state (RIS) probabilities and avoid atomic overlap. The heuristic search bases on the new parallel-rotation (ParRot) technique. We tested the performance of the algorithm on two polymeric systems: Atomistic polyethylene and polystyrene. The algorithm permits to tackle the problem of packing chains into large boxes of size up to 50 Å in a couple of hours on common workstations. Moreover, our packing algorithm is applicable for general polymer systems. The algorithm requires CPU effort scaling with a power 2.8 in the chain length, and with a power 1.5 in the number of chains.

  16. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power system software tool

  17. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-04-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1-x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  18. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  19. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-09-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1- x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  20. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  1. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  2. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving

  3. Electric field induced second harmonic generation with and without fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshulam, G.; Berkovic, G.; Kotler, Z.; Sa'ar, A.

    2000-09-01

    Electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) is a well-known technique to measure the first hyperpolarizability (β) of organic molecules in solution. The characteristic experimental output is observation of oscillatory fringes of second harmonic radiation as the solution path length is changed and evaluation of β from the fringe amplitude. We present two different cases where even in the absence of these characteristic fringes β may still be evaluated: first, when using absorbing materials, and second, when using broadband laser sources. The ability to determine β by EFISH under these conditions greatly enhances the ability of this technique to measure β values over a wide range of laser frequencies. Measurements of the same molecule's β values at different frequencies are reported, verifying the two-level model for the dispersion of β.

  4. Efficient simulation of voxelized phantom in GATE with embedded SimSET multiple photon history generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lin, Yi-Hsing; Ni, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jay; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) is a powerful Monte Carlo simulator that combines the advantages of the general-purpose GEANT4 simulation code and the specific software tool implementations dedicated to emission tomography. However, the detailed physical modelling of GEANT4 is highly computationally demanding, especially when tracking particles through voxelized phantoms. To circumvent the relatively slow simulation of voxelized phantoms in GATE, another efficient Monte Carlo code can be used to simulate photon interactions and transport inside a voxelized phantom. The simulation system for emission tomography (SimSET), a dedicated Monte Carlo code for PET/SPECT systems, is well-known for its efficiency in simulation of voxel-based objects. An efficient Monte Carlo workflow integrating GATE and SimSET for simulating pinhole SPECT has been proposed to improve voxelized phantom simulation. Although the workflow achieves a desirable increase in speed, it sacrifices the ability to simulate decaying radioactive sources such as non-pure positron emitters or multiple emission isotopes with complex decay schemes and lacks the modelling of time-dependent processes due to the inherent limitations of the SimSET photon history generator (PHG). Moreover, a large volume of disk storage is needed to store the huge temporal photon history file produced by SimSET that must be transported to GATE. In this work, we developed a multiple photon emission history generator (MPHG) based on SimSET/PHG to support a majority of the medically important positron emitters. We incorporated the new generator codes inside GATE to improve the simulation efficiency of voxelized phantoms in GATE, while eliminating the need for the temporal photon history file. The validation of this new code based on a MicroPET R4 system was conducted for 124I and 18F with mouse-like and rat-like phantoms. Comparison of GATE/MPHG with GATE/GEANT4 indicated there is a slight difference in energy

  5. Efficient simulation of voxelized phantom in GATE with embedded SimSET multiple photon history generator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lin, Yi-Hsing; Ni, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jay; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-10-21

    GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) is a powerful Monte Carlo simulator that combines the advantages of the general-purpose GEANT4 simulation code and the specific software tool implementations dedicated to emission tomography. However, the detailed physical modelling of GEANT4 is highly computationally demanding, especially when tracking particles through voxelized phantoms. To circumvent the relatively slow simulation of voxelized phantoms in GATE, another efficient Monte Carlo code can be used to simulate photon interactions and transport inside a voxelized phantom. The simulation system for emission tomography (SimSET), a dedicated Monte Carlo code for PET/SPECT systems, is well-known for its efficiency in simulation of voxel-based objects. An efficient Monte Carlo workflow integrating GATE and SimSET for simulating pinhole SPECT has been proposed to improve voxelized phantom simulation. Although the workflow achieves a desirable increase in speed, it sacrifices the ability to simulate decaying radioactive sources such as non-pure positron emitters or multiple emission isotopes with complex decay schemes and lacks the modelling of time-dependent processes due to the inherent limitations of the SimSET photon history generator (PHG). Moreover, a large volume of disk storage is needed to store the huge temporal photon history file produced by SimSET that must be transported to GATE. In this work, we developed a multiple photon emission history generator (MPHG) based on SimSET/PHG to support a majority of the medically important positron emitters. We incorporated the new generator codes inside GATE to improve the simulation efficiency of voxelized phantoms in GATE, while eliminating the need for the temporal photon history file. The validation of this new code based on a MicroPET R4 system was conducted for (124)I and (18)F with mouse-like and rat-like phantoms. Comparison of GATE/MPHG with GATE/GEANT4 indicated there is a slight difference in energy

  6. Electricity generation from tetrathionate in microbial fuel cells by acidophiles.

    PubMed

    Sulonen, Mira L K; Kokko, Marika E; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2015-03-01

    Inorganic sulfur compounds, such as tetrathionate, are often present in mining process and waste waters. The biodegradation of tetrathionate was studied under acidic conditions in aerobic batch cultivations and in anaerobic anodes of two-chamber flow-through microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All four cultures originating from biohydrometallurgical process waters from multimetal ore heap bioleaching oxidized tetrathionate aerobically at pH below 3 with sulfate as the main soluble metabolite. In addition, all cultures generated electricity from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5 with ferric iron as the terminal cathodic electron acceptor. The maximum current and power densities during MFC operation and in the performance analysis were 79.6 mA m(-2) and 13.9 mW m(-2) and 433 mA m(-2) and 17.6 mW m(-2), respectively. However, the low coulombic efficiency (below 5%) indicates that most of the electrons were directed to other processes, such as aerobic oxidation of tetrathionate and unmeasured intermediates. The microbial community analysis revealed that the dominant species both in the anolyte and on the anode electrode surface of the MFCs were Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. This study provides a proof of concept that tetrathionate serves as electron donor for biological electricity production in the pH range of 1.2-2.5. PMID:25463232

  7. Electricity generation from rapeseed straw hydrolysates using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Milena A; Rybarczyk, Maria K; Lieder, Marek

    2016-05-01

    Rapeseed straw is an attractive fuel material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to its high content of carbohydrates (more than 60% carbohydrates). This study has demonstrated that reducing sugars can be efficiently extracted from raw rapeseed straw by combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis followed by utilization as a fuel in two-chamber MFCs for electrical power generation. The most efficient method of saccharification of this lignocellulosic biomass (17%) turned out hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Electricity was produced using hydrolysate concentrations up to 150mg/dm(3). The power density reached 54mW/m(2), while CEs ranged from 60% to 10%, corresponding to the initial reducing sugar concentrations of 10-150mg/dm(3). The COD degradation rates based on charge calculation increased from 0.445gCOD/m(2)/d for the hydrolysate obtained with the microwave treatment to 0.602gCOD/m(2)/d for the most efficient combination of hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26930033

  8. Current turbine for water pumping and electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.I.E.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes work on Phase I of ''Mini Hydropower Research and Development Project'' in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum, in cooperation with the National Council for Research in Sudan. The main purpose of Phase I of the project has been to demonstrate and evaluate the use of water current energy for powering small-scale pumping units and for generating electricity. Power requirements for pumping water for irrigation on typical small land holdings in the Sudan will be of the order of 5-10 Kw. The same sizes of power should sufficiently meet power requirements of home factories for processing farm produce of these lands and of domestic uses. A vertical shaft impulse turbine of innovative design has been built in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Khartoum, to extract energy from water current of canals, rivers or streams. The useful shaft power from the turbine is used for pumping water or electricity generation. The turbine set is suspended from a floating pontoon (made from plastic drums) which is secured in the current by means of two horizontal supporting poles and steel cables. Field trials of a number of model turbine systems are currently being carried out and valuable findings are being obtained about the desirable features to be developed in these machines. However, concrete results are still to be finalized with a view to facilitating analytical design of pump-turbine and generatorturbine systems. Indications are that this work should lead to an efficient, cheap and simple-to-build current turbine. Detailed information on system design and performance are expected to be ready in time for the conference.

  9. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  10. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the

  11. Annotating and embedding provenance in science data repositories to enable next generation science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Zednik, S.; Del Rio, N.; Ding, L.; West, P.; Chang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the increased need for knowledge provenance in interdisciplinary eScience efforts, we have begun an effort to enhance a real-world data production pipeline and the resulting data services with semantic provenance. This work designing and implementing in an existing fielded virtual observatory setting has allowed us to collect key provenance requirements for a broad variety of end users. We have documented several image data pipelines for solar physics instruments at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and have documented almost 20 use cases covering usage from instrument scientists, observers, data analysts and managers, and end-user scientists. These use cases have guided our work developing an initial infrastructure that can be searched, queried, or browsed by these users. We use a multi-stage approach to provenance as data and information artifacts progress along processing pipelines. Our motivation, is that both the qualitative and quantitative measures of uncertainty may be vastly improved when treated in an end-to-end manner. This also reduces the likelihood that critical information is left behind or obscurely represented, making the later use of the data and information difficult or impossible. Another motivation is that provenance captured consistently at ingest time supports transparency of sources and propagation of credit for data generation, thereby increasing the likelihood of contribution and reuse. We present the current stages of implementation of our provenance infrastructure, tools and impact on what users are able to learn from the annotated information streams. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) project is an NSF/OCI/SDCI funded effort involving the High Altitude Observatory at NCAR, McGuinness Associates and the University of Michigan.

  12. Essays on the efficiency of electricity generation in Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Diego R.

    Fossil fuel power plants are responsible for roughly 40 percent of US CO2 emissions. While an important component of the U.S. strategy to reduce CO2 emissions in the long run involves a shift away from coal-fired generation, an effective strategy for the short and medium run entails the production of energy in the most environmentally efficient possible way. Chapter 1 evaluates the environmental efficiency of 14 Nebraska fossil-fuel electricity plants and determines whether they can reduce their CO2 emissions without decreasing their power output. Results show that the least environmentally efficient plants are natural gas-fired, peaking units and that the source of the measured inefficiency is increasing (as opposed to decreasing) returns to scale. Results also show by how much these plants can reduce their CO2 emissions without decreasing their power output, and in what way. Chapter 2 measures the environmental and the cost efficiency of the 8 largest Nebraska fossil fueled electricity plants and identifies the shadow cost of CO2 emissions abatement for these plants. The largest, base-load, coal-fired plants are the most cost efficient ones. Natural gas-fired, peaking units, have substantially lower cost efficiency scores. Some of the most environmentally efficient plants are natural gas-fired plants, as expected. However, some coal fire plants are found to be environmentally efficient as well. The average shadow price of each ton of CO2 emissions is $108. Results also show how inefficient plants can increase their cost and environmental efficiencies. Chapter 3 introduces a centralized cost and emissions minimization DEA model and applies it to the study of electricity generation by the Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD) and the Omaha Public Power District (NPPD), the two largest utilities in the state. It illustrates how the separate projection on the efficient frontier performed by traditional DEA models does not guarantee an overall minimization of cost or

  13. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    largest developed source of renewable electricity, but future large-scale projects will probably be limited to the less-developed world: the best schemes in the developed countries have already been exploited. Wave and tidal can be looked on as medium- to long-term generators of electricity, as their respective industries are not as mature as competing renewable resources. Municipal solid-waste combustion and landfill gas technologies can also be seen as short term, as can their rural equivalents, agriculture and forestry waste. Any widespread exploitation of renewable energy will depend on being able to transmit the energy from source to point of use, so the implications for the electrical network from the penetration of substantial levels of renewable energy are presented. Effective management of renewable energy installations will require technical assessment of the range of exploitation strategies, to compare local production of, say, hydrogen and the more traditional transmission of electricity. Such resources will have to compete with others in any national, or grid, system and detailed economic analysis will be necessary to determine the deployment that best fits the trading regime under which the energy will be sold. Consideration will also be necessary to determine how best to control the introduction of this radically new resource such that it does not attract punitive cost overheads until it is mature enough to cope. Finally, it is inescapable that nuclear power is a proven technology that could take its place in any future generation portfolio. Unfortunately, suspicion and mistrust surround waste management and radioactivity release. Unless this is overcome, the lack of confidence engendered by this public mistrust may result in few, if any, new nuclear power stations being built. In the event of that decision, it is difficult to see how CO(2) levels can be significantly reduced: the irony is that nuclear energy may emerge as environmentally essential. PMID

  14. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle. PMID:18262528

  15. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  16. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  17. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  18. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Rushforth, Richard; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2014-10-01

    In complex coupled natural-human systems (CNH), multitype networks link social, environmental, and economic systems with flows of matter, energy, information, and value. Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) is a systems analysis framework that includes the indirect connections of a multitype CNH network. ERA is conditioned on perceived system boundaries, which may vary according to the accountant's point of view. Both direct and indirect impacts are implicit whenever two subnetworks interact in such a system; the ratio of two subnetworks' impacts is the embedded intensity. For trade in the services of water, this is understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as "virtual water" trade. ERA is a generalization of input-output, footprint, and substance flow methods, and is a type of life cycle analysis. This paper presents results for the water and electrical energy system in the western U.S. This system is dominated by California, which outsources the majority of its water footprint of electrical energy. Electricity trade increases total water consumption for electricity production in the western U.S. by 15% and shifts water use to water-stressed Colorado River Basin States. A systemic underaccounting for water footprints occurs because state-level processes discount a portion of the water footprint occurring outside of the state boundary.

  19. Electrical response from nanocomposite PDMS-Ag NPs generated by in situ laser ablation in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyva, Maria; Kumar, Susmit; Brescia, Rosaria; Petroni, Simona; La Tegola, Carola; Bertoni, Giovanni; De Vittorio, Massimo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation technique is employed in order to generate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Ag NPs in situ, starting from a silver target in a solution of PDMS prepolymer and toluene. The produced surfactant-free nanoparticles are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning TEM-high angle annular dark field (STEM-HAADF) imaging modes, showing the majority of them to be of the order of 4 nm in diameter with a small percentage of larger Ag-AgCl multidomain NPs, embedded into a PDMS matrix. Low concentrations of carbon onion-like nanoparticles or larger fibers are also formed in the toluene-PDMS prepolymer solution. In accordance with this, UV-vis spectra shows no peak from silver NPs; their small size and their coverage by the PDMS matrix suppresses the signal of surface plasmon absorption. Inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that the concentration of silver in the polymer is characteristically low, ˜0.001% by weight. The electrical properties of the PDMS nanocomposite films are modified, with current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showing a low current of up to a few tenths of a pA at 5 V. The surface resistivity of the films is found to be up to ˜1010 Ω/sq. Under pressure (e.g. stress) applied by a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), the I-V measurements demonstrate the current decreasing during the elastic deformation, and increasing during the plastic deformation.

  20. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  1. Dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.; Fourakis, E.; Hammer, J. M.; Smith, G. A.; Grosskreutz, J. C.; Mcbride, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effort undertaken during this program led to the selection of the water-superheated steam (850 psig/900 F) crescent central receiver as the preferred concept from among 11 candidate systems across the technological spectrum of the dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant designs were investigated in the range of plant capacities from 100 to 1000 Mw(e). The investigations considered the impacts of plant size, collector design, feed-water temperature ratio, heat rejection equipment, ground cover, and location on solar power technical and economic feasibility. For the distributed receiver systems, the optimization studies showed that plant capacities less than 100 Mw(e) may be best. Although the size of central receiver concepts was not parametrically investigated, all indications are that the optimal plant capacity for central receiver systems will be in the range from 50 to 200 Mw(e). Solar thermal power plant site selection criteria and methodology were also established and used to evaluate potentially suitable sites. The result of this effort was to identify a site south of Inyokern, California, as typically suitable for a solar thermal power plant. The criteria used in the selection process included insolation and climatological characteristics, topography, and seismic history as well as water availability.

  2. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts of the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.

  3. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts ofmore » the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.« less

  4. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford K.; Sims, Cianan; Christian, Joshua Mark

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  5. A Vision of the Electric Power System Architecture Aiming for Our New Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Yanabu, Satoru

    Since the present hierarchical grid structure and AC interface are so mature and too rigid, a new electric power system architecture is proposed here to save the Earth with renewable energy sources.The architecture consists of a new concept and a historical technology. That is network of many “electric power clusters” with DC interface. The cluster includes dispersed electric power generations, electric appliances, electric storage and “electric power router”. The router is equipment to resourcefully route electrical energy between such neighboring clusters and to manage electrical energy in the cluster. The transactions of electrical energy (inter clusters and/or intra cluster) and electric generations from renewal energy sources (like sun shine, wind, tide and bio gas) are intermittent and have very wide dynamic range, so, the interface must be by DC. When we achieve the energy society with the architecture, we will be able to reduce energy consumption, greenhouse gas and materials.

  6. Air Quality Impact of Distributed Generation of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qiguo

    This dissertation summarizes the results of a five-year investigation of the impact of distributed generation (DG) of electricity on air quality in urban areas. I focused on the impact of power plants with capacities of less than 50 MW, which is typical of DG units in urban areas. These power plants are modeled as buoyant emissions from stacks less than 10 m situated in the midst of urban buildings. Because existing dispersion models are not designed for such sources, the first step of the study involved the evaluation of AERMOD, USEPA's state-of-the art dispersion model, with data collected in a tracer study conducted in the vicinity of a DG unit. The second step of the study consisted of using AERMOD to compare the impact of DG penetration in the South Coast Air Basin of Los Angeles with the impact of replacing DG generation with expansion of current central power plant capacity. The third topic of my investigation is the development and application of a model to examine the impact of non-power plant sources in a large urban area such as Los Angeles. This model can be used to estimate the air quality impact of DG relative to other sources in an urban area. The first part of this dissertation describes a tracer study conducted in Palm Springs, CA. Concentrations observed during the nighttime experiments are generally higher than those measured during the daytime experiments. They fall off less rapidly with distance than during the daytime. AERMOD provides an adequate description of concentrations associated with the buoyant releases from the DG during the daytime when turbulence is controlled by convection induced by solar heating. However, AERMOD underestimates concentrations during the night when turbulence is generated by wind shear. Also, AERMOD predicts a decrease in concentrations with distance that is much more rapid than the relatively flat observed decrease. I have suggested modifications to AERMOD to improve the agreement between model estimates and

  7. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Electricity Generation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-08-29

    To address industry challenges in attaining operational excellence for electricity generation plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM). This presentation will highlight the AVESTARTM Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission electricity generation plants. The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with full-scope operator training systems (OTSs) and 3D virtual immersive training systems (ITSs) into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. AVESTAR’s initial offering combines--for the first time--a “gasification with CO2 capture” process simulator with a “combined-cycle” power simulator together in a single OTS/ITS solution for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option for power generation, especially when capturing and storing CO2 is necessary to satisfy emission targets. The AVESTAR training program offers a variety of courses that merge classroom learning, simulator-based OTS learning in a control-room operations environment, and immersive learning in the interactive 3D virtual plant environment or ITS. All of the courses introduce trainees to base-load plant operation, control, startups, and shutdowns. Advanced courses require participants to become familiar with coordinated control, fuel switching, power-demand load shedding, and load following, as well as to problem solve equipment and process malfunctions. Designed to ensure work force development, training is offered for control room and plant field operators, as well as engineers and managers. Such comprehensive simulator-based instruction allows

  8. A simulation of the measurement of electrical conductivity in randomly generated two-phase rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, Eric; Moorkamp, Max; Jones, Alan G.

    2014-05-01

    Geological models of the subsurface require detailed data, often unavailable from direct observation or well logs. Hence imaging the subsurface relies on models obtained by interpretation of geophysical data. Several electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods focus on the EM properties of rocks and sediments to determine a reliable image of the subsurface, while the same electromagnetic properties are directly measured in laboratories. Often these laboratory measurements return equivocal results that are difficult to reconcile with field observations. Recently different numerical approaches have been investigated in order to understand the effects of the geometry and continuity of interconnected pathways of conductors on EM field measurements, often restricting the studies to direct current (DC) sources. Bearing in mind the time-varying nature of the natural electromagnetic sources that play a role in field measurements, we numerically simulate the effects of such EM sources on the conductivity measured on the surface of a randomly generated three-dimensional body embedded in a uniform host by using electromagnetic induction equations, thus simulating a magnetotelluric (MT) survey. A key point in such a simulation is the scalability of the problem: the deeper the target, the longer the period of the EM source is needed. On the other hand, a long period signal ignores small heterogeneous conductors in the target bulk of the material, averaging the different conductivities in a median value. Since most real rocks are poor conductors, we have modeled a two-phase mixture of rock and interconnected conductive elements (representing melts, saline fluids, sulphidic, carbonitic, or metallic sediments, etc.), randomly generated within the background host. We have compared the results from the simulated measurements with the target rock embedded at different depths with electrical conductivity predicted by both Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds and an updated multi-phase Archie

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  10. Method of generating electricity using an endothermic coal gasifier and MHD generator

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Lytle, John M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method of generating electrical power wherein a mixture of carbonaceous material and water is heated to initiate and sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water thereby providing a gasified stream containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and waste streams of hydrogen sulfide and ash. The gasified stream and an ionizing seed material and pressurized air from a preheater go to a burner for producing ionized combustion gases having a temperature of about 5000.degree. to about 6000.degree. F. which are accelerated to a velocity of about 1000 meters per second and passed through an MHD generator to generate DC power and thereafter through a diffuser to reduce the velocity. The gases from the diffuser go to an afterburner and from there in heat exchange relationship with the gasifier to provide heat to sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water and with the preheater to preheat the air prior to combustion with the gasified stream. Energy from the afterburner can also be used to energize other parts of the system.

  11. Method of generating electricity using an endothermic coal gasifier and MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

    1982-08-17

    A system and method of generating electrical power wherein a mixture of carbonaceous material and water is heated to initiate and sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water thereby providing a gasified stream containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and waste streams of hydrogen sulfide and ash. The gasified stream and an ionizing seed material and pressurized air from a preheater go to a burner for producing ionized combustion gases having a temperature of about 5000* to about 6000* F which are accelerated to a velocity of about 1000 meters per second and passed through an MHD generator to generate dc power and thereafter through a diffuser to reduce the velocity. The gases from the diffuser go to an afterburner and from there in heat exchange relationship with the gasifier to provide heat to sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water and with the preheater to preheat the air prior to combustion with the gasified stream. Energy from the afterburner can also be used to energize other parts of the system.

  12. Method of generating electricity using an endothermic coal gasifier and MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, D.D.; Lytle, J.M.

    1980-08-12

    A system and method of generating electrical power is described wherein a mixture of carbonaceous material and water is heated to initiate and sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water thereby providing a gasified stream containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and waste streams of hydrogen sulfide and ash. The gasified stream and an ionizing seed material and pressurized air from a preheater go to a burner for producing ionized combustion gases having a temperature of about 5000 to about 6000/sup 0/F which are accelerated to a velocity of about 1000 meters per second and passed through an MHD generator to generate DC power and thereafter through a diffuser to reduce the velocity. The gases from the diffuser go to an afterburner and from there in heat exchange relationship with the gasifier to provide heat to sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water and with the preheater to preheat the air prior to combustion with the gasified stream. Energy from the afterburner can also be used to energize other parts of the system.

  13. High electric field deuterium ion sources for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Birk

    Active interrogation systems for highly enriched uranium require improved fieldable neutron sources. The target technology for deuterium-tritium neutron generators is well understood and the most significant improvement can be achieved by improving the deuterium ion source through increased output and, in some cases, lifetime of the ion source. We are developing a new approach to a deuterium ion sources based upon the field desorption/evaporation of deuterium from the surfaces of metal tips. Electrostatic field desorption (EFD) desorbs previously adsorbed deuterium as ions under the influence of high electric fields (several V/A), without removing tip material. Single etched wire tip experiments have been performed and have shown that this is difficult but can be achieved with molybdenum and tungsten tips. Electrostatic field evaporation (EFE) evaporates ultra thin deuterated titanium films as ions. It has been shown that several 10s of atomic layers can be removed within a few nanoseconds from etched tungsten tips. In the course of these studies titanium deposition and deuteration methods were studied and new detection methods developed. Space charge effects resulting from the large ion currents were identified to be the most likely cause of some unusual ion emission characteristics. In addition, on W < 110 > oriented substrates a surprising body-centered cubic crystal structure of the titanium film was found and studied. The ion currents required for neutron generator applications can be achieved by microfabrication of metal tip arrays. Field desorption studies of microfabricated field emitter tip arrays have been conducted for the first time. Maximum fields of 3 V/A have been applied to the array tip surfaces to date, although fields of ˜ 2 V/A to ˜ 2.5 V/A are more typical. Desorption of atomic deuterium ions has been observed at fields of roughly 2 V/A at room temperature. The desorption of common surface adsorbates, such as hydrogen, carbon, water, and

  14. Effect of annealing treatment on the electrical characteristics of Pt/Cr-embedded ZnO/Pt resistance random access memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Li-Chun; Kao, Hsuan-Ling; Liu, Keng-Hao

    2014-03-15

    ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched with Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. The threshold voltage of a ZnO device embedded with a 3-nm Cr interlayer was approximately 50% lower than that of a ZnO monolayer device. This study investigated threshold voltage as a function of Cr thickness. Both the ZnO monolayer device and the Cr-embedded ZnO device structures exhibited resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, but resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibited distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrated remarkable device parameter improvements, including a lower threshold voltage, a lower write current, and a higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio. Both transmission electron microscope observations and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that the Cr charge trapping layer in Cr-embedded ZnO dispersed uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, and x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the Cr atoms lost electrons to become Cr{sup 3+} ions after dispersion. These results indicated that the altered status of Cr in ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment was responsible for the switching mechanism transition.

  15. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  16. Silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous SiC matrix for third-generation solar cells: Microstructure control by RF discharge power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qijin; Levchenko, Igor; Song, Denyuan; Xu, Shuyan; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-04-01

    A low-frequency (460 kHz), low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has been used to synthesize a novel, advanced photovoltaic material suitable for fabrication of third-generation solar cells. Silicon quantum dots (SQDs) embedded in an amorphous silicon carbide matrix were prepared at a very low substrate temperature of approximately 200°C without any hydrogen dilution. The effect of the radio-frequency (RF) power of the plasma discharge on the morphology and structure of the embedded quantum dots was studied. A brief discussion on the possible mechanisms of the quantum dot formation in the ICP is presented. This study is relevant to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells.

  17. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4... acceptance criteria (ITAAC) completion. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has... acceptance criteria are met for ITAAC E.2.5.04.05.05.02, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  18. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... acceptance criteria (ITAAC) completion. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has... acceptance criteria are met for ITAAC E.2.5.04.05.05.02, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  19. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) has... section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA). DATES: Comments, protests, or requests to intervene must...

  20. Battery electrical needs for the next generation of cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Takeshi

    Electric engineering has been applied to the automobile since the 19th century when the automobile was invented. It was first for the ignition system, then a variety of electrical facilities such as for the starter, headlights, wipers, etc., were developed. At present, the battery has become indispensable for the automobile. The invention of the transistor, in 1948, brought about rapid progress of microelectronics technology, involving IC, LSI, and the microcomputer. Such technologies are now widely adopted for various functions of the automobile. This paper discusses (i) the role of electronics in the automobile, especially current and future automotive electronic systems; (ii) the electric power-supply and starter; (iii) the electrical needs of the battery.

  1. Transmission Pricing Issues for Electricity Generation From Renewable Resources

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses how the resolution of transmission pricing issues which have arisen under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) open access environment may affect the prospects for renewable-based electricity.

  2. Dynamometer test results from the Colorado University low-speed, permanent magnet electric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.F.; Carlin, P.W.; Muljadi, E.B.; Fingersh, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    Under an NREL subcontract the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the University of Colorado has designed a 20 kilowatt, twelve pole, permanent magnet, electric generator which can supply 150% of rated power over a speed range from 60 to 120 RPM. The generator was fabricated and assembled by the Denver electric motor manufacturer, Unique Mobility. The generator is being tested on the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) dynamometer. This dynamometer provides generator speeds from 0 to 150 RPM. Static and steadystate electrical and mechanical generator parameters will be given as well as voltage and efficiency vs speed curves, and winding temperature rise. Preliminary dynamometer results for the complete variable speed electrical system including the AC-DC-AC power electronics will be presented. Also, these results will be examined for factors which must be considered if the prototype design is to be scaled up to a 300 kilowatt size.

  3. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  4. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices. PMID:27241817

  5. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-05-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices.

  6. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices. PMID:27241817

  7. Waveform generation in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus coropinae (Hoedeman): the electric organ and the electric organ discharge.

    PubMed

    Castelló, María E; Rodríguez-Cattáneo, Alejo; Aguilera, Pedro A; Iribarne, Leticia; Pereira, Ana Carolina; Caputi, Angel A

    2009-05-01

    This article deals with the electric organ and its discharge in Gymnotus coropinae, a representative species of one of the three main clades of the genus. Three regions with bilateral symmetry are described: (1) subopercular (medial and lateral columns of complex shaped electrocytes); (2) abdominal (medial and lateral columns of cuboidal and fusiform electrocytes); and (3) main [four columns, one dorso-lateral (containing fusiform electrocytes) and three medial (containing cuboidal electrocytes)]. Subopercular electrocytes are all caudally innervated whereas two of the medial subopercular ones are also rostrally innervated. Fusiform electrocytes are medially innervated at the abdominal portion, and at their rostral and caudal poles at the main portion. Cuboidal electrocytes are always caudally innervated. The subopercular portion generates a slow head-negative wave (V(1r)) followed by a head-positive spike (V(3r)). The abdominal and main portions generate a fast tetra-phasic complex (V(2345ct)). Since subopercular components prevail in the near field and the rest in the far field, time coincidence of V(3r) with V(2) leads to different waveforms depending on the position of the receiver. This confirms the splitting hypothesis of communication and exploration channels based on the different timing, frequency band and reach of the regional waveforms. The following hypothesis is compatible with the observed anatomo-functional organization: V(1r) corresponds to the rostral activation of medial subopercular electrocytes and V(3r) to the caudal activation of all subopercular electrocytes; V(2), and part of V(3ct), corresponds to the successive activation of the rostral and caudal poles of dorso-lateral fusiform electrocytes; and V(345ct) is initiated in the caudal face of cuboidal electrocytes by synaptic activation (V(3ct)) and it is completed (V(45ct)) by the successive activation of rostral and caudal faces by the action currents evoked in the opposite face. PMID

  8. Cooling of high power generators and motors for electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, J. L.

    1984-03-01

    This study reviews the history and development of marine electric propulsion drives, the types of electric propulsion, and the inherent losses which occur within the synchronous ac machines typically used for high-power propulsion systems. A thorough review of the literature pertaining to heat transfer in electrical machinery is made. In particular, the use of liquid cooling in various flow configurations, including buoyancy-driven thermosyphons and two-phase thermosyphons is analyzed. Forced-liquid cooling is feasible, but the required rotating seals are a problem in reliability. Closed-loop thermosyphon cooling appears feasible at high rotational speeds, although a secondary heat exchange through the shaft is required. Closed, two-phase thermosyphons and heat pipes are also feasible, but require forced-air circulation for heat rejection to the ambient. Since all of these concepts deserve additional attention, areas for further research and development are recommended.

  9. Simulation Tool to Assess Mechanical and Electrical Stresses on Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) consist of many different components to convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy for end users. Wind energy is accessed to provide mechanical torque for driving the shaft of the electrical generator. The conversion from wind power to mechanical power is governed by the aerodynamic conversion. The aerodynamic-electrical-conversion efficiency of a WTGis influenced by the efficiency of the blades, the gearbox, the generator, and the power converter. This paper describes the use of MATLAB/Simulink to simulate the electrical and grid-related aspects of a WTG coupled with the FAST aero-elastic wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool to simulate the aerodynamic and mechanical aspects of a WTG. The combination of the two enables studiesinvolving both electrical and mechanical aspects of a WTG. This digest includes some examples of the capabilities of the FAST and MATLAB coupling, namely the effects of electrical faults on the blade moments.

  10. Electrical characteristics of spark generators for automotive ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brode, R B; Randolph, D W; Silsbee, F B

    1927-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive program of measurements on 11 ignition systems differing widely in type. The results serve primarily to give representative data on the electric and magnetic constants of such systems, and on the secondary voltage produced by them under various conditions of speed, timing, shunting resistance, etc. They also serve to confirm certain of the theoretical formulas which have been proposed to connect the performance of such systems with their electrical constants, and to indicate the extent to which certain simplified model circuits duplicate the performance of the actual apparatus.

  11. Electrical stimulation of human embryonic stem cells: cardiac differentiation and the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Serena, Elena; Figallo, Elisa; Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Gerecht, Sharon; Elvassore, Nicola; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-12-10

    Exogenous electric fields have been implied in cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, we explored the effects of electrical field stimulation on ROS generation and cardiogenesis in embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, line H13), using a custom-built electrical stimulation bioreactor. Electrical properties of the bioreactor system were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and analysis of electrical currents. The effects of the electrode material (stainless steel, titanium-nitride-coated titanium, titanium), length of stimulus (1 and 90 s) and age of EBs at the onset of electrical stimulation (4 and 8 days) were investigated with respect to ROS generation. The amplitude of the applied electrical field was 1 V/mm. The highest rate of ROS generation was observed for stainless steel electrodes, for signal duration of 90 s and for 4-day-old EBs. Notably, comparable ROS generation was achieved by incubation of EBs with 1 nM H(2)O(2). Cardiac differentiation in these EBs was evidenced by spontaneous contractions, expression of troponin T and its sarcomeric organization. These results imply that electrical stimulation plays a role in cardiac differentiation of hESCs, through mechanisms associated with the intracellular generation of ROS. PMID:19720058

  12. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply. [Contains a report on the electricity generating technologies which use renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. This report, Renewable Resources in the US Electricity Supply, presents descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications.

  13. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  14. CONVERTING ENERGY FROM RECLAIMED HEAT: THERMAL ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of solar energy acquiring devices has been slow to gain acceptance due to their overall low power generation versus high cost of a solar system. The goal of this project is to construct a model which increases the overall power generation of a solar building system by...

  15. Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort.

    PubMed

    Donelan, J M; Li, Q; Naing, V; Hoffer, J A; Weber, D J; Kuo, A D

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a biomechanical energy harvester that generates electricity during human walking with little extra effort. Unlike conventional human-powered generators that use positive muscle work, our technology assists muscles in performing negative work, analogous to regenerative braking in hybrid cars, where energy normally dissipated during braking drives a generator instead. The energy harvester mounts at the knee and selectively engages power generation at the end of the swing phase, thus assisting deceleration of the joint. Test subjects walking with one device on each leg produced an average of 5 watts of electricity, which is about 10 times that of shoe-mounted devices. The cost of harvesting-the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity-is less than one-eighth of that for conventional human power generation. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for charging powered prosthetic limbs and other portable medical devices. PMID:18258914

  16. Novel vibration-based electrical energy generators for low and variable speed turbo-machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.

    2007-04-01

    A novel class of vibration-based electrical energy generators is presented for applications in which the input rotary speed is relatively low and varies significantly over time such as wind mills, turbo-machinery used to harvest tidal flows, and the like. Current technology uses magnet and coil based rotary generators to generate electrical energy in such machinery. However, to make the generation cycle efficient, gearing or other similar mechanisms have to be used to increase the output speed. In addition, variable speed mechanisms are usually needed to achieve high mechanical to electrical energy conversion efficiency since speed variation is usually significant in the aforementioned applications. The objective of the present work is the development of electrical energy generators that do not require the aforementioned gearing and speed control mechanisms, thereby significantly reducing complexity and cost, particularly those related to maintenance and service. This novel class of electrical energy generators operates based on repeated vibration of multiple vibrating elements that are tuned to vibrate at a fixed prescribed frequency. The mechanical energy stored in the vibration elements is transformed into electrical energy using piezoelectric elements. The present generators are very simple, can efficiently operate over a very large range of input speeds, and should require minimal service and maintenance. The project is at the early stages of its development, but the analytical modeling and computer simulation studies using realistic system and component parameters indicate the potentials of this class of piezoelectric-based generators for the indicated applications.

  17. Transient Analysis Generator /TAG/ simulates behavior of large class of electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, W. J.

    1967-01-01

    Transient Analysis Generator program simulates both transient and dc steady-state behavior of a large class of electrical networks. It generates a special analysis program for each circuit described in an easily understood and manipulated programming language. A generator or preprocessor and a simulation system make up the TAG system.

  18. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  19. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  20. Environmental review report of an electrical generation facility to be located at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.; Ross, J.; Mountain, D.; Kahal, M.

    1998-05-01

    The Bentech Group, Inc. (Bentech) applied for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) to construct and operate an electric generating system at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill in Laytonsville, Maryland. The focus of the environmental review is to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed electric generation system to air quality, noise, terrestrial, ecological, ground water, surface water, socioeconomic, aesthetic, and cultural resources. This document presents the results of the environmental review analysis, and includes the State`s recommended license conditions for operating the electric generating system, which the PSC incorporated into the CPCN.

  1. Ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on polarization modulator and low speed electrical NRZ signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodan; Zhang, Qiufang; Wang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation system by modulating a polarization modulator (PolM) with a low speed electrical nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal is proposed, which significantly reduce the bandwidth requirement of the driving signal. At each bit transition of the input NRZ signal, two polarity-reversed Gaussian pulses are generated. By properly setting the delay between these two Gaussian pulses, an optical UWB monocycle pulse can be generated. Biphase modulation (BPM) can be realized by electrically switching the polarization direction at the output of PolM, if an electrically tunable arbitrary wave plate (AWP) is employed.

  2. Numerical simulation of the leaky dielectric microdroplet generation in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Reza; Manshadi, Mohammad Karim Dehghan

    2016-07-01

    Microdroplet generation has a vast range of applications in the chemical, biomedical, and biological sciences. Several devices are applied to produce microdroplets, such as Co-flow, T-junction and Flow-focusing. The important point in the producing process is controlling the separated fluid volume in these devices. On the other hand, a large number of liquids, especially aqueous one, are influenced by electric or magnetic fields. As a consequence, an electric field could be used in order to affect the separated fluid volume. In this study, effects of an electric field on the microdroplet generation in a Co-flow device are investigated numerically. Furthermore, effects of some electrical properties such as permittivity on the separating process of microdroplets are studied. Leaky dielectric and perfect dielectric models are used in this investigation. According to the results, in the microdroplet generating process, leaky dielectric fluids show different behaviors, when an electric field is applied to the device. In other words, in a constant electric field strength, the volume of generated microdroplets can increase or decrease, in comparison with the condition without the electric field. However, for perfect dielectric fluids, droplet volume always decreases with increasing the electric field strength. In order to validate the numerical method of this study, deformation of a leaky dielectric droplet in an electric field is investigated. Results are compared with Taylor theoretical model.

  3. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  4. Extreme Harmonic Generation in Electrically Driven Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, Jiri

    2015-03-01

    InAs nanowire double quantum dots offer a rich platform for studying single spin physics in a material with large spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The large SO coupling allows all electrical control of the electron spin through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). Here an oscillating electric field of frequency f displaces the electron wave function, while a magnetic field with strength B is applied. Spin rotations occur when the resonance condition hf = gμB B is met. Here g is the electron g-factor, h is Planck's constant, and μB is the Bohr magneton. We find that near zero interdot detuning efficient spin rotations also occur when hf = ngμB B , with n being an integer as large as 8 in our system. The harmonics feature a striking odd/even dependence. While the odd harmonics show an enhancement of the leakage current, the even harmonics show a reduction. In contrast, we do not observe any measurable harmonics at large detuning. We link the presence of harmonics with additional anti-crossings present in the level diagram. This implies that harmonics are the result of Landau-Zener transitions occurring at multiple anti-crossings. Recent theoretical work supports this conclusion. Research performed in collaboration with M. D. Schroer, M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, and J. R. Petta. Research was supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, Army Research Office, DARPA QuEST and the NSF.

  5. Generation of Electrical Power from Stimulated Muscle Contractions Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David B.

    2004-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Project, part of the NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program of the Aerospace Technology Enterprise, and Case Western Reserve University's Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Center. The RAC Project foresees implantable power requirements for future applications such as organically based sensor platforms and robotics that can interface with the human senses. One of the goals of the FES Center is to develop a totally implantable neural prosthesis. This goal is based on feedback from patients who would prefer a system with an internal power source over the currently used system with an external power source. The conversion system under investigation would transform the energy produced from a stimulated muscle contraction into electrical energy. We hypothesize that the output power of the system will be greater than the input power necessary to initiate, sustain, and control the electrical conversion system because of the stored potential energy of the muscle. If the system can be made biocompatible, durable, and with the potential for sustained use, then the biological power source will be a viable solution.

  6. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, William D.

    2015-06-18

    with ORC technology. Average co-produced water for 10,480 wells is 3.2 gallons per minute (gpm). Even excluding the tight formations, Bakken and Three Forks, average co-produced water for the remaining 3,337 is only 5 gpm. The output of the highest producing well is 184 gpm and the average of the top 100 wells is 52 gpm. Due to the depth of the oil producing formations in the Williston Basin, typically 3 km or greater, pumps are operated slowly to prevent watering out thus total fluid production is purposefully maintained at low volumes. There remain potential possibilities for development of geothermal fluids in the Williston Basin. Unitized fields in which water production from several tens of wells is collected at a single site are good possibilities for development. Water production in the unitized fields is greater than 1000 gpm is several areas. A similar possibility occurs where infill-drilling between Bakken and Three Forks horizontal wells has created areas where large volumes of geothermal fluids are available on multi-well pads and in unitized fields. Although the Bakken produces small amounts of water, the water/oil ration is typically less than 1, the oil and water mix produced at the well head can be sent through the heat exchanger on an ORC. It is estimated that several tens of MWh of power could be generated by a distributed system of ORC engines in the areas of high-density drilling in the Bakken Formation. Finally, horizontal drilling in water bearing formations is the other possibility. Several secondary recovery water-flood projects in the basin are producing water above 100 ⁰C at rates of 300 gpm to 850 gpm. Those systems also could produce several tens of MWh of power with ORC technology. Objective 3 of the project was highly successful. The program has produced 5 PhDs, 7 MS, and 3 BS students with theses in geothermal energy. The team has involved 7 faculty in 4 different engineering and science disciplines, ChE, EE, GE, and Geol. The team has

  7. Investigation of a generator system for generating electrical power, to supply directly to the public network, using a windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromp, C.

    1979-01-01

    A windpowered generator system is described which uses a windmill to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy for a three phase (network) voltage of constant amplitude and frequency. The generator system controls the windmill by the number of revolutions so that the power drawn from the wind for a given wind velocity is maximum. A generator revolution which is proportional to wind velocity is achieved. The stator of the generator is linked directly to the network and a feed converter at the rotor takes care of constant voltage and frequency at the stator.

  8. The data embedding method

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  9. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  10. Parasitic current losses due to solar electric propulsion generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.; Mandell, M. J.; Schnuelle, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion is a leading candidate for many upcoming space missions. Under many circumstances plasma produced by charge-exchange reactions within the ion beam dominates the ambient environment near the spacecraft. The calculations presented here contain a predictive hydrodynamic model for the charge-exchange plasma expansion, and a fully three-dimensional model for the structure of the plasma sheath around the solar array wing. Results of calculations for several configurations and voltage levels indicate that with kilovolt biases power losses of approximately 10 percent or more are likely, even with only one engine in operation, and that ameliorative measures should focus on the inboard portion of the solar arrays.

  11. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  12. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  13. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  14. MODULATING EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC GENERATING UNITS AS A FUNCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electric Generating Units (EGUs) are an important source of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. Emissions from EGUs are believed to vary depending on short-term demands for electricity;...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  17. Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Dadap, J I; Shan, J; Weling, A S; Misewich, J A; Nahata, A; Heinz, T F

    1999-08-01

    We present a scheme for the determination of the vector nature of an electric field by optical second-harmonic generation. We demonstrate the technique by mapping the two-dimensional electric-field vector of a biased transmission line structure on silicon with a spatial resolution of ~10mum . PMID:18073940

  18. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  1. Microbial electricity generation in rice paddy fields: recent advances and perspectives in rhizosphere microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use living microbes for the conversion of organic matter into electricity. MFC systems can be applied to the generation of electricity at water/sediment interfaces in the environment, such as bay areas, wetlands, and rice paddy fields. Using these systems, electricity generation in paddy fields as high as ∼80 mW m(-2) (based on the projected anode area) has been demonstrated, and evidence suggests that rhizosphere microbes preferentially utilize organic exudates from rice roots for generating electricity. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses have been conducted to identify the microbial species and catabolic pathways that are involved in the conversion of root exudates into electricity, suggesting the importance of syntrophic interactions. In parallel, pot cultures of rice and other aquatic plants have been used for rhizosphere MFC experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. The findings from these studies have demonstrated the potential of electricity generation for mitigating methane emission from the rhizosphere. Notably, however, the presence of large amounts of organics in the rhizosphere drastically reduces the effect of electricity generation on methane production. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential of these systems for mitigating methane emission from rice paddy fields. We suggest that paddy-field MFCs represent a promising approach for harvesting latent energy of the natural world. PMID:25394406

  2. Obtaining electricity by direct transfer of charge generated in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezkina, T. E.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the possibility of generating electricity directly by using the charge that is created in a corona discharge and transferred by airflow in the direction perpendicular to the discharge axis. Results of experimental measurements and theoretical estimations confirm this possibility. The electric power output from corona discharge in experiment was on the order of 10-3 W, which is about one-tenth of the theoretical limit. It is proposed to use this effect for creating wind-driven generators.

  3. Electric generator using a triangular diamagnetic levitating rotor system.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joe Nhut; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a feasibility study of creating a small low friction and low maintenance generator using a diamagnetically stabilized levitating rotor. The planar rotor described in this paper uses a triangular configuration of magnets that generates emf by passing over coils placed below the rotor. Equations were developed to predict the generated emf from coils with two different coil geometries. Additionally, this paper provides a method for estimating optimal coil size and position for the planar rotor presented for both segmental arc and circular coils to obtain maximum power output. Experiments demonstrated that the emf generated in the coils matches well with the predicted wave forms for each case, and the optimization theory gives good prediction to outcome of induced waveforms. For the segmental arc coil design, the induced emf was 1.7 mV at a radial frequency of 21.8 rad/s. For the circular coil design, the emf was 1.25 mV at a radial frequency of 28.1 rad/s. PMID:19256668

  4. HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION WITH WIND AND DIESEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind/hybrid operation data were collected using an independent hybrid test grid consisting of three diesel generator sets, AOC 15/50 and Enertech 44/40 wind turbines, two resistive load banks, pre-commercial controls, with a simulated village load. Two configurations were tested, one using a synchro...

  5. Development and bottlenecks of renewable electricity generation in China: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-01

    This review provides an overview on the development and status of electricity generation from renewable energy sources, namely hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass energy, and geothermal energy, and discusses the technology, policy, and finance bottlenecks limiting growth of the renewable energy industry in China. Renewable energy, dominated by hydropower, currently accounts for more than 25% of the total electricity generation capacity. China is the world's largest generator of both hydropower and wind power, and also the largest manufacturer and exporter of photovoltaic cells. Electricity production from solar and biomass energy is at the early stages of development in China, while geothermal power generation has received little attention recently. The spatial mismatch in renewable energy supply and electricity demand requires construction of long-distance transmission networks, while the intermittence of renewable energy poses significant technical problems for feeding the generated electricity into the power grid. Besides greater investment in research and technology development, effective policies and financial measures should also be developed and improved to better support the healthy and sustained growth of renewable electricity generation. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to the potential impacts on the local environment from renewable energy development, despite the wider benefits for climate change. PMID:23445126

  6. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  7. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the MIM strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV,were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/sq cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  8. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the Monolithic Integrated Module (MIM) strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV, were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/ square cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  9. Substrates and pathway of electricity generation in a nitrification-based microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Jiqiang; Xie, Zuofu; Ji, Junyuan; Ghulam, Abbas

    2014-06-01

    Nitrification-based microbial fuel cell (N-MFC) is a novel inorganic microbial fuel cell based on nitrification in the anode compartment. So far, little information is available on the substrates and pathway of N-MFC. The results of this study indicated that apart from the primary nitrification substrate (ammonium), the intermediates (hydroxylamine and nitrite) could also serve as anodic fuel to generate current, and the end product nitrate showed an inhibitory effect on electricity generation. Based on the research, a pathway of electricity generation was proposed for N-MFC: ammonium was oxidized first to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), then the nitrite in anolyte and the potassium permanganate in catholyte constituted a chemical cell to generate current. In other words, the electricity generation in N-MFC was not only supported by microbial reaction as we expected, but both biological and electrochemical reactions contributed. PMID:24704886

  10. Power processing and control requirements of dispersed solar thermal electric generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Power Processing and Control requirements of Dispersed Receiver Solar Thermal Electric Generation Systems are presented. Kinematic Stirling Engines, Brayton Engines and Rankine Engines are considered as prime movers. Various types of generators are considered for ac and dc link generations. It is found that ac-ac Power Conversion is not suitable for implementation at this time. It is also found that ac-dc-ac Power Conversion with a large central inverter is more efficient than ac-dc-ac Power Conversion using small dispersed inverters. Ac-link solar thermal electric plants face potential stability and synchronization problems. Research and development efforts are needed in improving component performance characteristics and generation efficiency to make Solar Thermal Electric Generation economically attractive.

  11. Future trends in electrical energy generation economics in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. W.; Fox, G. R.; Shah, R. P.; Stewart, P. J.; Vermilyea, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Developments related to the economics of coal-fired systems in the U.S. are mainly considered. The historical background of the U.S. electric generation industry is examined and the U.S. electrical generation characteristics in the year 1975 are considered. It is pointed out that coal-fired power plants are presently the largest source of electrical energy generation in the U.S. Questions concerning the availability and quality of coal are investigated. Currently there are plans for converting some 50 large oil and gas-fired generating plants to coal, and it is expected that coal will be the fuel used in almost all fossil-fired base load additions to generating capacity. Aspects of advanced energy conversion from coal are discussed, taking into account the performance and economic potential of the energy conversion systems.

  12. Heat generation in an elastic binder system with embedded discrete energetic particles due to high-frequency, periodic mechanical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, J. O.; Miller, J. K.; Gunduz, I. E.; Rhoads, J. F.; Son, S. F.

    2014-11-01

    High-frequency mechanical excitation can induce heating within energetic materials and may lead to advances in explosives detection and defeat. In order to examine the nature of this mechanically induced heating, samples of an elastic binder (Sylgard 184) were embedded with inert and energetic particles placed in a fixed spatial pattern and were subsequently excited with an ultrasonic transducer at discrete frequencies from 100 kHz to 20 MHz. The temperature and velocity responses of the sample surfaces suggest that heating due to frictional effects occurred near the particles at excitation frequencies near the transducer resonance of 215 kHz. An analytical solution involving a heat point source was used to estimate heating rates and temperatures at the particle locations in this frequency region. Heating located near the sample surface at frequencies near and above 1 MHz was attributed to viscoelastic effects related to the surface motion of the samples. At elevated excitation parameters near the transducer resonance frequency, embedded particles of ammonium perchlorate and cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine were driven to chemical decomposition.

  13. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  14. A dipole model of generating electric pulses in relaxation processes in the Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loseva, T. V.; Spivak, A. A.; Kuz'micheva, M. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical model of generating electric pulses in the Earth's crust with use of a system of electric dipoles that are located uniformly over an active surface of the structural block relaxing after its constrained turn is developed. Electric moments of dipoles change with time according to the amplitude of differential movements. It is shown that the amplitude of electric pulses and the degree of their attenuation with distance to the source are in agreement with the data of results of instrumental observations.

  15. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers. PMID:27273512

  16. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers.

  17. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers. PMID:27273512

  18. Electric field generated by longitudinal axial microtubule vibration modes with high spatial resolution microtubule model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, M.; Havelka, D.; Deriu, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Microtubules are electrically polar structures fulfilling prerequisites for generation of oscillatory electric field in the kHz to GHz region. Energy supply for excitation of elasto-electrical vibrations in microtubules may be provided from GTP-hydrolysis; motor protein-microtubule interactions; and energy efflux from mitochondria. It recently was determined from anisotropic elastic network modeling of entire microtubules that the frequencies of microtubule longitudinal axial eigenmodes lie in the region of tens of GHz for the physiologically common microtubule lengths. We calculated electric field generated by axial longitudinal vibration modes of microtubule, which model is based on subnanometer precision of charge distribution. Due to elastoelectric nature of the vibrations, the vibration wavelength is million-fold shorter than that of the electromagnetic field in free space and the electric field around the microtubule manifests rich spatial structure with multiple minima. The dielectrophoretic force exerted by electric field on the surrounding molecules will influence the kinetics of reactions via change in the probability of the transport of charge and mass particles. The electric field generated by vibrations of electrically polar cellular structures is expected to play a role in biological self-organization.

  19. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-03-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as "intermittent") output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  20. Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2014-05-01

    We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.

  1. Nanoantenna for Electrical Generation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Bigourdan, Florian; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Sauvan, Christophe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2016-03-11

    Light emission by inelastic tunneling has been known for many years. Recently, this technique has been used to generate surface plasmons using a scanning tunneling microscope tip. The emission process suffers from a very low efficiency lower than a photon in 10^{4} electrons. We introduce a resonant plasmonic nanoantenna that allows both enhancing the power conversion to surface plasmon polaritons by more than 2 orders of magnitude and narrowing the emission spectrum. The physics of the emission process is analyzed in terms of local density of states and the efficiency of the nanoantenna to radiate surface plasmon polaritons. PMID:27015503

  2. Feasibility Study of Biomass Electrical Generation on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Roche; Richard Hartmann; Joohn Luton; Warren Hudelson; Roger Blomguist; Jan Hacker; Colene Frye

    2005-03-29

    The goals of the St. Croix Tribe are to develop economically viable energy production facilities using readily available renewable biomass fuel sources at an acceptable cost per kilowatt hour ($/kWh), to provide new and meaningful permanent employment, retain and expand existing employment (logging) and provide revenues for both producers and sellers of the finished product. This is a feasibility study including an assessment of available biomass fuel, technology assessment, site selection, economics viability given the foreseeable fuel and generation costs, as well as an assessment of the potential markets for renewable energy.

  3. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. PMID:27006422

  4. Electrical behavior of MIS devices based on Si nanoclusters embedded in SiOxNy and SiO2 films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examined and compared the electrical properties of silica (SiO2) and silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) layers embedding silicon nanoclusters (Sinc) integrated in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. The technique used for the deposition of such layers is the reactive magnetron sputtering of a pure SiO2 target under a mixture of hydrogen/argon plasma in which nitrogen is incorporated in the case of SiOxNy layer. Al/SiOxNy-Sinc/p-Si and Al/SiO2-Sinc/p-Si devices were fabricated and electrically characterized. Results showed a high rectification ratio (>104) for the SiOxNy-based device and a resistive behavior when nitrogen was not incorporating (SiO2-based device). For rectifier devices, the ideality factor depends on the SiOxNy layer thickness. The conduction mechanisms of both MIS diode structures were studied by analyzing thermal and bias dependences of the carriers transport in relation with the nitrogen content. PMID:21711698

  5. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  6. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  7. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  8. Electric probe investigations of microwave generated, atmospheric pressure, plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Porteanu, H. E.; Kuehn, S.; Gesche, R.

    2010-07-15

    We examine the applicability of the Langmuir-type of characterization for atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated in a millimeter-size cavity microwave resonator at 2.45 GHz. Wide range I-V characteristics of helium, argon, nitrogen, air and oxygen are presented for different gas fluxes, distances probe-resonator, and microwave powers. A detailed analysis is performed for the fine variation in the current around the floating potential. A simplified theory specially developed for this case is presented, considering the ionic and electronic saturation currents and the floating potential. Based on this theory, we conclude that, while the charge carrier density depends on gas flow, distance to plasma source, and microwave absorbed power, the electron temperature is quite independent of these parameters. The resulting plasma parameters for helium, argon, and nitrogen are presented.

  9. Method and apparatus for generating electric power by waves

    SciTech Connect

    Watabe, T.; Dote, Y.; Kondo, H.; Matsuda, T.; Takagi, M.; Yano, K.

    1984-12-25

    At least one caisson which is part or all of a breakwater forms a water chamber therein whose closure is a pendulum having a natural period in rocking or oscillating the same as a period of stationary wave surges caused in the water chamber by rocking movement of the pendulum owing to wave force impinging against the pendulum. At least one double-acting piston and cylinder assembly is connected to the pendulum, so that when a piston of the assembly is reciprocatively moved by the pendulum, pressure difference between cylinder chambers on both sides of the piston of the assembly controls a change-over valve which in turn controls hydraulic pressure discharged from the cylinder chambers to be supplied to a plurality of hydraulic motors respectively having accumulators of a type wherein accumulated pressure and volume of the hydraulic liquid are proportional to each other, whereby driving a common generator alternately by the hydraulic motors.

  10. Simulation of ultraviolet- and soft X-ray-pulse generation as a result of cooperative recombination of excitons in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film

    SciTech Connect

    Kukushkin, V. A.

    2013-11-15

    Using numerical simulation, it is shown that the recombination of free excitons photoexcited in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film can occur in the cooperative mode. It is found that this mode can be implemented despite the fact that diamond is an 'indirect' semiconductor. It is shown that the power of the generated radiation at the pulse peak during the cooperative recombination of free excitons can exceed that of the incoherent spontaneous emission of the same initial number of free excitons by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, it is shown that the process under consideration can be used to generate picosecond pulses of ultraviolet and soft X-ray electromagnetic field at a wavelength of 235 nm.

  11. Data embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.

    1997-08-19

    A method is disclosed for embedding auxiliary information into a set of host data, such as a photograph, television signal, facsimile transmission, or identification card. All such host data contain intrinsic noise, allowing pixels in the host data which are nearly identical and which have values differing by less than the noise value to be manipulated and replaced with auxiliary data. As the embedding method does not change the elemental values of the host data, the auxiliary data do not noticeably affect the appearance or interpretation of the host data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. 19 figs.

  12. Data embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into a set of host data, such as a photograph, television signal, facsimile transmission, or identification card. All such host data contain intrinsic noise, allowing pixels in the host data which are nearly identical and which have values differing by less than the noise value to be manipulated and replaced with auxiliary data. As the embedding method does not change the elemental values of the host data, the auxiliary data do not noticeably affect the appearance or interpretation of the host data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user.

  13. Technology survey of electrical power generation and distribution for MIUS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, W. L.; Redding, T. E.

    1975-01-01

    Candidate electrical generation power systems for the modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) program are described. Literature surveys were conducted to cover both conventional and exotic generators. Heat-recovery equipment associated with conventional power systems and supporting equipment are also discussed. Typical ranges of operating conditions and generating efficiencies are described. Power distribution is discussed briefly. Those systems that appear to be applicable to MIUS have been indicated, and the criteria for equipment selection are discussed.

  14. Effect of reducing agents and uncouplers on the electrical potential generated by mitochondrial ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Encío, I; de Miguel, C; López-Moratalla, N; Santiago, E

    1989-12-01

    Beef heart submitochondrial particles bound to phospholipids impregnated filters generated an electrical potential upon the addition of ATP. The magnitude of the electrical potential reached depended on the phospholipid mixture composition used for filter impregnation, phosphatidylethanolamine being the active component for the electrical potential generation. Uncoupler FCCP (p-trifluoromethoxy carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone) inhibited the transmembrane electrical potential generation by diminishing the electrical resistance of the system as a result of its protonophoric action. However, uncouplers 2, 4-dinitrophenol and dicoumarol did not provoke large modifications of the electrical resistance under the conditions of pH and concentration used, and their action varied with the time elapsed after the submitochondrial particles purification, favouring the idea of the uncoupler interaction with a specific site on the membrane. Addition of sodium dithionite resulted in a higher plateau value for the electrical potential consistent with the promoted increase in ATPase activity. The effect of this agent was reversed by the 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol added at equivalent concentrations. PMID:2561021

  15. Current and future greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation in China: implications for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Han, Weijian; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-06-17

    China's oil imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have grown rapidly over the past decade. Addressing energy security and GHG emissions is a national priority. Replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) offers a potential solution to both issues. While the reduction in petroleum use and hence the energy security benefits of switching to EVs are obvious, the GHG benefits are less obvious. We examine the current Chinese electric grid and its evolution and discuss the implications for EVs. China's electric grid will be dominated by coal for the next few decades. In 2015 in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, EVs will need to use less than 14, 19, and 23 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 183 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. In 2020, in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou EVs will need to use less than 13, 18, and 20 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 137 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. EVs currently demonstrated in China use 24-32 kWh/100 km. Electrification will reduce petroleum imports; however, it will be very challenging for EVs to contribute to government targets for GHGs emissions reduction. PMID:24853334

  16. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  17. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  18. [Electricity generation and contaminants degradation performances of a microbial fuel cell fed with Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Nan; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The electricity generation performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) utilizing Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater was studied with an H-shape reactor. Indexes including pH, conductivity, oxidation peak potential and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the anolyte were monitored to investigate the contaminants degradation performance of the MFC during the electricity generation process, besides, contaminant ingredients in anodic influent and effluent were analyzed by GC-MS and IR spectra as well. The maximum power density of the MFC could achieve 118.1 mW/m2 and the internal resistance was about 480 omega. Connected with a 1 000 omega external resistance, the output potential was about 0.4 V. Fed with 5 mL Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater, the electricity generation lasted about 133 h and the coulombic efficiency was about 3.93%. At the end of electricity generation cycle, COD decreased by 90.1% while NH4(+) -N decreased by 66.8%. Furfural compounds, phenols and some other complicated organics could be decomposed and utilized in the electricity generation process, and the residual contaminants in effluent included some long-chain fatty acids, esters, ethers, and esters with benzene ring, cycloalkanes, cycloolefins, etc. The results indicate that MFC, which can degrade and utilize the organic contaminants in Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater simultaneously, provides a new approach for resource recovery treatment of Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater. PMID:21404685

  19. Electrically Tunable Harmonic Generation of Light from Plasmonic Structures in Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean; Cui, Yonghao; Kang, Lei; Cai, Wenshan

    2016-08-10

    An emerging trend in plasmonics is to exploit nanostructured metals as a self-contained electrooptic platform with simultaneously supported electrical and optical functions. When it comes to nonlinear optics, this dual electrical and optical functionality offers an exciting potential to enable electrically controlled wave mixing processes in various nanometallic systems. Here we demonstrate tunable nonlinear generation of light enabled by an electrically active plasmonic crystal in aqueous electrolytic solutions. A modulation depth of ∼150%/V is observed in the second-harmonic signal, thanks to the light concentrating ability of the resonant plasmonic structure as well as the voltage-assisted charge accumulation on the metallic surfaces. The hybrid plasmonic-electrolyte system demonstrated in this work offers the exciting new potential to use plasmonic nanostructures for voltage-controlled nonlinear signal generation and in situ biochemical sensing in an aqueous environment. PMID:27398925

  20. A review of utility issues for the integration of wind electric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddoch, T. W.; Barnes, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    A review of issues and concerns of the electric utility industry for the integration of wind electric generation is offered. The issues have been categorized in three major areas: planning, operations, and dynamic interaction. Representative studies have been chosen for each area to illustrate problems and to alleviate some concerns. The emphasis of this paper is on individual large wind turbines (WTs) and WT arrays for deployment at the bulk level in a utility system.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Unsteady MHD Generalized Couette Flow with Variable Electrical Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691

  2. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China. PMID:25903190

  3. Assessment of the possibilities of electricity and heat co-generation from biomass in Romania's case

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines the use of biomass for electricity (and heat) production. The objectives of the works developed by RENEL--GSCI were to determine the Romanian potential biomass resources available in economic conditions for electricity production from biomass, to review the routes and the available equipment for power generation from biomass, to carry out a techno-economic assessment of different systems for electricity production from biomass, to identify the most suitable system for electricity and heat cogeneration from biomass, to carry out a detailed techno-economic assessment of the selected system, to perform an environmental impact assessment of the selected system and to propose a demonstration project. RENEL--GSCI (former ICEMENERG) has carried out an assessment concerning Romania's biomass potential taking into account the forestry and wood processing wastes (in the near term) and agricultural wastes (in mid term) as well as managing plantations (in the long term). Comparative techno-economical evaluation of biomass based systems for decentralized power generation was made. The cost analysis of electricity produced from biomass has indicated that the system based on boiler and steam turbine of 2,000 kW running on wood-wastes is the most economical. A location for a demonstration project with low cost financing possibilities and maximum benefits was searched. To mitigate the electricity cost it was necessary to find a location in which the fuel price is quite low, so that the low yield of small installation can be balanced. In order to demonstrate the performances of a system which uses biomass for electricity and heat generation, a pulp and paper mill which needed electricity and heat, and, had large amount of wood wastes from industrial process was found as the most suitable location. A technical and economical analysis for 8 systems for electricity production from bark and wood waste was performed.

  4. A small-scale, thermoacoustic-Stirling electric generator for deep-space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, Scott; Petach, Michael; Tward, Emanuel

    2001-05-01

    Although thermoacoustic-Stirling hybrid engines (TASHE) have not been previously coupled to transducers to produce useful electric power, they have demonstrated high thermal-to-acoustic power conversion efficiencies. Electric generation is investigated by coupling a small TASHE to an electrodynamic linear alternator with an emphasis on satisfying NASA's need for a small, lightweight, efficient electric generator for deep-space missions. The combined goals of low mass and high efficiency require the TASHE to have the largest acoustic power output possible from a minimum enclosed volume, which imposes a relation between various impedances of the TASHE's lumped-element loop. The design of the TASHE and alternator used in this generator will be reviewed, performance data presented, and possible improvements discussed. [Work supported by NASA.

  5. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  6. Characteristics of electricity generation and biodegradation in tidal river sludge-used microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Nagatsu, Yoshiyuki; Tachiuchi, Kouhei

    2014-04-01

    The electricity generation behavior of microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the sludge collected from the riverbank of a tidal river, and the biodegradation of the sludge by the electricity generation are evaluated. Although the maximum current density (150-300 mA/m(2)) was higher than that of MFC using freshwater sediment (30 mA/m(2)), the output current was greatly restricted by the mass transfer limitation. However, our results also indicate that placing the anode in different locations in the sludge could reduce the mass transfer limitation. After approximately 3 months, the removal efficiency of organic carbon was approximately 10%, demonstrated that MFC could also enhance the biodegradation of the sludge by nearly 10-fold comparing with the natural biodegradation. We also found that the biodegradation could be identified by the behavior of oxygen consumption of the sludge. Importantly, the oxygen consumption of the sludge became higher along with the electricity generation. PMID:24607458

  7. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Carsten M.; Deeds, W. Edward

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  8. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, C.M.; Deeds, W.E.

    1999-07-13

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output. 5 figs.

  9. Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues (FFPE) as a Robust Source for the Profiling of Native and Protease-Generated Protein Amino Termini.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zon Weng; Weisser, Juliane; Nilse, Lars; Costa, Fabrizio; Keller, Eva; Tholen, Martina; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Biniossek, Martin; Bronsert, Peter; Schilling, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulated proteolysis represents a hallmark of numerous diseases. In recent years, increasing number of studies has begun looking at the protein termini in hope to unveil the physiological and pathological functions of proteases in clinical research. However, the availability of cryopreserved tissue specimens is often limited. Alternatively, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues offer an invaluable resource for clinical research. Pathologically relevant tissues are often stored as FFPE, which represent the most abundant resource of archived human specimens. In this study, we established a robust workflow to investigate native and protease-generated protein N termini from FFPE specimens. We demonstrate comparable N-terminomes of cryopreserved and formalin-fixed tissue, thereby showing that formalin fixation/paraffin embedment does not proteolytically damage proteins. Accordingly, FFPE specimens are fully amenable to N-terminal analysis. Moreover, we demonstrate feasibility of FFPE-degradomics in a quantitative N-terminomic study of FFPE liver specimens from cathepsin L deficient or wild-type mice. Using a machine learning approach in combination with the previously determined cathepsin L specificity, we successfully identify a number of potential cathepsin L cleavage sites. Our study establishes FFPE specimens as a valuable alternative to cryopreserved tissues for degradomic studies. PMID:27087653

  10. The generation of pollution-free electrical power from solar energy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Projections of the U.S. electrical power demands over the next 30 years indicate that the U.S. could be in grave danger from power shortages, undesirable effluence, and thermal pollution. An appraisal of nonconventional methods of producing electrical power is conducted, giving particular attention to the conversion of solar energy into commercial quantities of electrical power by solar cells. It is found that 1% of the land area of the 48 states could provide the total electrical power requirements of the U.S. in the year 1990. The ultimate method of generating vast quantities of electrical power would be from a series of synchronous satellites which beam microwave power back to earth to be used wherever needed. Present high manufacturing costs of solar cells could be substantially reduced by using massive automated techniques employing abundant low cost materials.

  11. Dipole Model of Electric Pulse Generation Caused by the Relaxation Processes in the Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losseva, T. V.; Spivak, A.; Kuzmicheva, M. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Study of electric and magnetic (EM) signals in the Earth's crust is of interest from a viewpoint of both establishing mechanisms and conditions for generation of geophysical fields and interpreting physical and mechanical characteristics of a hierarchically structured medium. In a previously developed model [1] it was proposed that generation of electromagnetic impulses in the Earth's crust with low water content was a result of a quasi independent displacement of a structural block being relaxed in constrained conditions. A transient electric current system generated on an active side of the structural block due to electric polarization of an inter-block gap content was considered as a source of EM radiation. In a new numerical model we use a set of Hertz's dipoles distributed over the active surface. Time dependence of the dipole moments was defined by displacement of the structural unit. To estimate EM signals the full system of Maxwell equations in a conductive medium was solved. The results of numerical simulations were compared with electric field records in a surface layer of the Earth's crust in the area of influence of the tectonically active Kurai structure (Gornyi Altai) [2]. The amplitudes of electric fields at a distance of 50-100 linear block sizes obtained in numerical simulations are in good agreement with the instrumental observations, which proves the validity of our model for the estimation of electric effects in the low moisture rock medium.

  12. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Peng, J.

    2011-02-24

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  13. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Shimada, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Katoh, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-03-01

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  14. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-03-12

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  15. Polarization electric field in subalfvenic plasma jet under condition of field- aligned currents generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobyanin, D.; Gavrilov, B.; Podgorny, I.

    The subalfvenic magnetized plasma jet propagating across the geomagnetic field generates field-aligned currents in the ionospheric plasma. As a result the transverse polarization electric field Ep =-VxB/c in the jet should be reduced (plasma jet depolarization). These phenomena are investigated in the laboratory experiment. It was revealed that the depolarization is accompanied by the appearing of the electric field E along the plasma velocity vector. The value of E is comparable with theaa transverse electric field. It results in the plasma jet deflection. The possibility of manifestation of these effects in the NORTH STAR Russian-American active rocket experiment is discussed.

  16. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  17. Study of Electrical Conduction Mechanism of Organic Double-Layer Diode Using Electric Field Induced Optical Second Harmonic Generation Measurement.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    By using electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) and current voltage (I-V) measurements, we studied the electrical transport mechanism of organic double-layer diodes with a structure of Au/N, N'-di-[(1-naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (a-NPD)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/indium zinc oxide (IZO). Here the α-NPD is a carrier transport layer and the PMMA is an electrical insulating layer. The current level was very low, but the I-V characteristics showed a rectifying behavior. The EFISHG measurement selectively and directly probed the electric field across the α-NPD layer, and showed that the electric field across the a-NPD layer is completely relaxed owing to the charge accumulation at the a-NPD/PMMA interface in the region V > 0, whereas the carrier accumulation was not significant in the region V < 0. On the basis of these experimental results, we proposed a model of the rectification. Further, by coupling the I-V characteristics with the EFISHG measurement, the I-V characteristics of the diodes were well converted into the current-electric field (I-E) characteristics of the α-NPD layer and the PMMA layer. The I-E characteristics suggested the Schottky-type conduction governs the carrier transport. We conclude that the I-V measurement coupled with the EFISHG measurement is very useful to study carrier transport mechanism of the organic double-layer diodes. PMID:27451633

  18. Brief communication "Modeling tornado dynamics and the generation of infrasound, electric and magnetic fields"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2010-02-01

    Recent observations endorse earlier measurements of time varying electric and magnetic fields generated by tornadoes and dust devils. These signals may provide a means for early warning but together with a proper modeling approach can also provide insight into geometry and dynamics of the vortices. Our model calculations show the existence of pressure resonances characterized as acoustic duct modes with well defined frequencies. These resonances not only generate infrasound but also modulate the charge density and the velocity field and in this way lead to electric and magnetic field oscillations in the 0.5-20-Hz range that can be monitored from a distance of several kilometers.

  19. Marginal capacity costs of electricity distribution and demand for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Chi-Keung, Lloyd-Zanetti, D.; Orans, R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal costs of electricity vary by time and location. Past researchers attributed these variations to factors related to electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Past authors, however, did not fully analyze the large variations in marginal distribution capacity costs (MDCC) by area and time. Thus, the objectives of this paper are as follows: (1) to show that large MDCC variations exist within a utility`s service territory; (2) to demonstrate inter-utility variations in MDCC; and (3) to demonstrate the usefulness of these costs in determining demand for distributed generation (DG). 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Electrical power systems (Dominican Republic). Generator sets, February 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The market for U.S. generators in the Dominican Republic from depressed 1991 levels and grow at a rate of 10% for the next three years. While the national power corporation has improved both supply and distribution of electricity, growth in manufacturing and tourism is expected to create more demand. Also, the dramatically reduced delivery of electricity by the power company in 1990-1991 caused such a strain on generators in place that much of the existing stock will need to be replaced. The U.S. with 54% of the total market dominates the large industrial market while Japan is most competitive with the small domestic use market.

  1. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  2. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power distribution and control/electrical power generation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Jeff A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C)/Electrical Power Generation (EPG) hardware. The EPD and C/EPG hardware is required for performing critical functions of cryogenic reactant storage, electrical power generation and product water distribution in the Orbiter. Specifically, the EPD and C/EPG hardware consists of the following components: Power Section Assembly (PSA); Reactant Control Subsystem (RCS); Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS); Water Removal Subsystem (WRS); and Power Reactant Storage and Distribution System (PRSDS). The IOA analysis process utilized available EPD and C/EPG hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  3. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOEpatents

    Lasche, George P.

    1988-01-01

    A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

  4. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOEpatents

    Lasche, G.P.

    1987-02-20

    A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

  5. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generator’s cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  6. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

  7. A generative modeling approach to connectivity-Electrical conduction in vascular networks.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn Olav

    2016-06-21

    The physiology of biological structures is inherently dynamic and emerges from the interaction and assembly of large collections of small entities. The extent of coupled entities complicates modeling and increases computational load. Here, microvascular networks are used to present a novel generative approach to connectivity based on the observation that biological organization is hierarchical and composed of a limited set of building blocks, i.e. a vascular network consists of blood vessels which in turn are composed by one or more cell types. Fast electrical communication is crucial to synchronize vessel tone across the vast distances within a network. We hypothesize that electrical conduction capacity is delimited by the size of vascular structures and connectivity of the network. Generation and simulation of series of dynamical models of electrical spread within vascular networks of different size and composition showed that (1) Conduction is enhanced in models harboring long and thin endothelial cells that couple preferentially along the longitudinal axis. (2) Conduction across a branch point depends on endothelial connectivity between branches. (3) Low connectivity sub-networks are more sensitive to electrical perturbations. In summary, the capacity for electrical signaling in microvascular networks is strongly shaped by the morphology and connectivity of vascular (particularly endothelial) cells. While the presented software can be used by itself or as a starting point for more sophisticated models of vascular dynamics, the generative approach can be applied to other biological systems, e.g. nervous tissue, the lymphatics, or the biliary system. PMID:27038666

  8. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria that produce methane, which can be collected and combusted to generate electricity. ADs also reduce odors and pathogens that are common with manure storage and the digested manure can be used as a fertilizer. There are relatively few ADs in the U.S., mainly due to their high capital costs. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to test the effects of a representative U.S. climate stabilization policy on the adoption of ADs which sell electricity and generate methane mitigation credits. Under such policy, ADs become competitive at producing electricity in 2025, when they receive methane reduction credits and electricity from fossil fuels becomes more expensive. We find that ADs have the potential to generate 5.5% of U.S. electricity. PMID:21761880

  9. Contribution of anaerobic digesters to emissions mitigation and electricity generation under U.S. climate policy.

    PubMed

    Zaks, David P M; Winchester, Niven; Kucharik, Christopher J; Barford, Carol C; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M

    2011-08-15

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria that produce methane, which can be collected and combusted to generate electricity. ADs also reduce odors and pathogens that are common with manure storage and the digested manure can be used as a fertilizer. There are relatively few ADs in the U.S., mainly due to their high capital costs. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to test the effects of a representative U.S. climate stabilization policy on the adoption of ADs which sell electricity and generate methane mitigation credits. Under such policy, ADs become competitive at producing electricity in 2025, when they receive methane reduction credits and electricity from fossil fuels becomes more expensive. We find that ADs have the potential to generate 5.5% of U.S. electricity. PMID:21761880

  10. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, Marcelo Guimaraes; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Claudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Literature of WEEE generation in developing countries is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse existing estimates of WEEE generation for Brazil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a model for WEEE generation estimate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WEEE generation of 3.77 kg/capita year for 2008 is estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of constant lifetime should be avoided for non-mature market products. - Abstract: Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the 'boom' in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  11. Theoretical and experimental results of a mesoscale electric power generation system from pressurized gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krähenbühl, D.; Zwyssig, C.; Weser, H.; Kolar, J. W.

    2009-09-01

    In many process applications where throttling is used to reduce pressure, the potential to obtain net work output is sacrificed to the throttling process. Examples are throttling valves of gas pipelines and conventional throttles in automotive applications or turbo expanders as used in cryogenic plants. With a new pressure reduction system that produces electricity while expanding the gas, the lost potential to obtain work output can be recovered. To achieve a high power density, this energy generation system requires an increased operating speed of the electrical machine and the turbomachinery. This paper presents a miniature compressed-air-to-electric-power system, based on a radial turbine with a rated rotational speed of 490 000 rpm and a rated electric power output of 150 W. A comprehensive description including turbine, diffuser and permanent magnet (PM) generator is given. Finally, measurements of the compressed-air-to-electric-power system with a maximum rotational speed of over 600 000 rpm, a maximum electric output power of 170 W, a maximum torque of 5.2 mN m and a turbine efficiency of 52% are presented.

  12. Characterization of acoustic shockwaves generated by exposure to nanosecond electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Maswadi, Saher; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2014-03-01

    Despite 30 years of research, the mechanism behind the induced breakdown of plasma membranes by electrical pulses, termed electroporation, remains unknown. Current theories treat the interaction between the electrical field and the membrane as an entirely electrical event pointing to multiple plausible mechanisms. By investigating the biophysical interaction between plasma membranes and nanosecond electrical pulses (nsEP), we may have identified a non-electric field driven mechanism, previously unstudied in nsEP, which could be responsible for nanoporation of plasma membranes. In this investigation, we use a non-contact optical technique, termed probe beam deflection technique (PBDT), to characterize acoustic shockwaves generated by nsEP traveling through tungsten wire electrodes. We conclude these acoustic shockwaves are the result of the nsEP exposure imparting electrohydraulic forces on the buffer solution. When these acoustic shockwaves occur in close proximity to lipid bilayer membranes, it is possible that they impart a sufficient amount of mechanical stress to cause poration of that membrane. This research establishes for the first time that nsEP discharged in an aqueous medium generate measureable pressure waves of a magnitude capable of mechanical deformation and possibly damage to plasma membranes. These findings provide a new insight into the longunanswered question of how electric fields cause the breakdown of plasma membranes.

  13. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Hand, Maureen; Blair, Nate; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Hern, Tracy; Miller, Bart; O'Connell, R.

    2008-06-09

    The Wind Energy Deployment System model was used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030. This generation capacity expansion model selects from electricity generation technologies that include pulverized coal plants, combined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, nuclear plants, and wind technology to meet projected demand in future years. Technology cost and performance projections, as well as transmission operation and expansion costs, are assumed. This study demonstrates that producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology is technically feasible, not cost-prohibitive, and provides benefits in the forms of carbon emission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water savings.

  14. Dynamics and control of Stirling engines in a 15 kWe solar electric generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L.; Bahrami, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of kinematic and free piston Stirling engines in a 15 kWe dish-electric approach for solar thermal electric generation. Initially, the principle of operation of Stirling engines in solar thermal electric generation is discussed. Then, under certain simplifying assumptions, mathematical models describing the dynamic operation of the kinematic and free piston Stirling engines are developed. It is found that the engine dynamics may be approximated by second order models. Control mechanisms for both types of Stirling engines are discussed. An approach based on the modulation of the working fluid mean pressure is presented. It is concluded that this approach offers a fast and effective means of control. The free piston Stirling engine, being a thermally driven mechanical oscillator, presents unique control requirements. These are discussed in this paper.

  15. Experimental investigation of a variable speed constant frequency electric generating system from a utility perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, J. I.; Reddoch, T. W.; Lawler, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    As efforts are accelerated to improve the overall capability and performance of wind electric systems, increased attention to variable speed configurations has developed. A number of potentially viable configurations have emerged. Various attributes of variable speed systems need to be carefully tested to evaluate their performance from the utility points of view. With this purpose, the NASA experimental variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system has been tested. In order to determine the usefulness of these systems in utility applications, tests are required to resolve issues fundamental to electric utility systems. Legitimate questions exist regarding how variable speed generators will influence the performance of electric utility systems; therefore, tests from a utility perspective, have been performed on the VSCF system and an induction generator at an operating power level of 30 kW on a system rated at 200 kVA and 0.8 power factor.

  16. Investigation on magnetoacoustic signal generation with magnetic induction and its application to electrical conductivity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingyu; He, Bin

    2007-08-21

    A theoretical study on the magnetoacoustic signal generation with magnetic induction and its applications to electrical conductivity reconstruction is conducted. An object with a concentric cylindrical geometry is located in a static magnetic field and a pulsed magnetic field. Driven by Lorentz force generated by the static magnetic field, the magnetically induced eddy current produces acoustic vibration and the propagated sound wave is received by a transducer around the object to reconstruct the corresponding electrical conductivity distribution of the object. A theory on the magnetoacoustic waveform generation for a circular symmetric model is provided as a forward problem. The explicit formulae and quantitative algorithm for the electrical conductivity reconstruction are then presented as an inverse problem. Computer simulations were conducted to test the proposed theory and assess the performance of the inverse algorithms for a multi-layer cylindrical model. The present simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed theory and suggest the feasibility of reconstructing electrical conductivity distribution based on the proposed theory on the magnetoacoustic signal generation with magnetic induction. PMID:17671355

  17. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  18. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  19. Electricity generation and wastewater treatment of oil refinery in microbial fuel cells using Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm² in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm² in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10⁻²% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  20. Microwave generation power in a nonrelativistic electron beam with virtual cathode in a retarding electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, E. N.; Kalinin, Yu. A.; Koronovskiĭ, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.; Morozov, M. Yu.

    2006-05-01

    The power of microwave generation in a nonrelativistic electron beam with virtual cathode formed in a static retarding electric field (low-voltage vircator system) has been studied experimentally and by means of numerical simulation within the framework of a one-dimensional theory. The limits of applicability of the one-dimensional theory have been experimentally determined.

  1. Electricity-producing heating apparatus utilizing a turbine generator in a semi-closed brayton cycle

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon D.; Christian, Jeffrey E.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for producing both heat and electrical energy by burning fuels in a stove or boiler using a novel arrangement of a surface heat exchanger and microturbine-powered generator and novel surface heat exchanger. The equipment is particularly suited for use in rural and relatively undeveloped areas, especially in cold regions and highlands.

  2. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  3. Industry sector analysis, China: Electrical generating equipment in guangdong province. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the electrical generating equipment market in the Guangdong Province of China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  4. Electric-field dependence of photocarrier generation efficiency of organic photoconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, Minoru

    2015-03-07

    The electric-field dependence of photocarrier generation efficiency has been investigated in several different types of organic photoconductor for electrophotography to elucidate the controlling factors of light-to-electrical energy conversion. The rate-determining step in generating photocarriers has been considered to be the charge transfer between two neighboring molecules. Overall photocarrier generation efficiency has been determined using the charge transfer velocity at the rate-determining step as a function of electric-field-dependent activation energy, which is influenced by the symmetry factor α and the energy gap ΔE. The formula used successfully fits the experimental data for different types of organic photoconductor over a wide field strengths range. From the fitting results of high-sensitivity photoconductors, the zero-field activation energy is small and the reactant lifetime is long. In addition, ΔE is zero, which implies that the hole-electron interaction in the reactant is negligible at the rate-determining step. In contrast, for low-sensitivity photoconductors, the zero-field activation energy is large and the reactant lifetime is short; however, ΔE < 0 and α > 0.5, which suggest that the hole-electron interaction is not negligible. Consequently, the proposed formula well explains the electric-field dependence of photocarrier generation efficiency on the basis of its controlling factors.

  5. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a nuclear power electrical generation system

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance a of nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs.

  6. GENERATION AND SIMULATION OF METALLIC PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS BY ELECTRIC ARC SPRAYING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of efforts to provide a generated output with an appropriate mass and concentration of fresh, dry, fine metal oxide particles for bench or pilot scale fine particulate collection research and development work. The work involved two electric arc aerosol ge...

  7. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  9. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Electric Power Generation and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    This guide was developed by teachers involved in a workshop on "Electric Power Generation and the Environment." Activity topics are: (1) Energy and the Consumer; (2) Energy and Water Pollution; and (3) Energy and Air Pollution. Within these topics, the activities are classified as awareness level, transitional level, or operational level. Each…

  10. Utilizing the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for microbial electricity generation: a living solar cell.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Miriam; Schröder, Uwe; Scholz, Fritz

    2005-10-01

    By employing living cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we demonstrate the possibility of direct electricity generation from microbial photosynthetic activity. The presented concept is based on an in situ oxidative depletion of hydrogen, photosynthetically produced by C. reinhardtii under sulfur-deprived conditions, by polymer-coated electrocatalytic electrodes. PMID:15696280

  11. A DEMONSTRATION OF BENEFICIAL USES OF WARM WATER FROM CONDENSERS OF ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to demonstrate that warmed cooling water from condensers of electric generating plants can effectively and economically heat greenhouses. The 0.2-hectare demonstration greenhouse, at Northern States Power Co.'s Sherburne County (Sherco) Gener...

  12. Generating Electric Fields in PDMS Microfluidic Devices with Salt Water Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Droplet merging and sorting in microfluidic devices usually rely on electric fields generated by solid metal electrodes. We show that simpler and more reliable salt water electrodes, despite their lower conductivity, can perform the same droplet manipulations at the same voltages. PMID:24671446

  13. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant... [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and...

  14. Pulse power generated electric fields as a means to control zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, A.G.; Lange, C.L.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, a study was conducted to determine if pulsed electric fields could reduce zebra mussel settlement rates. The study was a continuation of a study that began in 1991. Several types of fields were generated over the four-year study. The 1994 study concluded that fast rise DC, pulse power signals could stun post-veligers and significantly reduce settlement.

  15. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. Each chapter of this guide corresponds to a chapter in the course text, and includes the following: a list of behavioral objectives for the corresponding chapter, a list of suggested activities, recommended audio-visual…

  16. Implications of Lower Natural Gas Prices for Electric Generators in the Southeast, The

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) May 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) focuses on changes in the utilization of coal- and natural-gas-fired generation capacity in the electric utility sector as the differential between delivered fuel prices narrows.

  17. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields. PMID:26094455

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRICAL GENERATING UNITS IN THE U.S. AND METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from electrical generating units (EGUs) in the northeast US have declined dramatically during the past few years as a result of a series of air quality rules (RACT rule, Clean Air Act Amendments Title IV, and the NOx SIP call)....

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  20. 78 FR 65007 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has determined that the inspections, tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are met for Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC), 2.1.03.11 for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  1. Second generation ethanol in Brazil: can it compete with electricity production?

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rocha, George J M; Pradella, José Geraldo C; Rossell, Carlos E V; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Bonomi, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Much of the controversy surrounding second generation ethanol production arises from the assumed competition with first generation ethanol production; however, in Brazil, where bioethanol is produced from sugarcane, sugarcane bagasse and trash will be used as feedstock for second generation ethanol production. Thus, second generation ethanol production may be primarily in competition with electricity production from the lignocellulosic fraction of sugarcane. A preliminary technical and economic analysis of the integrated production of first and second generation ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil is presented and different technological scenarios are evaluated. The analysis showed the importance of the integrated use of sugarcane including the biomass represented by surplus bagasse and trash that can be taken from the field. Second generation ethanol may favorably compete with bioelectricity production when sugarcane trash is used and when low cost enzyme and improved technologies become commercially available. PMID:21795041

  2. Generating Electric Power in the Pacific Northwest. Implications of Alternative Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Christopher G.; Bernstein, Mark A.; Mejia, Andrea; Shih, Howard; Rueter, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest faces some critical energy issues over the next 20 years. There is significant uncertainty about energy supplies, energy prices, and the implications of competitive energy markets. Therefore, as energy demands continue to rise, it is important for the states in the region to understand the risks and opportunities of different energy supply and demand options. This report addresses issues in electricity supply and demand for four states in the Pacific Northwest: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. For much of the past 50 years, these states have relied heavily on hydroelectric power to meet their energy needs, and this inexpensive electricity has helped keep electricity rates low in the region, compared with the rest of the United States. However, the region cannot add much new hydroelectric capacity, so increasing demands for electricity in the future will have to be met by other sources. It is expected that the bulk of new electricity-generating capacity will come from natural-gas-fired power plants. While the combined share of electricity generated by hydroelectric and natural-gas-fired plants is expected to remain the same through 2010 (together, they provide 86 percent of the capacity in the region, the remainder being provided primarily by coal and nuclear plants), the proportion generated by natural gas will rise dramatically. Table S.1 summarizes the shares of current and future expected generating capacity in the region. The changes in the shares provided by the two major sources will have a number of consequences for the states in the region.

  3. A new opportunity for hydro: Using air turbines for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    A concept that uses hydropower to compress air could increase the number of locations where hydro is economically and environmentally feasible. The idea is being tested in a demonstration project in the northeastern U.S. The hydroelectric industry could experience substantial growth in low-head hydro facilities if a concept now being developed proves successful. This concept aims to enable power developers to generate electricity economically at sites currently not feasible for hydropower because water heads are too low. Many areas of North America are studded with low-head dams that could provide considerable hydro capacity if low-head generation were economically feasible. The six New England states in the US, for example, contain approximately 15,000 dams that have never been used to generate electric power because they impound water with heads ranging from 3 to 13 feet. Conventional facilities are not economically practical for generating electricity at these low heads. However, a promising alternative approach is to use water at these low-head dams to compress air, and then to use the air to power an air turbine-generator that produces electricity. The concept, called hydropneumatic generation, can be visualized by imagining a container, such as a large teacup, inverted and submerged in tidal waters. As the tide rises, the water compresses the air trapped inside the container. When the tide ebbs, the pressure decreases, putting the air into a partial vacuum. If a vent pipe were installed from the container to the atmosphere, air would flow out of the container as the water depth increased, and flow back in as the water depth decreased. Hydropneumatic energy is generated by installing an air-powered turbine to harness the energy of this airflow through the vent pipe. The turbine can be installed to rotate in the same direction at all times, even though the airflow reverses direction.

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of single gold nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous transparent matrix using optical second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Bachelier, Guillaume; Duboisset, Julien; Bertorelle, Franck; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Jonin, Christian; Benichou, Emmanuel; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2010-10-11

    We report the three-dimensional mapping of 150 nm gold metallic nanoparticles dispersed in a homogeneous transparent polyacrylamide matrix using second-harmonic generation. We demonstrate that the position of single nanoparticles can be well defined using only one incident fundamental beam and the harmonic photon detection performed at right angle. The fundamental laser beam properties are determined using its spatial autocorrelation function and used to prove that single nanoparticles are observed. Polarization resolved measurements are also performed allowing for a clear separation of the second-harmonic response of the single gold metallic nanoparticles from that of aggregates of such nanoparticles. PMID:20941132

  5. Continuously phase-matched terahertz difference frequency generation in an embedded-waveguide structure supporting only fundamental modes.

    PubMed

    Staus, Chad; Kuech, Thomas; McCaughan, Leon

    2008-08-18

    We demonstrate an all-single mode structure which enables continuous phase matching of difference frequency generated THz light from the near-IR. This structure provides a long interaction length by way of well-confined collinear propagation of pumps and product without diffraction, resulting in high conversion efficiency. A LiNbO(3) version of this structure achieved a power-normalized conversion efficiency of 1.3 x 10(-7) W(-1)--some 23 times larger than the largest previously reported results. PMID:18711566

  6. Using Electric Vehicles to Mitigate Imbalance Requirements Associated with an Increased Penetration of Wind Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-10

    The integration of variable renewable generation sources continues to be a significant area of focus for power system planning. Renewable portfolio standards and initiatives to reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources drive much of the deployment. Unfortunately, renewable energy generation sources like wind and solar tend to be highly variable in nature. To counter the energy imbalance caused by this variability, wind generation often requires additional balancing resources to compensate for the variability in the electricity production. With the expected electrification of transportation, electric vehicles may offer a new load resource for meeting all, or part, of the imbalance created by the renewable generation. This paper investigates a regulation-services-based battery charging method on a population of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to meet the power imbalance requirements associated with the introduction of 11 GW of additional wind generation into the Northwest Power Pool. It quantifies the number of vehicles required to meet the imbalance requirements under various charging assumptions.

  7. Sauder Woodworking Company, a waste wood electric generating facility with Selective Catalytic Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.H.

    1995-08-01

    Although NO{sub x} is the focus of this conference and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the topic of this paper, it is important to understand the development of the project purpose and the reasons for the requirements of an SCR. Sauder Woodworking Company (SWC) generates waste wood as a byproduct of its manufacturing operation. Studies suggested that energy costs could be reduced by utilizing the waste wood to generate steam and electricity. Since the wood is dry, it is possible to utilize suspension burner technology. Two (2) 45,000 lb/hr boilers produce steam at 625 psig and 750{degrees}F. Each boiler is equipped with an economizer, mechanical dust collector, selective catalytic reduction, and an electrostatic precipitator. Electricity is produced from two (2) 3500 KW turbine generators operating in a condensing mode with steam extraction used for plant heating and process. As part of the plant design, an SCR was required for each boiler for environmental reasons.

  8. Simultaneous electricity generation and microbially-assisted electrosynthesis in ceramic MFCs.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-08-01

    To date, the development of microbially assisted synthesis in Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) has focused on mechanisms that consume energy in order to drive the electrosynthesis process. This work reports--for the first time--on novel ceramic MFC systems that generate electricity whilst simultaneously driving the electrosynthesis of useful chemical products. A novel, inexpensive and low maintenance MFC demonstrated electrical power production and implementation into a practical application. Terracotta based tubular MFCs were able to produce sufficient power to operate an LED continuously over a 7 day period with a concomitant 92% COD reduction. Whilst the MFCs were generating energy, an alkaline solution was produced on the cathode that was directly related to the amount of power generated. The alkaline catholyte was able to fix CO2 into carbonate/bicarbonate salts. This approach implies carbon capture and storage (CCS), effectively capturing CO2 through wet caustic 'scrubbing' on the cathode, which ultimately locks carbon dioxide. PMID:25854995

  9. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  10. Hell and high water-financing electric generation in the `90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, B.; Sierck, C.W.

    1996-09-01

    Electric utilities have long been one of this country`s most capital-intensive industries. For years the capital needed to construction generating facilities was obtained primarily through traditional means: investor-owned utilities issued equity securities and first mortgage bonds. However in the past decade changes have altered how capita is formed. In 1970 utilities built and financed virtually all electric generation. By 1990 nonutilities power producers accounted for 6% of all generating capacity, financed primarily by non traditional methods. An understanding of the history and transitions in utility capital formation provides insights for both transaction and regulatory specialists into how regulators may choose to restructure and deregulate the industry. Topics covered include the following: contract-based financing; cogeneration-contract-based financing comes into its own; utility capital formation in the 90`s, strains and gains; implication for regulatory change.

  11. Understanding electricity generation in osmotic microbial fuel cells through integrated experimental investigation and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mohan; Ping, Qingyun; Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) are a new type of MFCs with integrating forward osmosis (FO). However, it is not well understood why electricity generation is improved in OsMFCs compared to regular MFCs. Herein, an approach integrating experimental investigation and mathematical model was adopted to address the question. Both an OsMFC and an MFC achieved similar organic removal efficiency, but the OsMFC generated higher current than the MFC with or without water flux, resulting from the lower resistance of FO membrane. Combining NaCl and glucose as a catholyte demonstrated that the catholyte conductivity affected the electricity generation in the OsMFC. A mathematical model of OsMFCs was developed and validated with the experimental data. The model predicated the variation of internal resistance with increasing water flux, and confirmed the importance of membrane resistance. Increasing water flux with higher catholyte conductivity could decrease the membrane resistance. PMID:26091574

  12. Profiling Cancer Gene Mutations in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Colorectal Tumor Specimens Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangxuan; Chen, Liangjing; Sah, Sachin; Latham, Gary J.; Patel, Rajesh; Song, Qinghua; Koeppen, Hartmut; Tam, Rachel; Schleifman, Erica; Mashhedi, Haider; Chalasani, Sreedevi; Fu, Ling; Sumiyoshi, Teiko; Raja, Rajiv; Forrest, William; Hampton, Garret M.; Lackner, Mark R.; Hegde, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The success of precision oncology relies on accurate and sensitive molecular profiling. The Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel, a targeted enrichment method for next-generation sequencing (NGS) using the Ion Torrent platform, provides a fast, easy, and cost-effective sequencing workflow for detecting genomic “hotspot” regions that are frequently mutated in human cancer genes. Most recently, the U.K. has launched the AmpliSeq sequencing test in its National Health Service. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical application of the AmpliSeq methodology. Methods. We used 10 ng of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor specimens to sequence 46 cancer genes using the AmpliSeq platform. In a validation study, we developed an orthogonal NGS-based resequencing approach (SimpliSeq) to assess the AmpliSeq variant calls. Results. Validated mutational analyses revealed that AmpliSeq was effective in profiling gene mutations, and that the method correctly pinpointed “true-positive” gene mutations with variant frequency >5% and demonstrated high-level molecular heterogeneity in CRC. However, AmpliSeq enrichment and NGS also produced several recurrent “false-positive” calls in clinically druggable oncogenes such as PIK3CA. Conclusion. AmpliSeq provided highly sensitive and quantitative mutation detection for most of the genes on its cancer panel using limited DNA quantities from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. For those genes with recurrent “false-positive” variant calls, caution should be used in data interpretation, and orthogonal verification of mutations is recommended for clinical decision making. PMID:24664487

  13. Optimization of a lossless object-based compression embedded on GAIA, a next-generation space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseret, Emmanuel; Timsit, Claude

    2007-09-01

    Until now space telescopes, like Humbble, did not require a strong data compression. In fact, images were captured on demand and their proximity to Earth gave them a sufficient downlink bandwidth. Yet, the next generation space telescopes like GAIA (ESA) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST, ESA & NASA) will observe even wider sky fields at even higher resolutions. Moreover, they will be dramatically farther from Earth than Hubble (1.5 million versus 600 kilometers). This will imply a poor downlink bandwidth, and thus require a fast, on-board strong data compression (better than 1:200 ratios). To achieve GAIA scientific objectives, a real-time «selectively lossless» compression is needed. With standard schemes, it is simply not possible today, even without time constraints (because of the entropy limit...). This paper explains why the GAIA Compression, which is based on Object-Based Compression (OBC), is efficient for stellar images. Since the baseline implementation did not meet all the ESA requirements (compression speed and ratio), we have also brought our contribution to optimize the GAIA Compression. It consists mainly in using (i) non-rectangular regions for large objects and (ii) and (inter-objects) differential predictive coding to improve the effficiency of the final lossless compression. We have tested our algorithms on the GAIA sky generator (GIBIS) which stimulates flight-realistic conditioins (CCD read-noise, cosmic rays...). Without any loss on signal, we have obtained promising ratios up to 1:270 for the worst case sky.

  14. Maintaining Generation Adequacy in a Restructuring U.S. Electricity Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1999-10-01

    Historically, decisions on the amounts, locations, types, and timing of investments in new generation have been made by vertically integrated utilities with approval from state public utility commissions. As the U.S. electricity industry is restructured, these decisions are being fragmented and dispersed among a variety of organizations. As generation is deregulated and becomes increasingly competitive, decisions on whether to build new generators and to retire, maintain, or repower existing units will increasingly be made by unregulated for-profit corporations. These decisions will be based largely on investor assessments of future profitability and only secondarily on regional reliability requirements. In addition, some customers will choose to face real-time (spot) prices and will respond to the occasionally very high prices by reducing electricity use at those times. Market-determined generation levels will, relative to centrally mandated reserve margins, lead to: (1) more volatile energy prices; (2) lower electricity costs and prices; and (3) a generation mix with more baseload, and less peaking, capacity. During the transition from a vertically integrated, regulated industry to a deintegrated, competitive industry, government regulators and system operators may continue to impose minimum-installed-capacity requirements on load-serving entities. As the industry gains experience with customer responses to real-time pricing and with operation of competitive intrahour energy markets, these requirements will likely disappear. We quantitatively analyzed these issues with the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model (ORCED). Model results show that the optimal reserve margin depends on various factors, including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices (load shapes and system load factor). Because the correct reserve margin depends on these generally unpredictable factors, mandated reserve margins might be

  15. Lateral electrical transport, optical properties and photocurrent measurements in two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2.

    PubMed

    Gardelis, Spiros; Manousiadis, Pavlos; Nassiopoulou, Androula G

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the electronic transport, the optical properties, and photocurrent in two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) embedded in silicon dioxide, grown on quartz and having sizes in the range between less than 2 and 20 nm. Electronic transport is determined by the collective effect of Coulomb blockade gaps in the Si NCs. Absorption spectra show the well-known upshift of the energy bandgap with decreasing NC size. Photocurrent follows the absorption spectra confirming that it is composed of photo-generated carriers within the Si NCs. In films containing Si NCs with sizes less than 2 nm, strong quantum confinement and exciton localization are observed, resulting in light emission and absence of photocurrent. Our results show that Si NCs are useful building blocks of photovoltaic devices for use as better absorbers than bulk Si in the visible and ultraviolet spectral range. However, when strong quantum confinement effects come into play, carrier transport is significantly reduced due to strong exciton localization and Coulomb blockade effects, thus leading to limited photocurrent. PMID:21711736

  16. Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yu; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Ye, Ziliang; Zhu, Hanyu; Zhao, Mervin; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Jianhua; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Electrically controlling the flow of charge carriers is the foundation of modern electronics. By accessing the extra spin degree of freedom (DOF) in electronics, spintronics allows for information processes such as magnetoresistive random-access memory. Recently, atomic membranes of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) were found to support unequal and distinguishable carrier distribution in different crystal momentum valleys. This valley polarization of carriers enables a new DOF for information processing. A variety of valleytronic devices such as valley filters and valves have been proposed, and optical valley excitation has been observed. However, to realize its potential in electronics it is necessary to electrically control the valley DOF, which has so far remained a significant challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the electrical generation and control of valley polarization. This is achieved through spin injection via a diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor and measured through the helicity of the electroluminescence due to the spin–valley locking in TMDC monolayers. We also report a new scheme of electronic devices that combine both the spin and valley DOFs. Such direct electrical generation and control of valley carriers opens up new dimensions in utilizing both the spin and valley DOFs for next-generation electronics and computing.

  17. Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Ye, Ziliang; Zhu, Hanyu; Zhao, Mervin; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Jianhua; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Electrically controlling the flow of charge carriers is the foundation of modern electronics. By accessing the extra spin degree of freedom (DOF) in electronics, spintronics allows for information processes such as magnetoresistive random-access memory. Recently, atomic membranes of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) were found to support unequal and distinguishable carrier distribution in different crystal momentum valleys. This valley polarization of carriers enables a new DOF for information processing. A variety of valleytronic devices such as valley filters and valves have been proposed, and optical valley excitation has been observed. However, to realize its potential in electronics it is necessary to electrically control the valley DOF, which has so far remained a significant challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the electrical generation and control of valley polarization. This is achieved through spin injection via a diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor and measured through the helicity of the electroluminescence due to the spin-valley locking in TMDC monolayers. We also report a new scheme of electronic devices that combine both the spin and valley DOFs. Such direct electrical generation and control of valley carriers opens up new dimensions in utilizing both the spin and valley DOFs for next-generation electronics and computing. PMID:27043196

  18. Water-CO2 trade-offs in electricity generation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Mort; Donohoo, Pearl; Palmintier, Bryan

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the state of Texas experienced the lowest annual rainfall on record, with similar droughts affecting East Africa, China and Australia. Climate change is expected to further increase the likelihood and severity of future droughts. Simultaneously, population and industrial growth increases demand for drought-stressed water resources and energy, including electricity. In the US, nearly half of water withdrawals are for electricity generation, much of which comes from greenhouse gas emitting fossil fuel combustion. The result is a three-way tension among efforts to meet growing energy demands while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and water withdrawals, a critical issue within the so-called water-energy nexus. We focus on this interaction within the electric sector by using a generation expansion planning model to explore the trade-offs. We show that large reductions in CO2 emissions would probably increase water withdrawals for electricity generation in the absence of limits on water usage, and that simultaneous restriction of CO2 emissions and water withdrawals requires a different mix of energy technologies and higher costs than one would plan to reduce either CO2 or water alone.

  19. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  20. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Palchak, D.; Denholm, P.

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  1. Generating Long Scale-Length Plasma Jets Embedded in a Uniform, Multi-Tesla Magnetic-Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Rasmus, Alex; Klein, Sallee; Fein, Jeff; Belancourt, Patrick; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, Brad; Hazi, Andrew; Park, Jaebum; Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Collimated plasma jets emerge in many classes of astrophysical objects and are of great interest to explore in the laboratory. In many cases, these astrophysical jets exist within a background magnetic field where the magnetic pressure approaches the plasma pressure. Recent experiments performed at the Jupiter Laser Facility utilized a custom-designed solenoid to generate the multi-tesla fields necessary to achieve proper magnetization of the plasma. Time-gated interferometry, Schlieren imaging, and proton radiography were used to characterize jet evolution and collimation under varying degrees of magnetization. Experimental results will be presented and discussed. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850, by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC, grant number DEFC52-08NA28616, and by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  2. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  3. Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E.

    2007-06-15

    A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

  4. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V.

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  5. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F.

    2008-11-15

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  6. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  7. Electric field effect on optical harmonic generation at the exciton resonances in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunne, D.; Lafrentz, M.; Pavlov, V. V.; Pisarev, R. V.; Rodina, A. V.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2015-08-01

    An electric field applied to a semiconductor reduces its crystal symmetry and modifies its electronic structure which is expected to result in changes of the linear and nonlinear response to optical excitation. In GaAs, we observe experimentally strong electric field effects on the optical second (SHG) and third (THG) harmonic generation. The SHG signal for the laser-light k vector parallel to the [001] crystal axis is symmetry forbidden in the electric-dipole approximation, but can be induced by an applied electric field in the vicinity of the 1 s exciton energy. Surprisingly, the THG signal, which is allowed in this geometry, is considerably reduced by the electric field. We develop a theory which provides good agreement with the experimental data. In particular, it shows that the optical nonlinearities for the 1 s exciton resonance are modified in an electric field by the Stark effect, which mixes the 1 s and 2 p exciton states of opposite parity. This mixing acts in opposite way on the SHG and THG processes, as it leads to the appearance of forbidden SHG in (001)-oriented GaAs and decreases the crystallographic THG.

  8. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  9. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  10. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants.

  11. System reliability in electric utility systems with independent wind and solar generation

    SciTech Connect

    Schooley, D.C.; Puettgen, H.B.

    1999-11-01

    The use of alternative energy sources for the generation of electricity in the United States is increasing due to a growing concern about the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels. While alternative energy sources have their benefits, the inherent randomness of wind and solar energy can cause reliability problems for the power grid. Because of changes in the public policy of the US Congress and state governments, utilities are evolving toward a more distributed system with increasing amounts of non-utility generation. This evolution may improve the prospects for PV and other alternative energy sources as they gradually become cost competitive with other types of distributed generation such as gas turbines or cogeneration. This paper provides an overview of a methodology developed to integrate wind and solar energy sources into the electric utility generation mix. The wind and solar energy sources are assumed to be owned and operated by small power producing facilities (SPPF`s). The SPPF`s buy and sell electricity at prices determined by the local utility according to the time-of-day (spot pricing). During each time period, each SPPF makes its own decision whether to buy or sell power. The buy-or-sell decision depends on the price, the energy needs of the SPPF, and the amount of energy available to the SPPF from other sources.

  12. Electricity generation from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaoan Cheng; Brian A. Dempsey; Bruce E. Logan

    2007-12-15

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is difficult and costly to treat. We investigated a new approach to AMD treatment using fuel cell technologies to generate electricity while removing iron from the water. Utilizing a recently developed microbial fuel cell architecture, we developed an acid-mine drainage fuel cell (AMD-FC) capable of abiotic electricity generation. The AMD-FC operated in fed-batch mode generated a maximum power density of 290 mW/m{sup 2} at a Coulombic efficiency greater than 97%. Ferrous iron was completely removed through oxidation to insoluble Fe(III), forming a precipitate in the bottom of the anode chamber and on the anode electrode. Several factors were examined to determine their effect on operation, including pH, ferrous iron concentration, and solution chemistry. Optimum conditions were a pH of 6.3 and a ferrous iron concentration above about 0.0036 M. These results suggest that fuel cell technologies can be used not only for treating AMD through removal of metals from solution, but also for producing useful products such as electricity and recoverable metals. Advances being made in wastewater fuel cells will enable more efficient power generation and systems suitable for scale-up. 35 refs., 8 figs.

  13. A distributed big data storage and data mining framework for solar-generated electricity quantity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianzong; Chen, Yanjun; Hua, Rui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jia

    2011-11-01

    Photovoltaic is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. Solar photovoltaics are growing rapidly, albeit from a small base, to a total global capacity of 40,000 MW at the end of 2010. More than 100 countries use solar photovoltaics. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaic has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity; have supported solar photovoltaics installations in many countries. However, the power that generated by solar photovoltaics is affected by the weather and other natural factors dramatically. To predict the photovoltaic energy accurately is of importance for the entire power intelligent dispatch in order to reduce the energy dissipation and maintain the security of power grid. In this paper, we have proposed a big data system--the Solar Photovoltaic Power Forecasting System, called SPPFS to calculate and predict the power according the real-time conditions. In this system, we utilized the distributed mixed database to speed up the rate of collecting, storing and analysis the meteorological data. In order to improve the accuracy of power prediction, the given neural network algorithm has been imported into SPPFS.By adopting abundant experiments, we shows that the framework can provide higher forecast accuracy-error rate less than 15% and obtain low latency of computing by deploying the mixed distributed database architecture for solar-generated electricity.

  14. A distributed big data storage and data mining framework for solar-generated electricity quantity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianzong; Chen, Yanjun; Hua, Rui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jia

    2012-02-01

    Photovoltaic is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. Solar photovoltaics are growing rapidly, albeit from a small base, to a total global capacity of 40,000 MW at the end of 2010. More than 100 countries use solar photovoltaics. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaic has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity; have supported solar photovoltaics installations in many countries. However, the power that generated by solar photovoltaics is affected by the weather and other natural factors dramatically. To predict the photovoltaic energy accurately is of importance for the entire power intelligent dispatch in order to reduce the energy dissipation and maintain the security of power grid. In this paper, we have proposed a big data system--the Solar Photovoltaic Power Forecasting System, called SPPFS to calculate and predict the power according the real-time conditions. In this system, we utilized the distributed mixed database to speed up the rate of collecting, storing and analysis the meteorological data. In order to improve the accuracy of power prediction, the given neural network algorithm has been imported into SPPFS.By adopting abundant experiments, we shows that the framework can provide higher forecast accuracy-error rate less than 15% and obtain low latency of computing by deploying the mixed distributed database architecture for solar-generated electricity.

  15. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Electric Power Generation in the Western Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, M. D.; Chester, M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, concerns have grown over the potential impacts of climate change on electricity generation. Water resources are integral to the production of thermoelectric and hydroelectric power, and droughts are expected to become more frequent, severe, and longer-lasting over the course of the twenty-first century. Many generation technologies—including gas turbines and solar cells—are also vulnerable to changes in local climatic conditions like ambient air temperature. As extreme weather becomes more common, methods are needed to assess the impacts of climate change on regional power systems. However, these methods must also account for (1) heterogeneity in generation technologies, and (2) local variation in climatic conditions. This study uses a physically-based modeling system to assess the vulnerability of electric power infrastructure in the Western Interconnection. Climatic and hydrologic parameters relevant to power generation are identified for six generation technologies. Downscaled climate forcings are then used as inputs to a physically-based modeling system, consisting of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model and the RBM one-dimensional stream temperature model. Impacts to generating capacity are estimated directly from changes in modeled climatic and hydrologic parameters, using functional relationships unique to each generating technology. A preliminary analysis of 1,302 power stations in the Western Interconnection reveals decreases in summertime generating capacity of 8-22%, with the largest impacts occurring at thermoelectric and hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest and California. Impacts to base-load thermoelectric plants are mitigated by recirculating cooling systems, which reduce the performance penalty of low flows and high water temperatures. Climate impacts on solar and wind capacity are relatively small, indicating that these energy sources may play a more prominent role as conventional generation

  16. 75 FR 9622 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... exemption will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment 75 FR 3943; dated... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2 (VEGP). The licenses provide, among other things, that...

  17. 75 FR 63198 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System Project... the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System... Plan Amendment/Final Environmental Impact Statement was published on August 6, 2010 (75 FR...

  18. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  19. Electrical Control of Exciton-Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation in Monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Kyle; Schaibley, John; Gong, Pu; Rivera, Pasqual; Jones, Aaron; Wu, Sanfeng; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion, in which optical fields interact with a nonlinear medium to produce new field frequencies, is ubiquitous in modern photonic systems. However, the nonlinear electric susceptibilities that give rise to such phenomena are often challenging to tune in a given material, and so far, dynamical control of optical nonlinearities remains confined to research labs. In this talk, we report a new mechanism to electrically control second-order optical nonlinearities in monolayer WSe2. We show that the intensity of second-harmonic generation (SHG) at its lowest exciton resonance is widely tunable through electrostatic doping in a field-effect transistor device. Such remarkable tunability arises from the strong exciton charging effects in monolayer semiconductors, which allow for exceptional control over the exciton and trion oscillator strengths. Our study paves the way for a new platform of chip-scale, electrically tunable nonlinear optical devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors.

  20. Analysis of energy and water management in terms of fuel-cell electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzer, R.; Höhlein, B.

    Hydrogen-powered low-temperature fuel cells (PEFCs) are the energy conversion units in vehicles with methanol as the energy carrier and a power train consisting of the following main units: methanol reformer (H2 production) including catalytic converter, gas treatment, PEFC with peripheral units, electric motor with electric controllers and gearbox. The process engineering analysis is based on a simulation model and describes the energy and water management as a function of different assumptions as well as operating and ambient conditions for net electricity generation in a PEFC-powered power train. In particular, it presents an approach for balancing both water recovery (PEFC) and the use of water for the methanol reforming process as well as for the humidification of the PEFC. The overall balances present an optimised energy management including peripheral air compression for the PEFC.

  1. Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

  2. Changing environment for electric-power generation: portrait of a transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, G.S.; Berg, M.R.

    1982-07-22

    The US electric-power industry faces serious problems in the midst of a period of dramatic changes in historic growth patterns, utility-management strategies, and generation-technology options. This article presents a portrait of this important transition as expressed by utility executives themselves in in-depth interviews conducted by the University of Michigan's Energy Policy Group. The authors build upon the wide-ranging results of the electric utility survey to draw implications for changes in federal power-generation policy and also suggest important guidelines for future utility assistance and regulation in the altered utility decision environment emerging over the next two decades. The survey responses reflect a willingness on the part of utilities to embrace new technologies and new policies. 4 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Advanced gas turbines: The choice for low-cost, environmentally superior electric power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated an ambitious 8-year program to advance state-of-the-art gas turbine technology for land-based electric power generation. The program, known as the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Program, is a joint government/industry program with the objective to demonstrate advanced industrial and utility gas turbine systems by the year 2000. The goals of the ATS Program are to develop gas turbine systems capable of providing low-cost electric power, while maintaining environmental superiority over competing power generation options. A progress report on the ATS Program pertaining to program status at DOE will be presented and reviewed in this paper. The technical challenges, advanced critical technology requirements, and systems designs meeting the goals of the program will be described and discussed.

  4. Microbial fuel cells - Applications for generation of electrical power and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathuriya, Abhilasha Singh; Yakhmi, J V

    2016-01-01

    A Microbial Fuel Cell is a bioelectrochemical device that exploits metabolic activities of living microorganisms for generation of electric current. The usefulness and unique and exclusive architecture of this device has received wide attention recently of engineers and researchers of various disciplines such as microbiologists, chemical engineers, biotechnologists, environment engineers and mechanical engineers, and the subject of MFCs has thereby progressed as a well-developed technology. Sustained innovations and continuous development efforts have established the usefulness of MFCs towards many specialized and value-added applications beyond electricity generation, such as wastewater treatment and implantable body devices. This review is an attempt to provide an update on this rapidly growing technology. PMID:24903308

  5. Updating the neutron electric dipole moment in a fourth generation standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Hisano, Junji; Hou, Wei-Shu; Xu Fanrong

    2011-11-01

    A fourth generation of quarks, if it exists, may provide sufficient CP violation for the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We estimate the neutron electric dipole moment in the presence of a fourth generation and find it would be dominated by the strange quark chromoelectric dipole moment, assuming it does not get wiped out by a Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Both the three electroweak loop and the two-loop electroweak/one-loop gluonic contributions are considered. With m{sub b'}, m{sub t'} at 500 GeV or so that can be covered at the LHC, and with a Jarlskog CP violation factor that is consistent with hints of New Physics in b{yields}s transitions, the neutron electric dipole moment is found around 10{sup -31}e cm, still far below the 10{sup -28}e cm reach of the new experiments being planned or under construction.

  6. Generation of Electric Energy and Desalinating Water from Solar Energy and the Oceans Hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfikky, Niazi

    Brief.All warnings and fears about the environment in our Earth planet due to the serious effects of the industrial revolution were certainly predicted early. But the eager contest and the powerful desire for more profits beside the human interest for welfare and development closed all minds about the expected severe destuctive impacts on our earth planet. Also, we have to remember that the majority of the African, Asian and Latin American countries are still in the first stage of their development and if they will be left to generate all their demand of energy by the conventional machine e.g (Fossil Fuel, Biofuel and Nuclear Fuel), then our Earth planet will confront an endless and ceasless severe destructive impacts due to the encroach of the released hot Carbon Doxide and hot vapours of Acids which will never forgive any fruitful aspect in our Earth Planet from destruction. 1. Importance of the New Project. Building the Extra cheap, clean Power plants with safe and smooth Operation in addition to the long life time in service for generating enough and plentiful electric energy the sustainable renwable resources will invigorate the foresaking of all Nuclear, Fossil and Biofuel power plants to avoide the nuclear hazards and stop releasing the hot carbon doxide, hot acids for the recovery of our ill environment. Also, the main sustainable, renewable, and cheap resources for generating the bulky capacity of the electric energy in our project are the Sun and the Oceans in addition to all Seas Surrounding all Continents in our Earth planet. Therefore, our recourses are so much enormous plentiful, clean, and renewable. 2. .Generation of Electricity from Solar Energy by Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs) or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). Characteristics of Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs). It is working only by Sun's Light (Light photons) and its efficiency will decrease as the Solar Thermal Radiation will increase, i.e. as the temerature of the Solar Voltiac will increase, its output

  7. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  8. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  9. Effect of bacterial cell size on electricity generation in a single-compartmented microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Won; Jeon, Bo Young; Park, Doo Hyun

    2010-04-01

    A single-compartmented microbial fuel cell composed of a graphite felt anode modified with Neutral Red (NR-anode) and a porous Fe(II)-carbon cathode (FeC-cathode) were compared for electricity generation from Microbacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. under identical conditions. Pseudomonas sp. was more than four times the size of Microbacterium sp. based on SEM images. In cyclic voltammetry, the redox reaction between Microbacterium sp and electrode was three times the rate observed between Pseudomonas sp. and the electrode based on the Y-axis (current) variation of cyclic voltammogram. The electric power generated by Microbacterium sp. was approx 3-4 times higher than that with Pseudomonas sp. during incubation for more than 150 days in the fuel cell. PMID:20013300

  10. A Novel Microscope for Visualizing Electric Fields in Organic Thin Film Devices Using Electric-Field-Induced Second-Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Karasuda, Tetushu; Kyomasu, Mikio

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a novel microscope for visualizing electric fields in organic thin film devices on the basis of electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. By using a radial polarized laser beam as a probing light, we showed that the electric field formed in metal-C60-metal diodes in the film-thickness direction is visualized. The developed microscope has a potentiality in directly visualizing carrier motion in thin-film devices such as organic solar cells.

  11. Development and electrical test of a 30 kVA class fully superconducting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Amemiya, N.; Yamagishi, K.; Takao, T.; Akita, S.; Torii, S.; Ohishi, K.; Shimizu, H.

    1994-07-01

    We are developing a 4 pole 50 Hz 30 kVA class fully superconducting generator to investigate the characteristics of superconducting armature windings subject to a rotating magnetic field. Compared with other fully superconducting generators that have been developed and tested, our machine is designed to obtain a higher armature current. It is generally observed in coils wound from AC superconducting cable that the AC quench current of the coil is much lower than its DC quench current. Countermeasures against these AC current degradation phenomena were developed and applied to the AC cable and armature winding of our generator. In the paper, results of the electrical tests of the generator are presented and the validity of the countermeasures is discussed.

  12. Development and electrical test of a 30 kVA class fully superconducting generator

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, O.; Amemiya, N.; Yamagishi, K.; Takao, T.; Akita, S.; Torii, S.; Ohishi, K.; Shimizu, H.

    1994-07-01

    The authors are developing a 4 pole 50 Hz 30 kVA class fully superconducting generator to investigate the characteristics of superconducting armature windings subject to a rotating magnetic field. Compared with other fully superconducting generators that have been developed and tested, this machine is designed to obtain a higher armature current. It is generally observed in coils wound from AC superconducting cable that the AC quench current of the coil is much lower than its DC quench current. Countermeasures against these AC current degradation phenomena were developed and applied to the AC cable and armature winding of their generator. In the paper, results of the electrical tests of the generator are presented and the validity of the countermeasures is discussed.

  13. Novel Two-Dimensional Mechano-Electric Generators and Sensors Based on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng; Eshun, Kwesi; Zhu, Hao; Li, Qiliang

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2 and WSe2, provide two-dimensional atomic crystals with semiconductor band gap. In this work, we present a design of new mechano-electric generators and sensors based on transition metal dichalcogenide nanoribbon PN junctions and heterojunctions. The mechano-electric conversion was simulated by using a first-principle calculation. The output voltage of MoS2 nanoribbon PN junction increases with strain, reaching 0.036 V at 1% strain and 0.31 V at 8% strain, much larger than the reported results. Our study indicates that the length, width and layer number of TMDC nanoribbon PN junctions have an interesting but different impact on the voltage output. Also, the results indicate that doping position and concentration only cause a small fluctuation in the output voltage. These results have been compared with the mechano-electric conversion of TMDC heterojunctions. Such novel mechano-electric generators and sensors are very attractive for applications in future self-powered, wearable electronics and systems. PMID:26238461

  14. The effect of electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and generated higher frequency spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yueping; Cui, Ni; Xiang, Yang; Li, Ruxin; Gong, Shangqing; Xu, Zhizhan

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effect of the electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and the generated higher frequency spectra properties by solving Maxwell Bloch equations without invoking any standard approximations. It is found that the maximum of the electric field will lead to carrier-wave Rabi flopping (CWRF) through reversion dynamics which will be more evident when the applied field enters the sub-one-cycle regime. Therefore, under the interaction of sub-one-cycle pulses, the Rabi flopping follows the transient electric field tightly through the oscillation and reversion dynamics, which is in contrast to the conventional envelope Rabi flopping. Complete or incomplete population inversion can be realized through the control of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Furthermore, the generated higher frequency spectra will be changed from distinct to continuous or irregular with the variation of the CEP. Our results demonstrate that due to the evident maximum behavior of the electric field, pulses with different CEP give rise to different CWRFs, and then different degree of interferences lead to different higher frequency spectral features.

  15. Novel Two-Dimensional Mechano-Electric Generators and Sensors Based on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sheng; Eshun, Kwesi; Zhu, Hao; Li, Qiliang

    2015-08-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2 and WSe2, provide two-dimensional atomic crystals with semiconductor band gap. In this work, we present a design of new mechano-electric generators and sensors based on transition metal dichalcogenide nanoribbon PN junctions and heterojunctions. The mechano-electric conversion was simulated by using a first-principle calculation. The output voltage of MoS2 nanoribbon PN junction increases with strain, reaching 0.036 V at 1% strain and 0.31 V at 8% strain, much larger than the reported results. Our study indicates that the length, width and layer number of TMDC nanoribbon PN junctions have an interesting but different impact on the voltage output. Also, the results indicate that doping position and concentration only cause a small fluctuation in the output voltage. These results have been compared with the mechano-electric conversion of TMDC heterojunctions. Such novel mechano-electric generators and sensors are very attractive for applications in future self-powered, wearable electronics and systems.

  16. Novel Two-Dimensional Mechano-Electric Generators and Sensors Based on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng; Eshun, Kwesi; Zhu, Hao; Li, Qiliang

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2 and WSe2, provide two-dimensional atomic crystals with semiconductor band gap. In this work, we present a design of new mechano-electric generators and sensors based on transition metal dichalcogenide nanoribbon PN junctions and heterojunctions. The mechano-electric conversion was simulated by using a first-principle calculation. The output voltage of MoS2 nanoribbon PN junction increases with strain, reaching 0.036 V at 1% strain and 0.31 V at 8% strain, much larger than the reported results. Our study indicates that the length, width and layer number of TMDC nanoribbon PN junctions have an interesting but different impact on the voltage output. Also, the results indicate that doping position and concentration only cause a small fluctuation in the output voltage. These results have been compared with the mechano-electric conversion of TMDC heterojunctions. Such novel mechano-electric generators and sensors are very attractive for applications in future self-powered, wearable electronics and systems. PMID:26238461

  17. Electrically generated eddies at an eightfold stagnation point within a nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, J. D.; Mao, M.; Ghosal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Electrically generated flows around a thin dielectric plate pierced by a cylindrical hole are computed numerically. The geometry represents that of a single nanopore in a membrane. When the membrane is uncharged, flow is due solely to induced charge electroosmosis, and eddies are generated by the high fields at the corners of the nanopore. These eddies meet at stagnation points. If the geometry is chosen correctly, the stagnation points merge to form a single stagnation point at which four streamlines cross at a point and eight eddies meet. PMID:25489206

  18. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generator

    PubMed Central

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-MOF motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface gradients created via peptide self-assembly around nanopores of MOFs, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnet fast enough to generate electric power of 0.1 µW. To make the peptide-MOF generator recyclable, a new MOF is applied as a host motor engine, which has a more rigid framework with higher H2O affinity so that peptide release occurs more efficiently via guest exchange without the destruction of MOF. PMID:25418936

  19. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N; Yu, Z; Jaworski, A J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  20. French wind generator systems. [as auxiliary power sources for electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental design of a wind driven generator with a rated power of 800 kilovolt amperes and capable of being connected to the main electrical network is reported. The rotor is a three bladed propeller; each blade is twisted but the fixed pitch is adjustable. The asynchronous 800-kilovolt ampere generator is driven by the propeller through a gearbox. A dissipating resistor regulates the machine under no-load conditions. The first propeller on the machine lasted 18 months; replacement of the rigid propeller with a flexible structure resulted in breakdown due to flutter effects.