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Sample records for embedded silver nanoparticles

  1. Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

    2008-03-01

    Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

  2. Microwave absorber based on silver nanoparticle-embedded polymer thin film.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G V; Sudheendran, K; Raju, K C James; Sreedhar, B; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded poly(vinyl alcohol) films are fabricated through a simple in situ process. The nanocomposite films are a few hundred nanometers thick with silver concentrations below 10% and the nanoparticles 5-10 nm in diameter. These films are shown to exhibit appreciable microwave absorption in the 8-12 GHz range; the return and insertion losses are found to be sensitive to the nanoparticle content. PMID:19441305

  3. Nanocomposites of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass nanofibres obtained by laser spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, Belén; Quintero, Félix; Díaz, Luís Antonio; Rojo, Fernando; Dieste, Oliver; Pou, Juan; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites made of non-woven glass fibres with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers up to several micrometers, containing silver nanoparticles, were successfully fabricated by the laser spinning technique. Pellets of a soda-lime silicate glass containing silver nanoparticles with varying concentrations (5 and 10 wt%) were used as a precursor. The process followed to obtain the silver nanofibres did not agglomerate significantly the metallic nanoparticles, and the average particle size is still lower than 50 nm. This is the first time that glass nanofibres containing silver nanoparticles have been obtained following a process different from electrospinning of a sol-gel, thus avoiding the limitations of this method and opening a new route to composite nanomaterials. Antibacterial efficiency of the nanosilver glass fibres, tested against one of the most common Gram negative bacteria, was greater than 99.99% compared to the glass fibres free of silver. The silver nanoparticles are well-dispersed not only on the surface but are also embedded into the uniform nanofibres, which leads to a long lasting durable antimicrobial effect. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications.

  4. Nanocomposites of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass nanofibres obtained by laser spinning.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Belén; Quintero, Félix; Díaz, Luís Antonio; Rojo, Fernando; Dieste, Oliver; Pou, Juan; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2013-05-01

    Nanocomposites made of non-woven glass fibres with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers up to several micrometers, containing silver nanoparticles, were successfully fabricated by the laser spinning technique. Pellets of a soda-lime silicate glass containing silver nanoparticles with varying concentrations (5 and 10 wt%) were used as a precursor. The process followed to obtain the silver nanofibres did not agglomerate significantly the metallic nanoparticles, and the average particle size is still lower than 50 nm. This is the first time that glass nanofibres containing silver nanoparticles have been obtained following a process different from electrospinning of a sol-gel, thus avoiding the limitations of this method and opening a new route to composite nanomaterials. Antibacterial efficiency of the nanosilver glass fibres, tested against one of the most common gram negative bacteria, was greater than 99.99% compared to the glass fibres free of silver. The silver nanoparticles are well-dispersed not only on the surface but are also embedded into the uniform nanofibres, which leads to a long lasting durable antimicrobial effect. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications. PMID:23535995

  5. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.

    PubMed

    Geilich, Benjamin M; van de Ven, Anne L; Singleton, Gloria L; Sepúlveda, Liuda J; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-02-28

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications. PMID:25628231

  6. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilich, Benjamin M.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Singleton, Gloria L.; Sepúlveda, Liuda J.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications.

  7. Plasmon-assisted trapping of nanoparticles using a silver-nanowire-embedded PMMA nanofiber

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chang; Xu, Xiaohao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    The integration of surface plasmon with waveguide is a strategy for lab-on-a-chip compatible optical trapping. Here, we report a method for trapping of nanoparticles using a silver nanowire (AgNW) embedded poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber with the assistance of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The nanoparticles (polystyrene, 700 nm diameter) are transported along the nanofiber and ultimately trapped at the AgNW embedded region because of the enhanced optical gradient force towards the nanofiber exerted on the nanoparticles and optical potential well generated by the excitation of SPPs. The low optical power requirement and the easy fabrication of the AgNW-embedded nanofiber with broad range of wavelength for SPPs are advantageous to the applications in optofluidics and plasmofluidics. PMID:26843143

  8. Plasmon-assisted trapping of nanoparticles using a silver-nanowire-embedded PMMA nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chang; Xu, Xiaohao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-02-01

    The integration of surface plasmon with waveguide is a strategy for lab-on-a-chip compatible optical trapping. Here, we report a method for trapping of nanoparticles using a silver nanowire (AgNW) embedded poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber with the assistance of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The nanoparticles (polystyrene, 700 nm diameter) are transported along the nanofiber and ultimately trapped at the AgNW embedded region because of the enhanced optical gradient force towards the nanofiber exerted on the nanoparticles and optical potential well generated by the excitation of SPPs. The low optical power requirement and the easy fabrication of the AgNW-embedded nanofiber with broad range of wavelength for SPPs are advantageous to the applications in optofluidics and plasmofluidics.

  9. Physio-chemical and antibacterial characteristics of pressure spun nylon nanofibres embedded with functional silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Mahalingam, S; Rohn, J L; Ren, G; Edirisinghe, M

    2015-11-01

    A novel and facile approach to prepare hybrid nanoparticle embedded polymer nanofibers using pressurised gyration is presented. Silver nanoparticles and nylon polymer were used in this work. The polymer solution's physical properties, rotating speed and the working pressure had a significant influence on the fibre diameter and the morphology. Fibres in the range of 60-500nm were spun using 10wt.%, 15wt.% and 20wt.% nylon solutions and these bead-free fibres were processed under 0.2MPa and 0.3MPa working pressure and a rotational speed of 36,000rpm. 1-4wt.% of Ag was added to these nylon solutions and in the case of wt.% fibres in the range 50-150nm were prepared using the same conditions of pressurised gyration. Successful incorporation of the Ag nanoparticles in nylon nanofibres was confirmed by using a combination of advanced microscopical techniques and Raman spectrometry was used to study the bonding characteristics of nylon and the Ag nanoparticles. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy showed a substantial concentration of Ag ions in the nylon fibre matrix which is essential for producing effective antibacterial properties. Antibacterial activity of the Ag-loaded nanofibres shows higher efficacy than nylon nanofibres for Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa microorganisms, and both Ag nanoparticles and the Ag ions were found to be the reason for enhanced cell death in the bacterial solutions. PMID:26249581

  10. Silver nanoparticles embedded mesoporous SiO₂ nanosphere: an effective anticandidal agent against Candida albicans 077.

    PubMed

    Qasim, M; Singh, Braj R; Naqvi, A H; Paik, P; Das, D

    2015-07-17

    Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that causes common infections such as denture stomatitis, thrush, urinary tract infections, etc. Immunocompromised patients can become severely infected by this fungus. Development of an effective anticandidal agent against this pathogenic fungus, therefore, will be very useful for practical application. In this work, Ag-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (mSiO2@AgNPs) have successfully been synthesized and their anticandidal activities against C. albicans have been studied. The mSiO2@AgNPs nanoparticles (d ∼ 400 nm) were designed using pre-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor for SiO2 in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an easily removable soft template. A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach has been adopted to synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles using silver nitrate and leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The mesopores, with size-equivalent diameter of the micelles (d = 4-6 nm), were generated on the SiO2 surface by calcination after removal of the CTAB template. The morphology and surface structure of mSiO2@AgNPs were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM micrograph reveals the well-ordered mesoporous structure of the SiO2 sphere. The antifungal activities of mSiO2@AgNPs on the C. albicans cell have been studied through microscopy and are seen to increase with increasing dose of mSiO2@AgNPs, suggesting mSiO2@AgNPs to be a potential antifungal agent for C. albicans 077. PMID:26119911

  11. Optical absorption and TEM studies of silver nanoparticle embedded BaO-CaF2-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Manoj Kumar; Shashikala, H. D.

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticle embedded 30BaO-20CaF2-50P2O5-4Ag2O-4SnO glasses were prepared by melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment process. Silver-doped glasses were heat treated at temperatures 500 °C, 525°C and 550 °C for a fixed duration of 10 hours to incorporate metal nanoparticles into the glass matrix. Appearance and shift in peak positions of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands in the optical absorption spectra of heat treated glass samples indicated that both formation and growth of nanoparticle depended on heat treatment temperature. Glass sample heat treated at 525 °C showed a SPR peak around 3 eV, which indicated that spherical nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm were formed inside the glass matrix. Whereas sample heat treated at 550 °C showed a size dependent red shift in SPR peak due to the presence of silver nanoparticles of size larger than 20 nm. Size of the nanoparticles calculated using full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of absorption band showed a good agreement with the particle size obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis.

  12. Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435 nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm or 800 nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4 μm. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

  13. Electrical properties of silver iodide nanoparticles system embedded into opal porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, A. E.; Ivanova, E. N.; Pan'kova, S. V.; Solovyev, V. G.; Veisman, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    Opal-based composite with silver iodide nanoparticles (AgI/opal) has been prepared by host-guest technology. Temperature and frequency dependences of electrical conductivity and those of dielectric permittivity of AgI/opal samples were measured. Size effects in this opal-based nanocomposite have been discussed.

  14. Photochemical synthesis of biocompatible and antibacterial silver nanoparticles embedded within polyurethane polymers.

    PubMed

    Saez, Sara; Fasciani, Chiara; Stamplecoskie, Kevin G; Gagnon, Luke Brian-Patrick; Mah, Thien-Fah; Marin, M Luisa; Alarcon, Emilio I; Scaiano, Juan C

    2015-04-01

    In situ light initiated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was employed for AgNP incorporation within the polymeric matrices of medical grade polyurethane. The resulting materials showed improved antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with negligible toxicity for human primary skin cells and erythrocytes. PMID:25662069

  15. Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Carles, Robert; Farcau, Cosmin; Bonafos, Caroline; Benassayag, Gérard; Bayle, Maxime; Benzo, Patrizio; Groenen, Jesse; Zwick, Antoine

    2011-11-22

    A strategy to design and fabricate hybrid metallic-dielectric substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging is proposed. Different architectures consisting of three-dimensional patterns of metallic nanoparticles embedded in dielectric layers are conceived to simultaneously exploit the optical interference phenomenon in stratified media and localized surface plasmon resonances on metal nanoparticles. These structures are based on a simultaneous control of opto-electronic properties at three scales (3S) (~2/20/200 nm) and along three directions (3D). By ultralow energy ion implantation through a microfabricated stencil we precisely control the size, density, and location of silver nanoparticles embedded in silica/silicon thin films. Elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) scattering imaging assisted by simulations were used to analyze the optical response of these "3S-3D" patterned layers. The reflectance contrast is strongly enhanced when resonance conditions between the stationary electromagnetic field in the dielectric matrix and the localized plasmon resonance in the silver nanoparticles are realized. The potential of these 3S-3D metal-dielectric structures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates is demonstrated. These novel kinds of plasmonic-photonic architectures are reproducible and stable; they preserve flat and chemically uniform surfaces, offering opportunities for the development of efficient and reusable substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging enhancement. PMID:21988138

  16. Assessing bio-available silver released from silver nanoparticles embedded in silica layers using the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as bio-sensors.

    PubMed

    Pugliara, Alessandro; Makasheva, Kremena; Despax, Bernard; Bayle, Maxime; Carles, Robert; Benzo, Patrizio; BenAssayag, Gérard; Pécassou, Béatrice; Sancho, Maria Carmen; Navarro, Enrique; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Bonafos, Caroline

    2016-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their strong antibacterial activity are widely used in health-care sector and industrial applications. Their huge surface-volume ratio enhances the silver release compared to the bulk material, leading to an increased toxicity for microorganisms sensitive to this element. This work presents an assessment of the toxic effect on algal photosynthesis due to small (size <20nm) AgNPs embedded in silica layers. Two physical approaches were originally used to elaborate the nanocomposite structures: (i) low energy ion beam synthesis and (ii) combined silver sputtering and plasma polymerization. These techniques allow elaboration of a single layer of AgNPs embedded in silica films at defined nanometer distances (from 0 to 7nm) beneath the free surface. The structural and optical properties of the nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy and optical reflectance. The silver release from the nanostructures after 20h of immersion in buffered water was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ranges between 0.02 and 0.49μM. The short-term toxicity of Ag to photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed by fluorometry. The obtained results show that embedding AgNPs reduces the interactions with the buffered water free media, protecting the AgNPs from fast oxidation. The release of bio-available silver (impacting on the algal photosynthesis) is controlled by the depth at which AgNPs are located for a given host matrix. This provides a procedure to tailor the toxicity of nanocomposites containing AgNPs. PMID:26953143

  17. Green in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose nanopaper as a bionanocomposite plasmonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Golmohammadi, Hamed; Naghdi, Tina; Yousefi, Hossein

    2015-12-15

    Herein, we introduce a new strategy for green, in-situ generation of silver nanoparticles using flexible and transparent bacterial cellulose nanopapers. In this method, adsorbed silver ions on bacterial cellulose nanopaper are reduced by the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanofibers, acting as the reducing agent producing a bionanocomposite "embedded silver nanoparticles in transparent nanopaper" (ESNPs). The fabricated ESNPs were investigated and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The important parameters affecting the ESNPs were optimized during the fabrication of specimens. The resulting ESNPs were used as a novel and sensitive probe for the optical sensing of cyanide ion (CN(-)) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in water samples with satisfactory results. The change in surface plasmon resonance absorption intensity of ESNPs was linearly proportional to the concentration in the range of 0.2-2.5 µg mL(-1) and 2-110 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.012 µg mL(-1) and 1.37 µg mL(-1) for CN(-) and MBT, respectively. PMID:26159156

  18. Silver nanoparticles embedded mesoporous SiO2 nanosphere: an effective anticandidal agent against Candida albicans 077

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Naqvi, A. H.; Paik, P.; Das, D.

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that causes common infections such as denture stomatitis, thrush, urinary tract infections, etc. Immunocompromised patients can become severely infected by this fungus. Development of an effective anticandidal agent against this pathogenic fungus, therefore, will be very useful for practical application. In this work, Ag-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (mSiO2@AgNPs) have successfully been synthesized and their anticandidal activities against C. albicans have been studied. The mSiO2@AgNPs nanoparticles (d ˜ 400 nm) were designed using pre-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor for SiO2 in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an easily removable soft template. A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach has been adopted to synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles using silver nitrate and leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The mesopores, with size-equivalent diameter of the micelles (d = 4-6 nm), were generated on the SiO2 surface by calcination after removal of the CTAB template. The morphology and surface structure of mSiO2@AgNPs were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM micrograph reveals the well-ordered mesoporous structure of the SiO2 sphere. The antifungal activities of mSiO2@AgNPs on the C. albicans cell have been studied through microscopy and are seen to increase with increasing dose of mSiO2@AgNPs, suggesting mSiO2@AgNPs to be a potential antifungal agent for C. albicans 077.

  19. The effects of titania nanotubes with embedded silver oxide nanoparticles on bacteria and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ang; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Lin; Tang, Bin; Ma, Shengli; Chu, Paul K

    2014-04-01

    A versatile strategy to endow biomaterials with long-term antibacterial ability without compromising the cytocompatibility is highly desirable to combat biomaterial related infection. TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can significantly enhance the functions of many cell types including osteoblasts thus having promising applications in orthopedics, orthodontics, as well as other biomedical fields. In this study, TiO2 NT arrays with Ag2O nanoparticle embedded in the nanotube wall (NT-Ag2O arrays) are prepared on titanium (Ti) by TiAg magnetron sputtering and anodization. Well-defined NT arrays containing Ag concentrations in a wide range from 0 to 15 at % are formed. Ag incorporation has little influence on the NT diameter, but significantly decreases the tube length. Crystallized Ag2O nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm are embedded in the amorphous TiO2 nanotube wall and this unique structure leads to controlled release of Ag(+) that generates adequate antibacterial activity without showing cytotoxicity. The NT-Ag2O arrays can effectively kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus even after immersion for 28 days, demonstrating the long lasting antibacterial ability. Furthermore, the NT-Ag2O arrays have no appreciable influence on the osteoblast viability, proliferation, and differentiation compared to the Ag free TiO2 NT arrays. Ag incorporation even shows some favorable effects on promoting cell spreading. The technique reported here is a versatile approach to develop biomedical coatings with different functions. PMID:24529392

  20. Base effects on fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded silica nanocomposite for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kang, Homan; Kang, Taegyu; Kim, Seongyong; Kim, Jong-Ho; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Chae, Jinjoo; Park, Juyoung; Jeong, Dae-Hong; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we studied on the effect of organic bases in the case of ethylene glycol based fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded silica nanocomposite (Ag SNC) without heating. Considering their chemical structures, butylamine (BA), ethanolamine (EA), triethanolamine (TEA), tributylamine (TBA), octylamine (OA) and Jeffamine 500 (JA) were used as an organic base. In addition, the effect of the concentrations of AgNO3 and organic bases on the formation of Ag SNC was also examined. In conformity with the characteristics of Ag SNC, SERS signal intensity of benzenethiol on Ag SNC was measured. As a result, the SERS signal intensity of Ag SNCs was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Furthermore, when reacted under the best reaction condition with concentrations of AgNO3 and OA, 3 mM and 5 mM, respectively, a large-scale production of Ag SNC was possible under the mild conditions. PMID:21446501

  1. Current enhancement of aluminum doped ZnO/n-Si isotype heterojunction solar cells by embedding silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yun, Juhyung; Kim, Joondong; Kojori, Hossein Shokri; Kim, Sung Jim; Tong, Chong; Anderson, Wayne A

    2013-08-01

    To improve Plasmonic energy harvesting, the Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Si heterojunction was studied for plasmonic photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were embedded in AZO, resulting in direct energy absoption from Ag NPs, positioned close to the junction. This structure has a benefit of avoiding highly doped lossy layers of conventional solar cell structures. Al doped ZnO (AZO) was deposited on n-Si substrate by dual beam sputtering method to fabricate AZO/Si heterojunction solar cells. AZO provides a transparent current spreading effect and rectifying junction with n type silicon (Si). Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were embedded in AZO film (240-270 nm thick) with a sandwich-like structure. The position of Ag NPs in the AZO film was controlled to be located at 10, 20 and 40 nm distance from the Si absorber layer. Fabricated solar cells show improved performance in terms of the short circuit current (J(sc)) and the quantum efficiency (QE). Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were carried out to investigate the QE enhancement and optimize photocurrent gain under an AM1.5G solar spectrum. In calculation, absorption enhancement is maximized when Ag NPs are located close to the Si layer in the range of 10-40 nm. Experimentally, 20 nm distance of Ag NPs from the Si showed the best performance with 0.36 V of open circuit voltage (V(oc)), 28.3 mA/cm2 of J(sc) and 5.91% of coversion efficiency. The QE showed 15% of enhancement around lambda = 435 nm and 5-10% of enhancement within lambda = 600-1000 nm. PMID:23882792

  2. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Silver Nanoparticle Embedded Graphene Flake Electrode Prepared by In situ Dual Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Samanta, Khokan; Lee, Hanleem; Lee, Keunsik; Tiwari, Anand P; Lee, JiHun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of stretchable devices that combine with conductive properties offers new exciting opportunities for wearable applications. Here, a novel, convenient and inexpensive solution process was demonstrated to prepare in situ silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded rGO hybrid materials using formic acid duality in the presence of AgNO3 or H2PtCl6 at low temperature. The reduction duality of the formic acid can convert graphene oxide (GO) to rGO and simultaneously deposit the positively charged metal ion to metal NP on rGO while the formic acid itself is converted to a CO2 evolving gas that is eco-friendly. The AgNP-embedded rGO hybrid electrode on an elastomeric substrate exhibited superior stretchable properties including a maximum conductivity of 3012 S cm(-1) (at 0 % strain) and 322.8 S cm(-1) (at 35 % strain). Its fabrication process using a printing method is scalable. Surprisingly, the electrode can survive even in continuous stretching cycles. PMID:26383845

  3. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Silver Nanoparticle Embedded Graphene Flake Electrode Prepared by In situ Dual Reduction Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Samanta, Khokan; Lee, Hanleem; Lee, Keunsik; Tiwari, Anand P.; Lee, JiHun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of stretchable devices that combine with conductive properties offers new exciting opportunities for wearable applications. Here, a novel, convenient and inexpensive solution process was demonstrated to prepare in situ silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded rGO hybrid materials using formic acid duality in the presence of AgNO3 or H2PtCl6 at low temperature. The reduction duality of the formic acid can convert graphene oxide (GO) to rGO and simultaneously deposit the positively charged metal ion to metal NP on rGO while the formic acid itself is converted to a CO2 evolving gas that is eco-friendly. The AgNP-embedded rGO hybrid electrode on an elastomeric substrate exhibited superior stretchable properties including a maximum conductivity of 3012 S cm-1 (at 0 % strain) and 322.8 S cm-1 (at 35 % strain). Its fabrication process using a printing method is scalable. Surprisingly, the electrode can survive even in continuous stretching cycles. PMID:26383845

  4. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Silver Nanoparticle Embedded Graphene Flake Electrode Prepared by In situ Dual Reduction Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Samanta, Khokan; Lee, Hanleem; Lee, Keunsik; Tiwari, Anand P.; Lee, Jihun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of stretchable devices that combine with conductive properties offers new exciting opportunities for wearable applications. Here, a novel, convenient and inexpensive solution process was demonstrated to prepare in situ silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded rGO hybrid materials using formic acid duality in the presence of AgNO3 or H2PtCl6 at low temperature. The reduction duality of the formic acid can convert graphene oxide (GO) to rGO and simultaneously deposit the positively charged metal ion to metal NP on rGO while the formic acid itself is converted to a CO2 evolving gas that is eco-friendly. The AgNP-embedded rGO hybrid electrode on an elastomeric substrate exhibited superior stretchable properties including a maximum conductivity of 3012 S cm-1 (at 0 % strain) and 322.8 S cm-1 (at 35 % strain). Its fabrication process using a printing method is scalable. Surprisingly, the electrode can survive even in continuous stretching cycles.

  5. Surface modification of titanium substrates with silver nanoparticles embedded sulfhydrylated chitosan/gelatin polyelectrolyte multilayer films for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Yan; Cai, Kaiyong; Lin, Yingcheng

    2014-06-01

    To develop Ti implants with potent antibacterial activity, a novel "sandwich-type" structure of sulfhydrylated chitosan (Chi-SH)/gelatin (Gel) polyelectrolyte multilayer films embedding silver (Ag) nanoparticles was coated onto titanium substrate using a spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique. Ag ions would be enriched in the polyelectrolyte multilayer films via the specific interactions between Ag ions and -HS groups in Chi-HS, thus leading to the formation of Ag nanoparticles in situ by photo-catalytic reaction (ultraviolet irradiation). Contact angle measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to monitor the construction of Ag-containing multilayer on titanium surface, respectively. The functional multilayered films on titanium substrate [Ti/PEI/(Gel/Chi-SH/Ag) n /Gel] could efficiently inhibit the growth and activity of Bacillus subtitles and Escherichia coli onto titanium surface. Moreover, studies in vitro confirmed that Ti substrates coating with functional multilayer films remained the biological functions of osteoblasts, which was reflected by cell morphology, cell viability and ALP activity measurements. This study provides a simple, versatile and generalized methodology to design functional titanium implants with good cyto-compatibility and antibacterial activity for potential clinical applications. PMID:24664672

  6. Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, T. S.; Lee, S. S.; Van, L. H.; Hong, Ming Hui; Chong, Tow Chong

    2004-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been fabricated by laser ablation of a silver metal foil in solution. The presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate increases the yield of the nanoparticles and enhances their stability. The optical limiting performance of the silver nanoparticles embedded in a PMMA film is compared to that in an aqueous solution.

  7. Development of a complex hydrogel of hyaluronan and PVA embedded with silver nanoparticles and its facile studies on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Wu, Juan; Kang, Ding; Zhang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogels composed of hyaluronan (HA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silver nanoparticles were prepared by several cycles of freezing and thawing. The nanocomposite was then characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The complex hydrogels consisted of semi-interpenetrating network structures, with PVA microcrystallines as junction zones. By increasing the HA content, the crystallinity and melting temperature of the complex hydrogels decreased, whereas the glass transition temperatures of these materials increased because of the steric hindrance of HA and the occurrence of intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonding between HA and PVA in the complex hydrogels. Swelling studies showed that in comparison with the swelling properties of the cryogels from PVA alone, those of the complex hydrogels can be significantly improved and presented in a pH-sensitive manner. In addition, silver nanoparticles were synthesised through UV-initiated photoreduction with HA functioning as a reducing agent and stabiliser. The silver nanoparticles were then incorporated in situ into the HA/PVA complex hydrogel matrix. The size and morphology of the as-prepared Ag nanoparticles were investigated through ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results indicated that silver nanoparticles 20-50 nm in size were uniformly dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The antibacterial effects of the HA/PVA/Ag nanocomposite hydrogel against Escherichia coli were evaluated. The results show that this nanocomposite hydrogel possesses high antibacterial property and has a potential application as a wound dressing material. PMID:23829455

  8. Modulation of population density and size of silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose via ammonia exposure: visual detection of volatile compounds in a piece of plasmonic nanopaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heli, B.; Morales-Narváez, E.; Golmohammadi, H.; Ajji, A.; Merkoçi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The localized surface plasmon resonance exhibited by noble metal nanoparticles can be sensitively tuned by varying their size and interparticle distances. We report that corrosive vapour (ammonia) exposure dramatically reduces the population density of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded within bacterial cellulose, leading to a larger distance between the remaining nanoparticles and a decrease in the UV-Vis absorbance associated with the AgNP plasmonic properties. We also found that the size distribution of AgNPs embedded in bacterial cellulose undergoes a reduction in the presence of volatile compounds released during food spoilage, modulating the studied nanoplasmonic properties. In fact, such a plasmonic nanopaper exhibits a change in colour from amber to light amber upon the explored corrosive vapour exposure and from amber to a grey or taupe colour upon fish or meat spoilage exposure. These phenomena are proposed as a simple visual detection of volatile compounds in a flexible, transparent, permeable and stable single-use nanoplasmonic membrane, which opens the way to innovative approaches and capabilities in gas sensing and smart packaging.The localized surface plasmon resonance exhibited by noble metal nanoparticles can be sensitively tuned by varying their size and interparticle distances. We report that corrosive vapour (ammonia) exposure dramatically reduces the population density of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded within bacterial cellulose, leading to a larger distance between the remaining nanoparticles and a decrease in the UV-Vis absorbance associated with the AgNP plasmonic properties. We also found that the size distribution of AgNPs embedded in bacterial cellulose undergoes a reduction in the presence of volatile compounds released during food spoilage, modulating the studied nanoplasmonic properties. In fact, such a plasmonic nanopaper exhibits a change in colour from amber to light amber upon the explored corrosive vapour exposure and

  9. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules. PMID:27612736

  10. Modulation of population density and size of silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose via ammonia exposure: visual detection of volatile compounds in a piece of plasmonic nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Heli, B; Morales-Narváez, E; Golmohammadi, H; Ajji, A; Merkoçi, A

    2016-04-21

    The localized surface plasmon resonance exhibited by noble metal nanoparticles can be sensitively tuned by varying their size and interparticle distances. We report that corrosive vapour (ammonia) exposure dramatically reduces the population density of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded within bacterial cellulose, leading to a larger distance between the remaining nanoparticles and a decrease in the UV-Vis absorbance associated with the AgNP plasmonic properties. We also found that the size distribution of AgNPs embedded in bacterial cellulose undergoes a reduction in the presence of volatile compounds released during food spoilage, modulating the studied nanoplasmonic properties. In fact, such a plasmonic nanopaper exhibits a change in colour from amber to light amber upon the explored corrosive vapour exposure and from amber to a grey or taupe colour upon fish or meat spoilage exposure. These phenomena are proposed as a simple visual detection of volatile compounds in a flexible, transparent, permeable and stable single-use nanoplasmonic membrane, which opens the way to innovative approaches and capabilities in gas sensing and smart packaging. PMID:27009781

  11. Evaluation of the influence of sulfur-based functional groups on the embedding of silver nanoparticles into the pores of MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Roselaine da S.; Camilo, Fernanda F.; Bizeto, Marcos A.

    2016-03-01

    The incorporation of noble metals in the pores of mesoporous silicas might produce materials with interesting catalytic and sensing capabilities, but the proper control of pore filling and the avoidance of nanoparticles migration to outside the pores are processes not yet completely understood. In this work, we evaluated the role of -SH and -SO3H groups post-grafted into MCM-41 on the production of silver nanoparticles by using 1-butanol as reducing agent. Thiol groups were the most efficient on promoting the formation of nanoparticles within the pores. Conversely, sulfonic groups establish electrostatic interactions with silver cations that preclude the formation of nanoparticle in yields comparable to thiol groups. MCM-41 without functional groups did not have good affinity to silver and the nanoparticles are produced outside the pores. This study showed the importance on selecting an adequate surface functional group in order to obtain silver nanoparticles filling the pores of MCM-41.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

  13. Ageing of plasma-mediated coatings with embedded silver nanoparticles on stainless steel: An XPS and ToF-SIMS investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanna, S.; Saulou, C.; Mercier-Bonin, M.; Despax, B.; Raynaud, P.; Seyeux, A.; Marcus, P.

    2010-09-01

    Nanocomposite thin films (˜170 nm), composed of silver nanoparticles enclosed in an organosilicon matrix, were deposited onto stainless steel, with the aim of preventing biofilm formation. The film deposition was carried out under cold plasma conditions, combining radiofrequency (RF) glow discharge fed with argon and hexamethyldisiloxane and simultaneous silver sputtering. XPS and ToF-SIMS were used to characterize Ag-organosilicon films in native form and after ageing in saline solution (NaCl 0.15 M), in order to further correlate their lifetime with their anti-fouling properties. Two coatings with significantly different silver contents (7.5% and 20.3%) were tested. Surface analysis confirmed the presence of metallic silver in the pristine coating and revealed significant modifications after immersion in the saline solution. Two different ageing mechanisms were observed, depending on the initial silver concentration in the film. For the sample exhibiting the low silver content (7.5%), the metal amount decreased at the surface in contact with the solution, due to the release of silver from the coating. As a result, after a 2-day exposure, silver nanoparticles located at the extreme surface were entirely released, whereas silver is still present in the inner part of the film. The coating thickness was not modified during ageing. In contrast, for the high silver content film (20.3%), the thickness decreased with immersion time, due to significant silver release and matrix erosion, assigned to a percolation-like effect. However, after 18 days of immersion, the delamination process stopped and a thin strongly bounded layer remained on the stainless steel surface.

  14. Silver nanoparticles incorporated onto ordered mesoporous silica from Tollen's reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zienkiewicz-Strzałka, M.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Kozak, M.; Pikus, S.

    2013-02-01

    Noble metal nanostructures supported on mesoporous silica are bridge between traditional silica adsorbents and modern catalysts. In this work the Ag/SBA-15 mesoporous materials were synthesized and characterized. Various forms of nanosilver supported on ordered mesoporous template have been successfully obtained via proposed procedures. In all synthesized materials, Tollen's reagent (diammine silver complex [Ag(NH3)2]+) was used as a silver source. Silver nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of ammoniacal silver complex by formaldehyde in the solution of stabilizer. After reduction, Ag nanoparticles could be deposited on SBA-15, or added during traditional synthesis of SBA-15 giving silver or silver chloride nanoparticles in the combination with porous silica. Silver nanostructures as nanoparticles or nanowires were also embedded onto the SBA-15 by incipient wetness impregnation of silver ions. Absorbed silver ions were next reduced under hydrogen at high temperature. There are many advantages of utilized ammoniacal silver complex as a silver source. Proposed method is capable to synthesis of various metal nanostructures with controlled composition and morphology. The silver ammonia complex is composed of two ions surrounding and protecting the central silver ion, so it is possible to obtain very small nanoparticles using simple approach without any functionalization of external and internal surface of SBA-15. This approach allows obtaining greatly small silver nanoparticles on SBA-15 (4 nm) or nanowires depending on the metal loading amount. Moreover, the colloidal silver solution prepared from Tollen's reagent, in the presence of triblock copolymer, remains stable for a long time. Reduction of Tollen's reagent to silver colloidal solution seems to be efficient, fast and interesting approach for the preparation of supported silver nanostructures Obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV

  15. Diffractive optical element embedded in silver-doped nanocomposite glass.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lauren A H; Wackerow, Stefan; Hourd, Andrew C; Gillespie, W Allan; Seifert, Gerhard; Abdolvand, Amin

    2012-09-24

    A diffractive optical element is fabricated with relative ease in a glass containing spherical silver nanoparticles 30 to 40 nm in diameter and embedded in a surface layer of thickness ~10 μm. The nanocomposite was sandwiched between a mesh metallic electrode with a lattice constant 2 μm, facing the nanoparticle containing layer and acting as an anode, and a flat metal electrode as cathode. Applying moderate direct current electric potentials of 0.4 kV and 0.6 kV at an elevated temperature of 200 °C for 30 minutes across the nanocomposites led to the formation of a periodic array of embedded structures of metallic nanoparticles. The current-time dynamics of the structuring processes, optical analyses of the structured nanocomposites and diffraction pattern of one such fabricated element are presented. PMID:23037407

  16. Nanoindentation studies on silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Dhriti Ranjan; Mandal, Amrita; Mitra, Sreemanta; Mada, Mykanth Reddy; Boughton, Philip; Bandyopadhyay, Sri; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2013-06-01

    Nanodimensional metallic silver was grown by electrodeposion technique in a semi solid polymer matrix of polyacrylamide. The whole structure looks like dendronic. The average particle diameter of the as grown metallic silver is 13 nm. Nanoindentation study of these nanoparticles shows modulus and hardness value as 103.93 GPa and 3.12 GPa respectively.

  17. Thermal stability of PLD grown silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2016-05-01

    Present work discusses the stability of silver nanoparticles at different annealing temperatures. Air muffle furnace annealing is performed to study the thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited silver nanoparticles. Silver reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form silver oxide at annealing temperatures below 473K and thermal decomposition of silver oxide takes place at temperatures above 473K. Oxide formation results in core shrinkage of silver, which in turn affects the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. With increase in annealing temperature, the surface plasmon effect of nanoparticles starts to fade. SEM, XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy have been performed to analysis various structural and optical properties.

  18. Shaped gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yugang; An, Changhua

    2011-03-01

    Advance in the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles made of gold and silver is reviewed in this article. This review starts with a new angle by analyzing the relationship between the geometrical symmetry of a nanoparticle shape and its internal crystalline structures. According to the relationship, the nanoparticles with well-defined shapes are classified into three categories: nanoparticles with single crystallinity, nanoparticles with angular twins, and nanoparticles with parallel twins. Discussion and analysis on the classical methods for the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles in each category are also included and personal perspectives on the future research directions in the synthesis of shaped metal nanoparticles are briefly summarized. This review is expected to provide a guideline in designing the strategy for the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles and analyzing the corresponding growth mechanism.

  19. Silver nanoparticles embedded over porous metal organic frameworks for carbon dioxide fixation via carboxylation of terminal alkynes at ambient pressure.

    PubMed

    Molla, Rostam Ali; Ghosh, Kajari; Banerjee, Biplab; Iqubal, Md Asif; Kundu, Sudipta K; Islam, Sk Manirul; Bhaumik, Asim

    2016-09-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) has been supported over a porous Co(II)-salicylate metal-organic framework to yield a new nanocatalyst AgNPs/Co-MOF and it has been thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis. The AgNPs/Co-MOF material showed high catalytic activity in the carboxylation of terminal alkynes via CO2 fixation reaction to yield alkynyl carboxylic acids under very mild conditions. Due to the presence of highly reactive AgNPs bound at the porous MOF framework the reaction proceeded smoothly at 1atm CO2 pressure. Moreover, the catalyst is very convenient to handle and it can be reused for several reaction cycles without appreciable loss of catalytic activity in this CO2 fixation reaction, which suggested a promising future of AgNPs/Co-MOF nanocatalyst. PMID:27309859

  20. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies that exploit the properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) raises questions concerning the impact of Ag on the environment. Ag-NPs are currently among the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and the amount released into the environment is expected to increase along with production (1). When present in geochemical systems, Ag-NPs may undergo a variety of changes due to varying redox, pH, and chemical conditions. Expected changes range from surface modification (e.g., oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation etc.) to complete dissolution and re-precipitation. In this context, the focus of our work is on understanding the behavior of synthetic Ag-NPs with different particle sizes under varying conditions relevant to the environment. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs is of particular interest since it among the processes most likely to occur in aqueous systems, in particular under reducing conditions. Three sizes of Ag-NPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were produced using the polyol process (2) (7 ±1; 20 ±4, and 40 ±9 nm). Batch solutions containing the different Ag-NPs were subsequently reacted with Na2S solutions of different concentrations. The sulfidation process was followed step-wise for 24 hours and the corrosion products formed were characterized by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface charge (pHPZC) of the products formed during this process was also measured, as were changes in solubility and reactivity. Based on experimental observations we infer that the sulfidation process is the result of dissolution-precipitation and find that: (i) acanthite (Ag2S) is formed as a corrosion product; (ii) Ag-NPs aggregation increased with sulfidation rate; (iii) pHPZC increases with the rate of sulfidation; and (iv) the solubility of the corrosion products formed from sulfidation appears lower than that of non-sulfidated Ag-NPs. We observe size-dependent differences in

  1. The silver ions contribution into the cytotoxic activity of silver and silver halides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, A. I.; Zherebin, P. M.; Gusev, A. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Krutyakov, Y. A.

    2015-11-01

    The biocidal action of silver nanoparticles capped with sodium citrate and silver halides nanoparticles capped with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80®) against yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae was compared to the effect produced by silver nitrate and studied through the measurement of cell loss and kinetics of K+ efflux from the cells. The cytotoxicity of the obtained colloids was strongly correlated with silver ion content in the dispersions. The results clearly indicated that silver and silver halides nanoparticles destroyed yeast cells through the intermediate producing of silver ions either by dissolving of salts or by oxidation of silver.

  2. Optical and structural changes of silver nanoparticles during photochromic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, C.; Sprafke, A.N.; Dieker, H.; Wuttig, M.; Plessen, G. von

    2006-01-02

    Silver nanoparticles embedded in titanium oxide change their color upon irradiation with visible light. Here we investigate the origin of this photochromic effect. The color change is found to result chiefly from a reduction of the optical extinction peak of the photoexcited particle plasmons. From a comparison with x-ray diffraction experiments, we conclude that this reduction is caused by a photoinduced decrease of the mean size of the silver nanocrystals.

  3. Development of antimicrobial water filtration hybrid material from bio source calcium carbonate and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apalangya, Vitus; Rangari, Vijaya; Tiimob, Boniface; Jeelani, Shaik; Samuel, Temesgen

    2014-03-01

    Biobased calcium carbonate and silver hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple mechanochemical milling technique. The XRD spectrum showed that the hybrid materials is composed of crystalline calcite and silver nanoparticles. The TEM results indicated that the silver nanoparticles are discrete, uncapped and well stabilized in the surface of the eggshell derived calcium carbonate particles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape and 5-20 nm in size. The SEM studies indicated that the eggshells are in micron size with the silver nanoparticle embedded in their surface. The hybrid eggshell/silver nanocomposite exhibited superior inhibition of E. coli growth using the Kirby-Bauer discs diffusion assay and comparing the zone of inhibition around the filter paper disc impregnated with the hybrid particles against pristine silver nanoparticles.

  4. Pre-embedding Nanogold Silver and Gold Intensification.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Masaki, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Pre-embedding nanogold silver and gold intensification methods involve immunoreactions with nanogold-labeled antibodies and intensification of the nanogold particles before embedding and ultrathin sectioning. These highly sensitive methods show good resolution and ultrastructural preservation. They also are useful for simultaneous observation of immunolabeled cells under light and electron microscopes, and for three-dimensional immunoelectron microscopic analyses. Silver intensification is usually superior for immunolabeling. On the other hand, ultrastructural preservation is better when gold intensification is used. In this chapter, we introduce pre-embedding nanogold silver and gold intensification procedures for use primarily with cultured cells. PMID:27515087

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Mini; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  6. Risk assessment of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipelin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic silver (Ag) are among the most widely used products of nanotechnology. Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) is presented in many kinds of production as solutions of particles with diameter less than 100 nm. NCS is used in a variety of fields, including food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, packaging materials, disinfectants, water filters, and many others. Problems of toxicity and related safety of NCS for humans and environmental systems are recently overestimated basing on data of numerous toxicological studies in vitro and in vivo. The article discusses the results of current studies in recent years and the data of author's own experiments on studying the safety of NCS, that allows to move on to risk assessment of this nanomaterial presented in consumer products and environmental samples.

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jaiveer; Kaurav, Netram; Choudhary, K. K.; Okram, Gunadhor S.

    2015-07-31

    The preparation of stable, uniform silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver acetate by ethylene glycol (EG) is reported in the present paper. It is a simple process of recent interest for obtaining silver nanoparticles. The samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), which reveals an average particle size (D) of 38 nm. The UV/Vis spectra show that an absorption peak, occurring due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), exists at 319 nm.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle and its application.

    PubMed

    Pandian, A Muthu Kumara; Karthikeyan, C; Rajasimman, M; Dinesh, M G

    2015-11-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical technique, green synthesis and microbial methods. Silver nitrate (10(-3)M) was used with aqueous extract to produce silver nanoparticles. From the results it was observed that the yield of nanoparticles was high in green synthesis. The size of the silver nanoparticles was determined from Scanning Electron Microscope analysis (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to determine the presence of biomolecules in them. Its cytotoxic effect was studied in cancerous cell line and normal cell line. MTT assay was done to test its optimal concentration and efficacy which gives valuable information for the use of silver nanoparticles for future cancer therapy. PMID:25866204

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tannins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by rapid green synthesis using different tannin sources as reducing agent viz. chestnut (CN), mangrove (MG) and quebracho (QB). The aqueous silver ions when exposed to CN, MG and QB tannins were reduced which resulted in formation of silver nanoparticles. The resultant silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of nanoparticles synthesis was also derived using FT-IR analysis. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles were within 30 to 75 nm in size, while XRD results showed that nanoparticles formed were crystalline with face centered cubic geometry.

  10. Silver nanoparticles -- allies or adversaries?

    PubMed

    Bartłomiejczyk, Teresa; Lankoff, Anna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Szumiel, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are structures with at least one dimension of less than 100 nanometers (nm) and unique properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), due to their bactericidal action, have found practical applications in medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and other fields. Nevertheless, their less advantageous properties which make AgNP potentially harmful to public health or the environment should also be taken into consideration. These nanoparticles are cyto- and genotoxic and accumulate in the environment, where their antibacterial properties may be disadvantageous for agriculture and waste management. The presented study reviews data concerning the biological effects of AgNP in mammalian cells in vitro: cellular uptake and excretion, localization in cellular compartments, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The mechanism of nanoparticle action consists on induction of the oxidative stress resulting in a further ROS generation, DNA damage and activation of signaling leading to various, cell type-specific pathways to inflammation, apoptotic or necrotic death. In order to assure a safe application of AgNP, further detailed studies are needed on the mechanisms of the action of AgNP on mammalian cells at the molecular level. PMID:23540211

  11. Formation mechanism of silver nanoparticles stabilized in glassy matrices.

    PubMed

    Simo, Anne; Polte, Jörg; Pfänder, Norbert; Vainio, Ulla; Emmerling, Franziska; Rademann, Klaus

    2012-11-14

    In any given matrix control over the final particle size distribution requires a constitutive understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of the particle evolution. In this contribution we report on the formation mechanism of silver nanoparticles embedded in a soda-lime silicate glass matrix. For the silver ion-exchanged glass it is shown that at temperatures below 410 °C only molecular clusters (diameter <1 nm) are forming which are most likely silver dimers. These clusters grow to nanoparticles (diameter >1 nm) by annealing above this threshold temperature of 410 °C. It is evidenced that the growth and thus the final silver nanoparticle size are determined by matrix-assisted reduction mechanisms. As a consequence, particle growth proceeds after the initial formation of stable clusters by addition of silver monomers which diffuse from the glass matrix. This is in contrast to the widely accepted concept of particle growth in metal-glass systems, in which it is assumed that the nanoparticle formation is predominantly governed by Ostwald ripening processes. PMID:23098252

  12. In situ synthesis of nano silver/lecithin on wool: enhancing nanoparticles diffusion.

    PubMed

    Barani, Hossein; Montazer, Majid; Samadi, Nasrin; Toliyat, Tayebeh

    2012-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles are being used increasingly in various applications because of their antibacterial properties. It is necessary to lower their direct contact with the skin by embedding in a polymer reducing their side effects. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized inside the wool fibers acted as a polyfunctional ligands. Lecithin as a biological lipid was used to enhance the diffusion of silver ions and nanoparticles into the wool fibers reducing cytotoxicity effects of the nano silver loaded wool. The highest loading efficiency and inhibition zone was observed on the wool with the highest lecithin concentration. Presence of lecithin reduced the rate of nano silver release which results in decreasing the specific coefficient of lethality. Also, the extracted solution of the synthesized silver nanoparticles on the wool has not altered the morphology of L929 fibroblast cells. PMID:22178185

  13. Electrodeposited Silver Nanoparticles Patterned Hexagonally for SERS

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Lee, Sue Yeone; Suh, Jung Sang

    2010-08-06

    We have fabricated hexagonally patterned silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by electrodepositing silver on the surface of an aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Even after completely removing the oxide, well-ordered hexagonal patterns, similar to the shape of graphene, remained on the surface of the aluminum plate. The borders of the hexagonal pattern protruded up to form sorts of nano-mountains at both the sides and apexes of the hexagon, with the apexes protruding even more significantly than the sides. The aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide has been used in the preparation of SERS substrates by sputter-coating of gold or silver on it. Instead of sputter-coating, here we have electro-deposited silver on the aluminum plate. When silver was electro-deposited on the plate, silver nanoparticles were made along the hexagonal margins.

  14. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-03-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  15. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  16. Silver Nanoparticles and Mitochondrial Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Eriberto; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Rigo, Chiara; Stocchero, Michele; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cairns, Warren; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has gone through a period of rapid growth, thus leading to the constant increase in the application of engineered nanomaterials in daily life. Several different types of nanoparticles have been engineered to be employed in a wide array of applications due to their high surface to volume ratio that leads to unique physical and chemical properties. So far, silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have been used in many more different medical devices than any other nanomaterial, mainly due to their antimicrobial properties. Despite the promising advantages posed by using AgNps in medical applications, the possible health effects associated with the inevitable human exposure to AgNps have raised concerns as to their use since a clear understanding of their specific interaction with biological systems has not been attained yet. In light of such consideration, aim of the present work is the morphological analysis of the intracellular behavior of AgNps with a diameter of 10 nm, with a special attention to their interaction with mitochondria. PMID:24101927

  17. Antimicrobial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles, and silver chloride nanoparticles: an overview and comments.

    PubMed

    Durán, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Seabra, Amedea B

    2016-08-01

    The antimicrobial impact of biogenic-synthesized silver-based nanoparticles has been the focus of increasing interest. As the antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles is highly dependent on their size and surface, the complete and adequate characterization of the nanoparticle is important. This review discusses the characterization and antimicrobial activity of biogenic synthesized silver nanoparticles and silver chloride nanoparticles. By revising the literature, there is confusion in the characterization of these two silver-based nanoparticles, which consequently affects the conclusion regarding to their antimicrobial activities. This review critically analyzes recent publications on the synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles and silver chloride nanoparticles by attempting to correlate the characterization of the nanoparticles with their antimicrobial activity. It was difficult to correlate the size of biogenic nanoparticles with their antimicrobial activity, since different techniques are employed for the characterization. Biogenic synthesized silver-based nanoparticles are not completely characterized, particularly the nature of capped proteins covering the nanomaterials. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of theses nanoparticles is assayed by using different protocols and strains, which difficult the comparison among the published papers. It is important to select some bacteria as standards, by following international foundations (Pharmaceutical Microbiology Manual) and use the minimal inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution assays from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, which is the most common assay used in antibiotic ones. Therefore, we conclude that to have relevant results on antimicrobial effects of biogenic silver-based nanoparticles, it is necessary to have a complete and adequate characterization of these nanostructures, followed by standard methodology in microbiology protocols. PMID:27289481

  18. Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Okumu, J.; Dahmen, C.; Sprafke, A.N.; Luysberg, M.; Plessen, G. von; Wuttig, M.

    2005-05-01

    In this study a simple route to preparing photochromic silver nanoparticles in a TiO{sub 2} matrix is presented, which is based upon sputtering and subsequent annealing. The formation of silver nanoparticles with sizes of some tens of nanometers is confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The inhomogeneously broadened particle-plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle ensemble leads to a broad optical-absorption band, whose spectral profile can be tuned by varying the silver load and the annealing temperature. Multicolor photochromic behavior of this Ag-TiO{sub 2} system upon irradiation with laser light is demonstrated and discussed in terms of a particle-plasmon-assisted electron transfer from the silver nanoparticles to TiO{sub 2} and subsequent trapping by adsorbed molecular oxygen. The electron depletion in the nanoparticles reduces the light absorption at the wavelength of irradiation. A gradual recovery of the absorption band is observed after irradiation, which is explained with a slow thermal release of electrons from the oxygen trapping centers and subsequent capture into the nanoparticles. The recovery can be accelerated by ultraviolet irradiation; the explanation for this observation is that electrons photoexcited in the TiO{sub 2} are captured into the nanoparticles and restore the absorption band.

  19. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  20. Physicochemical properties of protein-modified silver nanoparticles in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hangyue

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles stabilized with casein protein in seawater. UV?vis spectrometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to measure the stability of silver nanoparticles in seawater samples. The obtained results show an increased aggregation tendency of silver nanoparticles in seawater, which could be attributed its relatively high cation concentration that could neutralize the negatively charges adsorbed on the surface of silver nanoparticles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion forces between nanoparticles. Similarly, due to the surface charge screening process, the zeta potential of silver nanoparticles in seawater decreased. This observation further supported the aggregation behavior of silver nanoparticles. This study also investigated the dissolution of silver nanoparticles in seawater. Result shows that the silver nanoparticle dissolution in DI water is lower than in seawater, which is attributed to the high Cl? concentration present in seawater. As Cl? can react with silver and form soluble AgCl complex, dissolution of silver nanoparticles was enhanced. Finally, this study demonstrated that silver nanoparticles are destabilized in seawater condition. These results may be helpful in understanding the environmental risk of discharged silver nanoparticles in seawater conditions.

  1. Silver nanoparticles and their orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Brennan, S A; Ní Fhoghlú, C; Devitt, B M; O'Mahony, F J; Brabazon, D; Walsh, A

    2015-05-01

    Implant-associated infection is a major source of morbidity in orthopaedic surgery. There has been extensive research into the development of materials that prevent biofilm formation, and hence, reduce the risk of infection. Silver nanoparticle technology is receiving much interest in the field of orthopaedics for its antimicrobial properties, and the results of studies to date are encouraging. Antimicrobial effects have been seen when silver nanoparticles are used in trauma implants, tumour prostheses, bone cement, and also when combined with hydroxyapatite coatings. Although there are promising results with in vitro and in vivo studies, the number of clinical studies remains small. Future studies will be required to explore further the possible side effects associated with silver nanoparticles, to ensure their use in an effective and biocompatible manner. Here we present a review of the current literature relating to the production of nanosilver for medical use, and its orthopaedic applications. PMID:25922449

  2. Plasmonic characterization of photo-induced silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based TEM film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, Tiwari, P.; Varshney, G. K.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Photo-reduction process is carried out to convert the silver halide grains into the metallic silver. The centrifuge technique is used for separating the silver nanoparticles from the residual solution. Morphological study performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows that all the nanoparticles have an average diameter of ~120 nm with a high degree of mono dispersion in size. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak at ~537 nm confirms the presence of large size silver nanoparticles.

  3. Fluorescence enhancement of Rhodamine B by monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, A.; Lama, P. T.; Dorsinville, R.

    2015-06-01

    A strong enhancement in fluorescence of Rhodamine B dye in the vicinity of silver monodisperse nanoparticles is presented. The fluorescence of the dye increased as much as by 23 times in the presence of monodispersed silver nanoparticles. The fluorescence enhancement due to monodispersed silver nanoparticles was about 2-3 times larger than in the presence of polydispersed silver nanoparticles. The additional enhancement is explained in terms of emergence of uniform and large local electromagnetic field induced by surface plasmon resonance around an ensemble of monodispersed silver nanoparticles.

  4. Plasmonic twinned silver nanoparticles with molecular precision.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huayan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Xiaojing; Gu, Lin; Huang, Huaqi; Yan, Juanzhu; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Wu, Junchao; Edwards, Alison J; Dittrich, Birger; Tang, Zichao; Wang, Dongdong; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Determining the structures of nanoparticles at atomic resolution is vital to understand their structure-property correlations. Large metal nanoparticles with core diameter beyond 2 nm have, to date, eluded characterization by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Here we report the chemical syntheses and structures of two giant thiolated Ag nanoparticles containing 136 and 374 Ag atoms (that is, up to 3 nm core diameter). As the largest thiolated metal nanoparticles crystallographically determined so far, these Ag nanoparticles enter the truly metallic regime with the emergence of surface plasmon resonance. As miniatures of fivefold twinned nanostructures, these structures demonstrate a subtle distortion within fivefold twinned nanostructures of face-centred cubic metals. The Ag nanoparticles reported in this work serve as excellent models to understand the detailed structure distortion within twinned metal nanostructures and also how silver nanoparticles can span from the molecular to the metallic regime. PMID:27611564

  5. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-01

    Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  6. Silver nanoparticles enhanced multichannel transition luminescence of Pr3+ in heavy metal germanium tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Y. Y.; Chen, B. J.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Wang, Z. Q.; Zhao, X.; Lin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced luminescence of Pr3+ was observed in heavy metal germanium tellurite (NZPGT) glasses containing silver nanoparticles. Long-time annealing at 300 °C yield spherical and well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter as evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Multichannel transition luminescence intensity of Pr3+ in Ag nanoparticles embedded glasses grows by ~36% in comparison with the glasses without silver doping, which provides a new approach to improve energy conversion efficiency of GaAsAl solar cells. Hypersensitive probe Eu3+ reveals that electric field around rare-earth ions is remarkably enhanced due to the presence of Ag nanoparticles in the glass matrix, resulting in the luminescence intensification of Pr3+ in NZPGT glasses embedded with Ag nanoparticles.

  7. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  8. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles for carboxymethylcellulose film applications in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Maria C; Coelho, Gustavo F; de Moura, Márcia R; Bresolin, Joana D; Hubinger, Silviane Z; Marconcini, José M; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-07-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were prepared and incorporated into carboxymethylcellulose films to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications. The techniques carried out for material characterization were: infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis for the silver nanoparticles and films, as well as particle size distribution for the nanoparticles and water vapor permeability for the films. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by casting method was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the silver nanoparticles to test Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms was carried out by the serial dilution technique, tested in triplicate to confirm the concentration used. The results were developed using the Mcfarland scale which indicates that the presence or absence of turbidity tube demonstrates the inhibition of bacteria in relation to the substance inoculated. It was found that the silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of the tested microorganisms. The carboxymethylcellulose film embedded with silver nanoparticles showed the best antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive (E. faecalis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria (0.1 microg cm(-3)). PMID:24758059

  9. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  10. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharani, P. V.; Lian Wu, Yi; Gong, Zhiyuan; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to enhance our insight on the health and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np). Using starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as capping agents, silver nanoparticles were synthesized to study their deleterious effects and distribution pattern in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Toxicological endpoints like mortality, hatching, pericardial edema and heart rate were recorded. A concentration-dependent increase in mortality and hatching delay was observed in Ag-np treated embryos. Additionally, nanoparticle treatments resulted in concentration-dependent toxicity, typified by phenotypes that had abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, slow blood flow, pericardial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Ag+ ions and stabilizing agents showed no significant defects in developing embryos. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the embryos demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed in the brain, heart, yolk and blood of embryos as evident from the electron-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). Furthermore, the acridine orange staining showed an increased apoptosis in Ag-np treated embryos. These results suggest that silver nanoparticles induce a dose-dependent toxicity in embryos, which hinders normal development.

  11. Toxicity of various silver nanoparticles compared to silver ions in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impacts of silver nanoparticles released into freshwater environments, the Daphnia magna 48-hour immobilization test was used. Methods The toxicities of silver nitrate, two types of colloidal silver nanoparticles, and a suspension of silver nanoparticles were assessed and compared using standard OECD guidelines. Also, the swimming behavior and visible uptake of the nanoparticles by Daphnia were investigated and compared. The particle suspension and colloids used in the toxicity tests were well-characterized. Results The results obtained from the exposure studies showed that the toxicity of all the silver species tested was dose and composition dependent. Plus, the silver nanoparticle powders subsequently suspended in the exposure water were much less toxic than the previously prepared silver nanoparticle colloids, whereas the colloidal silver nanoparticles and AgNO3 were almost similar in terms of mortality. The silver nanoparticles were ingested by the Daphnia and accumulated under the carapace, on the external body surface, and connected to the appendages. All the silver species in this study caused abnormal swimming by the D. magna. Conclusion According to the present results, silver nanoparticles should be classified according to GHS (Globally Harmonized System of classification and labeling of chemicals) as "category acute 1" to Daphnia neonates, suggesting that the release of nanosilver into the environment should be carefully considered. PMID:22472056

  12. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles via green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqaar; Balu, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    The proposed work describes the comparison of various methods of green synthesis for preparation of Gold and Silver nanoparticles. Pure extracts of Lemon (Citrus limon) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were mixed with aqueous solution of auric tetrachloride and silver nitrate. The resultant solutions were treated with four common techniques to assist in the reduction namely photo catalytic, thermal, microwave assisted reduction and solvo - thermal reduction. UV - Visible Spectroscopy results and STM images of the final solutions confirmed the formation of stable metallic nanoparticles. A preliminary account of the green synthesis work is presented here.

  13. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles. PMID:24937409

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiaoliang; Chen, Yuyue

    2014-05-01

    A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings. PMID:24872803

  16. Radially and azimuthally polarized laser induced shape transformation of embedded metallic nanoparticles in glass.

    PubMed

    Tyrk, Mateusz A; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A; Gillespie, W Allan; Abdolvand, Amin

    2015-09-01

    Radially and azimuthally polarized picosecond (~10 ps) pulsed laser irradiation at 532 nm wavelength led to the permanent reshaping of spherical silver nanoparticles (~30 - 40 nm in diameter) embedded in a thin layer of soda-lime glass. The observed peculiar shape modifications consist of a number of different orientations of nano-ellipsoids in the cross-section of each written line by laser. A Second Harmonic Generation cross-sectional scan method from silver nanoparticles in transmission geometry was adopted for characterization of the samples after laser modification. The presented approach may lead to sophisticated marking of information in metal-glass nanocomposites. PMID:26368440

  17. Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, Sahar; El Kady, M.F.; Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: {yields} About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers {yields} Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles {yields} Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. {yields} The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2{theta} values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag

  18. Shell crosslinked nanoparticles carrying silver antimicrobials as therapeutics†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yali; Hindi, Khadijah; Watts, Kristin M.; Taylor, Jane B.; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zicheng

    2010-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymer nanoparticles loaded with silver cations or/and N-heterocyclic carbene–silver complexes were assessed as antimicrobial agents against Gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:20024313

  19. Toxicogenomic responses of nanotoxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to silver nitrate and coated silver nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxic...

  20. Silver nanoparticles produced by green production method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Velea, Sanda; Ilie, Lucia; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Dumitriu, Irina; Dinu, Angela; Troncea, Simona

    2010-11-01

    Nanomaterials as novel materials with nanometer sizes are involved in higher performance technology. On this context nanobiotechnology is able to create different nanostructures using living organisms.An attractive research area is the application of microorganisms to synthesize nanoparticles from different metals, one of which is silver, an antimicrobial agent. Green production methods have a considerable interest for environmental protection, often based on plant extracts, organic compounds or microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae). Marine plants were used as "real factors" for synthesis of nanoparticles of Au and Ag using different processes of biomineralization. This paper deals with a complete study about obtaining silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 using red algae (Porphyridium purpureum). The red algae contain the red pigment-phycobilins, responsible for red color and for the strong absorption in visible spectrum. The properties and structure of silver nanoparticles have been put into evidence by means of: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-FTIR, optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF.

  1. Silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pangpang; Tanaka, Daisuke; Ryuzaki, Sou; Araki, Shohei; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2015-10-12

    To improve the efficiencies of electronic devices, materials with variable work functions are required to decrease the energy level differences at the interfaces between working layers. Here, we report a method to obtain silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions, which have the same silver core of 5 nm in diameter and are capped by myristates and 1-octanethoilates self-assembled monolayers, respectively. The silver nanoparticles capped by organic molecules can form a uniform two-dimensional sheet at air-water interface, and the sheet can be transferred on various hydrophobic substrates. The surface potential of the two-dimensional nanoparticle sheet was measured in terms of Kelvin probe force microscopy, and the work function of the sheet was then calculated from the surface potential value by comparing with a reference material. The exchange of the capping molecules results in a work function change of approximately 150–250 meV without affecting their hydrophobicity. We systematically discussed the origin of the work function difference and found it should come mainly from the anchor groups of the ligand molecules. The organic molecule capped nanoparticles with tunable work functions have a potential for the applications in organic electronic devices.

  2. Application of Silver and Silver Oxide Nanoparticles Impregnated on Activated Carbon to the Degradation of Bromate.

    PubMed

    Choi, J S; Lee, H; Park, Y K; Kim, S J; Kim, B J; An, K H; Kim, B H; Jung, S C

    2016-05-01

    Silver and silver oxide nanoparticles were impregnated on the surface of powdered activated carbon (PAC) using a single-step liquid phase plasma (LPP) method. Spherical silver and silver oxide nanoparticles of 20 to 100 nm size were dipersed evenly on the surface of PAC. The impregnated PAC exhibited a higher activity for the decomposition of bromate than bare PAC. The XPS, Raman and EDX analyses showed that the Ag/PAC composites synthesized by the LPP process. PMID:27483780

  3. Multistate resistive switching in silver nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandouk, Eric J.; Gimzewski, James K.; Stieg, Adam Z.

    2015-08-01

    Resistive switching devices have garnered significant consideration for their potential use in nanoelectronics and non-volatile memory applications. Here we investigate the nonlinear current-voltage behavior and resistive switching properties of composite nanoparticle films comprising a large collective of metal-insulator-metal junctions. Silver nanoparticles prepared via the polyol process and coated with an insulating polymer layer of tetraethylene glycol were deposited onto silicon oxide substrates. Activation required a forming step achieved through application of a bias voltage. Once activated, the nanoparticle films exhibited controllable resistive switching between multiple discrete low resistance states that depended on operational parameters including the applied bias voltage, temperature and sweep frequency. The films’ resistance switching behavior is shown here to be the result of nanofilament formation due to formative electromigration effects. Because of their tunable and distinct resistance states, scalability and ease of fabrication, nanoparticle films have a potential place in memory technology as resistive random access memory cells.

  4. Oxidative Dissolution of Silver Nanoparticles by Chlorine: Implications to Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shikha; Rong, Hongyan; Miller, Christopher J; Waite, T David

    2016-04-01

    The kinetics of oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by chlorine is investigated in this work, with results showing that AgNPs are oxidized in the presence of chlorine at a much faster rate than observed in the presence of dioxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation of AgNPs by chlorine occurs in air-saturated solution in stoichiometric amounts with 2 mol of AgNPs oxidized for each mole of chlorine added. Dioxygen plays an important role in OCl(-)-mediated AgNP oxidation, especially at lower OCl(-) concentrations, with the mechanism shifting from stoichiometric oxidation of AgNPs by OCl(-) in the presence of dioxygen to catalytic removal of OCl(-) by AgNPs in the absence of dioxygen. These results suggest that the presence of chlorine will mitigate AgNP toxicity by forming less-reactive AgCl(s) following AgNP oxidation, although the disinfection efficiency of OCl(-) may not be significantly impacted by the presence of AgNPs because a chlorine-containing species is formed on OCl(-) decay that has significant oxidizing capacity. Our results further suggest that the antibacterial efficacy of nanosilver particles embedded on fabrics may be negated when treated with detergents containing strong oxidants, such as chlorine. PMID:26986484

  5. Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

  6. Therapeutic gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Miko; Foote, Matthew; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    There are an abundance of nanoparticle technologies being developed for use as part of therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on a narrow class of metal nanoparticles that have therapeutic potential that is a consequence of elemental composition and size. The most widely known of these are gold nanoshells that have been developed over the last two decades for photothermal ablation in superficial cancers. The therapeutic effect is the outcome of the thickness and diameter of the gold shell that enables fine tuning of the plasmon resonance. When these metal nanoparticles are exposed to the relevant wavelength of light, their temperature rapidly increases. This in turn induces a localized photothermal ablation that kills the surrounding tumor tissue. Similarly, gold nanoparticles have been developed to enhance radiotherapy. The high-Z nature of gold dramatically increases the photoelectric cross-section. Thus, the photoelectric effects are significantly increased. The outcome of these interactions is enhanced tumor killing with lower doses of radiation, all while sparing tissue without gold nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have been used for their wound healing properties in addition to enhancing the tumor-killing effects of anticancer drugs. Finally, platinum nanoparticles are thought to serve as a reservoir for platinum ions that can induce DNA damage in cancer cells. The future is bright with the path to clinical trials is largely cleared for some of the less complex therapeutic metal nanoparticle systems. PMID:25521618

  7. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  8. Silver nanoparticles as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Franci, Gianluigi; Falanga, Annarita; Galdiero, Stefania; Palomba, Luciana; Rai, Mahendra; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials. PMID:25993417

  9. Aquatic Toxicity Comparison of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Ji Hyun; Chung, Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) released into freshwater environments, the toxicities of these nanomaterials were assessed and compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, including a “Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test,” “Fish, acute toxicity test,” and “freshwater alga and cyanobacteria, growth inhibition test.” Based on the estimated median lethal/effective concentrations of AgNPs and AgNWs, the susceptibility to the nanomaterials was different among test organisms (daphnia > algae > fish), suggesting that the AgNPs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 1” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, while the AgNWs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 2” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, according to the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals). In conclusion, the present results suggest that more attention should be paid to prevent the accidental or intentional release of silver nanomaterials into freshwater aquatic environments. PMID:26125025

  10. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles in AOT microemulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wanzhong; Qiao, Xueliang; Chen, Jianguo

    2006-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles have been synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsion using silver nitrate solubilized in the water core of one microemulsion as source of silver ions, hydrazine hydrate solubilized in the water core of another microemulsion as reducing agent, dodecane as the oil phase, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as the surfactant. The UV-vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to trace the growth process and elucidate the structure of the silver nanoparticles. UV-vis spectra show that the Ag4+ intermediates formed at early stages of the reaction and then the clusters grow or aggregate to larger nanoparticles. TEM micrographs confirm that the silver nanoparticles are all spherical. The resulting particles have a very narrow size distribution. Meanwhile, the diameter size of the particles is so small that the smallest mean diameter is only 1.6 nm. IR results show that the surfactant molecules are strongly adsorbed on the surface of silver particles through a coordination bond between the silver atom and the sulfonic group of AOT molecules, which endows the particles with a good stability in oil solvents. As dodecane is used as oil solvent to prepare silver nanoparticles, the formed nano-silver sol is almost nontoxic. As a result, the silver nanoparticles need not be separated from the reaction solution and the silver sol may be directly used in antibacterial fields.

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy and ocular cell toxicity from silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Colleen M.; Duchsherer, Nicole L.

    2009-01-01

    Silver in various forms has long been recognized for antimicrobial properties, both in biomedical devices and in eyes. However, soluble drugs used on the ocular surface are rapidly cleared through tear ducts and eventually ingested, resulting in decreased efficacy of the drug on its target tissue and potential concern for systemic side effects. Silver nanoparticles were studied as a source of anti-microbial silver for possible controlled-release contact lens controlled delivery formulations. Silver ion release over a period of several weeks from nanoparticle sources of various sizes and doses in vitro was evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. Mammalian cell viability and cytokine expression in response to silver nanoparticle exposure is evaluated using corneal epithelial cells and eye-associated macrophages cultured in vitro in serum-free media. Minimal microcidal and cell toxic effects were observed for several silver nanoparticle suspensions and aqueous extraction times for bulk total silver concentrations commensurate with comparative silver ion (e.g., Ag+(aq)) toxicity. This indicates that (1) silver particles themselves are not microcidal under conditions tested, and (2) insufficient silver ion is generated from these particles at these loadings to produce observable biological effects in these in vitro assays. If dosing allows substantially increased silver particle loading in the lens, the bactericidal efficacy of silver nanoparticles in vitro is one possible approach to limiting bacterial colonization problems associated with extended-wear contact lenses. PMID:19865601

  12. Step-reduced synthesis of starch-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jung, Jeyoung; Kim, Dowan; Seo, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    In the present process, silver nanoparticles were directly synthesized in a single step by microwave irradiation of a mixture of starch, silver nitrate, and deionized water. This is different from the commonly adopted procedure for starch-silver nanoparticle synthesis in which silver nanoparticles are synthesized by preparing a starch solution as a reaction medium first. Thus, the additional step associated with the preparation of the starch solution was eliminated. In addition, no additional reducing agent was utilized. The adopted method was facile and straight forward, affording spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter below 10nm that exhibited good antibacterial activity. Further, influence of starch on the size of the silver nanoparticles was noticed. PMID:26802247

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  14. Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

  15. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using living peanut seedling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, D.; Paneliya, Nikita; Mehta, Urmil J.

    2014-10-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles by environment friendly method is an important aspect of nanotechnology. In the present study, extracellular reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles was carried out using living peanut plant. The electron microscopic analysis shows that the formed nanoparticles were of different shapes and sizes. The formed nanoparticles were polydispersed. The shapes of the nanoparticles were spherical, square, triangle, hexagonal and rod. Most of the particles were spherical and 56 nm in size. EDS analysis confirmed the formed nanoparticles were of silver. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed by diffraction. This method opens up an exciting possibility of plant-based synthesis of other inorganic nanomaterials. This study confirms the synthesis of extracellular silver nanoparticles by living plant.

  16. Targeted silver nanoparticles for ratiometric cell phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Willmore, Anne-Mari A; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Toome, Kadri; Paiste, Päärn; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Braun, Gary B; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-28

    Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 ± 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 ± 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo. PMID:26646247

  17. Silver-Based Crystalline Nanoparticles, Microbially Fabricated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Tanja; Joerger, Ralph; Olsson, Eva; Granqvist, Claes-Goran

    1999-11-01

    One mechanism of silver resistance in microorganisms is accumulation of the metal ions in the cell. Here, we report on the phenomenon of biosynthesis of silver-based single crystals with well-defined compositions and shapes, such as equilateral triangles and hexagons, in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259. The crystals were up to 200 nm in size and were often located at the cell poles. Transmission electron microscopy, quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron diffraction established that the crystals comprise at least three different types, found both in whole cells and thin sections. These Ag-containing crystals are embedded in the organic matrix of the bacteria. Their possible potential as organic-metal composites in thin film and surface coating technology is discussed.

  18. Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tanja; Joerger, Ralph; Olsson, Eva; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    1999-01-01

    One mechanism of silver resistance in microorganisms is accumulation of the metal ions in the cell. Here, we report on the phenomenon of biosynthesis of silver-based single crystals with well-defined compositions and shapes, such as equilateral triangles and hexagons, in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259. The crystals were up to 200 nm in size and were often located at the cell poles. Transmission electron microscopy, quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron diffraction established that the crystals comprise at least three different types, found both in whole cells and thin sections. These Ag-containing crystals are embedded in the organic matrix of the bacteria. Their possible potential as organic-metal composites in thin film and surface coating technology is discussed. PMID:10570120

  19. Active Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  20. Active silver nanoparticles for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R L; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in melts of amphiphilic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Vasylyev, S; Damm, C; Segets, D; Hanisch, M; Taccardi, N; Wasserscheid, P; Peukert, W

    2013-03-22

    The current work presents a one-step procedure for the synthesis of amphiphilic silver nanoparticles suitable for production of silver-filled polymeric materials. This solvent free synthesis via reduction of Tollens' reagent as silver precursor in melts of amphiphilic polyesters consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) blocks and hydrophobic alkyl chains allows the production of silver nanoparticles without any by-product formation. This makes them especially interesting for the production of medical devices with antimicrobial properties. In this article the influences of the chain length of the hydrophobic block in the amphiphilic polyesters and the process temperature on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the stability of the particles against agglomeration are discussed. According to the results of spectroscopic and viscosimetric investigations the silver precursor is reduced to elemental silver nanoparticles by a single electron transfer process from the poly(ethylene glycol) chain to the silver ion. PMID:23449006

  2. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  3. Fluorescence of pyrene in inhomogeneous media containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskaya, G. I.

    2014-05-01

    Pyrene fluorescence in inhomogeneous media based on ionic detergents containing silver nanoparticles with different morphologies is investigated. An increase in pyrene monomer emissions in the spectral range of 400-500 nm is observed, due to the resonance between electronic transitions in pyrene molecules in that region and the plasmonic oscillations of silver nanoparticles.

  4. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.

  5. Sonochemical Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Starch: A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis; Pathak, Ravinandan Nath

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles using starch under sonication. Colloidal silver nanoparticles solution exhibited an increase of absorption from 420 to 440 nm with increase starch quantity. Transmission electron microscopy followed by selected area electron diffraction pattern analysis indicated the formation of spherical, polydispersed, amorphous, silver nanoparticles of diameter ranging from 23 to 97 nm with mean particle size of 45.6 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed partial crystalline and amorphous nature of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized in this manner can be used for synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles which have numerous biomedical applications. The optimized reaction conditions include 10 ml of 1 mM AgNO3, 25 mg starch, 11 pH range, and sonication for 20 min at room temperature. PMID:24587771

  6. Pseudomonas deceptionensis DC5-mediated synthesis of extracellular silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jae H; Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon J; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Jin, Chi-Gyu; Yang, Deok C

    2016-09-01

    The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great interest in the field of nanotechnology. The present work highlights the extracellular biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pseudomonas deceptionensis DC5. The particles were synthesized in the culture supernatant within 48 h of incubation. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the culture supernatant was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed the absorption peak at 428 nm, and also under field emission transmission electron microscopy which displayed the spherical shape. In addition, the particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which corresponds to the crystalline nature of nanoparticles, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis which exhibited the intense peak at 3 keV, resembling the silver nanoparticles. Further, the synthesized nanoparticles were examined by elemental mapping which displayed the dominance of the silver element in the synthesized product, and dynamic light scattering which showed the distribution of silver nanoparticles with respect to intensity, volume, and number of particles. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles have been found to be quite active in antimicrobial activity and biofilm inhibition activity against pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the present work emphasized the prospect of using the P. deceptionensis DC5 to achieve the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a facile and environmental manner. PMID:26232081

  7. Silver and gold nanoparticles for sensor and antibacterial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2014-07-01

    Green biogenic method for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Solanum lycopersicums extract as reducing agent was studied. The biomolecules present in the extract was responsible for reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ ions from HAuCl4 and AgNO3 respectively. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique to identify the size, shape of nanoparticles and biomolecules act as reducing agents. UV-visible spectra show the surface plasmon resonance peak at 546 nm and 445 nm corresponding to gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from TEM images and XRD analysis. TEM images showed average size of 14 nm and 12 nm for prepared gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. FTIR analysis provides the presence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stability of the prepared silver and gold nanoparticles. XRD analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles confirmed the formation of metallic silver and gold. The prepared gold and silver nanoparticles show good sensing and antimicrobial activity.

  8. Silver and gold nanoparticles for sensor and antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

    2014-07-15

    Green biogenic method for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Solanum lycopersicums extract as reducing agent was studied. The biomolecules present in the extract was responsible for reduction of Au(3+) and Ag(+) ions from HAuCl4 and AgNO3 respectively. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique to identify the size, shape of nanoparticles and biomolecules act as reducing agents. UV-visible spectra show the surface plasmon resonance peak at 546 nm and 445 nm corresponding to gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from TEM images and XRD analysis. TEM images showed average size of 14 nm and 12 nm for prepared gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. FTIR analysis provides the presence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stability of the prepared silver and gold nanoparticles. XRD analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles confirmed the formation of metallic silver and gold. The prepared gold and silver nanoparticles show good sensing and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24657466

  9. Remobilisation of silver and silver sulphide nanoparticles in soils.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Divina A; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Mike J; Waddington, Lynne; Kookana, Rai S

    2014-10-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) present in consumer products could enter soils through re-use of biosolids. Among these NPs are those based on silver (Ag), which are found sulphidised (e.g. silver sulphide, Ag2S) in biosolids. Herein, our aim was to examine the release of retained Ag(0) and Ag2S NPs in soils and biosolids as facilitated by environmentally and agriculturally relevant ligands. Under natural soil conditions, exemplified by potassium nitrate and humic acid experiments, release of Ag retained in soil was limited. The highest total Ag release was facilitated by ligands that simulated root exudates (citrate) or fertilisers (thiosulphate). Released Ag was predominantly present in the colloidal phase (>3 kDa-< 0.45 μm); intact NPs only identified in Ag2S-NP extracts. For biosolids containing nanoparticulate-Ag-S, release was also enhanced by thiosulphate, though mostly as colloidal-Ag - not intact NPs. These results suggest that exposure to NPs as a result of its release from soils or biosolids will be low. PMID:25014017

  10. Acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Yu, Il Je

    2011-03-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 218 g (males) and 153 g (females), were divided into four groups (five rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (0.94 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 76 µg/m(3)), middle-dose (1.64 × 10(6) particle/ cm(3), 135 µg/m( 3)), and high-dose (3.08 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 750 µg/m(3)). The animals were then exposed to silver nanoparticles (average diameter 18-20 nm) for 4 hours in a whole-body inhalation chamber. The experiment was conducted following Organization Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 403 with the application of good laboratory practice (GLP). In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights, food consumption, and pulmonary function tests were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, and the organ weights measured. The lung function was also measured twice per week after the initial 4-hour exposure. No significant body weight changes or clinical changes were found during the 2-week observation period. The lung function tests also indicated no significant difference between the fresh air control and the exposed groups. Thus, LC50 silver nanoparticles are suggested for higher than 3.1 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (750 µg/m(3)). PMID:20870693

  11. Synthesis and applications of novel silver nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, Kyle

    The field of nanotechnology is rapidly expanding across disciplines as each new development is realized. New exciting technologies are being driven by advances in the application of nanotechnology; including biochemical, optical, and semiconductors research. This thesis will focus on the use of silver nanoparticles as optical labels on cells, methods of forming different small structures of silver nanoparticles, as well as the use of silver nanoparticles in the development of a photovoltaic cell. Silver nanoparticles have been modified with self-assembled monolayers of hydroxyl-terminated long chain thiols and encapsulated with a silica shell. The resulting core-shell nanoparticles were used as optical labels for cell analysis using flow cytometry and microscopy. The excitation of plasmon resonances in nanoparticles results in strong depolarized scattering of visible light permitting detection at the single nanoparticle level. The nanoparticles were modified with neutravidin via epoxide-azide coupling chemistry and biotinylated antibodies targeting cell surface receptors were bound to the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticle labels exhibited long-term stability under physiological conditions without aggregation or silver ion leaching. Labeled cells exhibited two orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattering intensity compared to unlabeled cells. Dimers of silver nanoparticles have been fabricated by first immobilizing a monolayer of single silver nanoparticles onto poly(4-vinylpyridine) covered glass slides. The monolayer was then exposed to adenine, which has two amines which will bind to silver. The nanoparticle monolayer, now modified with adenine, is exposed to a second suspension of nanoparticles which will bind with the amine modified monolayer. Finally, a thin silica shell is formed about the structure via solgel chemistry to prevent dissolution or aggregation upon sonication/striping. Circular arrays of silver nanoparticels are developed using a

  12. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liuya; Lu, Jingran; Xu, Huizhong; Patel, Atish; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Chen, Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in biomedical fields because of their intrinsic therapeutic properties. Here, we introduce methods of synthesizing AgNPs and discuss their physicochemical, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and toxicity properties. We also review the impact of AgNPs on human health and the environment along with the underlying mechanisms. More importantly, we highlight the newly emerging applications of AgNPs as antiviral agents, photosensitizers and/or radiosensitizers, and anticancer therapeutic agents in the treatment of leukemia, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, and skin and/or oral carcinoma. PMID:25543008

  13. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  14. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Sathe, V.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Moringa oleifera flower extract as the reducing agent shows surface plasmon resonance peak at 439 nm. The size and shape of the nanoparticles controlled by varying the concentration of M. oleifera flower extract in the reaction medium. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with the average size of 14 nm. The retinoic acid present in M. oleifera flower extract used as reducing agent and proteins was responsible for capping of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticle shows size-dependent SERS activity. The SERS spectrum indicates that the pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in a stand-on orientation via its nitrogen lone pair electrons.

  15. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antmicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics. PMID:25848272

  16. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2 μg cm−2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μg ml−1) and to 0.7 μg cm−2 silver or 2.1 μg cm−2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

  17. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics. PMID:25848272

  18. Targeted silver nanoparticles for ratiometric cell phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Anne-Mari A.; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Toome, Kadri; Paiste, Päärn; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Braun, Gary B.; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-01

    Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 +/- 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 +/- 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo.Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The

  19. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W; Scheckel, Kirk G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag(+) under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10-15nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5mgL(-1), the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100mgL(-1) as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag(+). Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100mgL(-1) as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. PMID:27016684

  20. Biological Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Najealicka Nicole

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), like almost all nanoparticles, are potentially toxic beyond a certain concentration because the survival of the organism is compromised due to scores of pathophysiological abnormalities above that concentration. However, the mechanism of AgNP toxicity remains undetermined. Instead of applying a toxic dose, these investigations were attempted to monitor the effects of AgNPs at a non-lethal concentration on wild type Drosophila melanogaster by exposing them to nanoparticles throughout their development. All adult flies raised in AgNP doped food indicated that of not more than 50 mg/L had no negative influence on median survival; however, these flies appeared uniformly lighter in body color due to the loss of melanin pigments in their cuticle. Additionally, fertility and vertical movement ability were compromised after AgNP feeding. The determination of the amount of free ionic silver (Ag+) indicated that the observed biological effects had resulted from the AgNPs and not from Ag+. Biochemical analysis suggests that the activity of copper dependent enzymes, namely tyrosinase and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, were decreased significantly following the consumption of AgNPs, despite the constant level of copper present in the tissue. Furthermore, copper supplementation restored the loss of AgNP induced demelanization, and the reduction of functional Ctr1 in Ctr1 heterozygous mutants caused the flies to be resistant to demelanization. Consequently, these studies proposed a mechanism whereby consumption of excess AgNPs in association with membrane bound copper transporter proteins cause sequestration of copper, thus creating a condition that resembles copper starvation. This model also explained the cuticular demelanization effect resulting from AgNP since tyrosinase activity is essential for melanin biosynthesis. Finally, these investigations demonstrated that Drosophila, an established genetic model system, can be well utilized for further

  1. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  2. Effect of silver on the shape of palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dikshita; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a facile route to prepare palladium-silver nanoparticles at considerably low temperature. First the controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles was performed via reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP(polyvinylpyrrolidone) as capping agent. The reaction was carried out at three different temperatures-80°C, 100°C and 120°C for one hour. Short reaction time and low synthesis temperature adds advantage to this method over others. Formed palladium nanoparticles were nearly spherical with the average particle size of 7.5±0.5 nm, 9.5±0.5 nm and 10.5±0.5 nm at 80°C, 100°C and 120°C respectively. Secondly, the palladium-silver nanoparticles were prepared by the simultaneous reduction of palladium and silver from their respective precursors in ethylene glycol at 100°C (optimized temperature). The shape and size distribution was studied by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The role of silver in transforming the shape of palladium nanoparticles from spherical to triangular has been discussed. Spherical symmetry of palladium nanoparticles is disturbed by the interaction of silver ions on the crystal facets of palladium nanoparticles. From UV-vis spectra, the absorption maxima of palladium nanoparticles at 205 nm and absorption maxima of palladium-silver nanoparticles at 272 nm revealed the partial evidence of their formation.

  3. Metal-metal bonding using silver/copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Maeda, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Morita, T.

    2016-08-01

    A method for producing nanoparticles composed of silver and copper and a metal-metal bonding technique using the silver/copper nanoparticles are proposed. The method consists of three steps. First, copper oxide nanoparticles are produced by mixing Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution and NaOH aqueous solution. Second, copper metal nanoparticles are fabricated by reducing the copper oxide nanoparticles with hydrazine in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Third, silver/copper nanoparticles are synthesized by reducing Ag+ ions with hydrazine in the presence of the copper metal nanoparticles. Initial concentrations in the final silver/copper particle colloid, composed of 0.0075 M Cu2+, 0.0025 M Ag+, 1.0 g/L PVP, and 0.6 M hydrazine, produced silver/copper nanoparticles with an average size of 49 nm and a crystal size of 16.8 nm. Discs of copper metal were successfully bonded by the silver/copper nanoparticles under annealing at 400 °C and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5 min in not only hydrogen gas but also nitrogen gas. The shear force required to separate the bonded discs was 22.3 MPa for the hydrogen gas annealing and 14.9 MPa for the nitrogen gas annealing (namely, 66.8 % of that for hydrogen gas annealing).

  4. Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly. PMID:24250635

  5. Metal-metal bonding using silver/copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Maeda, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Morita, T.

    2015-08-01

    A method for producing nanoparticles composed of silver and copper and a metal-metal bonding technique using the silver/copper nanoparticles are proposed. The method consists of three steps. First, copper oxide nanoparticles are produced by mixing Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution and NaOH aqueous solution. Second, copper metal nanoparticles are fabricated by reducing the copper oxide nanoparticles with hydrazine in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Third, silver/copper nanoparticles are synthesized by reducing Ag+ ions with hydrazine in the presence of the copper metal nanoparticles. Initial concentrations in the final silver/copper particle colloid, composed of 0.0075 M Cu2+, 0.0025 M Ag+, 1.0 g/L PVP, and 0.6 M hydrazine, produced silver/copper nanoparticles with an average size of 49 nm and a crystal size of 16.8 nm. Discs of copper metal were successfully bonded by the silver/copper nanoparticles under annealing at 400 °C and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5 min in not only hydrogen gas but also nitrogen gas. The shear force required to separate the bonded discs was 22.3 MPa for the hydrogen gas annealing and 14.9 MPa for the nitrogen gas annealing (namely, 66.8 % of that for hydrogen gas annealing).

  6. Size-separation of silver nanoparticles using sucrose gradient centrifugation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Suresh, Anil K.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2015-08-28

    Size and shape distributions of nanoparticles can drastically contribute to the overall properties of nanoparticles, thereby influencing their interaction with different chemotherapeutic molecules, biological organisms and or materials and cell types. Therefore, to exploit the proper use of nanoparticles for various biomedical and biosensor applications, it is important to obtain well-separated monodispersed nanoparticles. However, gaining precise control over the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles during their synthesis is often a challenging task. Consequently, post-synthesis separation of nanoparticles is necessary. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful one-pot post-synthesis separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles to near modispersities using sucrose density gradientmore » sedimentation. The separation of the nanoparticles was evidenced based on optical confirmation, and spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results clearly demonstrate the facile separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using sucrose density gradient sedimentation and can enable the use of nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.« less

  7. Size-separation of silver nanoparticles using sucrose gradient centrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Anil K.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2015-08-28

    Size and shape distributions of nanoparticles can drastically contribute to the overall properties of nanoparticles, thereby influencing their interaction with different chemotherapeutic molecules, biological organisms and or materials and cell types. Therefore, to exploit the proper use of nanoparticles for various biomedical and biosensor applications, it is important to obtain well-separated monodispersed nanoparticles. However, gaining precise control over the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles during their synthesis is often a challenging task. Consequently, post-synthesis separation of nanoparticles is necessary. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful one-pot post-synthesis separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles to near modispersities using sucrose density gradient sedimentation. The separation of the nanoparticles was evidenced based on optical confirmation, and spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results clearly demonstrate the facile separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using sucrose density gradient sedimentation and can enable the use of nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.

  8. Development of nanostructured silver vanadates decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, R. D.; Souza Filho, A. G.; Brocchi, M.; Martins, D.; Durán, N.; Alves, O. L.

    2010-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and application of silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent. These hybrid materials were synthesized by a precipitation reaction of ammonium vanadate and silver nitrate followed by hydrothermal treatment. The silver vanadate nanowires have lengths of the order of microns and diameters around 60 nm. The silver nanoparticles decorating the nanowires present a diameter distribution varying from 1 to 20 nm. The influence of the pH of the reaction medium on the chemical structure and morphology of silver vanadates was studied and we found that synthesis performed at pH 5.5-6.0 led to silver vanadate nanowires with a higher morphological yield. The antimicrobial activity of these materials was evaluated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus and very promising results were found. The minimum growth inhibiting concentration value against a MRSA strain was found to be ten folds lower than for the antibiotic oxacillin.

  9. Antiglycating potential of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Jalaluddin M; Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Choi, Inho; Khan, Haris M; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2014-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products are major contributors to the pathology of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis; accordingly, identification of antiglycation compounds is attracting considerable interest. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles on advanced glycation end products formation was monitored by several biophysical techniques. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bovine serum albumin and methylglyoxal mixtures incubated with increasing concentrations of silver nanoparticles showed significant reductions in advanced glycation end product formation that were confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. High-performance liquid chromatography showed decreased adduct formation of glycated protein in the presence of silver nanoparticles. The structural changes induced by silver nanoparticles were further confirmed by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Strong inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation was observed in the presence of elevated silver nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that silver nanoparticles are a potent antiglycating agent. PMID:25080376

  10. Silver nanoparticle toxicity in Drosophila: size does matter

    PubMed Central

    Gorth, Deborah J; Rand, David M; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Consumer nanotechnology is a growing industry. Silver nanoparticles are the most common nanomaterial added to commercially available products, so understanding the influence that size has on toxicity is integral to the safe use of these new products. This study examined the influence of silver particle size on Drosophila egg development by comparing the toxicity of both nanoscale and conventional-sized silver particles. Methods: The toxicity assays were conducted by exposing Drosophila eggs to particle concentrations ranging from 10 ppm to 100 ppm of silver. Size, chemistry, and agglomeration of the silver particles were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Results: This analysis confirmed individual silver particle sizes in the ranges of 20–30 nm, 100 nm, and 500–1200 nm, with similar chemistry. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope data also indicated agglomeration in water, with the transmission electron microscopic images showing individual particles in the correct size range, but the dynamic light scattering z-average sizes of the silver nanoparticles were 782 ± 379 nm for the 20–30 nm silver nanoparticles, 693 ± 114 nm for the 100 nm silver nanoparticles, and 508 ± 32 nm for the 500–1200 nm silver particles. Most importantly, here we show significantly more Drosophila egg toxicity when exposed to larger, nonnanometer silver particles. Upon exposure to silver nanoparticles sized 20–30 nm, Drosophila eggs did not exhibit a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in their likelihood to pupate, but eggs exposed to larger silver particles (500–1200 nm) were 91% ± 18% less likely to pupate. Exposure to silver nanoparticles reduced the percentage of pupae able to emerge as adults. At 10 ppm of silver particle exposure, only 57% ± 48% of the pupae exposed to 20–30 nm silver particles became adults, whereas 89% ± 25% of the control

  11. Controlled protein embedment onto Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles for immuno-labeling of nanosilver surface.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Hwan; Lee, Jeong Min; Jung, Yongwon

    2014-05-28

    Difficulties in stable conjugation of biomolecules to nanosilver surfaces have severely limited the use of silver nanostructures in biological applications. Here, we report a facile antibody conjugation onto gold/silver (Au/Ag) core-shell nanoparticles by stable and uniform embedment of an antibody binding protein, protein G, in silver nanoshells. A rigid helical peptide linker with a terminal cysteine residue was fused to protein G. A mixture of the peptide-fused protein G and space-filling free peptide was reacted with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a protein G-linked peptide layer on the particle surface. Uniform silver nanoshells were successfully formed on these protein G-AuNPs, while stably embedding protein G-linked peptide layers. Protein G specifically targets the Fc region of an antibody and thus affords properly orientated antibodies on the particle surface. Compared to Au nanoparticles of similar size with randomly adsorbed antibodies, the present immuno-labeled Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles offered nearly 10-fold higher sensitivities for naked-eye detection of surface bound antigens. In addition, small dye molecules that were bonded to the peptide layer on Au nanoparticles exhibited highly enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals upon Ag shell formation. The present strategy provides a simple but efficient way to conjugate antibodies to nanosilver surfaces, which will greatly facilitate wider use of the superior optical properties of silver nanostructures in biological applications. PMID:24801432

  12. Photoluminescence of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films loaded with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preclíková, Jana; Galář, Pavel; Trojánek, František; Rezek, Bohuslav; Němcová, Yvonne; Malý, Petr

    2011-04-01

    We report on a systematic study of the photoluminescence properties of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films loaded with silver nanoparticles under various ambient conditions: in the temperature interval of 10 to 300 K, under different values of ambient air pressure (5 to 105 Pa), and under visible light irradiation that causes the photochromic transformation of the film. Our results enable us to follow the electron transfer from titanium dioxide into silver nanoparticles and to observe the oxidation of silver nanoparticles during the photochromic transformation. We propose a microscopic model explaining the behavior of extinction and photoluminescence of the Ag-TiO2 film under different values of ambient air pressure.

  13. Misfit stabilized embedded nanoparticles in metallic alloys.

    PubMed

    Gornostyrev, Yu N; Katsnelson, M I

    2015-11-01

    Nanoscale inhomogeneities are typical for numerous metallic alloys and crucially important for their practical applications. At the same time, stabilization mechanisms of such a state are poorly understood. We present a general overview of the problem, together with a more detailed discussion of the prototype example, namely, Guinier-Preston zones in Al-based alloys. It is shown that coherent strain due to a misfit between inclusion and host crystal lattices plays a decisive role in the emergence of the inhomogeneous state. We suggest a model explaining the formation of ultrathin plates (with the thickness of a few lattice constants) typical for Al-Cu alloys. Discreteness of the array of misfit dislocations and long-ranged elastic interactions between them are the key ingredients of the model. This opens a way for a general understanding of the nature of (meta)stable embedded nanoparticles in practically important systems. PMID:26431075

  14. Spectroellipsometric characterization and modeling of plasmonic diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films with embedded Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yaremchuk, Iryna; Meškinis, Šarunas; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Šlapikas, Kestutis; Čiegis, Arvydas; Balevičius, Zigmas; Selskis, Algirdas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films with embedded silver nanoparticles are considered experimentally (spectroellipsometric characterization) and theoretically (modeling of optical properties). Metallic nanocomposite films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering and were studied by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The optical constants of the films were determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and were modeled using the Maxwell-Garnett approximations. Comparison between the extended and renormalized Maxwell-Garnett theory was conducted. Surface plasmon resonance peak have been found to be strongly dependent on the shape of nanoparticles and interaction between them. PMID:25977645

  15. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  16. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sahar, M. R. Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  17. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-11

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

  18. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  19. Nanoindentation of Chitosan Doped with Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Matthew; Teklu, Alem; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole; Department of Physics; Astronomy, College of Charleston Collaboration; Department of Plastic; Reconstructive Surgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences Collaboration

    Imaging and spectroscopic analysis via nanoindentation was performed with the Nanosurf EasyScan2 AFM on the pure and silver doped chitosan samples allowing for a more localized determination of their stiffness, hardness, and reduced Young's modulus. The pure chitosan sample was tested to have a stiffness of 0.367 N/m, a hardness of 1.12 GPa, and a reduced Young's modulus of 30.5 MPa. The film with 5mg Ag nanoparticle per gram of chitosan was tested on the boundaries between the chitosan and Ag nanoparticles to show an increase in stiffness of about 4.6% at 0.384 N/m, an increase in hardness of about 5.4% at 1.18 GPa, and an increase in the reduced Young's modulus of about 5.0% at 3.2 MPa in comparison to the pure chitosan sample. On the other hand, upon increasing the doping to 10mg Ag nanoparticle per gram of chitosan showed a decrease in stiffness of about 6.3% at 0.344 N/m, a decrease in hardness of about 27.0% at 0.820 GPa, and a decrease in the reduced Young's modulus of about 6.0% at 28.7 MPa in comparison to the pure chitosan sample. Obviously, films doped with 5mg Ag nanoparicle per gram of chitosan provided the composites with improved mechanical strength compared to chitosan alone.

  20. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  1. Characterization and Biocompatibility of ``Green'' Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Michael; Kunzelman, Samantha; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Nadagouda, M.; Varma, R.; Hussain, Saber

    2008-10-01

    With ever increasing emphasis on nanotechnology, silver nanoparticle are being considered for many antimicrobial needs ranging from catheter coatings, to burn wound bandages. Current synthesis methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. As a culture intent on reducing our carbon footprint on the earth, societies' focus has turned to ``green'' production capabilities. Therefore, if nanotechnology is to continue to grow at its current rate it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality. Furthermore, with the current and near-future applications of silver nanoparticles in biological systems it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epinephrine of varying concentrations spherical silver nanoparticle are formed. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) and membrane integrity (LDH) in alveolar rat macrophages and human keratinocytes showed that these ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles were nontoxic.

  2. Colorimetric determination of melamine in milk using unmodified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Harish; Mann, Bimlesh; Seth, Raman

    2016-03-01

    Melamine is nitrogen rich chemical compound used as an adulterant in dairy products by unscrupulous people to increase the apparent protein content. This incident prompted the researchers to develop simple methods for easy detection of melamine in food samples. In the present paper, we report a simple and sensitive colorimetric method for detection of melamine in milk based on silver nanoparticles. This method relies upon the principle that melamine causes the aggregation of silver nanoparticles, resulting in abrupt color change from yellow to red under optimized conditions. The concentration of melamine in adulterated sample can be quantitated by monitoring the absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The present colorimetric method which utilizes silver nanoparticles of 35 nm can reliably detect melamine down to a concentration of 0.04 mg l- 1.

  3. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in Sewerage Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage sy...

  4. Hair follicles stimulation effects of gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tura, V; Hagiu, B A; Mangalagiu, I I

    2010-04-01

    In the present work we studied gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles of 14 +/- 6 nm mean diameter, prepared by electrospinning. The electrospinnable solution was obtained by drop-wise adding a AgNO3/acetic acid solution to gelatin which had previously been dissolved in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The silver metallic nanoparticles were formed due to the reducing action of the formic acid. The resulted material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subcutaneous implants in rabbits demonstrated that the gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were resorbed with no inflammatory reactions. An increased number of secondary hair follicles developed in tissue regions close to implants, suggesting the existence of a stimulation effect of silver nanoparticles on hair follicles. PMID:20738075

  5. Colorimetric determination of melamine in milk using unmodified silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Harish; Mann, Bimlesh; Seth, Raman

    2016-03-01

    Melamine is nitrogen rich chemical compound used as an adulterant in dairy products by unscrupulous people to increase the apparent protein content. This incident prompted the researchers to develop simple methods for easy detection of melamine in food samples. In the present paper, we report a simple and sensitive colorimetric method for detection of melamine in milk based on silver nanoparticles. This method relies upon the principle that melamine causes the aggregation of silver nanoparticles, resulting in abrupt color change from yellow to red under optimized conditions. The concentration of melamine in adulterated sample can be quantitated by monitoring the absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The present colorimetric method which utilizes silver nanoparticles of 35 nm can reliably detect melamine down to a concentration of 0.04 mg l(-1). PMID:26654965

  6. Characterization and Biocompatibility of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are currently ~1,000 commercially available products which contain some form of silver nanotechnology, ranging from topological creams and cosmetics, to anti-microbial socks and household cleansers. Previous studies have indicated that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have a ...

  7. Modelling encapsulation of gold and silver nanoparticles inside lipid nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baowan, Duangkamon; Thamwattana, Ngamta

    2014-02-01

    Lipid nanotubes are of particular interest for use as a template to create various one-dimensional nanostructures and as a carrier for drug and gene delivery. Understanding the encapsulation process is therefore crucial for such development. This paper models the interactions between lipid nanotubes and spheres of gold and silver nanoparticles and determines the critical dimension of lipid nanotubes that maximises the interaction with the nanoparticles. Our results confirm the acceptance of gold and silver nanoparticles inside lipid nanotubes. Further, we find that the lipid nanotube of radius approximately 10.23 nm is most favourable to encapsulate both types of nanoparticles.

  8. Imaging of Biological Cells Using Luminescent Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira; Almemar, Zamavang; Jiang, Ke; Culhane, Kyle; Machado, Rosa; Hagen, Guy; Kotko, Andriy; Dmytruk, Igor; Spendier, Kathrin; Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-01-01

    The application of luminescent silver nanoparticles as imaging agents for neural stem and rat basophilic leukemia cells was demonstrated. The experimental size dependence of the extinction and emission spectra for silver nanoparticles were also studied. The nanoparticles were functionalized with fluorescent glycine dimers. Spectral position of the resonance extinction and photoluminescence emission for particles with average diameters ranging from 9 to 32 nm were examined. As the particle size increased, the spectral peaks for both extinction and the intrinsic emission of silver nanoparticles shifted to the red end of the spectrum. The intrinsic photoluminescence of the particles was orders of magnitude weaker and was spectrally separated from the photoluminescence of the glycine dimer ligands. The spectral position of the ligand emission was independent of the particle size; however, the quantum yield of the nanoparticle-ligand system was size-dependent. This was attributed to the enhancement of the ligand's emission caused by the local electric field strength's dependence on the particle size. The maximum quantum yield determined for the nanoparticle-ligand complex was (5.2 ± 0.1) %. The nanoparticles were able to penetrate cell membranes of rat basophilic leukemia and neural stem cells fixed with paraformaldehyde. Additionally, toxicity studies were performed. It was found that towards rat basophilic leukemia cells, luminescent silver nanoparticles had a toxic effect in the silver atom concentration range of 10-100 μM.

  9. Imaging of Biological Cells Using Luminescent Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Vira; Almemar, Zamavang; Jiang, Ke; Culhane, Kyle; Machado, Rosa; Hagen, Guy; Kotko, Andriy; Dmytruk, Igor; Spendier, Kathrin; Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-12-01

    The application of luminescent silver nanoparticles as imaging agents for neural stem and rat basophilic leukemia cells was demonstrated. The experimental size dependence of the extinction and emission spectra for silver nanoparticles were also studied. The nanoparticles were functionalized with fluorescent glycine dimers. Spectral position of the resonance extinction and photoluminescence emission for particles with average diameters ranging from 9 to 32 nm were examined. As the particle size increased, the spectral peaks for both extinction and the intrinsic emission of silver nanoparticles shifted to the red end of the spectrum. The intrinsic photoluminescence of the particles was orders of magnitude weaker and was spectrally separated from the photoluminescence of the glycine dimer ligands. The spectral position of the ligand emission was independent of the particle size; however, the quantum yield of the nanoparticle-ligand system was size-dependent. This was attributed to the enhancement of the ligand's emission caused by the local electric field strength's dependence on the particle size. The maximum quantum yield determined for the nanoparticle-ligand complex was (5.2 ± 0.1) %. The nanoparticles were able to penetrate cell membranes of rat basophilic leukemia and neural stem cells fixed with paraformaldehyde. Additionally, toxicity studies were performed. It was found that towards rat basophilic leukemia cells, luminescent silver nanoparticles had a toxic effect in the silver atom concentration range of 10-100 μM. PMID:26781288

  10. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in solution from a silver salt by laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abid, J P; Wark, A W; Brevet, P F; Girault, H H

    2002-04-01

    A new method is proposed for the fabrication of a well-defined size and shape distribution of silver nanoparticles in solution; the method employs direct laser irradiation of an aqueous solution containing a silver salt and a surfactant in the absence of reducing agents. PMID:12119726

  11. Temperature-driven directional coalescence of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Sun, Dongbai; Gong, Yu; Tan, Yuanyuan; Xing, Xueqing; Mo, Guang; Chen, Zhongjun; Cai, Quan; Li, Zhihong; Yu, Hongying; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized with a chemical reduction method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizing agent. The thermal stability behavior of the silver nanoparticles was studied in the temperature range from 25 to 700°C. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to measure the weight loss of the silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and the change in shape of the silver nanoparticles. In situ temperature-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering was used to detect the increase in particle size with temperature. In situ temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the increase in nanocrystal size and the thermal expansion coefficient. The results demonstrate that sequential slow and fast Ostward ripening are the main methods of nanoparticle growth at lower temperatures (<500°C), whereas successive random and directional coalescences are the main methods of nanoparticle growth at higher temperatures (>500°C). A four-stage model can be used to describe the whole sintering process. The thermal expansion coefficient (2.8 × 10(-5) K(-1)) of silver nanoparticles is about 30% larger than that of bulk silver. To our knowledge, the temperature-driven directional coalescence of silver nanocrystals is reported for the first time. Two possible mechanisms of directional coalescence have been proposed. This study is of importance not only in terms of its fundamental academic interest but also in terms of the thermal stability of silver nanoparticles. PMID:27140151

  12. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-03-28

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics.

  13. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ˜50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3-10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ˜815-900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10-100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics.

  14. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Bin Hasan, Shakeeb; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic (84)Kr and (197)Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm(-1) in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles. PMID:26902734

  15. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm-1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles.

  16. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil. PMID:27451748

  17. Biopolymer capped silver nanoparticles with potential for multifaceted applications.

    PubMed

    Vanamudan, Ageetha; Sudhakar, P Padmaja

    2016-05-01

    A sustainable, green and low cost method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles at room temperature has been developed using guargum as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (GAg) were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, EDS, Raman, XRD and TEM. The interaction of the functional groups present in the biopolymer Guargum (G) with the silver nanoparticles (GAg) were responsible for the nanoparticle surface to function as active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) detection of cationic and anionic dyes. The catalytic degradation of a copper phthalocyanine based dye- Reactive blue - 21(RB-21), an azo dye- Reactive red 141(RR-141) and a xanthene dye- Rhodamine - 6G(Rh-6G) as well as binary mixtures of the three dyes was evaluated using the synthesized nanoparticles. The catalyst also caused a significant reduction in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) suggesting the formation of smaller degraded products. PMID:26800899

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Korbekandi, H; Mirmohammadi, S V; Zolfaghari, B

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis. The aim of this review article is, therefore, to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries. PMID:26339255

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Korbekandi, H.; Mirmohammadi, S.V.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis. The aim of this review article is, therefore, to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries. PMID:26339255

  20. Silver and oxygen: Transition from clusters to nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Martin; Bréchignac, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    By varying the sizes of isolated and charged silver particles, we may observe a wide range of reactions from weak molecular-oxygen physisorption to strong oxygen chemisorption. The global electron configuration dominates the stability of the silver-oxygen complexes. Our experimental studies at 77 K show a cluster regime below 40 free valence electrons in the system. Here each atom of silver added to the complex cause strong alternations of the oxygen binding by quantum effects. Bigger silver-oxygen complexes show smoother size dependence. As is rather typical for nanoparticles, the quantum effects are here less important, while the system size still matters. The electrostatic interaction between the charge state of the nanoparticle and the charge transfer of the reaction accounts for the general trends observed at silver, as it is in related oxygen-metal complexes. xml:lang="fr"

  1. TOPO-capped silver selenide nanoparticles and their incorporation into polymer nanofibers using electrospinning technique

    SciTech Connect

    More, D.S.; Moloto, M.J.; Moloto, N.; Matabola, K.P.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles produced spherical particles with sizes 12 nm (180 °C) and 27 nm (200 °C). • Higher temperature produced increased particle size (∼75 nm) and changed in shape. • Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles (0.2–0.6%) added into PVP (35–45%) to yield reduced fiber beading. • Polymer nanofibers electrospun at 11–20 kV produced fiber diameters of 425–461 nm. • Optical properties in the fibers were observed due to the Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles loaded. - Abstract: Electrospinning is the most common technique for fabricating polymer fibers as well as nanoparticles embedded polymer fibers. Silver selenide nanoparticles were synthesized using tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) as solvent and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as capping environment. Silver selenide was prepared by reacting silver nitrate and selenium with tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) to form TOP–Ag and TOP–Se solutions. Both absorption and emission spectra signify the formation of nanoparticles as well as the TEM which revealed spherical particles with an average particle size of 22 nm. The polymer, PVP used was prepared at concentrations ranging from (35 to 45 wt%) and the TOPO-capped silver selenide nanoparticles (0.2 and 0.6 wt%) were incorporated into them and electrospun by varying the voltage from 11 to 20 kV. The SEM images of the Ag{sub 2}Se/PVP composite fibers revealed the fibers of diameters with average values of 425 and 461 nm. The X-ray diffraction results show peaks which were identified due to α-Ag{sub 2}Se body centered cubic compound. The sharp peak observed for all the samples at 2θ = 44.5 suggest the presence of Ag in the face centered cubic which can be attributed to higher concentration of silver nitrate used with molar ratio of selenium to silver and the abundance of silver in the silver selenide crystal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the

  2. [Ag25(SR)18](-): The "Golden" Silver Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Chakra P; Bootharaju, Megalamane S; Alhilaly, Mohammad J; Bakr, Osman M

    2015-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles with an atomically precise molecular formula [Ag25(SR)18](-) (-SR: thiolate) are synthesized, and their single-crystal structure is determined. This synthesized nanocluster is the only silver nanoparticle that has a virtually identical analogue in gold, i.e., [Au25(SR)18](-), in terms of number of metal atoms, ligand count, superatom electronic configuration, and atomic arrangement. Furthermore, both [Ag25(SR)18](-) and its gold analogue share a number of features in their optical absorption spectra. This unprecedented molecular analogue in silver to mimic gold offers the first model nanoparticle platform to investigate the centuries-old problem of understanding the fundamental differences between silver and gold in terms of nobility, catalytic activity, and optical property. PMID:26322865

  3. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles by silver mirror reaction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongzheng; Li, Yajing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Dongzhi

    2015-06-01

    The silver mirror reaction (SMR) method was selected in this paper to modify electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, and these nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles showed excellent antibacterial properties. PAN nanofibers were first pretreated in AgNO3 aqueous solution before the SMR process so that the silver nanoparticles were distributed evenly on the outer surface of the nanofibers. The final PAN nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM, TEM micrographs and SAED patterns confirmed homogeneous dispersion of the silver nanoparticles which were composed of monocrystals with diameters 20-30nm. EDS and XRD results showed that these monocrystals tended to form face-centered cubic single silver. TGA test indicated that the nanoparticles loaded on the nanofibers reached above 50wt.%. This material was also evaluated by the viable cell-counting method. The results indicated that PAN nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the fungus Monilia albicans. Thus, this material had many potential applications in biomedical fields. PMID:25842144

  4. Green synthesis of colloid silver nanoparticles and resulting biodegradable starch/silver nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Perrine; Gouanvé, Fabrice; Espuche, Eliane

    2014-08-01

    Environmentally friendly silver nanocomposite films were prepared by an ex situ method consisting firstly in the preparation of colloidal silver dispersions and secondly in the dispersion of the as-prepared nanoparticles in a potato starch/glycerol matrix, keeping a green chemistry process all along the synthesis steps. In the first step concerned with the preparation of the colloidal silver dispersions, water, glucose and soluble starch were used as solvent, reducing agent and stabilizing agent, respectively. The influences of the glucose amount and reaction time were investigated on the size and size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. Two distinct silver nanoparticle populations in size (diameter around 5 nm size for the first one and from 20 to 50 nm for the second one) were distinguished and still highlighted in the potato starch/glycerol based nanocomposite films. It was remarkable that lower nanoparticle mean sizes were evidenced by both TEM and UV-vis analyses in the nanocomposites in comparison to the respective colloidal silver dispersions. A dispersion mechanism based on the potential interactions developed between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix and on the polymer chain lengths was proposed to explain this morphology. These nanocomposite film series can be viewed as a promising candidate for many applications in antimicrobial packaging, biomedicines and sensors. PMID:24751276

  5. Antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) based micelles loaded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Kyulavska, Mariya; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Debuigne, Antoine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2010-04-15

    A new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVOH-b-PAN) copolymer obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) copolymer synthesized by cobalt mediated radical polymerization was used for the preparation of PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles. The successful formation of silver loaded micelles has been confirmed by UV-vis, DLS and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and spore solution of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has been studied. PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles showed a strong bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and the minimum bactericidal concentration for each system (MBC) has been determined. PMID:20074742

  6. Engineering Silver Nanoparticles: Towards a Tunable Antimicrobial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puppala, Hema Lakshmi

    Overwhelming production of commercially available products containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) underscores the studies determining their fate in the environment. In order to regulate the use, assess the environmental impact and develop eco-responsible silver products, models that can predict AgNP toxicity based on physicochemical properties are vital. With that vision, this thesis developed well-characterized model libraries of uniform AgNPs stabilized with oleate in the range of 2-45 nm diameter with variable surface coating and investigated the dissolution properties that link AgNP structure to antimicrobial activity. High temperature organic synthesis allowed controlled growth of AgNPs (sigma<15%) by an Ostwald ripening mechanism in the first few hours, and followed by size dependent growth rates yielding uniform nanocrystals. Characterization of these materials revealed a crystalline nature, bidentate binding mode of oleate and non-oxidized pristine silver surface. Phase transfer of these AgNPs from organics to water was facilitated by encapsulation and ligand exchange methods using amphiphilic polymers and methoxy poly (ethylene glycol) (mPEGSH) respectively. Among these surface coatings, steric stabilization by mPEGSH not only helped retain their optical properties but also reduced the dissolution (<1(w/w)%) of AgNPs. This enhanced the stability in various environmentally relevant high ionic strength media (such as Hoaglands, EPA hard water and OECD medium), thereby increasing the shelf life. In addition, size, surface coating, pH of the medium and grafting density of the polymer mediated the dissolution of AgNPs. For instance, the rate of dissolution was decreased by 40% when the polymer coating possessed a mushroom conformation and increased with reducing core size. Analogous to dissolution, physicochemical properties also influenced the antimicrobial activity which were studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bactericidal efficacy assays

  7. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  8. Applications and toxicity of silver nanoparticles: a recent review.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stefania; Vlasceanu, George Mihail; Tiplea, Roxana Elena; Bucur, Ioana Raluca; Lemnaru, Madalina; Marin, Maria Minodora; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit a consistent amount of flexible properties which endorse them for a larger spectrum of applications in biomedicine and related fields. Over the years, silver nanoparticles have been subjected to numerous in vitro and in vivo tests to provide information about their toxic behavior towards living tissues and organisms. Researchers showed that AgNPs have high antimicrobial efficacy against many bacteria species including Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis and also viruses. Due to their novel properties, the incorporation of silver nanoparticles into different materials like textile fibers and wound dressings can extend their utility on the biomedical field while inhibiting infections and biofilm development. Among the noble metal nanoparticles, AgNPs present a series of features like simple synthesis routes, adequate and tunable morphology, and high surface to volume ratio, intracellular delivery system, a large plasmon field area recommending them as ideal biosensors, catalysts or photo-controlled delivery systems. In bioengineering, silver nanoparticles are considered potentially ideal gene delivery systems for tissue regeneration. The remote triggered detection and release of bioactive compounds of silver nanoparticles has proved their relevance also in forensic sciences. The authors report an up to date review related to the toxicity of AgNPs and their applications in antimicrobial activity and biosensors for gene therapy. PMID:25877089

  9. New Paradigm Shift for the Green Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles Utilizing Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review covers general information regarding the green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Owing to their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are widely used in many areas, especially biomedical applications. In green synthesis practices, the chemical reducing agents are eliminated, and biological entities are utilized to convert silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Among the various biological entities, natural plant extracts have emerged as green reducing agents, providing eco-friendly routes for the preparation of silver nanomaterials. The most obvious merits of green synthesis are the increased biocompatibility of the resulting silver nanoparticles and the ease with which the reaction can be carried out. This review summarizes some of the plant extracts that are used to produce antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Additionally, background information regarding the green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is provided. Finally, the toxicological aspects of silver nanoparticles are briefly mentioned. PMID:25343010

  10. Laser synthesis and spectroscopy of acetonitrile/silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, S. T.; Liu, X.; Duncan, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles with acetonitrile ligands are produced in a laser ablation flow reactor. Excimer laser ablation produces gas phase metal clusters which are thermalized with helium or argon collisions in the flowtube, and reactions with acetonitrile vapor coordinate this ligand to the particle surface. The gaseous mixture is captured in a cryogenic trap; warming produces a solution of excess ligand and coated particles. TEM images reveal particle sizes of 10-30 nm diameter. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra are compared to those of standard silver nanoparticles with surfactant coatings. Deep-UV ligand absorption is strongly enhanced by nanoparticle adsorption.

  11. Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

    2012-05-01

    Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

  12. [Antimicrobial activity of stable silver nanoparticles of a certain size].

    PubMed

    Mukha, Iu P; Eremenko, A M; Smirnova, N P; Mikhienkova, A I; Korchak, G I; Gorchev, V F; Chunikhin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining stable silver nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were developed using a binary stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone/sodium dodecylsulphate in optimal ratio. Optical spectra, morphology and dependence of size of the nanoparticles on the amount of reducing agent were studied. Colloidal solutions of nanosilver showed a high bactericidal activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. The mechanism of action of nanosized silver on microbial cell was examined by laser scanning confocal microscope using fluorescent label. First step of antimicrobial effect on microorganisms was membrane damage and penetration of silver nanoparticles into the cell. Prolonged stability of nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity over the past two years were showed. PMID:23795483

  13. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliszewska, I.; Sadowski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects but the antimicrobial mechanism have not been clearly revealed. Here, we report on the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles of silver using wild strains of Penicillium isolated from environment. Kinetics of the formation of nanosilver was monitored using the UV-Vis. TEM micrographs showed the formation of silver nanoparticles in the range 10-100 nm. Obtained Ag nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As results, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were effectively inhibited. Nanosilver is a promising candidate for development of future antibacterial therapies because of its wide spectrum of activity.

  14. Silver nanoparticles: correlating nanoparticle size and cellular uptake with genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kimberly S; Peeler, David J; Casey, Brendan J; Dair, Benita J; Elespuru, Rosalie K

    2015-07-01

    The focus of this research was to develop a better understanding of the pertinent physico-chemical properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that affect genotoxicity, specifically how cellular uptake influences a genotoxic cell response. The genotoxicity of AgNPs was assessed for three potential mechanisms: mutagenicity, clastogenicity and DNA strand-break-based DNA damage. Mutagenicity (reverse mutation assay) was assessed in five bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Echerichia coli, including TA102 that is sensitive to oxidative DNA damage. AgNPs of all sizes tested (10, 20, 50 and 100nm), along with silver nitrate (AgNO3), were negative for mutagenicity in bacteria. No AgNPs could be identified within the bacteria cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating these bacteria lack the ability to actively uptake AgNPs 10nm or larger. Clastogenicity (flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay) and intermediate DNA damage (DNA strand breaks as measured in the Comet assay) were assessed in two mammalian white blood cell lines: Jurkat Clone E6-1 and THP-1. It was observed that micronucleus and Comet assay end points were inversely correlated with AgNP size, with smaller NPs inducing a more genotoxic response. TEM results indicated that AgNPs were confined within intracellular vesicles of mammalian cells and did not penetrate the nucleus. The genotoxicity test results and the effect of AgNO3 controls suggest that silver ions may be the primary, and perhaps only, cause of genotoxicity. Furthermore, since AgNO3 was not mutagenic in the gram-negative bacterial Ames strains tested, the lack of bacterial uptake of the AgNPs may not be the major reason for the lack of genotoxicity observed. PMID:25964273

  15. Silver nanoparticles: correlating nanoparticle size and cellular uptake with genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Kimberly S.; Peeler, David J.; Casey, Brendan J.; Dair, Benita J.; Elespuru, Rosalie K.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research was to develop a better understanding of the pertinent physico-chemical properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that affect genotoxicity, specifically how cellular uptake influences a genotoxic cell response. The genotoxicity of AgNPs was assessed for three potential mechanisms: mutagenicity, clastogenicity and DNA strand-break-based DNA damage. Mutagenicity (reverse mutation assay) was assessed in five bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Echerichia coli, including TA102 that is sensitive to oxidative DNA damage. AgNPs of all sizes tested (10, 20, 50 and 100nm), along with silver nitrate (AgNO3), were negative for mutagenicity in bacteria. No AgNPs could be identified within the bacteria cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating these bacteria lack the ability to actively uptake AgNPs 10nm or larger. Clastogenicity (flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay) and intermediate DNA damage (DNA strand breaks as measured in the Comet assay) were assessed in two mammalian white blood cell lines: Jurkat Clone E6-1 and THP-1. It was observed that micronucleus and Comet assay end points were inversely correlated with AgNP size, with smaller NPs inducing a more genotoxic response. TEM results indicated that AgNPs were confined within intracellular vesicles of mammalian cells and did not penetrate the nucleus. The genotoxicity test results and the effect of AgNO3 controls suggest that silver ions may be the primary, and perhaps only, cause of genotoxicity. Furthermore, since AgNO3 was not mutagenic in the gram-negative bacterial Ames strains tested, the lack of bacterial uptake of the AgNPs may not be the major reason for the lack of genotoxicity observed. PMID:25964273

  16. Preparation of conducting silver paste with Ag nanoparticles prepared by e-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jong Hwa; Pham, Long Quoc; Kang, Hyun Suk; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kang, Young Soo

    2010-11-01

    Conducting silver paste was prepared by using Ag nanoparticles which were synthesized by e-beam irradiation method (from KAERI); its conductivity was comparatively determined with Ag nanoparticles which were prepared by thermolysis method (commercial). The silver nanoparticles with the diameter of approximately 150 nm size prepared by e-beam irradiation were mixed with glass frit and sintered for 1 h at 500 °C. It is presumably concluded that the wt% of silver nanoparticle, size distribution and homogenous dispersibility of Ag nanoparticles in the pastes are the critical factors for the high conductivity of the paste. Among the various wt% of silver nanoparticle in the conducting silver pastes, silver paste with 90 wt% of silver nanoparticle has the highest conductivity as 1.6×10 4 S cm -1. This conductivity value is 1.6 times higher than the Ag pastes which were prepared with silver nanoparticles obtained by thermolysis method.

  17. Silver Nanoparticles in SiO2 Microspheres - Preparation by Spray Drying and Use as Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Mahltig, Boris; Haufe, Helfried; Muschter, Kerstin; Fischer, Anja; Kim, Young Hwan; Gutmann, Emanuel; Reibold, Marianne; Meyer, Dirk Carl; Textor, Torsten; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Young Soo

    2010-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 particles of micrometer size are prepared using spray drying. The spray drying is performed with a SiO2 sol (solvent water:ethanol 4: 1) containing SiO2 and silver particles of nanometer size. During spray drying the SiO2 nanoparticles aggregate to SiO2 microspheres whereas the silver particles exhibit only a small tendency of aggregation and keep their nanometer size. However under special conditions also the formation of crystalline silver rods is observed. The antibacterial activity of the resulting Ag/SiO2 powders is determined against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Because of this antibacterial acitivity and the fact that the powder of SiO2 microspheres exhibits a good dispersibility, such materials have an immense potential to be used as antimicrobial additive in processes like master batch or fiber production. PMID:24061743

  18. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  19. Structure of silver clusters embedded in erionite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, J. S.; Bogdanchikova, N. E.; Corker, J. M.; Petranovskii, V. P.

    The structure of silver clusters stabilised in erionite has been studied by EXAFS, and the results support an interpretation given previously that the absorption peaks at 322 and 293 nm in the optical spectra of the sample belong to the cluster species Ag80 and Ag8δ+. Five possible geometries were considered for an Ag8 cluster, and for each one, the expected Ag EXAFS was calculated and compared with the experimental data. The observed coordination numbers indicate an absence of bulk silver metal, and the best fit was obtained for a polyhedron with D2d symmetry, which corresponds closely with the results of minimum energy structure calculations. The derived Ag-O distances discount the formation of silver oxides, but are consistent with a weak interaction between the silver clusters and the oxygen atoms of the surrounding channel. The results therefore indicate that erionite promotes the formation of 8-atom silver clusters in the channels of the crystalline framework.

  20. Silver_ nanoparticles inhibited erythrogenesis during zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bei; Ren, Long; Xu, Qin-Han; Yin, Li-Yan; Zhou, Xin-Ying; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Silver_ nanoparticles (AgNPs), for their attractive antimicrobial properties, have become one of the most commercial nanomaterials used recently. AgNPs are reported to be toxic to blood cells of aquatic organisms and humans, however, few studies related to toxic effects of AgNPs in hematopoiesis using an in vivo model were available. Firstly, microarrays were applied to reveal transcriptional responses of zebrafish embryos to AgNPs at 24h post-fertilization (hpf)in this study, and hemoglobin genes were found to be down-regulated by AgNPs and to be enriched in the top 10 categories by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. The reduced expressions of hemoglobin were further demonstrated by qRT-PCR detection, whole-mount in situ hybridization, and O-dianisidine staining at transcriptional and translational level. Next, the commitment of mesoderm, specification of hematopoietic progenitor cells and differentiation of erythroids were detected at different developmental stages in AgNPs-exposed embryos, and erythrogenesis were found to be inhibited by AgNPs in developmental-stage-specific and cell-specific manners. Finally, it was pointed out that AgNPs affected erythrogenesis mostly by their particles other than their releasing ions. PMID:27340786

  1. Synthesis and oxidation of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hua; Alexson, D. A.; Glembocki, O. J.; Prokes, S. M.

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrated a fast and easy way to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on ZnO nanowires (NWs) and silicon substrates by an electroless (EL) plating approach. ZnO NWs used here were grown via vapor-solid (VS) mechanism at 560 °C for 30 min. The stability to oxidation of these EL-produced homogeneous Ag NPs on ZnO nanowires was investigated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), showing that the attachment of thiol to the Ag surface can slow down the oxidation process, and the SERS signal remains strong for more than ten days. Furthermore, we examined the surface oxidation kinetics of the Ag NPs as a function of NPs size and size distribution by monitoring the oxygen amount in the composites using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). Results indicate that the EL plated Ag NPs show faster oxidation rates than those produced by e-beam (EB) evaporation in air. We attribute this to the fact that the EL produced silver particles are very small, in the 20 nm range, and thus have high surface energy, thus enhancing the oxidation. These studies provide extensive information related to the Ag NP oxidation rates, which can help in extending the Ag lifetime for various applications.

  2. Role of silver nanoparticles in the laser-induced reversible colour-marking and controlled crystallization of mesoporous titania films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Destouches, N.; Gamet, E.; Bois, L.; Chassagneux, F.; Nadar, L.; Vocanson, F.

    2011-10-01

    Due to their surface plasmon resonance silver nanoparticles are known to absorb visible light and give glasses various colors. Grown in mesoporous titania films, they give the material a photochromic behaviour that can be used to produce rewritable data carriers. On the one hand, UV light forms silver nanoparticles thanks to the photo-induced generation of electrons by titania matrix. On the other hand, visible light oxidizes the silver nanoparticles via the photoexcitation of electrons on Ag and their stabilization by oxygen molecules. The well controlled porosity of the mesoporous films allows to tune the nanoparticles size and to obtain, under UV illumination, homogenous distributions of small nanoparticles embedded within the titania matrix, which color the films. As all nanoparticles absorb light similarly, the film can then be completely bleached under exposure to a visible laser beam whose wavelength falls in the SPR band of the particles. Therefore, CW UV and visible focused-laser radiations, respectively, can repeatedly print and completely erase colored micropatterns within TiO2/Ag films. The paper shows patterns printed under different conditions, deals with the reproducibility of the process and the inscription stability, and explains the nanoscale mechanisms, including silver migration during exposures, leading to the reversible color changes on the basis of TEM, SEM, absorption spectroscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy characterizations. This paper also evidences that CW laser illuminations at higher intensity locally crystallize the titania matrix and investigates the influence of the absorption-induced heating around nanoparticles.

  3. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  4. Silver nanoparticle assisted urine sugar determination using thermal lens spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Lincy; John, Jisha; George, Nibu A.; Kurian, Achamma

    2014-11-01

    Nanotechnology plays a vital role in the development of biosensors by enhancing their sensitivity and performance. In this paper, we report a novel urine sugar sensing method that makes use of the unique properties of silver-nanofluids in combination with the laser induced photothermal lens technique. The thermal lens signal decreases with increase in sugar levels in urine samples, which may be attributed to the enhanced interaction of glucose and conduction electrons of silver-nanoparticles, thereby changing the surface plasmon energy.

  5. Nanoscale self-arranged layers of silver nanoparticles in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redkov, Alexey V.; Lipovskii, Andrey A.; Dussauze, Marc; Paraillous, Maxime; Cardinal, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    We characterized changes in the composition of subsurface layer of silver ion-exchanged soda-lime glass during annealing in hydrogen atmosphere. The formation of tens of nanometers distanced layers of silver nanoparticles in the glass at temperature of 300 °C has been revealed. Performed numerical modeling of the process demonstrates a good qualitative agreement with the experiment. This is of interest for simple formation of 3D-optoplasmonic structures, Bragg gratings or photonic crystals.

  6. Silver Nanoparticle Fabrication by Laser Ablation in Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimah Mohamed., K.; Mahmoud Goodarz, Naseri; Amir, Reza Sadrolhosseini; Arash, Dehzangi; Ahmad, Kamalianfar; Elias, B. Saion; Reza, Zamiri; Hossein Abastabar, Ahangar; Burhanuddin, Y. Majlis

    2014-07-01

    A laser ablation technique is applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in different concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution. The ablation of high pure silver plate in the solution is carried out by a nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are implemented to explore the particles sizes. The effects of PVA concentrations on the absorbance of the silver nanoparticles are studied as well, by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The preparation process is carried out for deionized water as a reference sample. The comparison of the obtained results with the reference sample shows that the formation efficiency of nanoparticles in PVA is much higher and the sizes of particles are also smaller.

  7. Sulfidation of Silver Nanoparticles: Natural antidote to their toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Levard, Clément; Hotze, Ernest M.; Colman, Benjamin P.; Truong, Lisa; Yang, X. Y.; Bone, Audrey; Brown, Gordon E.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Meyer, Joel N.; Wiesner, Mark R.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are highly dynamic in biological and environmental media. A critical need for advancing environmental health and safety research for nanomaterials is to identify commonly occurring physical and chemical transformations affecting nanomaterial properties and toxicity. Silver nanoparticles, one of the most ecotoxic and well-studied nanomaterials, readily sulfidize in the environment. Here, we show that very low degrees of sulfidation (0.019 S/Ag mass ratio) universally and significantly decreases the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to four diverse types of aquatic and terrestrial eukaryotic organisms. Toxicity reduction is primarily associated with a decrease in Ag+ availability after sulfidation due to the lower solubility of Ag2S relative to elemental Ag (Ag(0)). We also show that chloride in exposure media determines silver nanoparticle toxicity by controlling the speciation of Ag. These results highlight the need to consider environmental transformation of NPs in assessing their toxicity to accurately portray their potential environmental risks. PMID:24180218

  8. Fungicidal activity of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deepika; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    This work highlighted the fungicidal properties of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola. Alternaria brassicicola causes Black spot of Cauliflower, radish, cabbage, kale which results in sever agricultural loss. We treat the synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 110 ppm concentrations against Alternaria brassicicola on PDA containing Petri dish. We calculated inhibitory rate (%) in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. Treatment with 100ppm AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola i.e.92.2%. 110ppm of AgNPS also shows the same result, therefore 100ppm AgNPs was treated as optimize concentration. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a Alternaria brassicicola, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as fungicide in plant disease management. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into plant disease management strategies.

  9. Coconut water assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elumalai, Erusan Kuppan; Kayalvizhi, Karuppsamy; Silvan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the coconut water (C. nucifera) as the reducing agent. The formation of Ag-NPs was characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized Ag-NPs were predominately polydispersed. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticle in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparicles was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Conclusion: The approach of green synthesis appears to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:25400406

  10. Effects of dental porcelain containing silver nanoparticles on static fatigue.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Kamemizu, Hideo; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of silver nanoparticles on the behavior of subcritical crack growth (SCG) in dental porcelains. Prior to occurrence of fast fracture in dental porcelains, SCG occurs and leads to strength degradation over time. SCG in dental porcelains can be characterized by the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, n. A higher n value means a higher resistance to SCG. In this study, porcelain disks were prepared by mixing a commercial dental porcelain powder with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles, and then air-dried and fired according to manufacturer's instructions. Stress corrosion susceptibility coefficients of powder compacts were determined using a post-indentation method. A Vickers indenter was applied to the porcelain surface, and lengths of median cracks were measured at fixed time intervals over a 24-h period to calculate n. Addition of silver nanoparticles significantly increased the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient of dental porcelain. PMID:23719000

  11. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. PMID:24411349

  12. Reducing Environmental Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles through Shape Control.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Danielle E; Osterberg, Joshua S; Gwin, Carley A; Colman, Benjamin P; Meyer, Joel N; Bernhardt, Emily S; Gunsch, Claudia K; DiGulio, Richard T; Liu, Jie

    2015-08-18

    The use of antibacterial silver nanomaterials in consumer products ranging from textiles to toys has given rise to concerns over their environmental toxicity. These materials, primarily nanoparticles, have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of organisms; thus methods and materials that reduce their environmental toxicity while retaining their useful antibacterial properties can potentially solve this problem. Here we demonstrate that silver nanocubes display a lower toxicity toward the model plant species Lolium multiflorum while showing similar toxicity toward other environmentally relevant and model organisms (Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans) and bacterial species (Esherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) compared to quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires. More specifically, in the L. multiflorum experiments, the roots of silver nanocube treated plants were 5.3% shorter than the control, while silver nanoparticle treated plant roots were 39.6% shorter than the control. The findings here could assist in the future development of new antibacterial products that cause less environmental toxicity after their intended use. PMID:26146787

  13. Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung Investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. We found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period. PMID:25517690

  14. Heteroaggregation of Silver Nanoparticles with Clay Minerals in Aqueous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Burrow, E.; Hwang, Y.; Lenhart, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly being used in industrial processes and consumer products that exploit their beneficial properties and improve our daily lives. Nevertheless, they also attract attention when released into natural environment due to their potential for causing adverse effects. The fate and transport of nanoparticles in aqueous systems have been the focus of intense study. However, their interactions with other natural particles have received only limited attention. Clay minerals are ubiquitous in most aquatic systems and their variably charged surfaces can act as deposition sites that can alter the fate and transport of nanoparticles in natural aqueous environments. In this study, we investigated the homoaggregation of silver nanoparticles with different coating layers and their heteroaggregation behavior with clay minerals (illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite) in neutral pH solutions. Silver nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 80 nm were synthesized with three different surface coating layers: uncoated, citrate-coated and Tween-coated. Illite (IMt-2), kaolinite (KGa-2), and montmorillonite (SWy-2) were purchased from the Clay Mineral Society (Indiana) and pretreated to obtain monocationic (Na-clay) and dicationic (Ca-clay) suspensions before the experiments. The change in hydrodynamic diameter as a function of time was monitored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in order to evaluate early stage aggregation as a function of electrolyte concentration in both the homo- and heteroaggregation scenarios. A shift in the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values to lower electrolyte concentrations was observed in binary systems, compared to single silver nanoparticle and clay systems. The results also suggest more rapid aggregation in binary system during the early aggregation stage when compared to the single-particle systems. The behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles was similar to that of the bare particles, while the

  15. Biocide silver nanoparticles in two different silica-based coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babapour, A.; Yang, B.; Bahang, S.; Cao, W.

    2012-09-01

    Silica-based coatings containing biocide silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using low temperature sol-gel method. Two different silane based matrices, phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTEOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), were selected as precursor to prepare silica-based film. The films were analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their optical, surface morphological as well as structural properties. Optical properties of nanosilver in these two matrices showed that the peak absorption observed at different wavelength, which is due to the fact that optical absorption of nanoparticles is affected by the surrounding medium. It is also found that the silver absorption has higher intensity in PhTEOS than in TEOS matrix, indicating higher concentration of silver nanoparticles being loaded into the coating. To study silver release property, the films were immersed in water for 12 and 20 days. AFM and SEM analyzes present that higher concentration of silver nanoparticles and smaller particle sizes were synthesis in PhTEOS coating and consequently, more particles remains on the surfaces after 20 days which leads to longer antibacterial activity of PhTEOS coating.

  16. Interaction between Silver Nanoparticles and Spinach Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Riser, E.; He, S.; Zhang, W.

    2013-12-01

    Interactions of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plant surfaces are critical to assessing the bioavailability of ENPs to edible plants and to further evaluating impacts of ENPs on ecological health and food safety. Silver nanoparticles (i.e., nanoAg) could enter the agroecosystems either as an active ingredient in pesticides or from other industrial and consumer applications. Thus, in the events of pesticide application, rainfall, and irrigation, vegetable leaves could become in contact and then interact with nanoAg. The present study was to assess whether the interaction of nanoAg with spinach leaves can be described by classical sorption models and to what extent it depends on and varies with dispersion methods, environmental temperature, and ion release. We investigated the stability and ion release of nanoAg dispersed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 1%) and humic acid (HA, 10 mg C/L) solutions, as well as sorption and desorption of nanoAg on and from the fresh spinach leaf. Results showed SDS-nanoAg released about 2%-8% more Ag ion than HA-nanoAg. The sorption of Ag ion, described by the Freundlich model in the initial concentration range of 0.6-50 mg/L, was 2-4 times higher than that of nanoAg. The sorption of nanoAg on spinach leaf can be fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg was 0.21 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively. The higher sorption of SDS-nanoAg relative to that of HA-nanoAg could be partially resulted from the higher release of Ag ion from the former. The maximum desorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg in 1% SDS solution was 0.08 and 0.10 mg/g, respectively. NanoAg attachment on and its penetration to the spinach leaf was visualized by the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). It is equally important that the less sorption of nanoAg under low environmental temperature could be partially due to the closure of stomata, as verified by SEM-EDS. Cyto

  17. Studies on the annealing and antibacterial properties of the silver-embedded aluminum/silica nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Substantial silver-embedded aluminum/silica nanospheres with uniform diameter and morphology were successfully synthesized by sol-gel technique. After various annealing temperatures, the surface mechanisms of each sample were analyzed using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical durability examinations and antibacterial tests of each sample were also carried out for the confirmation of its practical usage. Based on the result of the above analyses, the silver-embedded aluminum/silica nanospheres are eligible for fabricating antibacterial utensils. PMID:25136275

  18. Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing better dressings for wounds and ulcers. This article reviews the role of silver nanoparticles in wound healing. PMID:24527370

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2014-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

  20. Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Mendieta, Irasema; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Castaño, Víctor M

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition of Candida albicans on denture resins could play a significant role in preventing the development of denture stomatitis. The safety of a new dental material with antifungal properties was analyzed in this work. Methods Poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] discs and PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs were formulated, with the commercial acrylic resin, Nature-CrylTM, used as a control. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay). Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles. Results The results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs significantly reduce adherence of C. albicans and do not affect metabolism or proliferation. They also appear not to cause genotoxic damage to cells. Conclusion The present work has developed a new biocompatible antifungal PMMA denture base material. PMID:22969297

  1. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M.; Morella, Jacob D.; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications. PMID:24683414

  2. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, G. G.; Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L.; Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M.; Rossi, C. Oliviero; Popa, A.; Toloman, D.; Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  3. Dermal exposure potential from textiles that contain silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Thomas, Treye A; LeBouf, Ryan F; Wade, Eleanor E; Abbas Virji, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence exposure to silver particles from the use of textiles are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of product treatment and physiological factors on silver release from two textiles. Methods: Atomic and absorbance spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were applied to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the textiles and evaluate silver release in artificial sweat and saliva under varying physiological conditions. One textile had silver incorporated into fiber threads (masterbatch process) and the other had silver nanoparticles coated on fiber surfaces (finishing process). Results: Several complementary and confirmatory analytical techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, etc.) were required to properly assess silver release. Silver released into artificial sweat or saliva was primarily in ionic form. In a simulated “use” and laundering experiment, the total cumulative amount of silver ion released was greater for the finishing process textile (0.51±0.04%) than the masterbatch process textile (0.21±0.01%); P<0.01. Conclusions: We found that the process (masterbatch vs finishing) used to treat textile fibers was a more influential exposure factor than physiological properties of artificial sweat or saliva. PMID:25000110

  4. Characterization of enhanced antibacterial effects of novel silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Siddhartha; Bera, Tanmay; Roy, Arnab; Singh, Gajendra; Ramachandrarao, P.; Dash, Debabrata

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, we report the preparation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 10-15 nm with increased stability and enhanced anti-bacterial potency. The morphology of the nanoparticles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles used in this study was found to be far more potent than that described in the earlier reports. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive organisms. Although bacterial cell lysis could be one of the reasons for the observed antibacterial property, nanoparticles also modulated the phosphotyrosine profile of putative bacterial peptides, which could thus affect bacterial signal transduction and inhibit the growth of the organisms.

  5. Inkjet printed fractal-connected electrodes with silver nanoparticle ink.

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Mohammad; Lee, Kil Mok; Hong, A-Ra; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2012-06-27

    The development of a simple and reliable method for nanoparticles-based ink in an aqueous solution is still a challenge for its inkjet printing application. Herein, we demonstrate the inkjet printing of fractal-aggregated silver (Ag) electrode lines on substrates. Spherical, monodisperse Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate as a precursor, ethylene glycol as a reducing agent, and polyvinyl pyrrollidone as a capping agent. As-synthesized pure Ag nanoparticles were well dispersed in water-ethylene glycol mixture, which was directly used as an ink for inkjet printing. Using this ink, the Ag electrodes of fractal-connected lines were printed on Si/SiO2, glass, and polymer substrates. The fractal-connected Ag lines were attributed to the diffusion-limited aggregation of Ag nanoparticles and the effect of annealing on conductivity was also examined. PMID:22670766

  6. Interaction studies between biosynthesized silver nanoparticle with calf thymus DNA and cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Swarup; Sadhukhan, Ratan; Ghosh, Utpal; Das, Tapan Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with silver nanoparticles (SNP) has been investigated following spectroscopic studies, analysis of melting temperature (Tm) curves and hydrodynamic measurement. In spectrophotometric titration and thermal denaturation studies of CTDNA it was found that SNP can form a complex with double-helical DNA and the increasing value of Tm also supported the same. The association constant of SNP with DNA from UV-Vis study was found to be 4.1 × 103 L/mol. The fluorescence emission spectra of intercalated ethidium bromide (EB) with increasing concentration of SNP represented a significant reduction of EB intensity and quenching of EB fluorescence. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that SNP can change the conformation of DNA. From spectroscopic, hydrodynamic, and DNA melting studies, SNP has been found to be a DNA groove binder possessing partial intercalating property. Cell cytotoxicity of SNP was compared with that of normal silver salt solution on HeLa cells. Our results show that SNP has less cytotoxicity compared to its normal salt solution and good cell staining property.

  7. Silver ions eluted from partially protected silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Heidari Zare, Hamideh; Düttmann, Oliver; Vass, Attila; Franz, Gerhard; Jocham, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent character of a new type of antibacterial urological catheters is the zebra-stripe pattern of a silver film, which is plated electroless on their interior wall and capped by a very thin semipermeable layer of parylene. This design effectively controls the release rate of Ag(+) ions in artificial urine, which has been measured as function of time with optical emission spectroscopy. By evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration against certain strains of bacteria with solutions of AgNO3 of known concentration with the method of optical density and applying this analysis to the silver-eluting catheters, it was shown that this moderation prolongs the period of their application significantly. But to act as antibacterial agent in chlorine-containing solutions, as in urine, the presence of urea is required to avoid precipitation of AgCl and to meet or even exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of Ag(+). The quality of the silver depot layer was further determined by the deposition rate and its morphology, which revealed that the film consisted of grains with a mean size of 150 nm. PMID:27400747

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nano ZnO, nano Ag/ZnO composite & nano-particles embedded polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Are, Thilak Reddy

    Zinc oxide and silver/zinc oxide nano particles were synthesized by a simple precipitation method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone prevents agglomeration and allows the formation of nano sized particles. Characterization of synthesized nano particles were carried out using X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and the average sizes were determined by zeta seizer. The X-ray diffraction shows that the prepared particles were poorly crystalline. The DSC results show that the prepared particles are highly stable and no phase changes were observed when heated from room temperature to 500°C. Scanning electron microscopic observation shows that the particles are uniformly distributed with similar shape. Zeta seizer results show that the prepared particles are nano-particles with average size of about 100 nm. The prepared Zinc oxide nano particles were embedded into the polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer to study the effect of embedding zinc oxide nanoparticle on PCL crystallinity and mechanical properties. ZnO nano particles were successfully embedded into the polymer using in-situ and non-in-situ embedding processes. Characterization of PCL embedded with ZnO nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscope. Crystallinity studies were done by using differential scanning calorimetry and the results show that the polymer embedded using an in situ process showed a decrease in crystallinity compared to the polymer embedded using a non-insitu process.

  9. Selective growth and integration of silver nanoparticles on silver nanowires at room conditions for transparent nano-network electrode.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifei; Zhang, Di; Ren, Xingang; Liu, Jian; Choy, Wallace C H

    2014-10-28

    Recently, metal nanowires have received great research interests due to their potential as next-generation flexible transparent electrodes. While great efforts have been devoted to develop enabling nanowire electrodes, reduced contact resistance of the metal nanowires and improved electrical stability under continuous bias operation are key issues for practical applications. Here, we propose and demonstrate an approach through a low-cost, robust, room temperature and room atmosphere process to fabricate a conductive silver nano-network comprising silver nanowires and silver nanoparticles. To be more specific, silver nanoparticles are selectively grown and chemically integrated in situ at the junction where silver nanowires meet. The site-selective growth of silver nanoparticles is achieved by a plasmon-induced chemical reaction using a simple light source at very low optical power density. Compared to silver nanowire electrodes without chemical treatment, we observe tremendous conductivity improvement in our silver nano-networks, while the loss in optical transmission is negligible. Furthermore, the silver nano-networks exhibit superior electrical stability under continuous bias operation compared to silver nanowire electrodes formed by thermal annealing. Interestingly, our silver nano-network is readily peeled off in water, which can be easily transferred to other substrates and devices for versatile applications. We demonstrate the feasibly transferrable silver conductive nano-network as the top electrode in organic solar cells. Consequently, the transparent and conductive silver nano-networks formed by our approach would be an excellent candidate for various applications in optoelectronics and electronics. PMID:25285984

  10. Extraordinarily high conductivity of flexible adhesive films by hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, C Muhammed; Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-06-01

    Highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) film was developed using micro-sized silver flakes (primary fillers), hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires (secondary fillers) and nitrile butadiene rubber. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were synthesized by decorating silver nanowires with silver nanoparticle clusters using bifunctional cysteamine as a linker. The dispersion in ethanol was excellent for several months. Silver nanowires constructed electrical networks between the micro-scale silver flakes. The low-temperature surface sintering of silver nanoparticles enabled effective joining of silver nanowires to silver flakes. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires provided a greater maximum conductivity (54 390 S cm(-1)) than pure silver nanowires, pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles in nitrile butadiene rubber matrix. The resistance change was smallest upon bending when the hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were employed. The adhesion of the film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate was excellent. Light emitting diodes were successfully wired to the CFA circuit patterned by the screen printing method for application demonstration. PMID:27109551

  11. Gold and silver nanoparticles from Trianthema decandra: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Geethalakshmi, R; Sarada, DVL

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various markets, including medicine, catalysis, electronics, chemistry, and energy. In this report, a simple and ecofriendly chemical reaction for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from Trianthema decandra (Aizoaceae) has been developed. Methods and results On treatment of aqueous solutions containing chloroauric acid or silver nitrate with root extract of T. decandra, stable gold or silver nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The kinetics of reduction of gold and silver ions during the reaction was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy showed formation of gold nanoparticles in various shapes, including spherical, cubical, triangular, and hexagonal, while silver nanoparticles were spherical. The size of the gold nanoparticles was 33–65 nm and that of the silver nanoparticles was 36–74 nm. Energy dispersive x-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metallic gold and metallic silver in the respective nanoparticles. The antimicrobial properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed using the Kirby-Bauer method. The results show varied susceptibility of microorganisms to the gold and silver nanoparticles. Conclusion It is believed that phytochemicals present in T. decandra extract reduce the silver and gold ions into metallic nanoparticles. This strategy reduces the cost of production and the environmental impact. The silver and gold nanoparticles formed showed strong activity against all microorganisms tested. PMID:23091381

  12. Electrochemical synthesis, characterisation and phytogenic properties of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaravelan, R.; Bangaru Sudarsan Alwar, S.

    2015-11-01

    This work exemplifies a simple and rapid method for the synthesis of silver nanodendrite with a novel electrochemical technique. The antibacterial activity of these silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) against pathogenic bacteria was investigated along with the routine study of optical and spectral characterisation. The optical properties of the silver nanoparticles were characterised by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The optical band gap energy of the electrodeposited Ag NPs was determined from the diffuse reflectance using Kubelka-Munk formula. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to determine the crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles which confirmed the formation of silver nanocrystals. The XRD pattern revealed that the electrodeposited Ag NPs were in the cubic geometry with dendrite preponderance. The average particle size and the peak broadening were deliberated using Debye-Scherrer equation and lattice strain due to the peak broadening was studied using Williamson-Hall method. Surface morphology of the Ag NPs was characterised by high-resolution scanning electron microscope and the results showed the high degree of aggregation in the particles. The antibacterial activity of the Ag NPs was evaluated and showed unprecedented level antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli in combination with Streptomycin.

  13. SERS spectroscopy of nanocomposite porous films containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, E. B.; Krischenko, I. M.; Kravchenko, S. A.; Manoilov, E. G.; Golichenko, B. O.; Kolomys, A. F.; Strel'chuk, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    It is demonstrated that surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy allows detecting 10-10 M Rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) on nanocomposite films containing silver nanoparticles with an amplification factor of 3 × 107. The films used for SERS, which exhibit gradients of thickness and have silver particles and pores of different size, were obtained by pulse laser deposition from the low-energy backward erosion flux. To activate the SERS signal, the films were treated in solutions of metal chlorides and hydrogen chloride to achieve formation of anions of [AgCl2]- complexes. The composition of shells of silver nanoparticles, in particular, replacement of silver compounds preventing Rh 6G adsorption by anions of [AgCl2]- complexes enabling adsorption of Rh 6G cation between them, has been monitored by means of SERS spectroscopy. The obtained SERS spectra of Rh 6G in several locations on the film surface allowed determining the area with an optimal size of silver nanoparticles that gives rise to highest SERS signal intensity. The transmission spectra of the films revealed narrowing of the band corresponding to the local surface plasmon absorption, its shift toward the blue spectral region, and enhancement of plasmon resonance upon introduction of chlorine anion. The changes in absorption spectra of the films correlate with the activation of the Rh 6G SERS spectra.

  14. Adsorption mechanisms of RNA mononucleotides on silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljanić, Snežana; Dijanošić, Adriana; Matić, Ivona

    2015-02-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of four RNA mononucleotides (AMP, GMP, CMP and UMP) has been studied on the citrate-reduced silver colloid aggregated with sodium sulfate. Concentration dependent spectra in the range of 1 × 10-7-1 × 10-4 mol dm-3 were obtained, assigned and interpreted according to the surface selection rules. For purine mononucleotides, AMP and GMP, adsorption onto the silver nanoparticles through the six-membered ring of the nitrogenous base was suggested. Concentration dependent splitting of the ring breathing band in the spectra of AMP indicated coexistence of two species on the silver surface, which differed in contribution of the adenine N1 atom and the exocyclic NH2 group in binding. Unlike the AMP spectra, the spectra of GMP implied only one mode of adsorption of the molecules onto the silver nanoparticles, taking place through the guanine N1H and Cdbnd O group. Weak SERS spectra of pyrimidine mononucleotides, CMP and UMP, pointed to involvement of carbonyl oxygen in adsorption process, whereby the molecules adopted the position on the nanoparticles with ribose close to the metal surface. Intense bands in the low wavenumber region, associated with stretching of the formed Agsbnd N and/or Agsbnd O bonds, supported chemical binding of the RNA mononucleotides with the silver surface.

  15. Synthesis and standardization of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Swarup; Das, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The biological silver nanoparticle was synthesized extracellularly by using a fungi Aspergillus foetidus. The live cell filtrate of fungi has been used as reducing agent in the process of nanoparticles synthesis. In 50 ml cell filtrate a volume of AgNO3 stock solution was added to make finally the concentration as 1 mM of AgNO3 and allowed to shake in an incubator for several hrs in dark. The changed color was considered as the primary indication of nanoparticles formation and studies of UV-VIS, DLS, FTIR, AFM, TEM, EDS, Zeta pot. and nitrate reductase assay confirmed the same. It was indicated that stable & 20-40 nm roughly spherical shaped silver nanoparticles was formed. To standardize the nanoparticles biosynthesis different physical parameters like Substrate cone. (0-8 mM), PH-(5-12), Temp.-(5-50°C), incubation time (0-120) hrs and salinity (0.1-1.0 %) were investigated and it was observed that 4 mM AgNO3 conc., PH-9, Temp. -30°C, incubation time 72h and 0.2 % salinity were found to be optimum for the synthesis & stability of the silver nanoparticles.

  16. Oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles: A new theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Lupa, Dawid

    2016-05-01

    A general model of an oxidative dissolution of silver particle suspensions was developed that rigorously considers the bulk and surface solute transport. A two-step surface reaction scheme was proposed that comprises the formation of the silver oxide phase by direct oxidation and the acidic dissolution of this phase leading to silver ion release. By considering this, a complete set of equations is formulated describing oxygen and silver ion transport to and from particles' surfaces. These equations are solved in some limiting cases of nanoparticle dissolution in dilute suspensions. The obtained kinetic equations were used for the interpretation of experimental data pertinent to the dissolution kinetics of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. In these kinetic measurements the role of pH and bulk suspension concentration was quantitatively evaluated by using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). It was shown that the theoretical model adequately reflects the main features of the experimental results, especially the significant increase in the dissolution rate for lower pH. Also the presence of two kinetic regimes was quantitatively explained in terms of the decrease in the coverage of the fast dissolving oxide layer. The overall silver dissolution rate constants characterizing these two regimes were determined. PMID:26921758

  17. A facile route to synthesize silver nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte capsules.

    PubMed

    Anandhakumar, S; Raichur, Ashok M

    2011-06-01

    We are reporting a novel green approach to incorporate silver nanoparticles (NPs) selectively in the polyelectrolyte capsule shell for remote opening of polyelectrolyte capsules. This approach involves in situ reduction of silver nitrate to silver NPs using PEG as a reducing agent (polyol reduction method). These nanostructured capsules were prepared via layer by layer (LbL) assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and dextran sulfate (DS) on silica template followed by the synthesis of silver NPs and subsequently the dissolution of the silica core. The size of silver nanoparticles synthesized was 60±20 nm which increased to 100±20 nm when the concentration of AgNO(3) increased from 25 mM to 50 mM. The incorporated silver NPs induced rupture and deformation of the capsules under laser irradiation. This method has advantages over other conventional methods involving chemical agents that are associated with cytotoxicity in biological applications such as drug delivery and catalysis. PMID:21333503

  18. In Vivo Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Bilberg, Katrine; Hovgaard, Mads Bruun; Besenbacher, Flemming; Baatrup, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The influence of water chemistry on characterised polyvinyl pyrrolidone- (PVP-) coated silver nanoparticles (81 nm) was investigated. NaCl solution series of 100–800 mg L−1 lead to initial and temporal increase in nanoparticles size, but agglomeration was limited. pH variation (5–8) had only minor influence on the hydrodynamic particle size. Acute toxicity of nanosivler to zebrafish (Danio rerio) was investigated in a 48-hour static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3). The nanosilver and silver ion 48-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 84 μg L−1 and 25 μg L−1, respectively. To investigate exposure-related stress, the fish behaviour was observed visually after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 27, 30, and 48 hours of both nanosilver and ionic silver treatments. These observations revealed increased rate of operculum movement and surface respiration after nanosilver exposure, suggesting respiratory toxicity. The present study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles are lethal to zebrafish. PMID:22174711

  19. Understanding the Synthesis and Properties of Molecular Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, Brian A.

    Molecular nanoparticles have emerged as an interesting class of materials whose atomically precise structures and discrete properties set them apart from their larger counterparts. Molecular silver nanoparticles are of particular interest because they provide a host of advantages as optical materials for possible use in sensing and imaging applications. However, relatively little is known about molecular silver nanoparticles including the details of their formation and their optical and mechanical properties. Size control remains a longstanding challenge in the production of glutathionate (SG) protected silver nanoparticles. Singular Ag:SG nanoparticle products have been difficult to obtain directly, but size focusing of larger distributions through attrition has been found to lead to useful isolation of particular species. Here, we present a methodology for controlling the size of Ag:SG molecular nanoparticles that leverages the stability of the most robust species. These results were then used to develop a facile approach for achieving two of the most stable species in the Ag:SG system. Molecular metal nanoparticles are known to be much more fluorescent than larger plasmonic nanoparticles, however the nature and origin of this fluorescence are not fully understood. Fluorescence can originate from either the quantum states within the metal core or mixed ligand states at the inorganic-organic interface. We have presented compelling evidence that fluorescence from molecular silver glutathionate nanoparticles has its origin in interfacial electronic states. Fluorescence spectra were found to be independent of size, with very similar wavelength and bandwidth, although the quantum yield was not. Excitation spectra indicated that the strongest fluorescence had its origin in that part of the spectrum that is dominated by ligand-related states. Further, excitations to strictly core states and to higher lying d-band states had little to no contribution to the fluorescence

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles for an Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbaek, Alvin W.; McHale, Mary M.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this simple, quick, and safe laboratory exercise is to provide undergraduate students an introduction to nanotechnology using nanoparticle (NP) synthesis. Students are provided two procedures that allow for the synthesis of different yet controlled sizes of silver NPs. After preparing the NPs, the students perform UV-visible…

  1. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure were investigated. Results from 7-d sedimen...

  2. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure was investigated. Results from 7-d sediment toxicity tests indicate that Ag...

  3. Silver nanoparticles: Large scale solvothermal synthesis and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, Irshad A.; Khatoon, Sarvari; Ganguly, Aparna; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Ahmad, Tokeer

    2010-08-15

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple and modified solvothermal method at large scale using ethanol as the refluxing solvent and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The nanopowder was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and BET surface area studies. XRD studies reveal the monophasic nature of these highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopic studies show the monodisperse and highly uniform nanoparticles of silver of the particle size of 5 nm, however, the size is found to be 7 nm using dynamic light scattering which is in good agreement with the TEM and X-ray line broadening studies. The surface area was found to be 34.5 m{sup 2}/g. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at {approx}425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The percentage yield of silver nanoparticles was found to be as high as 98.5%.

  4. Transparent conductive grids via direct writing of silver nanoparticle inks

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Bok Y; Lorang, David J; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive grids are patterned by direct writing of concentrated silver nanoparticle inks. This maskless, etch-free patterning approach is used to produce well-defined, two-dimensional periodic arrays composed of conductive features with center-to-center separation distances of up to 400 µm and an optical transmittance as high as 94.1%.

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine macroalga Chaetomorpha linum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R. Ragupathi Raja; Arumugam, R.; Ramya, D.; Manivannan, K.; Anantharaman, P.

    2013-06-01

    The present investigation demonstrates the formation of silver nanoparticles by the reduction of the aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the seaweed ( Chaetomorpha linum) extract . The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic absorption peak at 422 nm in UV-vis spectrum confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The colour intensity at 422 nm increased with duration of incubation. The size of nanoparticles synthesized varied from 3 to 44 nm with average of ~30 nm. The FTIR spectrum of C. linum extract showed peaks at 1,020, 1,112, 1,325, 1,512, 1,535, 1,610, 1,725, 1,862, 2,924, 3,330 cm-1. The vibrational bands corresponding to the bonds such as -C=C (ring), -C-O, -C-O-C and C=C (chain) are derived from water-soluble compounds such as amines, peptides, flavonoids and terpenoids present in C. linum extract. Hence, it may be inferred that these biomolecules are responsible for capping and efficient stabilization. Since no synthetic reagents were used in this investigation, it is environmentally safe and have potential for application in biomedicine and agriculture.

  6. Silver nanoparticles and electroporation: Their combinational effect on Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Dolat, Elham; Rajabi, Omid; Salarabadi, Samaneh Soudmand; Yadegari-Dehkordi, Sajedeh; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is an emerging and uncontrolled disease. The use of routine drugs has been limited due to proven side effects and drug resistance. Interestingly, novel approaches such as nanotechnology have been applied as a therapeutic modality. Silver nanoparticles have shown antileishmanial effects but because of their nonspecific and toxic effects on normal cells, their use has been limited. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that electric pulses induce electropores on cell membranes resulting in higher entrance of certain molecules into cells. There is a hypothesis proposing that use of electroporation and silver nanoparticles simultaneously can induce greater accumulation of particles in infected cells, besides higher toxicity. In this study, after applying electric pulses with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (SNPs), cell survival rate was determined by standard viability assays. On the basis of these data, 2 μg/ml of SNPs and 700 V/cm with 100 μs duration of electroporation were selected as the non-lethal condition. Promastigotes and infected macrophage cells received both treatments and the survival percentage and Infection Index were calculated. In parasites and cells receiving both treatments, higher toxicity was observed in comparison to each treatment given individually, showing a synergic effect on promastigotes. Therefore, application of electric pulses could overcome limitations in using the antileishmanial properties of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26769083

  7. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice. Methods The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc). At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions. Results The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions of Zac1. Conclusion The results from this study indicated that early exposure to AgNPs has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the placenta. These results can contribute to research involved in the safe use of

  8. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A M; Mezacasa, A V; Graciano, D E; Falco, W F; M'Peko, J-C; Guimarães, F E G; Lawson, T; Colbeck, I; Oliveira, S L; Caires, A R L

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated by analyzing the optical behavior of Chl molecules surrounded by different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 60, and 100nm of diameter). UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for Chl in the presence and absence of these nanoparticles. AgNPs strongly suppressed the Chl fluorescence intensity at 678nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) showed that fluorescence suppression is driven by the dynamic quenching process. In particular, KSV was nanoparticle size-dependent with an exponential decrease as a function of the nanoparticle diameter. Finally, changes in the Chl fluorescence lifetime in the presence of nanoparticles demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching may be induced by the excited electron transfer from the Chl molecules to the metal nanoparticles. PMID:27280858

  9. The Speciation Of Silver Nanoparticles In Antimicrobial Fabric Before and After Exposure To A Hypochlorite/Detergent Solution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are often used in consumer products. To assess environmental and/or human health risks from these nanoparticles, there is a need to identify the chemical transformations that Silver nanoparticles undergo in differen...

  10. Plasmonic enhancement in upconversion emission of La2O3:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphor via introducing silver metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. P.; Kumar, K.; Rai, V. K.

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, authors have synthesized silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) embedded La2O3:Er3+/Yb3+ powder phosphor. The synthesis method has resulted in silver oxide-lanthanum oxide composite material. Through subsequent heat treatment of sample in pellet form, the silver metal nanoparticles were formed. The presence of plasmonic Ag NPs in the matrix is confirmed by various techniques. Large enhancement in downconversion as well as upconversion emission intensity of Er3+ ions at various concentrations of Ag NPs is obtained. Large enhancement in the upconversion emission intensity is correlated to the reduction in decay time of 4S3/2 level in the presence of Ag NPs, and possible reasons for intensity enhancement are discussed. The application of phosphor in fingermark detection is demonstrated.

  11. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Amarendra Dhar; Gopal, Krishna

    2011-02-01

    Single-pot biosynthesis of silver and gold quasi-spherical nanoparticles (SNPs and GNPs) in the size range of 10-30 nm was attempted using Chenopodium album (an obnoxious weed). This method is rapid, facile, convenient and environmentally safe. Average crystal size was approximately 12 nm and 10 nm for silver and gold nanocrystals respectively. Synthesized NPs were stable in a wide range of pH as there was less variation in zeta potential values. In synthesis of SNPs and GNPs, naturally occurring oxalic acid played significant role in bio-reduction of silver nitrate and auric acid solution into their corresponding silver and gold nano-colloids in single step rapid process. PMID:21485852

  12. Anisotropic silver nanoparticles as filler for the formation of hybrid nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Vodnik, Vesna V.; Šaponjić, Zoran; Džunuzović, Jasna V.; Bogdanović, Una; Mitrić, Miodrag; Nedeljković, Jovan

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Prismatic and plate-like Ag nanoparticles were used as a precursors for preparation Ag/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films. ► Results showed that the degree of crystallinity of the polymer decreases with Ag nanoparticles content. ► The presence of Ag nanoparticles in PVA induces higher thermo-oxidative stability with respect to PVA. -- Abstract: Prismatic and plate-like silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated method. These particles were used as precursors for preparation of homogenous, transparent and colored Ag/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite films with different concentrations of Ag by solution-casting technique. Optical and structural characterization of these nanocomposites includes UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and SEM measurements. Further, the effect of embedded nanoparticles on the thermal properties of the PVA matrix was studied. The value of the glass transition temperature of polymer is found to increase after embedding Ag NPs. Comparison of thermal properties of pure PVA and nanocomposite films showed that the thermo-oxidative stability of polymer slightly increased in the presence of Ag NPs. Furthermore, the effect of the Ag NPs on the crystallinity of polymer was also observed.

  13. Alloyed nanoparticle-embedded alumina nanocermet film: A new attempt to improve the thermotolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, C. J.; Gao, J. H.; Hui, S.; Lou, D.; Zhang, H. L.; Liang, L. Y.; Jin, A. P.; Zou, Y. S.; Cao, H. T.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the enhancement of thermal stability of Ag-Al2O3 nanocermet films by means of alloying of Ag nanoparticles with Al element. The optical analysis demonstrated the AgAl embedded Al2O3 cermet films (namely, AgAl-Al2O3) possess excellent thermal tolerance even at 500 °C for 260 h under nitrogen ambient. The evolution of microstructural and chemical properties of Al2O3/AgAl-Al2O3/Al2O3 stack layers during the annealing process was comprehensively investigated, in order to grasp the thermal stability mechanism. It is believed that the enhanced thermal stability was ascribed to the formation of fresh alumina as capping layer riveted on the Ag nanoparticles surfaces, which acted as the pinning points to prevent silver element from migrating so as to maintain the expected optical properties.

  14. Highly stretchable electric circuits from a composite material of silver nanoparticles and elastomeric fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minwoo; Im, Jungkyun; Shin, Minkwan; Min, Yuho; Park, Jaeyoon; Cho, Heesook; Park, Soojin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Jeon, Sanghun; Chung, Dae-Young; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Kinam

    2012-12-01

    Conductive electrodes and electric circuits that can remain active and electrically stable under large mechanical deformations are highly desirable for applications such as flexible displays, field-effect transistors, energy-related devices, smart clothing and actuators. However, high conductivity and stretchability seem to be mutually exclusive parameters. The most promising solution to this problem has been to use one-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and metal nanowires coated on a stretchable fabric, metal stripes with a wavy geometry, composite elastomers embedding conductive fillers and interpenetrating networks of a liquid metal and rubber. At present, the conductivity values at large strains remain too low to satisfy requirements for practical applications. Moreover, the ability to make arbitrary patterns over large areas is also desirable. Here, we introduce a conductive composite mat of silver nanoparticles and rubber fibres that allows the formation of highly stretchable circuits through a fabrication process that is compatible with any substrate and scalable for large-area applications. A silver nanoparticle precursor is absorbed in electrospun poly (styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) (SBS) rubber fibres and then converted into silver nanoparticles directly in the fibre mat. Percolation of the silver nanoparticles inside the fibres leads to a high bulk conductivity, which is preserved at large deformations (σ ~ 2,200 S cm-1 at 100% strain for a 150-µm-thick mat). We design electric circuits directly on the electrospun fibre mat by nozzle printing, inkjet printing and spray printing of the precursor solution and fabricate a highly stretchable antenna, a strain sensor and a highly stretchable light-emitting diode as examples of applications.

  15. Highly stretchable electric circuits from a composite material of silver nanoparticles and elastomeric fibres.

    PubMed

    Park, Minwoo; Im, Jungkyun; Shin, Minkwan; Min, Yuho; Park, Jaeyoon; Cho, Heesook; Park, Soojin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Jeon, Sanghun; Chung, Dae-Young; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Kinam

    2012-12-01

    Conductive electrodes and electric circuits that can remain active and electrically stable under large mechanical deformations are highly desirable for applications such as flexible displays, field-effect transistors, energy-related devices, smart clothing and actuators. However, high conductivity and stretchability seem to be mutually exclusive parameters. The most promising solution to this problem has been to use one-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and metal nanowires coated on a stretchable fabric, metal stripes with a wavy geometry, composite elastomers embedding conductive fillers and interpenetrating networks of a liquid metal and rubber. At present, the conductivity values at large strains remain too low to satisfy requirements for practical applications. Moreover, the ability to make arbitrary patterns over large areas is also desirable. Here, we introduce a conductive composite mat of silver nanoparticles and rubber fibres that allows the formation of highly stretchable circuits through a fabrication process that is compatible with any substrate and scalable for large-area applications. A silver nanoparticle precursor is absorbed in electrospun poly (styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) (SBS) rubber fibres and then converted into silver nanoparticles directly in the fibre mat. Percolation of the silver nanoparticles inside the fibres leads to a high bulk conductivity, which is preserved at large deformations (σ ≈ 2,200 S cm(-1) at 100% strain for a 150-µm-thick mat). We design electric circuits directly on the electrospun fibre mat by nozzle printing, inkjet printing and spray printing of the precursor solution and fabricate a highly stretchable antenna, a strain sensor and a highly stretchable light-emitting diode as examples of applications. PMID:23178335

  16. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

    2015-07-21

    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (<1%) amounts of translocation of silver into the shoot system. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping revealed differences in the distribution of Ag into roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast. PMID:26106801

  17. Light-induced growth of various silver seed nanoparticles: A simple method of synthesis of different silver colloidal SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Kołątaj, Karol; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Plasmon-driven growth of various silver seed nanoparticles (spherical, flat and elongated) has been carried out in the solution containing silver cations and citrate. Although the growth of different seed nanoparticles has been carried out in the same conditions, the initial difference in the shape of seed nanoparticles leads to formation of different structures, which give significantly different surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of adsorbed pyridine. Differences between measured SERS spectra are probably due to different efficiency of oxidation of various nanoparticles by ambient air. Light-induced transformation of silver sols may be also used to significantly increase their SERS activity.

  18. Ordered arrays of embedded Ga nanoparticles on patterned silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Bollani, M; Bietti, S; Frigeri, C; Chrastina, D; Reyes, K; Smereka, P; Millunchick, J M; Vanacore, G M; Burghammer, M; Tagliaferri, A; Sanguinetti, S

    2014-05-23

    We fabricate site-controlled, ordered arrays of embedded Ga nanoparticles on Si, using a combination of substrate patterning and molecular-beam epitaxial growth. The fabrication process consists of two steps. Ga droplets are initially nucleated in an ordered array of inverted pyramidal pits, and then partially crystallized by exposure to an As flux, which promotes the formation of a GaAs shell that seals the Ga nanoparticle within two semiconductor layers. The nanoparticle formation process has been investigated through a combination of extensive chemical and structural characterization and theoretical kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24784353

  19. Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Laakso, J.; Raulio, M.; Priha, O.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating.

  20. Comparison of in vitro toxicity of silver ions and silver nanoparticles on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vrček, Ivana Vinković; Žuntar, Irena; Petlevski, Roberta; Pavičić, Ivan; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Ćurlin, Marija; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Scientific information on the potential harmful effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on human health severely lags behind their exponentially growing applications in consumer products. In assessing the toxic risk of AgNP usage, liver, as a detoxifying organ, is particularly important. The aim of this study was to explore the toxicity mechanisms of nano and ionic forms of silver on human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells. The results showed that silver ions and citrate-coated AgNPs reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of silver ions and citrate-coated AgNPs were 0.5 and 50 mg L(-1) , respectively. The LDH leakage and inhibition of albumin synthesis, along with decreased ALT activity, indicated that treatment with either AgNP or Ag ions resulted in membrane damage and reduced the cell function of human liver cells. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers demonstrating depletion of GSH, increased ROS production, and increased SOD activity, indicated that oxidative stress might contribute to the toxicity effects of nano and ionic forms of silver. The observed toxic effect of AgNP on HepG2 cells was substantially weaker than that caused by ionic silver, while the uptake of nano and ionic forms of silver by HepG2 cells was nearly the same. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 679-692, 2016. PMID:25448069

  1. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. PMID:24231743

  2. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ionic silver and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bachler, Gerald; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Silver is a strong antibiotic that is increasingly incorporated into consumer products as a bulk, salt, or nanosilver, thus potentially causing side-effects related to human exposure. However, the fate and behavior of (nano)silver in the human body is presently not well understood. In order to aggregate the existing experimental information, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) was developed in this study for ionic silver and nanosilver. The structure of the model was established on the basis of toxicokinetic data from intravenous studies. The number of calibrated parameters was minimized in order to enhance the predictive capability of the model. We validated the model structure for both silver forms by reproducing exposure conditions (dermal, oral, and inhalation) of in vivo experiments and comparing simulated and experimentally assessed organ concentrations. Therefore, the percutaneous, intestinal, or pulmonary absorption fraction was estimated based on the blood silver concentration of the respective experimental data set. In all of the cases examined, the model could successfully predict the biodistribution of ionic silver and 15–150 nm silver nanoparticles, which were not coated with substances designed to prolong the circulatory time (eg, polyethylene glycol). Furthermore, the results of our model indicate that: (1) within the application domain of our model, the particle size and coating had a minor influence on the biodistribution; (2) in vivo, it is more likely that silver nanoparticles are directly stored as insoluble salt particles than dissolve into Ag+; and (3) compartments of the mononuclear phagocytic system play a minor role in exposure levels that are relevant for human consumers. We also give an example of how the model can be used in exposure and risk assessments based on five different exposure scenarios, namely dietary intake, use of three separate consumer products, and occupational exposure. PMID:24039420

  3. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  4. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  5. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ doped boro-phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Sm3+ doped novel boro-phosphate glasses containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) (SmBPxA) have been prepared following the melt quenching technique and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied through HR-TEM, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectral measurements. The TEM analysis validates the existence of Ag NPs with an average diameter of ~8 nm. The Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of silver NPs was found at around 600 nm from the absorption spectrum of the Sm3+ ions free glass sample. The optical band gap energy (Eopt) corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach energy (ΔE) values were determined from the absorption spectral measurements. The luminescence intensity is found to get enhance when the Ag NPs were embedded along with the Sm3+ ions in the prepared glasses due to the local electric field effect around the rare earth (RE) ion site produced by the SPR of Ag NPs.

  6. Photoinduced silver nanoparticles/nanorings on plasmid DNA scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Li, Songmei; Zhang, Jindan

    2012-01-23

    Biological scaffolds are being actively explored for the synthesis of nanomaterials with novel structures and unexpected properties. Toroidal plasmid DNA separated from the Bacillus host is applied as a sacrificial mold for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorings. The photoirradiation method is applied to reduce Ag(I) on the plasmid. The nanoparticles are obtained by varying the concentration of the Ag(I) ion solution and the exposure time of the plasmid-Ag(I) complex under UV light at 254 nm and room temperature. It is found that the plasmid serves not only as a template but also as a reductant to drive the silver nucleation and deposition. The resulting nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and 20-30 nm average diameter. The detailed mechanism is discussed, and other metals or alloys could also be synthesized with this method. PMID:22102552

  7. Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxon, Jess

    2009-03-01

    The oldest topic in nanoscience is the size-dependent optical properties of gold and silver colloids or nanoparticles, first investigated scientifically by Michael Faraday in 1857. In the modern era, advances in both synthesis and characterization have resulted in new insights into the size-dependent absorbance of Au and Ag nanoparticles with sizes below the classical limit for Mie theory. In this paper we discuss the synthesis and properties of core/shell and nanoalloy particles of Au and Ag, compare them to particles of pure gold and silver, and discuss how alloying affects nanoparticle chemical stability. We show that composition, size, and nanostructure (e.g., core/shell vs quasi-random nanoalloy) can all be employed to adjust the optical absorbance properties. The type of nanostructure--core/shell vs alloy--is reflected in their optical absorbance features. PMID:19708105

  8. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. H.; Kurt, M. S.; Roy, M.; Lees, M. R.; Binns, C.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core.

  9. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Kurt, M S; Roy, M; Lees, M R; Binns, C

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core. PMID:26740510

  10. Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Özalp, Veli C; Zeydanlı, Uğur S; Lunding, Anita; Kavruk, Murat; Öz, M Tufan; Eyidoğan, Füsun; Olsen, Lars F; Öktem, Hüseyin A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, combining the nanoparticle embedded sensors with lateral flow assays, a novel strategy for ensuring the quality of signalling in lateral flow assays (LFAs) was developed. A LFA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) is reported that is based on horse radish peroxidase (HRP) which is co-entrapped with Texas Red dextran inside porous polyacrylamide nanoparticles. In this system, enzymes are protected in the porous matrix of polyacrylamide which freely allows the diffusion of the analyte. The sensor is rapid and sensitive for quantification of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A test solution of hydrogen peroxides was quantified with this novel LFA-ROS sensor to obtain a linear range between 1 and 25 μM. Nanoparticle embedding of enzymes is proposed here as a general strategy for developing enzyme-based lateral flow assays, eliminating adverse effects associated with biological samples. PMID:23730687

  11. Separation of silver ions and starch modified silver nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and inductively coupled mass spectrometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Traci A.; Saadawi, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Caruso, Joseph A.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio

    2014-10-01

    The production of commercially available products marketed to contain silver nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Species-specific toxicity is a phenomenon associated with many elements, including silver, making it imperative to develop a method to identify and quantify the various forms of silver (namely, silver ions vs. silver nanoparticles) possibly present in these products. In this study a method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV-VIS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection to separate starch stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag+) by cation exchange chromatography with 0.5 M nitric acid mobile phase. The silver nanoparticles and ions were baseline resolved with an ICP-MS response linear over four orders of magnitude, 0.04 mg kg- 1 detection limit, and 90% chromatographic recovery for silver solutions containing ions and starch stabilized silver nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm.

  12. Photomelting and photofragmentation of silver nanoparticles suspended in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Mendoza, J. G.; Hernández-Álvarez, C.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Zaca-Moran, P.; Chávez, F.; Goiz, O.

    2015-10-01

    An optical method to obtain a colloidal solution starting from a mixture of silver nanopowder and ethanol is presented. The particles of the silver nanopowder do not exhibit a specific shape, however in the colloidal solution are spherical. This method is carry out when the mixture is irradiated with a pulsed laser at 532 nm via optical fiber. Due to a stronger absorption of the laser light by silver nanoparticles arise both photofragmentation and photomelting processes. The photomelting process starts when the laser energy is 5 mJ/cm2, inducing an enlargement of nanoparticles whereas the photofragmentation occurs when the laser energy is 25 mJ/cm2 causing a reduction on their sizes (the higher energy is, the smaller nanoparticles are). Results show that it is possible to obtain a colloidal silver solution and to control the particle size by adjusting the laser energy. Experiments were performed at 5 and 25 mJ/cm2, and the results are presented.

  13. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles: promising anti-toxoplasma agents.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, M R; Mady, R F; Diab, R G; Shalaby, Th I

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which is Toxoplasma gondii. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles were synthesized to be evaluated singly or combined for their anti-toxoplasma effects as prophylaxis and as treatment in the experimental animals. Results were assessed through studying the parasite density and the ultrastructural parasite changes, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Weight of tissue silver was assessed in different organs. Results showed that silver nanoparticles used singly or combined with chitosan have promising anti-toxoplasma potentials. The animals that received these compounds showed statistically significant decrease in the mean number of the parasite count in the liver and the spleen, when compared to the corresponding control group. Light microscopic examination of the peritoneal exudates of animals receiving these compounds showed stoppage of movement and deformity in shape of the tachyzoites, whereas, by scanning electron microscope, the organisms were mutilated. Moreover, gamma interferon was increased in the serum of animals receiving these compounds. All values of silver detected in different tissues were within the safe range. Thus, these nanoparticles proved their effectiveness against the experimental Toxoplasma infection. PMID:24852215

  14. Biopersistence of silver nanoparticles in tissues from Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are known to be distributed in many tissues after oral or inhalation exposure. Thus, understanding the tissue clearance of such distributed nanoparticles is very important to understand the behavior of silver nanoparticles in vivo. For risk assessment purposes, easy clearance indicates a lower overall cumulative toxicity. Accordingly, to investigate the clearance of tissue silver concentrations following oral silver nanoparticle exposure, Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups: control, low dose (100 mg/kg body weight), and high dose (500 mg/kg body weight), and exposed to two different sizes of silver nanoparticles (average diameter 10 and 25 nm) over 28 days. Thereafter, the rats were allowed to recover for 4 months. Regardless of the silver nanoparticle size, the silver content in most tissues gradually decreased during the 4-month recovery period, indicating tissue clearance of the accumulated silver. The exceptions were the silver concentrations in the brain and testes, which did not clear well, even after the 4-month recovery period, indicating an obstruction in transporting the accumulated silver out of these tissues. Therefore, the results showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles did not affect their tissue distribution. Furthermore, biological barriers, such as the blood–brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, seemed to play an important role in the silver clearance from these tissues. PMID:24059869

  15. Optical Properties of Free and Embedded Small Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that the absorption spectra, as well as the effective dielectric function, of nanoparticles in vacuum or surrounded by a dielectric medium can be obtained by classical Mie and Maxwell-Garnett theories. A limit as to how the particles can be for the theory to apply has not been established. Here I present theoretical results on the optical properties of small Ag, Au, and Si and Ge nanoparticles with tens of atoms in vacuum and in an embedded dielectric medium obtained from first-principles density-functional calculations. In particular, I will discuss the role that d-electron play on the optical properties of Ag and Au nanoparticles, and the cases when classical Mie and Maxwell-Garnett theories can be applied for nanoparticles of just few atoms in size and whose atoms are in bulk-like and not bulk-like positions. Comparison will be made for nanoparticles in vacuum and embedded in an alumina matrix. The quantum-mechanical results indicate that small nanoparticles in alumina can have an imprint on the effective dielectric function that is several times larger than would be predicted by Maxwell-Garnett theory for same-size particles. This work was supported by a GOALI NSF grant, DOE, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, and Alcoa Inc. Collaborators: S. ögüt, K. Jackson, J. Jellinek, A. Halabica. R. F. Haglund, R. Magruder, S.J. Pennycook and S.T. Pantelides.

  16. Morphology and Optical Properties of Bare and Silica Coated Hybrid Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Sushant; Lebek, Werner; Godehardt, Reinhold; Lee, Wan In; Adhikari, Rameshwar

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their wide applications in the field of optoelectronics, photonics, catalysis, and medicine; plasmonic metal nanoparticles are attaining considerable interest nowadays. The optical properties of these metal nanoparticles depend upon their size, shape, and surrounding medium. The present work studies the morphology and optical properties of bare silver nanoparticles and silica coated hybrid silver nanoparticles. Aqueous phase mediated synthesis and water-in-oil microemulsion mediated synthesis are two different wet chemical routes employed for nanosynthesis. Direct coating of silica is performed in water-in-oil microemulsion on pre-synthesized silver nanoparticles using tetraethyl orthosilicate as silica precursor. This study shows that using different wet chemical routes the size of the synthesized nanoparticles could be tuned. In addition, using reverse micelles as nanoreactors, the thickness of the silica shell around the core silver nanoparticles could be significantly controlled. Further, the optical properties of silver nanoparticles could be adjusted through the size and the surface coating. PMID:27483900

  17. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications. PMID:25706249

  18. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-02-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq-1). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed.

  19. Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speshock, Janice L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Szymanski, Eric R.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

  20. Considerations using silver nitrate as a reference for in vitro tests with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ulf; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2016-08-01

    Most in vitro tests regarding the cellular toxicology of nanoparticulate metals compare particle to associated metal ion exposure. However, it is also a fact, that for example silver ions are reduced by sugars or transformed to silver chloride by chloride salts which are abundant components of cell culture media. These reactions are likely to either complicate or even invalidate comparisons between effects of ions and particles. Here, we present a fast and quantitative method to determine particle formation and numbers in different cell culture media with non-destructive small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Silver nitrate with a concentration of 25μgAgmL(-1) was dissolved for up to 24h at 37°C in Dulbeccos Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) with and without 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and a solution of D-glucose (4.5μgmL(-1)), respectively. Silver nanoparticles were observed in all solutions after 5min. The cell culture media displayed a limited particle-growth. FBS showed an effect on the polydispersity of the generated particles but after 5min the overall particle size was nearly equal in FBS and non FBS supplemented medium. Particles in D-glucose were precipitating after 10min. Particulate silver concentration was between 3 and 4μgmL(-1) in both cell culture media (CCM). These results should be taken into account when performing silver ion-toxicity experiments in relevant media. PMID:27058000

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito disease vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were tested as larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous AgNO3 to stable silver nanoparticles with average particle siz...

  2. Synthesis and Study of Silver Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloman, Sally D.; Bahadory, Mozghan; Jeyarajasingam, Aravindan V.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Boritz, Charles; Mulfinger, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted in which the students synthesized yellow colloidal silver, estimate particle size using visible spectroscopy and studied aggregation effects. The students were thus introduced to nanotechnology along with other topics such as redox chemistry, limiting and excess reactants, spectroscopy and atomic size.

  3. Aggregation kinetics and dissolution of coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Lenhart, John J; Walker, Harold W

    2012-01-17

    Determining the fate of manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is contingent upon understanding how stabilizing agents influence the stability of nanoparticles in aqueous systems. In this study, the aggregation and dissolution tendencies of uncoated silver nanoparticles and the same particles coated with three common coating agents, trisodium citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 80 (Tween), were evaluated. Early stage aggregation kinetics of the uncoated and coated silver nanoparticles were assessed by dynamic light scattering over a range of electrolyte types (NaCl, NaNO(3), and CaCl(2)) and concentrations that span those observed in natural waters. Although particle dissolution was observed, aggregation of all particle types was still consistent with classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation of citrate-coated particles and SDS-coated particles were very similar to that for the uncoated particles, as the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of the particles in different electrolytes were all approximately the same (40 mM NaCl, 30 mM NaNO(3), and 2 mM CaCl(2)). The Tween-stabilized particles were significantly more stable than the other particles, however, and in NaNO(3) aggregation was not observed up to an electrolyte concentration of 1 M. Differences in the rate of aggregation under diffusion-limited aggregation conditions at high electrolyte concentrations for the SDS and Tween-coated particles, in combination with the moderation of their electrophoretic mobilities, suggest SDS and Tween imparted steric interactions to the particles. The dissolution of the silver nanoparticles was inhibited by the SDS and Tween coatings, but not by the citrate coating, and in chloride-containing electrolytes a secondary precipitate of AgCl was observed bridging the individual particles. These results indicate that coating agents could significant influence the fate of silver nanoparticles in aquatic systems, and in some

  4. TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TO DAPHNIA MAGNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relatively little is known regarding toxicity of nanoparticles in the environment. It is widely assumed that the toxicity of nanoparticles will be less than that of their metallic ions. Also the effect of organics on metal toxicity is well established. Presented here are the resu...

  5. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV–visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  6. Silver nanoparticles impact phototrophic biofilm communities to a considerably higher degree than ionic silver.

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Mombo, Stéphane; Leflaive, Joséphine; Lamy, Alexandre; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Rols, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    Due to the significant increase in nanoparticle production and especially that of silver nanoparticles over the past decade, the toxicity of silver in both ionic (Ag(+)) and nanoparticulate (AgNPs) form must be studied in detail in order to understand their impact on natural ecosystems. A comparative study of the effect of AgNPs and ionic silver on two independent phototrophic biofilms was conducted in a rotating annular bioreactor (RAB) operating under constant conditions. The concentration of dissolved silver in the inlet solution was progressively increased every 4 days of exposure, from 0.1 to 100 μg L(-1). In the course of the 40-day experiment, biofilm samples were collected to determine the evolution of biomass, chlorophyll-a, as well as photosynthetic and heterotrophic enzymatic activities in response to silver addition. Analysis of both dissolved and particulate silver allowed quantification of the distribution coefficient and uptake rate constants. The presence of both AgNPs and Ag(+) produced significant changes in the biofilm structure, decreasing the relative percentage of Diatomophyceae and Cyanophyceae and increasing the relative percentage of Chlorophyceae. The accumulation capacity of the phototrophic biofilm with respect to ionic silver and the corresponding distribution coefficients were an order of magnitude higher than those of the phototrophic biofilm with respect to AgNPs. Higher levels of AgNPs decreased the biomass from 8.6 ± 0.2 mg cm(-2) for 0-10 μg L(-1) AgNPs to 6.0 ± 0.1 mg cm(-2) for 100 μg L(-1) added AgNPs, whereas ionic silver did not have any toxic effect on the biofilm growth up to 100 μg L(-1) of added Ag(+). At the same time, AgNPs did not significantly affect the photosynthetic activity of the biofilm surface communities compared to Ag(+). It can thus be hypothesized that negatively charged AgNPs may travel through the biofilm water channels, thereby affecting the whole biofilm structure. In contrast

  7. Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Stöcker, Hartmut; Abendroth, Barbara; Wesch, Werner; Ronning, Carsten

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in lithium niobate were fabricated via ion beam synthesis and are suitable for various plasmonic applications, e.g. enhancement of optical nonlinear effects. After room temperature silver implantation, annealing in the temperature range of 400-600 °C was performed in order to recrystallize the damaged lithium niobate surface layer. The shape of the silver NPs, their optical properties as well as the structural properties of their surrounding matrix have been analyzed for various annealing steps. TEM investigations show that annealing at 400 °C does not lead to recrystallization of the damaged lithium niobate. A recrystallization occurs upon increasing the annealing temperature to 500 or 600 °C, but simultaneously a second phase consisting of lithium triniobate forms. This is additionally supported by XRD measurements. By utilizing dynamic annealing, i.e. implanting silver at elevated temperatures of 400 °C, it is shown that the LiNbO3 matrix stays single crystalline during ion implantation and no LiNb3O8 is formed. This is additionally verified by comparing the positions of the surface plasmon resonances with calculations based on Mie's scattering theory. PMID:24598310

  8. Comparative catalytic activity of PET track-etched membranes with embedded silver and gold nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashentseva, Anastassiya; Borgekov, Daryn; Kislitsin, Sergey; Zdorovets, Maxim; Migunova, Anastassiya

    2015-12-01

    Irradiated by heavy ions nanoporous polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) after +15Kr84 ions bombardment (1.75 MeV/nucl with the ion fluency of 1 × 109 cm-2) and sequential etching was applied in this research as a template for development of composites with catalytically enriched properties. A highly ordered silver and gold nanotubes arrays were embedded in 100 nm pores of PET TeMs via electroless deposition technique at 4 °C during 1 h. All "as-prepared" composites were examined for catalytic activity using reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride as a common reaction to test metallic nanostructures catalysts. The effect of temperature on the catalytic activity was investigated in range of 292-313 K and activation energy were calculated. Kapp of Ag/PET composites linearly increase with an increase of the temperature thus normal Arrhenius behavior have been seen and the activation energy was calculated to be 42.13 kJ/mol. Au/PET composites exhibit not only more powerful catalytic activity but also non-linear dependence of rate constant from temperature. Kapp increased with increasing temperature throughout the 292-308 K temperature range; the reaction had an activation energy 65.32 kJ/mol. In range 311-313 K rate constant dramatically decreased and the apparent activation energy at this temperature rang was -91.44 kJ/mol due some structural changes, i.e. agglomeration of Au nanoparticles on the surface of composite.

  9. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles. PMID:26826826

  10. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  11. Micropatterning of silver nanoclusters embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Nazanin; Kunwar, Puskal; Hassinen, Jukka; Ras, Robin H A; Toivonen, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Direct laser writing has been utilized to fabricate highly photostable fluorescent nanocluster microstructures in an organic polymer poly(methacrylic acid), where the carboxyl functional group is reported to play a vital role in nanocluster stabilization. In this Letter, we demonstrate that not only the polymer containing the carboxyl functional group, but also the polymer comprising the hydroxyl group, namely polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), can act as an appropriate stabilizer matrix for laser-induced synthesis and patterning of silver nanoclusters. The as-formed nanoclusters in the PVA film exhibit broadband emission and photostability comparable to the nanoclusters formed in the poly(methacrylic acid) polymer. As PVA is a widely used, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, the technique of patterning fluorescent nanoclusters in PVA thin films is expected to find numerous applications in fields like fluorescence imaging, biolabeling, and sensing. PMID:27472635

  12. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

  13. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K.; Linder, Sean W.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg−1 of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg−1 of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10–110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  15. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  16. Effect of Accelerator in Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries. PMID:21152307

  17. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, A K; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    The application of "green" chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work. PMID:21556342

  18. Preparation and characterization of silver chloride nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong Trinh, Ngoc; Thanh Binh Nguyen, Thi; Hai Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-12-01

    Silver chloride nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation reaction between silver nitrate and sodium chloride in an aqueous solution containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as a stabilizing agent. Different characteristics of the nanoparticles in suspension and in lyophilized powder such as size, morphology, chemical nature, interaction with stabilizing agent and photo-stability were investigated. Biological tests showed that the obtained silver chloride nanoparticles displayed antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Rapid evolution of silver nanoparticle resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Joseph L.; Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Cunningham, Quincy; Campbell, Adero; Nonga, Herve; Harrison, Scott H.; Barrick, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    The recent exponential increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) means both greater intentional and unintentional exposure of eNPs to microbes. Intentional use includes the use of eNPs as biocides. Unintentional exposure results from the fact that eNPs are included in a variety of commercial products (paints, sunscreens, cosmetics). Many of these eNPs are composed of heavy metals or metal oxides such as silver, gold, zinc, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide. It is thought that since metallic/metallic oxide NPs impact so many aspects of bacterial physiology that it will difficult for bacteria to evolve resistance to them. This study utilized laboratory experimental evolution to evolve silver nanoparticle (AgNP) resistance in the bacterium Escherichia coli (K-12 MG1655), a bacterium that does not harbor any known silver resistance elements. After 225 generations of exposure to the AgNP environment, the treatment populations demonstrated greater fitness vs. control strains as measured by optical density (OD) and colony forming units (CFU) in the presence of varying concentrations of 10 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) or silver nitrate (AgNO3). Genomic analysis shows that changes associated with AgNP resistance were already accumulating within the treatment populations by generation 100, and by generation 200 three mutations had swept to high frequency in the AgNP resistance stocks. This study indicates that despite previous claims to the contrary bacteria can easily evolve resistance to AgNPs, and this occurs by relatively simple genomic changes. These results indicate that care should be taken with regards to the use of eNPs as biocides as well as with regards to unintentional exposure of microbial communities to eNPs in waste products. PMID:25741363

  20. Rapid evolution of silver nanoparticle resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Graves, Joseph L; Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Cunningham, Quincy; Campbell, Adero; Nonga, Herve; Harrison, Scott H; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    The recent exponential increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) means both greater intentional and unintentional exposure of eNPs to microbes. Intentional use includes the use of eNPs as biocides. Unintentional exposure results from the fact that eNPs are included in a variety of commercial products (paints, sunscreens, cosmetics). Many of these eNPs are composed of heavy metals or metal oxides such as silver, gold, zinc, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide. It is thought that since metallic/metallic oxide NPs impact so many aspects of bacterial physiology that it will difficult for bacteria to evolve resistance to them. This study utilized laboratory experimental evolution to evolve silver nanoparticle (AgNP) resistance in the bacterium Escherichia coli (K-12 MG1655), a bacterium that does not harbor any known silver resistance elements. After 225 generations of exposure to the AgNP environment, the treatment populations demonstrated greater fitness vs. control strains as measured by optical density (OD) and colony forming units (CFU) in the presence of varying concentrations of 10 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) or silver nitrate (AgNO3). Genomic analysis shows that changes associated with AgNP resistance were already accumulating within the treatment populations by generation 100, and by generation 200 three mutations had swept to high frequency in the AgNP resistance stocks. This study indicates that despite previous claims to the contrary bacteria can easily evolve resistance to AgNPs, and this occurs by relatively simple genomic changes. These results indicate that care should be taken with regards to the use of eNPs as biocides as well as with regards to unintentional exposure of microbial communities to eNPs in waste products. PMID:25741363

  1. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m‑1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m‑1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m‑2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m‑2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  2. Sprayable Elastic Conductors Based on Block Copolymer Silver Nanoparticle Composites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite elastic conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the strain dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity values as high as 2000 ± 200 S/cm with only a 12% increase in resistance after 400 cycles of 150% strain. Stretchable elastic conductors with similar and higher bulk conductivity have not achieved comparable stability of electrical properties. These unique electromechanical characteristics are primarily the result of structural changes during mechanical deformation. The versatility of this approach was demonstrated by constructing a stretchable light emitting diode circuit and a strain sensor on planar and nonplanar substrates. PMID:25491507

  3. Proteomic responses of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to silver nanoparticles and ionic silver.

    PubMed

    Oberemm, Axel; Hansen, Ulf; Böhmert, Linda; Meckert, Christine; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    Even although quite a number of studies have been performed so far to demonstrate nanoparticle-specific effects of substances in living systems, clear evidence of these effects is still under debate. The present study was designed as a comparative proteomic analysis of human intestinal cells exposed to a commercial silver nanoparticle reference material and ions from AgNO3. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/MALDI mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was conducted after 24-h incubation of differentiated Caco-2 cells with non-cytotoxic and low cytotoxic silver concentrations (2.5 and 25 µg ml(-1) nanosilver, 0.5 and 5 µg ml(-1) AgNO3). Out of an overall number of 316 protein spots differentially expressed at a fold change of ≥ 1.4 or ≤ -1.4 in all treatments, 169 proteins could be identified. In total, 231 spots were specifically deregulated in particle-treated groups compared with 41 spots, which were limited to AgNO3-treatments. Forty-four spots (14 %) were commonly deregulated by both types of treatment. A considerable fraction of the proteins differentially expressed after treatment with nanoparticles is related to protein folding, synthesis or modification of proteins as well as cellular assembly and organization. Overlays of networks obtained for particulate and ionic treatments showed matches, indicating common mechanisms of combined particle and ionic silver exposure and exclusive ionic silver treatment. However, proteomic responses of Caco-2 cells treated with higher concentrations of silver species also showed some differences, for example regarding proteins related to fatty acid and energy metabolism, suggesting an induction of also some different molecular mechanisms for particle exposure and ionic treatment. PMID:26434666

  4. Orientation of glycine on silver nanoparticles: SERS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were prepared and characterized. The molecular structure of the Gly and Gly adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The calculated and observed vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The perpendicular orientation of Gly on the silver surface was predicted from the enhanced Raman signal correspond to the C=O and C-H stretching vibrational modes. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculation were carried out. The reduced band gap value was obtained for Gly adsorbed on silver nanoparticles, which paves the way for designing the bio molecular devices. The first order hyperpolarizability value for Ag-Gly is 461 times greater than the urea. Thus, Ag-Gly is a promising candidate for NLO materials.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2015-10-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  6. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Silver Nanoparticles: Aggregation Leads to Incomplete Stripping

    PubMed Central

    Cloake, Samantha J; Toh, Her Shuang; Lee, Patricia T; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on anodic stripping voltammetry is reported. Dopamine-capped silver nanoparticles were chosen as a model system, and melamine was used to induce aggregation in the nanoparticles. Through the anodic stripping of the silver nanoparticles that were aggregated to different extents, it was found that the peak area of the oxidative signal corresponding to the stripping of silver to silver(I) ions decreases with increasing aggregation. Aggregation causes incomplete stripping of the silver nanoparticles. Two possible mechanisms of ‘partial oxidation’ and ‘inactivation’ of the nanoparticles are proposed to account for this finding. Aggregation effects must be considered when anodic stripping voltammetry is used for nanoparticle detection and quantification. Hence, drop casting, which is known to lead to aggregation, is not encouraged for preparing electrodes for analytical purposes. PMID:25861566

  7. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  8. Holographic grating formation in a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Adleman, James R; Eggert, Helge A; Buse, Karsten; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-02-15

    Holographic gratings are recorded in colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles by utilizing interfering nanosecond pulses. The diffraction efficiency is measured with continuous-wave light. An instantaneous response together with a transient grating are observed: the nanoparticles absorb the pump light and heat up. Heat is transferred to the solvent, and a delayed thermal grating appears. The final decay time constant of this grating depends quadratically on the period length and has a typical value of 1 micros for grating spacings of several micrometers. PMID:16496882

  9. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  10. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bharti, Amardeep Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-08-28

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  11. Transport of Silver Nanoparticles in Unsaturated Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumahor, S. K.; Hron, P.; Metreveli, G.; Schaumann, G. E.; Klitzke, S.; Vogel, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Transport of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in the presence of a monovalent cation was compared with "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles in the presence of both monovalent and multivalent cations using experimental breakthrough curves and numerical modeling. We integrated information on hydraulic state variables measured during transport, optimal parameters obtained from a numerical solution of a convection dispersion reaction model, structure of the flow field derived from morphological analysis and a classical DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interaction to understand the governing transport dynamics. The citrate-coated Ag NP were relatively more mobile compared to the "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles explained by the differences in solution chemistry. Two processes are peculiar to both citrate-coated and "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles: retardation and irreversible straining attributed to the air-water and solid-water interfaces respectively. However, the retardation seems to be less pronounced for the "soil-aged" Ag nanoparicles which could be explained by the differences in nanoparticle properties. As an additional phenomenon, cation brigding complexation is suggested for the "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles due to the presence of multivalent cations. We suggest coupled physical and chemical processes during transport which could be fairly well described by the proposed convection-dispersion-reaction model.

  12. Can silver nanoparticles be useful as potential biological labels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrand, Amanda M.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schlager, John J.; Dai, Liming; Hussain, Saber M.

    2008-06-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have unique plasmon-resonant optical scattering properties that are finding use in nanomedical applications such as signal enhancers, optical sensors, and biomarkers. In this study, we examined the chemical and biological properties of Ag nanoparticles of similar sizes, but that differed primarily in their surface chemistry (hydrocarbon versus polysaccharide), in neuroblastoma cells for their potential use as biological labels. We observed strong optical labeling of the cells in a high illumination light microscopy system after 24 h of incubation due to the excitation of plasmon resonance by both types of Ag nanoparticle. Surface binding of both types of Ag nanoparticle to the plasma membrane of the cells was verified with scanning electron microscopy as well as the internalization and localization of the Ag nanoparticles into intracellular vacuoles in thin cell sections with transmission electron microscopy. However, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degradation of mitochondrial membrane integrity, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, and reduction in proliferation after stimulation with nerve growth factor were found after incubation with Ag nanoparticles at concentrations of 25 µg ml-1 or greater, with a more pronounced effect produced by the hydrocarbon-based Ag nanoparticles in most cases. Therefore, the use of Ag nanoparticles as potential biological labels, even if the surface is chemically modified with a biocompatible material, should be approached with caution.

  13. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Tribulus terrestris and its antimicrobial activity: a novel biological approach.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, V; MubarakAli, D; Priyadarshini, S; Priyadharsshini, N Meera; Thajuddin, N; Velusamy, P

    2012-08-01

    In the recent decades, increased development of green synthesis of nanoparticles is inevitable because of its incredible applications in all fields of science. There were numerous work have been produced based on the plant and its extract mediated synthesis of nanoparticles, in this present study to explore that the novel approaches for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant fruit bodies. The plant, Tribulus terrestris L. fruit bodies are used in this study, where the dried fruit body extract was mixed with silver nitrate in order to synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The active phytochemicals present in the plant were responsible for the quick reduction of silver ion (Ag(+)) to metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag(0)). The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), XRD, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy. The spherical shaped silver nanoparticles were observed and it was found to be 16-28 nm range of sizes. The diffraction pattern also confirmed that the higher percentage of silver with fine particles size. The antibacterial property of synthesized nanoparticles was observed by Kirby-Bauer method with clinically isolated multi-drug resistant bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The plant materials mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles have comparatively rapid and less expensive and wide application to antibacterial therapy in modern medicine. PMID:22521683

  15. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  16. Assessment of total silver and silver nanoparticle extraction from medical devices.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Eric M; Jayanti, Priyanka; Dair, Benita J; Casey, Brendan J

    2015-11-01

    There is concern over the release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from medical devices due to their potential toxicological consequences inside the body. Towards developing the exposure component of a risk assessment model, the purpose of this study was to determine the amount and physical form of silver released from medical devices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm that three of five marketed medical devices contained nanosilver coatings (mean feature sizes 115-341 nm). Aqueous device extracts (water, saline and human plasma) were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The amount of silver extracted from the devices ranged from 1 × 10(-1) to 1 × 10(6) ng/cm(2) (conditions ranged from 37 to 50 °C, over one hour to seven days). The results further indicated that one of the five devices (labeled MD1) released significantly more AgNPs than the other devices. This data suggests that some but not all devices that are formulated with nanosilver may release detectable levels of AgNPs upon extraction. Further work is underway to quantitate the proportion of silver released as AgNPs and to incorporate this data into a risk assessment for AgNP exposure from medical devices. PMID:26282371

  17. Silver nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles for low-haze flexible transparent conductive films

    PubMed Central

    Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Hee Kim, Kwang; Yang, Daejin; Roh, Jongwook; Cheol Park, Hyeon; Kwak, Chan; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanowires have attracted much attention for use in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) due to their low sheet resistance and flexibility. However, the haze was too high for replacing indium-tin-oxide in high-quality display devices. Herein, we report flexible TCFs, which were prepared using a scalable bar-coating method, with a low sheet resistance (24.1 Ω/sq at 96.4% transmittance) and a haze (1.04%) that is comparable to that of indium-tin-oxide TCFs. To decrease the haze and maintain a low sheet resistance, small diameter silver nanowires (~20 nm) were functionalized with low-temperature surface-sintering silver nanoparticles (~5 nm) using bifunctional cysteamine. The silver nanowire-nanoparticle ink stability was excellent. The sheet resistance of the TCFs was decreased by 29.5% (from 34.2 to 24.1 Ω/sq) due to the functionalization at a low curing temperature of 85 °C. The TCFs were highly flexible and maintained their stability for more than 2 months and 10,000 bending cycles after coating with a protective layer. PMID:26575970

  18. Silver nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles for low-haze flexible transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Hee Kim, Kwang; Yang, Daejin; Roh, Jongwook; Cheol Park, Hyeon; Kwak, Chan; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanowires have attracted much attention for use in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) due to their low sheet resistance and flexibility. However, the haze was too high for replacing indium-tin-oxide in high-quality display devices. Herein, we report flexible TCFs, which were prepared using a scalable bar-coating method, with a low sheet resistance (24.1 Ω/sq at 96.4% transmittance) and a haze (1.04%) that is comparable to that of indium-tin-oxide TCFs. To decrease the haze and maintain a low sheet resistance, small diameter silver nanowires (~20 nm) were functionalized with low-temperature surface-sintering silver nanoparticles (~5 nm) using bifunctional cysteamine. The silver nanowire-nanoparticle ink stability was excellent. The sheet resistance of the TCFs was decreased by 29.5% (from 34.2 to 24.1 Ω/sq) due to the functionalization at a low curing temperature of 85 °C. The TCFs were highly flexible and maintained their stability for more than 2 months and 10,000 bending cycles after coating with a protective layer.

  19. Silver nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles for low-haze flexible transparent conductive films.

    PubMed

    Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Ajmal, C Muhammed; Kim, Kwang Hee; Yang, Daejin; Roh, Jongwook; Park, Hyeon Cheol; Kwak, Chan; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanowires have attracted much attention for use in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) due to their low sheet resistance and flexibility. However, the haze was too high for replacing indium-tin-oxide in high-quality display devices. Herein, we report flexible TCFs, which were prepared using a scalable bar-coating method, with a low sheet resistance (24.1 Ω/sq at 96.4% transmittance) and a haze (1.04%) that is comparable to that of indium-tin-oxide TCFs. To decrease the haze and maintain a low sheet resistance, small diameter silver nanowires (~20 nm) were functionalized with low-temperature surface-sintering silver nanoparticles (~5 nm) using bifunctional cysteamine. The silver nanowire-nanoparticle ink stability was excellent. The sheet resistance of the TCFs was decreased by 29.5% (from 34.2 to 24.1 Ω/sq) due to the functionalization at a low curing temperature of 85 °C. The TCFs were highly flexible and maintained their stability for more than 2 months and 10,000 bending cycles after coating with a protective layer. PMID:26575970

  20. Phycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V. Lamouroux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy Selvam, G.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation, simple and eco-friendly chemical reaction for the synthesis reported on biological synthesis of nano-sized silver and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hypnea musciformis at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. The nanoparticles of silver were formed by the reduction of silver nitrate to aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the extract of red alga H. musciformis. The optical properties of the obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by applying UV-visible absorption and room temperature photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were in the cubic phase. The existence of functional groups was identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and size of the synthesized particles were studied with atomic force microscope measurements. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using H. musciformis was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange.

  1. Characterization by spectroscopic Ellipsometry, the physical properties of silver nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coanga, Jean-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    Physicists are able to change their minds through their experiments. I think it is time to go kick the curse and go further in research if we want a human future. I work in the Nano-Optics and Plasmonics research. I defined with ellipsomètrie the structure of new type of Nano particles of silver. It's same be act quickly to replace the old dirty leaded electronic-connexion chip and by the other hand to find a new way for the heath care of cancer disease by nanoparticles the next killers of bad cells. Silver nanoparticle layers are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering are investigated as an alternative to lead alloy based material for solder joint in power mechatronics modules. These layers are characterized by mean of conventional techniques that is the dilatometry technique, the resistivity measurement through the van der Pauw method, and the flash laser technique. Furthermore, the nanoparticles of silver layer are deeply studied by UV-Visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. Spectroscopic angles parameters are determined in function of temperature and dielectric constants are deduced and analyzed through an optical model which takes into account a Drude and a Lorentz component within the Bruggeman effective medium approximation (EMA). The relaxation times and the electrical conductivity are plot in function of temperature. The obtained electrical conductivity give significant result in good agreement to those reported by four points electrical measurement method.

  2. Heterogeneous precipitation of silver nanoparticles on kaolinite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, B.; Torrecillas, R.; Malpartida, F.; Moya, J. S.

    2010-11-01

    Two different methods to obtain silver nanoparticles supported on kaolin crystals have been performed: the first one followed a thermal reduction and the second one a chemical reduction. In both cases, the silver nanoparticles with two different average particles size (ca.12 and 30 nm) were perfectly isolated and attached to the surface of the kaolin plates. The silver nanoparticles were localized mainly at the edge of the single crystal plates, the hydroxyl groups being the main centres of adsorption. The samples were fully characterized by XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM. The antimicrobial benefits of the composites were evaluated as antibacterial against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and antifungal activity against yeast. The results indicated a high antimicrobial activity for Escherichia coli JM 110 and Micrococcus luteus, while being inactive against yeast under our experimental conditions. The chemical analysis of Ag in the fermentation broths show that only a small portion of metal (<9 ppm) is released from the kaolin/metakaolin particles. Therefore, the risk of toxicity due to a high concentration of metal in the medium is minimized.

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2013-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years because these protocols are low cost and more environmentally friendly than standard methods of synthesis. In this article, we report a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver NPs using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared silver NPs were characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of the reductant (plant extract) and precursor solution (silver nitrate), the temperature on the morphology, and the kinetics of reaction were investigated. The results indicate that the size of the silver NPs varied as the plant extract concentration increased. The as-synthesized silver NPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. Further, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the plant extract not only acted as a bioreductant but also functionalized the NPs’ surfaces to act as a capping ligand to stabilize them in the solvent. The developed eco-friendly method for the synthesis of NPs could prove a better substitute for the physical and chemical methods currently used to prepare metallic NPs commonly used in cosmetics, foods, and medicines. PMID:23620666

  4. Silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: Physiochemical behavior and antimicrobial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chiqian; Hu, Zhiqiang; Deng, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Nanosilver (silver nanoparticles or AgNPs) has unique physiochemical properties and strong antimicrobial activities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the physicochemical behavior (e.g., dissolution and aggregation) and antimicrobial mechanisms of nanosilver in aquatic environments. The inconsistency in calculating the Gibbs free energy of formation of nanosilver [ΔGf(AgNPs)] in aquatic environments highlights the research needed to carefully determine the thermodynamic stability of nanosilver. The dissolutive release of silver ion (Ag(+)) in the literature is often described using a pseudo-first-order kinetics, but the fit is generally poor. This paper proposes a two-stage model that could better predict silver ion release kinetics. The theoretical analysis suggests that nanosilver dissolution could occur under anoxic conditions and that nanosilver may be sulfidized to form silver sulfide (Ag2S) under strict anaerobic conditions, but more investigation with carefully-designed experiments is required to confirm the analysis. Although silver ion release is likely the main antimicrobial mechanism of nanosilver, the contributions of (ion-free) AgNPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to the overall toxicity of nanosilver must not be neglected. Several research directions are proposed to better understand the dissolution kinetics of nanosilver and its antimicrobial mechanisms under various aquatic environmental conditions. PMID:26519626

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2013-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years because these protocols are low cost and more environmentally friendly than standard methods of synthesis. In this article, we report a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver NPs using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared silver NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of the reductant (plant extract) and precursor solution (silver nitrate), the temperature on the morphology, and the kinetics of reaction were investigated. The results indicate that the size of the silver NPs varied as the plant extract concentration increased. The as-synthesized silver NPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. Further, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the plant extract not only acted as a bioreductant but also functionalized the NPs' surfaces to act as a capping ligand to stabilize them in the solvent. The developed eco-friendly method for the synthesis of NPs could prove a better substitute for the physical and chemical methods currently used to prepare metallic NPs commonly used in cosmetics, foods, and medicines. PMID:23620666

  7. Partitioning of silver and chemical speciation of free Ag in soils amended with nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about silver nanoparticles in soils is limited even if soils are a critical pathway for their environmental fate. In this paper, speciation results have been acquired using a silver ion selective electrode in three different soils. Results Soil organic matter and pH were the most important soil properties controlling the occurrence of silver ions in soils. In acidic soils, more free silver ions are available while in the presence of organic matter, ions were tightly bound in complexes. The evolution of the chemical speciation of the silver nanoparticles in soils was followed over six months. Conclusion During the first few hours, there appeared to be a strong sorption of the silver with soil ligands, whereas over time, silver ions were released, the final concentration being approximately 10 times higher than at the beginning. Ag release was associated with either the oxidation of the nanoparticles or a dissociation of adsorbed silver from the soil surfaces. PMID:23617903

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Nigella sativa leaf extract in comparison with chemical silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Saeri, Mohammad Reza; Azizi, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Despite the development potential in the field of nanotechnology, there is a concern about possible effects of nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by 'green' and 'chemical' methods. In the wet-chemistry method, sodium borohydrate, sodium citrate and silver nitrate were used as raw materials. Leaf extract of Nigella sativa was used as reducing as well as capping agent to reduce silver nitrate in the green synthesis method. In addition, toxic responses of both synthesized AgNPs were monitored on bone-building stem cells of mice as well as seed germination and seedling growth of six different plants (Lolium, wheat, bean and common vetch, lettuce and canola). In both synthesis methods, the colorless reaction mixtures turned brown and UV-visible spectra confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed the predominance of silver nanosized crystallites and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process. MTT assay showed cell viability of bone-building stem cells of mice was further in the green AgNPs synthesized using black cumin extract than chemical AgNPs. IC50 (inhibitory concentrations) values for seed germination, root and shoot length for 6 plants in green AgNPs exposures were higher than the chemical AgNPs. These results suggest that cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of the green synthesized AgNPs were significantly less than wet-chemistry synthesized ones. This study indicated an economical, simple and efficient ecofriendly technique using leaves of N. sativa for synthesis of AgNPs and confirmed that green AgNPs are safer than chemically-synthesized AgNPs. PMID:26122733

  9. Influence of surfactant on the preparation of silver nanoparticles by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Dang, Thi My; Thu Tuyet Le, Thi; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric; Chien Dang, Mau

    2012-09-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from silver nitrate via a polyol method in ambient atmosphere. In our synthesis route, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as both size controller and capping agent, ethylene glycol acts both as solvent and reducing agent. The obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry which indicated the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the coordination between silver nanoparticles and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) contributed to the particle size analysis. The surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed absorption from 406 to 409 nm. The average size of the resulting silver nanoparticles was below 10 nm with a dependency on the PVP concentration.

  10. Silver nanoparticles as a key feature of a plasma polymer composite layer in mitigation of charge injection into polyethylene under dc stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliere, L.; Maskasheva, K.; Laurent, C.; Despax, B.; Boudou, L.; Teyssedre, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to limit charge injection from a semi-conducting electrode into low density polyethylene (LDPE) under dc field by tailoring the polymer surface using a silver nanoparticles-containing layer. The layer is composed of a plane of silver nanoparticles embedded in a semi-insulating organosilicon matrix deposited on the polyethylene surface by a plasma process. Size, density and surface coverage of the nanoparticles are controlled through the plasma process. Space charge distribution in 300 μm thick LDPE samples is measured by the pulsed-electroacoustic technique following a short term (step-wise voltage increase up to 50 kV mm-1, 20 min in duration each, followed by a polarity inversion) and a longer term (up to 12 h under 40 kV mm-1) protocols for voltage application. A comparative study of space charge distribution between a reference polyethylene sample and the tailored samples is presented. It is shown that the barrier effect depends on the size distribution and the surface area covered by the nanoparticles: 15 nm (average size) silver nanoparticles with a high surface density but still not percolating form an efficient barrier layer that suppress charge injection. It is worthy to note that charge injection is detected for samples tailored with (i) percolating nanoparticles embedded in organosilicon layer; (ii) with organosilicon layer only, without nanoparticles and (iii) with smaller size silver particles (<10 nm) embedded in organosilicon layer. The amount of injected charges in the tailored samples increases gradually in the samples ranking given above. The mechanism of charge injection mitigation is discussed on the basis of complementary experiments carried out on the nanocomposite layer such as surface potential measurements. The ability of silver clusters to stabilize electrical charges close to the electrode thereby counterbalancing the applied field appears to be a key factor in explaining the charge injection

  11. Multilevel modeling of retention and disinfection efficacy of silver nanoparticles on ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Mikelonis, Anne M; Lawler, Desmond F; Passalacqua, Paola

    2016-10-01

    This research examined how variations in synthesis methods of silver nanoparticles affect both the release of silver from ceramic water filters (CWFs) and disinfection efficacy. The silver nanoparticles used were stabilized by four different molecules: citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, branched polyethylenimine, and casein. A multilevel statistical model was built to quantify if there was a significant difference in: a) extent of silver lost, b) initial amount of silver lost, c) silver lost for water of different quality, and d) total coliform removal. Experiments were performed on location at Pure Home Water, a CWF factory in Tamale, Ghana using stored rainwater and dugout water (a local surface water). The results indicated that using dugout vs. rainwater significantly affects the initial (p-value 0.0015) and sustained (p-value 0.0124) loss of silver, but that silver type does not have a significant effect. On average, dugout water removed 37.5μg/L more initial silver and had 1.1μg/L more silver in the filtrate than rainwater. Initially, filters achieved 1.9 log reduction values (LRVs) on average, but among different silver and water types this varied by as much as 2.5 LRV units. Overall, bacterial removal effectiveness was more challenging to evaluate, but some data suggest that the branched polyethylenimine silver nanoparticles provided improved initial bacterial removal over filters which were not painted with silver nanoparticles (p-value 0.038). PMID:27232964

  12. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was

  13. Surface sorption and nanoparticle production as a silver detoxification mechanism of the freshwater alga Parachlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Kadukova, Jana

    2016-09-01

    SEM, EDS, TEM, FTIR and UV-vis analysis were used to investigate the biosorption, bioaccumulation and bioreduction of silver by the freshwater green alga Parachlorella kessleri. The dead algal biomass showed high potential for silver removal; 75% of silver was removed within 2min. Surface sorption was the main mechanism; bioreduction contributed to the biosorption only to a small extent. In the presence of living P. kessleri cells a 68% decrease of silver concentration was observed within 24h, but subsequently the majority of silver was released back into the solution within the next 14days. According to UV-vis spectrometry, silver nanoparticles were formed in that time. The nanoparticles produced by the alga exhibited a lower toxicity against algal cells than silver ions at the same silver concentrations. The study demonstrated that living algal cells used a combination of two main mechanisms (sorption and reduction) for silver detoxification in their environment. PMID:27262095

  14. Ultrastructural changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus induced by positively charged silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Romero-Urbina, Dulce G; Lara, Humberto H; Velázquez-Salazar, J Jesús; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Larios, Eduardo; Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Yacamán, Miguel José

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles offer a possible means of fighting antibacterial resistance. Most of their antibacterial properties are attributed to their silver ions. In the present work, we study the actions of positively charged silver nanoparticles against both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to examine the bactericidal effects of silver nanoparticles and the ultrastructural changes in bacteria that are induced by silver nanoparticles. The study revealed that our 1 nm average size silver nanoparticles induced thinning and permeabilization of the cell wall, destabilization of the peptidoglycan layer, and subsequent leakage of intracellular content, causing bacterial cell lysis. We hypothesize that positively charged silver nanoparticles bind to the negatively charged polyanionic backbones of teichoic acids and the related cell wall glycopolymers of bacteria as a first target, consequently stressing the structure and permeability of the cell wall. This hypothesis provides a major mechanism to explain the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus. Future research should focus on defining the related molecular mechanisms and their importance to the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26734530

  15. Ultrastructural changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus induced by positively charged silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Urbina, Dulce G; Lara, Humberto H; Velázquez-Salazar, J Jesús; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Larios, Eduardo; Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Silver nanoparticles offer a possible means of fighting antibacterial resistance. Most of their antibacterial properties are attributed to their silver ions. In the present work, we study the actions of positively charged silver nanoparticles against both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to examine the bactericidal effects of silver nanoparticles and the ultrastructural changes in bacteria that are induced by silver nanoparticles. The study revealed that our 1 nm average size silver nanoparticles induced thinning and permeabilization of the cell wall, destabilization of the peptidoglycan layer, and subsequent leakage of intracellular content, causing bacterial cell lysis. We hypothesize that positively charged silver nanoparticles bind to the negatively charged polyanionic backbones of teichoic acids and the related cell wall glycopolymers of bacteria as a first target, consequently stressing the structure and permeability of the cell wall. This hypothesis provides a major mechanism to explain the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus. Future research should focus on defining the related molecular mechanisms and their importance to the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26734530

  16. Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

  17. Removal of Protein Capping Enhances the Antibacterial Efficiency of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jain, Navin; Bhargava, Arpit; Rathi, Mohit; Dilip, R Venkataramana; Panwar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates an economical and environmental affable approach for the synthesis of "protein-capped" silver nanoparticles in aqueous solvent system. A variety of standard techniques viz. UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were employed to characterize the shape, size and composition of nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be homogenous, spherical, mono-dispersed and covered with multi-layered protein shell. In order to prepare bare silver nanoparticles, the protein shell was removed from biogenic nanoparticles as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and photoluminescence analysis. Subsequently, the antibacterial efficacy of protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles was compared by bacterial growth rate and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The results revealed that bare nanoparticles were more effective as compared to the protein-capped silver nanoparticles with varying antibacterial potential against the tested Gram positive and negative bacterial species. Mechanistic studies based on ROS generation and membrane damage suggested that protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles demonstrate distinct mode of action. These findings were strengthened by the TEM imaging along with silver ion release measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In conclusion, our results illustrate that presence of protein shell on silver nanoparticles can decrease their bactericidal effects. These findings open new avenues for surface modifications of nanoparticles to modulate and enhance their functional properties. PMID:26226385

  18. Removal of Protein Capping Enhances the Antibacterial Efficiency of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Navin; Bhargava, Arpit; Rathi, Mohit; Dilip, R. Venkataramana; Panwar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates an economical and environmental affable approach for the synthesis of “protein-capped” silver nanoparticles in aqueous solvent system. A variety of standard techniques viz. UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were employed to characterize the shape, size and composition of nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be homogenous, spherical, mono-dispersed and covered with multi-layered protein shell. In order to prepare bare silver nanoparticles, the protein shell was removed from biogenic nanoparticles as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and photoluminescence analysis. Subsequently, the antibacterial efficacy of protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles was compared by bacterial growth rate and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The results revealed that bare nanoparticles were more effective as compared to the protein-capped silver nanoparticles with varying antibacterial potential against the tested Gram positive and negative bacterial species. Mechanistic studies based on ROS generation and membrane damage suggested that protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles demonstrate distinct mode of action. These findings were strengthened by the TEM imaging along with silver ion release measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In conclusion, our results illustrate that presence of protein shell on silver nanoparticles can decrease their bactericidal effects. These findings open new avenues for surface modifications of nanoparticles to modulate and enhance their functional properties. PMID:26226385

  19. Influence of gold, silver and gold–silver alloy nanoparticles on germ cell function and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Rehbock, Christoph; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-01-01

    Summary The use of engineered nanoparticles has risen exponentially over the last decade. Applications are manifold and include utilisation in industrial goods as well as medical and consumer products. Gold and silver nanoparticles play an important role in the current increase of nanoparticle usage. However, our understanding concerning possible side effects of this increased exposure to particles, which are frequently in the same size regime as medium sized biomolecules and accessorily possess highly active surfaces, is still incomplete. That particularly applies to reproductive aspects, were defects can be passed onto following generations. This review gives a brief overview of the most recent findings concerning reprotoxicological effects. The here presented data elucidate how composition, size and surface modification of nanoparticles influence viablility and functionality of reproduction relevant cells derived from various animal models. While in vitro cultured embryos displayed no toxic effects after the microinjection of gold and silver nanoparticles, sperm fertility parameters deteriorated after co-incubation with ligand free gold nanoparticles. However, the effect could be alleviated by bio-coating the nanoparticles, which even applies to silver and silver-rich alloy nanoparticles. The most sensitive test system appeared to be in vitro oocyte maturation showing a dose-dependent response towards protein (BSA) coated gold–silver alloy and silver nanoparticles leading up to complete arrest of maturation. Recent biodistribution studies confirmed that nanoparticles gain access to the ovaries and also penetrate the blood–testis and placental barrier. Thus, the design of nanoparticles with increased biosafety is highly relevant for biomedical applications. PMID:25821705

  20. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. PMID:24997264

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms.

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by a Bacillus sp. of marine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhanan, A.; Roshmi, T.; Varghese, Rintu T.; Soniya, E. V.; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E. K.

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the nanoparticle synthesizing properties of a silver resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from a marine water sample. The 16SrDNA sequence analysis of the isolate proved it as a Bacillus strain. Very interestingly, the isolate was found to have the ability to form intracellular silver nanoparticles at room temperature within 24 hours. This was confirmed by the UV-Vis absorption analysis which showed a peak at 430 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Further characterization of the nanoparticles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The presence of silver nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm was confirmed. These particles were found to be extremely stable as confirmed by the TEM analysis after three months of purification. So, the current study is the demonstration of an efficient synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles by a marine Bacillus strain.

  4. Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic effect of plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Morinda citrifolia root extract.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kanchana, A; Elizabeth, S Beena

    2013-06-01

    Silver has been used since time to control bodily infection, prevent food spoilage and heal wounds by preventing infection. The present study aims at an environmental friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from the root of Morinda citrifolia; without involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanopartilces were capped with plant compounds. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the spherical nature of the silver nanoparticles with a size of 30-55 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum XRD pattern clearly indicates that the silver nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell. PMID:23434694

  5. Antiviral activity of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra; Falanga, Annarita; Incoronato, Novella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Stefania; Galdiero, Massimilano

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and viruses is attracting great interest due to the potential antiviral activity of these particles, and is the subject of much research effort in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and with human parainfluenza virus type 3. We show that production of silver nanoparticles from different fungi is feasible, and their antiviral activity is dependent on the production system used. Silver nanoparticles are capable of reducing viral infectivity, probably by blocking interaction of the virus with the cell, which might depend on the size and zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles. Smaller-sized nanoparticles were able to inhibit the infectivity of the viruses analyzed. PMID:24235828

  6. Coleus aromaticus leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2013-06-01

    The utilization of various plant resources for the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is called green nanotechnology, and it does not utilize any harmful chemical protocols. The present study reports the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the plant leaf extract of Coleus aromaticus, which acts as a reducing and capping agent. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the size of the silver nanoparticles is 44 nm. The bactericidal activity of the silver nanoparticles was carried out by disc diffusion method that showed high toxicity against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella planticola. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using plant resources is an eco-friendly, reliable process and suitable for large-scale production. Moreover, it is easy to handle and a rapid process when compared to chemical, physical, and microbe-mediated synthesis process.

  7. Phytofabrication of bioinduced silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nabeel; Bhatnagar, Sharad; Ali, Syed Salman; Dutta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of nanomaterials holds infinite possibilities as nanotechnology is revolutionizing the field of medicine by its myriad applications. Green synthesis of nanoparticles has become the need of the hour because of its eco-friendly, nontoxic, and economic nature. In this study, leaf extract of Rosa damascena was used as a bioreductant to reduce silver nitrate, leading to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a single step, without the use of any additional reducing or capping agents. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Time-dependent synthesis of AgNPs was studied spectrophotometrically. Synthesized AgNPs were found to possess flower-like spherical structure where individual nanoparticles were of 16 nm in diameter, whereas the agglomerated AgNPs were in the range of 60-80 nm. These biologically synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacterial species but not against Gram-positive ones (Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were studied on a Wistar rat model to gauge the impact of AgNPs for a probable role in these applications. AgNPs tested positive for both these activities, although the potency was less as compared to the standard drugs. PMID:26648715

  8. Optimisation of nitrate reductase enzyme activity to synthesise silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Bahareh; Ghorbani, Hamid Reza

    2016-06-01

    Today, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) is very common since it has many applications in different areas. The synthesis of these nanoparticles is done by means of physical, chemical, or biological methods. However, due to its inexpensive and environmentally friendly features, the biological method is more preferable. In the present study, using nitrate reductase enzyme available in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium, the biosynthesis of Ag NPs was investigated. In addition, the activity of the nitrate reductase enzyme was optimised by changing its cultural conditions, and the effects of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) concentration and enzyme amount on nanoparticles synthesis were studied. Finally, the produced nanoparticles were studied using ultraviolet -visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering technique, and transmission electron microscopy. UV-Visible spectrophotometric study showed the characteristic peak for Ag NPs at wavelength 405-420 nm for 1 mM metal precursor solution (AgNO(3)) with 1, 5, 10, and 20 cc supernatant and 435 nm for 0.01M AgNO(3) with 20 cc supernatant. In this study, it was found that there is a direct relationship between the AgNO(3) concentration and the size of produced Ag NPs. PMID:27256897

  9. Phytofabrication of bioinduced silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nabeel; Bhatnagar, Sharad; Ali, Syed Salman; Dutta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of nanomaterials holds infinite possibilities as nanotechnology is revolutionizing the field of medicine by its myriad applications. Green synthesis of nanoparticles has become the need of the hour because of its eco-friendly, nontoxic, and economic nature. In this study, leaf extract of Rosa damascena was used as a bioreductant to reduce silver nitrate, leading to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a single step, without the use of any additional reducing or capping agents. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Time-dependent synthesis of AgNPs was studied spectrophotometrically. Synthesized AgNPs were found to possess flower-like spherical structure where individual nanoparticles were of 16 nm in diameter, whereas the agglomerated AgNPs were in the range of 60–80 nm. These biologically synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacterial species but not against Gram-positive ones (Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were studied on a Wistar rat model to gauge the impact of AgNPs for a probable role in these applications. AgNPs tested positive for both these activities, although the potency was less as compared to the standard drugs. PMID:26648715

  10. Stable silver isotope fractionation in the natural transformation process of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dawei; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Tuoya; Cai, Yong; Yin, Yongguang; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-08-01

    Nanoparticles in the environment can form by natural processes or be released due to human activities. Owing to limited analytical methods, the behaviour of nanoparticles in the natural environment is poorly understood and until now they have only been described by the variations in the nanoparticle size or the concentration of the element of interest. Here we show that by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure silver (Ag) isotope ratios it is possible to understand the transformation processes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the environment. We found that the formation and dissolution of AgNPs under natural conditions caused significant variations in the ratio of natural Ag isotopes (107Ag and 109Ag) with an isotopic enrichment factor (ε) up to 0.86‰. Furthermore, we show that engineered AgNPs have distinctly different isotope fractionation effects to their naturally formed counterparts. Further studies will be needed to understand whether isotope analysis can be used to reveal the sources of AgNPs in the environment.

  11. Porous ceramic tablet embedded with silver nanopatches for low-cost point-of-use water purification.

    PubMed

    Ehdaie, Beeta; Krause, Carly; Smith, James A

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a novel method to embed silver in ceramic porous media in the form of metallic silver nanopatches. This method has been applied to develop a new POU technology, a silver-infused ceramic tablet that provides long-term water disinfection. The tablet is fabricated using clay, water, sawdust, and silver nitrate. When dropped into a household water storage container, the ceramic tablet releases silver ions at a controlled rate that in turn disinfect microbial pathogens. Characterization of the silver-embedded ceramic media was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spherical-shaped patches of metallic silver were observed at 1–6 nm diameters and confirmed to be silver with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Disinfection experiments in a 10 L water volume demonstrated a 3 log reduction of Escherichia coli within 8 h while silver levels remained below the World Health Organization drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L). Silver release rate varied with clay mineralogy, sawdust particle size, and initial silver mass. Silver release was repeatable for daily 10 L volumes for 154 days. Results suggest the ceramic tablet can be used to treat a range of water volumes. This technology shows great potential to be a low-cost, simple-to-use water treatment method to provide microbiologically safe drinking water at the household level. PMID:25387099

  12. Excitation of surface plasmons from silver nanowires embedded in polymer nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Weina; Li, Qiuguo; Li, Baojun

    2015-02-21

    We report an excitation of surface plasmons in silver nanowires (AgNWs) which were embedded in flexible polymer nanofibers. Using waveguiding excitation, surface plasmons in AgNWs were excited and propagated. By directing light of 650, 532, and 473 nm wavelengths into the nanofiber, surface plasmons in an embedded single AgNW (average diameter 400 nm, length 4.3 μm) were excited and the corresponding propagation lengths for the three wavelengths are 10.6, 7.7, and 5.1 μm. It was also found that, when a spatially incoherent white light of a halogen lamp with an excitation optical power of 80 μW was coupled into the polymer nanofiber, a surface plasmon mediated interference fringe was observed. In addition, on the basis of surface plasmon excitation, two adjacent AgNWs embedded in the polymer nanofibers were demonstrated to serve as coupled plasmonic waveguides. PMID:25620621

  13. Reversible transformations of silver oxide and metallic silver nanoparticles inside SiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Sudipto; De, Goutam

    2009-02-04

    Reversible transformation of silver oxide and metallic nanoparticles inside a relatively porous silica film has been established. Annealing of Ag-doped films in oxidizing (air) atmosphere at 450 deg. C yielded colorless films containing AgO{sub x}. These films were turned yellow when heated in H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} (reducing atmosphere) due to the formation of Ag nanoparticles. This yellow coloration (due to nano Ag{sup 0}) and bleaching (conversion of Ag{sup 0} {yields} Ag{sup +}) are reversible. Optical and photoluminescence spectra are well consistent with this coloration and bleaching. The soaking test of the air-annealed film in Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} solution supports the presence of Ag{sup +}. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of Ag-oxides and Ag nanoparticles in the oxidized and reduced films, respectively.

  14. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  15. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  16. Size Selective Green Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles: Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy of Resveratrol Capped Silver Sol.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shashi P; Roy, Mainak; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Das, Laboni; Neogy, Suman; Srivastava, Dinesh; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2016-03-01

    In view of potential biomedical application of the noble metal nanoparticles, we report a size controlled yet simple and green synthesis of resveratrol stabilized silver and gold nanoparticles having low polydispersity of size. Here, resveratrol plays two simultaneous roles, reducing the metal ions and providing efficient capping of the small nanoparticles. This gives rise to specific size of silver and gold nanoparticles at specific ratios of metal to resveratrol. The particles have been characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticle sols are stable for months. The UV Visible absorption spectra of the silver sol show the plasmon peak of spherical nanoparticles, presence of which is further reflected in the TEM images. Size of the silver particles obtained is in between 11 to 21 nm depending on the ratio of resveratrol to metal ion used. Resveratrol capped silver nanoparticles exhibit high antibacterial activity against Gram negative wild type E coli BW (25113). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nano-silver against the bacterium has been estimated to be 6.48 μg/ml, which is significantly lower than that reported in some earlier as well as recent publications. Reaction of gold ions with resveratrol, on the other hand, produces gold nanoparticles of sizes varying from 7 to 29 nm at different ratios of resveratrol to the metal ions. Particles with higher size and aspect ratio are formed at lower concentration of the capping agent whereas particles with very small size and pseudo-spherical morphology are formed at higher capping concentration. Difference in the formation kinetics of silver and gold nanoparticles has been attributed to the different growth mechanisms in the two cases. Possible modes of anchorage of resveratrol to silver nanoparticles have been investigated using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) which shows that the silver nanoparticles are capped by resveratrol molecule primarily through O

  17. Nanostructured multilayer polyelectrolyte films with silver nanoparticles as antibacterial coatings.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Tomasz; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Kręgiel, Dorota; Szyk-Warszyńska, L; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin polyelectrolyte films containing silver nanoparticles appear to be a promising material for antimicrobial coatings used in the medical area. The present work is focused on the formation of multilayer polyelectrolyte films using: polyethyleneimine (PEI) as polycation, Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as polyanions and negatively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which led to the polyelectrolyte-silver nanocomposite coatings. The film thickness and mass were measured by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and the structure and morphology of films were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Systematic increase of the UV-Vis absorption confirmed formation of the consecutive layers of the film. The analysis of bacteria cell adhesion to films surface was done by the luminometry measurement. Three gram-negative bacterial strains with strong adhesive properties were used in this study: Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Asaia lannenesis. It was found that nanocomposite films have antimicrobial properties, which makes them very interesting for a number of practical applications, e.g. for the prevention of microbial colonization on treated surfaces. PMID:26193773

  18. Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm. PMID:25290909

  19. Screening of cyanobacterial extracts for synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Husain, Shaheen; Sardar, Meryam; Fatma, Tasneem

    2015-08-01

    Improvement of reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a significant step in the field of application nanotechnology. One approach that shows vast potential is based on the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using micro-organisms. In this study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using 30 cyanobacteria were investigated. Cyanobacterial aqueous extracts were subjected to AgNP synthesis at 30 °C. Scanning of these aqueous extracts containing AgNP in UV-Visible range showed single peak. The λ max for different extracts varied and ranged between 440 and 490 nm that correspond to the "plasmon absorbance" of AgNP. Micrographs from scanning electron microscope of AgNP from cyanobacterial extracts showed that though synthesis of nanoparticles occurred in all strains but their reaction time, shape and size varied. Majority of the nanoparticles were spherical. Time taken for induction of nanoparticles synthesis by cyanobacterial extracts ranged from 30 to 360 h and their size from 38 to 88 nm. In terms of size Cylindrospermum stagnale NCCU-104 was the best organism with 38 and 40 nm. But in terms of time Microcheate sp. NCCU-342 was the best organism as it took 30 h for AgNP synthesis. PMID:25971548

  20. Photodegradation of Eosin Y Using Silver-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2015-01-01

    The purification of industrial wastewater from dyes is becoming increasingly important since they are toxic or carcinogenic to human beings. Nanomaterials have been receiving significant attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties compared with their larger-size counterparts. The aim of the present investigation was to fabricate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a coprecipitation method, followed by coating with silver (Ag) in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the MNPs by loading metal onto them. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag were characterised using different instruments such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average size of the magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of about 48 nm, and the average particle size changed to 55 nm after doping. The fabricated Ag-doped magnetic nanoparticles were used for the degradation of eosin Y under UV-lamp irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the use of fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag can be considered as reliable methods for the removal of eosin Y since the slope of evaluation of pseudo-first-order rate constant from the slope of the plot between ln⁡(Co/C) and the irradiation time was found to be linear. Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be considered an efficient photocatalyst to degrade textile dyes avoiding the tedious filtration step. PMID:26617638

  1. Photodegradation of Eosin Y Using Silver-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2015-01-01

    The purification of industrial wastewater from dyes is becoming increasingly important since they are toxic or carcinogenic to human beings. Nanomaterials have been receiving significant attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties compared with their larger-size counterparts. The aim of the present investigation was to fabricate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a coprecipitation method, followed by coating with silver (Ag) in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the MNPs by loading metal onto them. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag were characterised using different instruments such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average size of the magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of about 48 nm, and the average particle size changed to 55 nm after doping. The fabricated Ag-doped magnetic nanoparticles were used for the degradation of eosin Y under UV-lamp irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the use of fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag can be considered as reliable methods for the removal of eosin Y since the slope of evaluation of pseudo-first-order rate constant from the slope of the plot between ln⁡(C o /C) and the irradiation time was found to be linear. Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be considered an efficient photocatalyst to degrade textile dyes avoiding the tedious filtration step. PMID:26617638

  2. Modeling pulsed-laser melting of embedded semiconductor nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, C.A.; Guzman, J.; Boswell-Koller, C.N.; Sherburne, M.P.; Mastandrea, J.P.; Bustillo, K.C.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2011-05-18

    Pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in both thin films and nanoparticles. A model for the size evolution during PLM of nanoparticles confined in a transparent matrix, such as those created by ion-beam synthesis, is presented. A self-consistent mean-field rate equations approach that has been used successfully to model ion beam synthesis of germanium nanoparticles in silica is extended to include the PLM process. The PLM model includes classical optical absorption, multiscale heat transport by both analytical and finite difference methods, and melting kinetics for confined nanoparticles. The treatment of nucleation and coarsening behavior developed for the ion beam synthesis model is modified to allow for a non-uniform temperature gradient and for interacting liquid and solid particles with different properties. The model allows prediction of the particle size distribution after PLM under various laser fluences, starting from any particle size distribution including as-implanted or annealed simulated samples. A route for narrowing the size distribution of embedded nanoparticles is suggested, with simulated distribution widths as low as 15% of the average size.

  3. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by silver salt reduction and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzamil, Muhammad; Khalid, Naveed; Danish Aziz, M.; Aun Abbas, S.

    2014-06-01

    The wet chemical method route by metal salt reduction has been used to synthesize nanoparticles, using silver nitrate as an inorganic salt, aldehyde as a reducing agent and amino acid as a catalyst. During the reaction aldehyde oxidizes to carboxylic acid and encapsulates the silver nanoparticles to prevent agglomeration and provide barrier in the growth of particle. The existing work produces particles using lab grade chemical, here the presented work is by using industrial grade chemicals to make the process more cost & time effective. The nano silver powder has been studied for their formation, particle size, shape & compositional analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with EDS. The particles size distributions were analyzed by Laser Particle Analyzer (LPA), structure & morphological analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform-infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the stabilization of particles by coating of carboxylic group. These studies infer that the particles are mostly spherical in shape and have an average size between 70 to 350 nm.

  4. Silver nanoparticle-doped zirconia capillaries for enhanced bacterial filtration.

    PubMed

    Wehling, Julia; Köser, Jan; Lindner, Patrick; Lüder, Christian; Beutel, Sascha; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-03-01

    Membrane clogging and biofilm formation are the most serious problems during water filtration. Silver nanoparticle (Agnano) coatings on filtration membranes can prevent bacterial adhesion and the initiation of biofilm formation. In this study, Agnano are immobilized via direct reduction on porous zirconia capillary membranes to generate a nanocomposite material combining the advantages of ceramics being chemically, thermally and mechanically stable with nanosilver, an efficient broadband bactericide for water decontamination. The filtration of bacterial suspensions of the fecal contaminant Escherichia coli reveals highly efficient bacterial retention capacities of the capillaries of 8 log reduction values, fulfilling the requirements on safe drinking water according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Maximum bacterial loading capacities of the capillary membranes are determined to be 3×10(9)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface until back flushing is recommendable. The immobilized Agnano remain accessible and exhibit strong bactericidal properties by killing retained bacteria up to maximum bacterial loads of 6×10(8)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface and the regenerated membranes regain filtration efficiencies of 95-100%. Silver release is moderate as only 0.8% of the initial silver loading is leached during a three-day filtration experiment leading to average silver contaminant levels of 100μg/L. PMID:25579912

  5. Novel, silver-ion-releasing nanofibrous scaffolds exhibit excellent antibacterial efficacy without the use of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Mahsa; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-05-01

    Nanofibers, with their morphological similarities to the extracellular matrix of skin, hold great potential for skin tissue engineering. Over the last decade, silver nanoparticles have been extensively investigated in wound-healing applications for their ability to provide antimicrobial benefits to nanofibrous scaffolds. However, the use of silver nanoparticles has raised concerns as these particles can penetrate into the stratum corneum of skin, or even diffuse into the cellular plasma membrane. We present and evaluate a new silver ion release polymeric coating that we have found can be applied to biocompatible, biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds. Using this compound, custom antimicrobial silver-ion-releasing nanofibers were created. The presence of a uniform, continuous silver coating on the nanofibrous scaffolds was verified by XPS analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the antimicrobial scaffolds against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria was determined via industry-standard AATCC protocols. Cytotoxicity analyses of the antimicrobial scaffolds toward human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts were performed via quantitative analyses of cell viability and proliferation. Our results indicated that the custom antimicrobial scaffolds exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties while also maintaining human skin cell viability and proliferation for silver ion concentrations below 62.5μgml(-1) within the coating solution. This is the first study to show that silver ions can be effectively delivered with nanofibrous scaffolds without the use of silver nanoparticles. PMID:24365706

  6. The effect of ageing on the scattering properties of silver nanoparticles for a plasmonic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, S.; Disney, C. E.; Yang, Y.; Green, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Metal nanoparticles (MNP) supporting surface plasmon excitations have demonstrated efficiency improvements in solar cells through large angle scattering and light trapping. However, tarnishing of silver can degrade the scattering properties of the MNP, thereby limiting the potential for light trapping. In this work, we study the impact of ageing on the performance of silver MNPs over time. Our experimental results reveal that the degradation in photocurrent due to ageing can be as high as 7%, when compared to the case of freshly deposited silver MNPs. Simulation results further confirm that the degradation is indeed due to surface tarnish, which behaves as an undesirable over-coating layer. Our results highlight the sensitivity of the MNPs light trapping performance to varying properties of the dielectric material that surrounds them. It is important to prevent exposure of the MNPs to air to avoid tarnish. The use of encapsulation, over-coating, or embedding materials that have the potential to chemically alter the MNP surface should also be avoided. Experimental results reveal a method to mitigate these negative effects.

  7. Amperometric Sensor Used for Determination of Thiocyanate with a Silver Nanoparticles Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang-Feng; Li, Mao-Guo; Gao, Ying-Chun; Fang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    A novel electrode modified with silver nanoparticles was fabricated. It is found that the reducibility of silver nanoparticles is higher than for bulk silver by comparing a silver nanoparticles modified electrode with a silver micro-disk electrode. When SCN- was added, a new oxidation peak occurred and the anodic peak current of silver nanoparticles decreased. The new anodic peak current is proportional to the thiocyanate concentration in the range of 5.0×10-7∼4.0×10-4 mol/L in pH 6.0 NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer solutions (PBS). The detection limit (S/N=3) is 4×10-8 mol/L. This method has been applied to the determination of saliva (smoker and non-smoker).

  8. Antibacterial silver nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate blend produced by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Eghbalifam, Naeimeh; Frounchi, Masoud; Dadbin, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate/nano silver (PVA/SA/Ag) composite films were made by solution casting method. Gamma irradiation was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles in situ via reduction of silver nitrate without using harmful chemical agents for biomedical applications. UV-vis and XRD results demonstrated that spherical silver nanoparticles were produced even at low irradiation dose of 5 kGy. By increasing irradiation dose, more nanoparticles were synthesized while no PVA hydrogel was formed up to 15 kGy. Also the size of nanoparticles was reduced with increasing gamma dose evidenced by higher release rate of silver nanoparticles in lukewarm water and SEM images. Comparing SEM images with DLS results indicated good performance of PVA/SA as an efficient stabilizer in preventing agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. Good miscibility of polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate observed on the SEM images was supported with FTIR spectroscopy. Upon addition of sodium alginate to polyvinyl alcohol and increasing silver nanoparticles, the melting peak shifted to lower temperature and crystallinity percent was decreased. Addition of sodium alginate led to remarkable increase in rigidity of PVA. The composites exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli even at very low level of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26123816

  9. An environmentally benign antimicrobial nanoparticle based on a silver-infused lignin core

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties but their use has been a cause for concern because they persist in the environment. Here we show that lignin nanoparticles infused with silver ions and coated with a cationic polyelectrolyte layer form a biodegradable and green a...

  10. Gold-plated silver nanoparticles engineered for sensitive plasmonic detection amplified by morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Krysten; Cathcart, Nicole; Kitaev, Vladimir

    2016-07-28

    Gold-plated silver nanoparticles have been developed to undergo morphological changes that enhance the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing response. These morphological changes were realized through thin-frame gold plating that both reinforces the nanoparticle edges and enables partial silver etching upon exposure to several biological molecules, including thiols and amines. PMID:27418122

  11. Characterization of silver nanoparticle-infused tissue adhesive for ophthalmic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, William

    This research examined if the infusion of silver nanoparticles into a 2-octyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive alters the antibacterial effectiveness and mechanical properties of the adhesive. Silver nanoparticle size and concentration combinations were varied to determine the effects of these factors. Uniform distribution of the silver nanoparticles was achieved before proceeding to testing. Antibacterial effectiveness of the composite adhesive was determined via the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test and by CFU counting. Doping the adhesive with silver nanoparticles resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in bacterial growth. The greatest antibacterial effect came from imbuing 10 microg/mL of 4 nm silver nanoparticles into the tissue adhesive. Despite the noticeable reduction of bacterial growth for the doped adhesives, the difference among the varying silver nanoparticle size and concentration combinations was minimal. The breaking strength of the adhesive increased when silver nanoparticles were added. The adhesive strength of the composite adhesive attached to an incised porcine sclera was also greater than the unaltered adhesive. The greatest breaking load and adhesive force was the 10 microg/mL of 10 nm silver nanoparticle-doped adhesive. The increased mechanical strength of the doped adhesive expands the possible applications of treatment on different areas of the body.

  12. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV–Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  13. Sequential studies of silver released from silver nanoparticles in aqueous media simulating sweat, laundry detergent solutions and surface water.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Jonas; Skoglund, Sara; Karlsson, Maria-Elisa; Wold, Susanna; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2014-07-01

    From an increased use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as an antibacterial in consumer products follows a need to assess the environmental interaction and fate of their possible dispersion and release of silver. This study aims to elucidate an exposure scenario of the Ag NPs potentially released from, for example, impregnated clothing by assessing the release of silver and changes in particle properties in sequential contact with synthetic sweat, laundry detergent solutions, and freshwater, simulating a possible transport path through different aquatic media. The release of ionic silver is addressed from a water chemical perspective, compared with important particle and surface characteristics. Released amounts of silver in the sequential exposures were significantly lower, approximately a factor of 2, than the sum of each separate exposure. Particle characteristics such as speciation (both of Ag ionic species and at the Ag NP surface) influenced the release of soluble silver species present on the surface, thereby increasing the total silver release in the separate exposures compared with sequential immersions. The particle stability had no drastic impact on the silver release as most of the Ag NPs were unstable in solution. The silver release was also influenced by a lower pH (increased release of silver), and cotransported zeolites (reduced silver in solution). PMID:24892700

  14. Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined. PMID:25184109

  15. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin. PMID:26487803

  16. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of silver nanoparticles through leaves of Abrus precatorius L.: an important medicinal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddala, Bhumi; Nataru, Savithramma

    2015-01-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Abrus precatorius leaf extract with silver nitrate solution as reducing agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were analyzed through UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were disk shaped with an average size of 19 nm. These silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial activity. The diameter of inhibition zones around the disk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are resistant to silver nanoparticles, whereas Escherichia coli and Bacillus thuringiensis are susceptible when compared with the other two species. The results were compared with the ciprofloxacin-positive control and silver nitrate. It is concluded that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is very fast, easy, cost-effective and eco-friendly and without any side effects.

  18. Preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity of schizophyllan/silver nanoparticle composite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Vojtova, L; Uhrova, L; Hassan, A F; Al-Deyab, Salem S; El-Shamy, Ibrahim E; Jancar, J

    2014-02-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been successfully prepared with a simple and "green" chemical reduction method. Triple helical schizophyllan (SPG) was used for the first time as reducing and stabilizing agents. The effect of temperature, silver nitrate/schizophyllan concentrations, pH of the reactions medium and the reaction time were investigated. The obtained schizophyllan/Ag-NP was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS, X-ray diffraction, TGA, and ATR-FTIR. The results revealed that, Ag-NPs attached to SPG through a strong non-covalent interaction, leading to good dispersion of Ag-NPs with a diameter of 6 nm within the biopolymer matrix. By increasing the pH of the reaction medium, the triple helical structure of SPG was partially broken. The SPG/AgNP nanocomposite was non-toxic for mouse fibroblast line (NIH-3T3) and human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). PMID:24507278

  19. Sonochemical coating of silver nanoparticles on textile fabrics (nylon, polyester and cotton) and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Applerot, Guy; Perkas, Nina; Guibert, Geoffrey; Mikhailov, Serguei; Gedanken, Aharon

    2008-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and deposited on different types of fabrics using ultrasound irradiation. The structure of silver-fabric composites was studied by physico-chemical methods. The mechanism of the strong adhesion of silver nanoparticles to the fibers is discussed. The excellent antibacterial activity of the Ag-fabric composite against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) cultures was demonstrated.

  20. Pithecellobium dulce mediated extra-cellular green synthesis of larvicidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Sudharsan, S; Veerakumar, V; Pravin, N; Vithiya, K

    2012-10-01

    Present study reports a green chemistry approach for the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Pithecellobium dulce, which acts as a reducing and capping agent. It is observed that use of P. dulce leaf extract makes a fast, environmentally benign and convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles so prepared have been characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope studies. Furthermore, these nanoparticles show effective larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=21.56 mg/L and r(2)=0.995) due to high surface to volume ratio. PMID:22947646

  1. Optimization for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its effect on phytopathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaraj, C.; Ramachandran, R.; Mohan, K.; Kalaichelvan, P. T.

    In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Acalypha indica leaf extract as reducing agents. The reaction medium employed in the synthesis process was optimized to attain better yield, controlled size and stability. Further, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were conformed through UV-vis spectrum, XRD and HR-TEM analyses. Different concentration of silver nanoparticles were tested to know the inhibitory effect of fungal plant pathogens namely Alternaria alternata, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Curvularia lunata. Interestingly, 15 mg concentration of silver nanoparticles showed excellent inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles may have important applications in controlling various plant diseases caused by fungi.

  2. Inhibition Effects of Silver Nanoparticles against Powdery Mildews on Cucumber and Pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang-Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Seok; Kim, Kyoung Su; Lee, Youn Su

    2011-03-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating diseases in cucurbits. Crop yield can decline as the disease severity increases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of silver nanoparticles against powdery mildew under different cultivation conditions in vitro and in vivo . Silver nanoparticles (WA-CV-WA13B) at various concentrations were applied before and after disease outbreak in plants to determine antifungal activities. In the field tests, the application of 100 ppm silver nanoparticles showed the highest inhibition rate for both before and after the outbreak of disease on cucumbers and pumpkins. Also, the application of 100 ppm silver nanoparticles showed maximum inhibition for the growth of fungal hyphae and conidial germination in in vivo tests. Scanning electron microscope results indicated that the silver nanoparticles caused detrimental effects on both mycelial growth and conidial germination. PMID:22783069

  3. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2010-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

  4. Influence of silver nanoparticles on food components in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocka, A.; Cieśla, J.

    2013-01-01

    During storage, grain might be affected by bacterial and fungal infections. Pathogens diminish the grain quality through contamination with excrements and second metabolites. It is very important to prevent grain from infections. Due to their antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles can play the role of an effective protector. The influence of nanoparticles on wheat quality was studied. The gluten parameters and falling number did not change after covering the grain with silver nanoparticles stabilized by sodium citrate. Changes in the structure of starch and gluten were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of the whole meal and starch have shown a slight shift (from 1 000 to 995cm-1) of the band connected with the C-O-H bending. This displacement is probably related to the changes in sample moisture. Significant differences, corresponding to changes in the protein secondary structure, have appeared in the gluten spectra after covering.A decrease of absorbance in the amide and CH and OH regions has been observed regardless of the covering time.

  5. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30–40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts. PMID:24516361

  6. Membrane deformation controlled by monolayer composition of embedded amphiphilic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    In recent work, we have shown that charged, amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers, embedding the NP in a conformation resembling a transmembrane protein. Many embedded membrane proteins exert an influence on surrounding lipids that lead to deformation and membrane-mediated interactions that may be essential for function. Similarly, embedded NPs will also induce membrane deformations related to the same physicochemical forces. Unlike many transmembrane proteins, however, the highly charged NPs may exert preferential interactions on surrounding lipid head groups. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to show that the membrane around embedded particles may experience local thinning, head group reorientation, and an increase in lipid density depending on the size and surface composition of the NP. We quantify the extent of these deformations and illustrate the complex interplay between lipid tail group and head group interactions that go beyond pure thickness deformations that may be expected from coarse-grained or continuum models. This work thus suggests guidelines for the design of particles that spontaneously partition into lipid bilayers and influence local membrane mechanical properties in a targeted manner.

  7. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  8. Silver nanoparticles: mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Sukumaran; Poulose, Eldho K.

    2012-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver which are in the range of 1 and 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles have unique properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, as well as in devices that are used in several medical procedures. The major methods used for silver nanoparticle synthesis are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with the chemical and physical methods is that the synthesis is expensive and can also have toxic substances absorbed onto them. To overcome this, the biological method provides a feasible alternative. The major biological systems involved in this are bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts. The major applications of silver nanoparticles in the medical field include diagnostic applications and therapeutic applications. In most of the therapeutic applications, it is the antimicrobial property that is being majorly explored, though the anti-inflammatory property has its fair share of applications. Though silver nanoparticles are rampantly used in many medical procedures and devices as well as in various biological fields, they have their drawbacks due to nanotoxicity. This review provides a comprehensive view on the mechanism of action, production, applications in the medical field, and the health and environmental concerns that are allegedly caused due to these nanoparticles. The focus is on effective and efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles while exploring their various prospective applications besides trying to understand the current scenario in the debates on the toxicity concerns these nanoparticles pose.

  9. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, wound dressings, and biomedical devices. In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2) cell line. Methods The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Results The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2), while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1). This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment. PMID:21943321

  10. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21 nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques.

  11. Organic memory device with polyaniline nanoparticles embedded as charging elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Kim, Minkeun; Oh, Sewook; Jung, Hunsang; Kim, Yejin; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ho Lee, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) were synthesized and fabricated as charging elements for organic memory devices. The PANI NPs charging layer was self-assembled by epoxy-amine bonds between 3-glycidylpropyl trimethoxysilane functionalized dielectrics and PANI NPs. A memory window of 5.8 V (ΔVFB) represented by capacitance-voltage hysteresis was obtained for metal-pentacene-insulator-silicon capacitor. In addition, program/erase operations controlled by gate bias (-/+90 V) were demonstrated in the PANI NPs embedded pentacene thin film transistor device with polyvinylalcohol dielectric on flexible polyimide substrate. These results can be extended to development of fully organic-based electronic device.

  12. Tannic acid-mediated green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yoon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2016-04-01

    The search for novel antibacterial agents is necessary to combat microbial resistance to current antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to be effective antibacterial agents. Tannic acid is a polyphenol compound from plants with antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In this report, AgNPs were prepared from silver ions by tannic acid-mediated green synthesis (TA-AgNPs). The reaction process was facile and involved mixing both silver ions and tannic acid. The absorbance at 423 nm in the UV-Visible spectra demonstrated that tannic acid underwent a reduction reaction to produce TA-AgNPs from silver ions. The synthetic yield of TA-AgNPs was 90.5 % based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images indicated that spherical-shaped TA-AgNPs with a mean particle size of 27.7-46.7 nm were obtained. Powder high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TA-AgNP structure was face-centered cubic with a zeta potential of -27.56 mV. The hydroxyl functional groups of tannic acid contributed to the synthesis of TA-AgNPs, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antibacterial activity was measured using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The TA-AgNPs were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. The MIC for the TA-AgNPs in all of the tested strains was in a silver concentration range of 6.74-13.48 μg/mL. The tannic acid-mediated synthesis of AgNPs afforded biocompatible nanocomposites for antibacterial applications. PMID:26895244

  13. Biochemical changes in cyanobacteria during the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Chiriac, T; Valuta, A; Zinicovscaia, I; Duca, Gh; Kirkesali, E; Frontasyeva, M; Culicov, O; Pavlov, S; Bobrikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The methods of synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia were studied. A complex of biochemical, spectral, and analytical methods was used to characterize biomass and to assess changes in the main components of biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation. The size and shape of Ag nanoparticles in the biomass of both types of cyanobacteria were determined. Neutron activation analysis was used to study the accumulation dynamics of the Ag quantity. The analytical results suggest that the major reduction of Ag concentration in solutions and the increase in biomass occur within the first 24 h of experiments. While in this time interval minor changes in the N. linckia and S. platensis biomass took place, a significant reduction of the levels of proteins, carbohydrates, and phycobiliproteins in both cultures and of lipids in S. platensis was observed after 48 h. At the same time, the antiradical activity of the biomass decreased. The obtained results show the necessity of determining the optimal conditions of the interaction between the biomass and the solution containing Ag ions that would allow nanoparticle formation without biomass degradation at the time of Ag nanoparticle formation by the studied cyanobacteria. PMID:25444587

  14. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Chatha, Mariyam Asghar; Ejaz, Wardah; Janjua, Hussnain Ahmed; Hussain, Irshad

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests.

  15. An environmentally benign antimicrobial nanoparticle based on a silver-infused lignin core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Alexander P.; Brown, Joseph S.; Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Wang, Amy; Gangwal, Sumit; Houck, Keith; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.; Paunov, Vesselin N.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Velev, Orlin D.

    2015-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties, but their use has been a cause for concern because they persist in the environment. Here, we show that lignin nanoparticles infused with silver ions and coated with a cationic polyelectrolyte layer form a biodegradable and green alternative to silver nanoparticles. The polyelectrolyte layer promotes the adhesion of the particles to bacterial cell membranes and, together with silver ions, can kill a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and quaternary-amine-resistant Ralstonia sp. Ion depletion studies have shown that the bioactivity of these nanoparticles is time-limited because of the desorption of silver ions. High-throughput bioactivity screening did not reveal increased toxicity of the particles when compared to an equivalent mass of metallic silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate solution. Our results demonstrate that the application of green chemistry principles may allow the synthesis of nanoparticles with biodegradable cores that have higher antimicrobial activity and smaller environmental impact than metallic silver nanoparticles.

  16. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests. PMID:25435831

  17. Spectroscopic, microscopic and catalytic properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Saraca indica flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhu, V. K.; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The bioprospective field is dynamic area of research in the recent years. The present article reports a green synthetic route for the production of highly stable, bio-inspired silver nanoparticles using dried Saraca indica flower. The method is facile, cost effective, simple and reproducible. The reduction of silver ions and the formation of silver nanoparticles has been monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The TEM, SAED and XRD result reveal that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. FTIR spectra are used to identify the biomolecules that bind on the surface of silver nanoparticles, which increased the stability of the particles. S. indica flower extract plays its role as an excellent reducing agent of silver ions and the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are safer to environment. Also the size dependent catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles in the reduction of cationic dye, Methylene blue by NaBH4 is studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. The efficiency of synthesized nanoparticles as an excellent catalyst is proved by the reduction of Methylene blue which is confirmed by the decrease in the absorbance with time and is attributed to electron relay effect.

  18. Photoemission Electron Microscopy of a Plasmonic Silver Nanoparticle Trimer

    SciTech Connect

    Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Wang, Jinyong; Wang, Yi-Chung; Wei, Wei

    2013-07-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study to investigate the spatial distribution of photoelectrons emitted from core-shell silver (Ag) nanoparticles. We use two-photon photoemission microscopy (2P-PEEM) to spatially resolve electron emission from a trimeric core-shell aggregate of triangular symmetry. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are performed to model the intensity distributions of the electromagnetic near-fields resulting from femtosecond (fs) laser excitation of localized surface plasmon oscillations in the triangular core-shell structure. We demonstrate that the predicted FDTD near-field intensity distribution reproduces the 2P-PEEM photoemission pattern.

  19. Silver Nanoparticles: An Influential Element in Plant Nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Mostafa K; Salehi, H

    2016-07-01

    Profound interest and progress has been made since the invention of nanotechnology in 1959. However, its application in plant tissue culture and biotechnology has not been fully acknowledged in parallel with other facets of this technology. In this manuscript, the AgNPs effects on plant tissue culture and biotechnology encompass their antimicrobial effects and their mechanisms of action addressed to some extends. Moreover, their effects on seedling growth also reviewed. Most of the presented papers in the field of plant science have focused on antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles but its interesting inhibitory effects of plant senescence phytohormone ethylene, most likely can open a new window for future research. PMID:27146282

  20. A novel PLED architecture containing biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles and ultra thin silver layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pıravadılı Mucur, Selin; Tekin, Emine; San, Sait Eren; Duygulu, Özgür; Öztürk, Hasan Ümit; Utkan, Güldem; Denizci, Aziz Akın

    2015-09-01

    The influences of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (bio-GNPs) and ultra thin silver layer (UTSL) on the polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) are investigated for the first time. The performance of the fabricated PLEDs is enhanced by embedding of bio-GNPs into the hole transport layer (HTL). Furthermore, the tailored device architecture containing UTSL increases the electron transport through lightning rod effect. Bio-GNPs are successfully produced as spherical shape with size of circa 10.4 nm. Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate); (PEDOT:PSS)/bio-GNPs blends are used as an active layer and HTL, respectively. Novel PLEDs fabricated with 0.125 wt% bio-GNPs/PEDOT:PSS and 0.5 nm UTSL exhibit nearly 2.5-fold enhancement in the device efficiency.

  1. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  2. Phytosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callus of JATROPHA CURCAS: a Biotechnological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, A. G.; Lele, S. S.

    2013-04-01

    The present study reports a rapid plant-based biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using callus extract of Jatropha curcas L. The particle size and morphological analyses were carried out using Zetasizer, SEM, TEM. The physicochemical properties were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopic, IR and DSC. The formation of silver nanoparticle was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and absorbance peaks at 421 nm. The silver nanoparticle was found to be a negatively charged with size ranging from 2 nm to 50 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticle is uniformly spherical and has a dispersion ratio of 0.14. The physicochemical study using DSC indicated significant thermal stability and crystalline nature of the nanoparticle. This intracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is simple, cheap and eco-friendly than other mechanical and chemical approaches.

  3. Effects of Silver Nitrate and Silver Nanoparticles on a Planktonic Community: General Trends after Short-Term Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Boenigk, Jens; Beisser, Daniela; Zimmermann, Sonja; Bock, Christina; Jakobi, Jurij; Grabner, Daniel; Großmann, Lars; Rahmann, Sven; Barcikowski, Stephan; Sures, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Among metal pollutants silver ions are one of the most toxic forms, and have thus been assigned to the highest toxicity class. Its toxicity to a wide range of microorganisms combined with its low toxicity to humans lead to the development of a wealth of silver-based products in many bactericidal applications accounting to more than 1000 nano-technology-based consumer products. Accordingly, silver is a widely distributed metal in the environment originating from its different forms of application as metal, salt and nanoparticle. A realistic assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity in natural waters is, however, problematic and needs to be linked to experimental approaches. Here we apply metatranscriptome sequencing allowing for elucidating reactions of whole communities present in a water sample to stressors. We compared the toxicity of ionic silver and ligand-free silver nanoparticles by short term exposure on a natural community of aquatic microorganisms. We analyzed the effects of the treatments on metabolic pathways and species composition on the eukaryote metatranscriptome level in order to describe immediate molecular responses of organisms using a community approach. We found significant differences between the samples treated with 5 µg/L AgNO3 compared to the controls, but no significant differences in the samples treated with AgNP compared to the control samples. Statistical analysis yielded 126 genes (KO-IDs) with significant differential expression with a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 between the control (KO) and AgNO3 (NO3) groups. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed significant results with a FDR below 0.05 for pathways related to photosynthesis. Our study therefore supports the view that ionic silver rather than silver nanoparticles are responsible for silver toxicity. Nevertheless, our results highlight the strength of metatranscriptome approaches for assessing metal toxicity on aquatic communities. PMID:24755991

  4. Transformation of silver nanospheres embedded in glass to nanodisks using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmashonak, A.; Graener, H.; Seifert, G.

    2009-05-11

    We prove by help of optical microspectroscopy that spherical Ag nanoparticles embedded in glass can be transformed to oblate (disklike) shapes by irradiation with circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. The symmetry axis (short axis) of the oblate spheroids produced by this method is oriented along the laser propagation direction. This observation also confirms the assumption that the mechanism of shape transformation starts with directed photoionization of nanoparticles induced by laser irradiation in combination with the electric field enhancement at the particle-glass interface.

  5. Mechanistic insights into interaction of humic acid with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Vijayan; Ravindran, Aswathy; Anjali, C H

    2014-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is one of the major components of the natural organic matter present in the environment that alters the fate and behavior of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Transformation of Ag NPs happens upon interaction with HA, thereby, changing both physical and chemical properties. Fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the interaction of Ag NPs with HA. In pH and time-dependent studies, the near field electro dynamical environment of Ag NPs influenced the fluorescence of HA, indicated by fluorescence enhancement. SEM revealed not only morphological changes, but also significant reduction in size of Ag NPs after interaction with HA. Based on these studies, a probable mechanism was proposed for the interaction of HA with Ag NPs, suggesting the possible transformation that these nanoparticles can undergo in the environment. PMID:23801156

  6. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Eduardo José J; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio; Castro, Bruno N M F; Maciel, Auberson Martins; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  7. Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, H. L.; Wu, C. M.; Lin, F. D.; Rick, J.

    2014-08-15

    The interaction of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofibers with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (mean diameter 8nm) has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The physical adsorption of PVA through the hydroxyl group, to the Ag, and its corresponding molecular orientation was compared with experimental results obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of the same material. A good agreement was found between the computational model of the vibrational spectrum of the adsorbate and the experimentally observed SERS. In general, aliphatic capping molecules are used to passivate the surface of Ag{sub 55} nanocrystals (55 = atomic number of Ag). In this study, a DFT simulation was employed to show binding energies and electron contour map analyses of Ag{sub 55} with PVA. Here we show that the PVA interacts with the Ag nanoparticle's surface, through the OH group, thereby contributing significantly to the increase in SERS activity.

  8. Oxygen assisted interconnection of silver nanoparticles with femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Duley, W. W.

    2015-12-14

    Ablation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in the direction of laser polarization is achieved by utilizing femtosecond laser irradiation in air at laser fluence ranging from ∼2 mJ/cm{sup 2} to ∼14 mJ/cm{sup 2}. This directional ablation is attributed to localized surface plasmon induced localized electric field enhancement. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the irradiated particles in different gases and at different pressures indicate that the ablation is further enhanced by oxygen in the air. This may be due to the external heating via the reactions of its dissociation product, atomic oxygen, with the surface of Ag particles, while the ablated Ag is not oxidized. Further experimental observations show that the ablated material re-deposits near the irradiated particles and results in the extension of the particles in laser polarization direction, facilitating the interconnection of two well-separated nanoparticles.

  9. Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles prepared by interfacial etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Peng, Yi; Hu, Peiguang; Stofan, Jake; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-07-01

    Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles were prepared by chemical etching of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles at the air/water interface. Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition of a silver shell onto gold seed colloids followed by the self-assembly of 1-dodecanethiol onto the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticles then formed a monolayer on the water surface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and part of the silver shell was selectively etched away by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the water subphase, where the etching was limited to the side of the nanoparticles that was in direct contact with water. The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold cores, as manifested in transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Interestingly, the Au@Ag semishell Janus nanoparticles exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction reactions, as compared to their Au@Ag and Ag@Au core-shell counterparts, likely due to a synergistic effect between the gold cores and silver semishells that optimized oxygen binding to the nanoparticle surface.Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles were prepared by chemical etching of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles at the air/water interface. Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition of a silver shell onto gold seed colloids followed by the self-assembly of 1-dodecanethiol onto the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticles then formed a monolayer on the water surface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and part of the silver shell was selectively etched away by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the water subphase, where the etching was limited to the side of the nanoparticles that was in direct contact with water. The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold

  10. Substrate decomposition in galvanic displacement reaction: Contrast between gold and silver nanoparticle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-06-24

    We have investigated substrate decomposition during formation of silver and gold nanoparticles in galvanic displacement reaction on germanium surfaces. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized by electroless deposition on sputter coated germanium thin film (∼ 200 nm) grown initially on silicon substrate. The nanoparticles formation and the substrate corrosion were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.

  11. Polysaccharide-based silver nanoparticles synthesized by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 cause DNA fragmentation in E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Franco; Daniele, Salvatore; Gallo, Michele; Paganelli, Stefano; Battistel, Dario; Piccolo, Oreste; Faleri, Claudia; Puglia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), embedded into a specific exopolysaccharide (EPS), were produced by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 by adding AgNO3 to the cultures during exponential growth phase. In particular, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, two types of silver nanoparticles, named AgNPs-EPS(aer) and the AgNPs-EPS(anaer), were produced respectively. The effects on bacterial cells was demonstrated by using Escherichia coli K12 and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 (ex Micrococcus luteus) as Gram-negative and Gram-positive tester strains, respectively. The best antimicrobial activity was observed for AgNPs-EPS(aer), in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Observations by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell morphology of both tester strains changed during the exposition to AgNPs-EPS(aer). In particular, an electron-dense wrapped filament was observed in E. coli cytoplasm after 3 h of AgNPs-EPS(aer) exposition, apparently due to silver accumulation in DNA, and both E. coli and K. rhizophila cells were lysed after 18 h of exposure to AgNPs-EPS(aer). The DNA breakage in E. coli cells was confirmed by the comparison of 3-D fluorescence spectra fingerprints of DNA. Finally the accumulation of silver on DNA of E. coli was confirmed directly by a significant Ag(+) release from DNA, using the scanning electrochemical microscopy and the voltammetric determinations. PMID:26886276

  12. Experimental evolution of silver nanoparticle resistance in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad

    The recent exponential increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) means both greater intentional and unintentional exposure of eNPs to microbes. Intentional use includes the use of eNPs as biocides; unintentional exposure results from the fact that eNPs are included in a variety of commercial products (paints, sunscreens, cosmetics.) Many of these eNPs include heavy metals or metal oxides such as titanium dioxide, silver, gold, zinc and zinc oxide. The fact that early studies of the impact of metallic nanoparticles achieved approximately 90% lethality to Ag, Cu eNPs, suggests that genetic variants are already circulating in bacteria that can be co-opted to provide heavy metal eNP resistance. This project has utilized laboratory experimental evolution to evolve eNP resistance in the bacterium Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655 strain.). This is currently being validated by demonstrating the greater fitness of evolved strains versus ancestral strains in the presence of different sized and coated silver nanoparticles (10nm, 40nm, citrate-coated, PVP-coated) as well as phenotypic changes in the bacterial cell wall (as measured by Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM.). Finally, the bacterial genomes of the evolved and ancestral strains were resequenced. The genomic basis of this complex phenotype was determined. The practical application of such knowledge cannot be underestimated since nature is already evolving nanoparticle resistant bacteria. Thus knowledge of the nature of the physiological, morphological, and genomic mechanisms of resistance will be essential to deploy sustainable use of NPs as biocides, and to prevent unintentional environmental damage.

  13. The catalytic decomposition of silver coated cinnamyl alcohol during water exposure and the formation of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, S.; Höfft, O.; Viöl, W.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.

    2014-03-01

    Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (He I), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry are employed to study the interaction of water with Ag nanoparticles on cinnamyl alcohol films. The films have been prepared on Au(111) substrates by thermal evaporation. The water adsorption does not result in any chemical interaction with the silver nanoparticles at all, but the cinnamyl alcohol changes its chemical structure significantly. While water molecules induce a reduction of the organic groups, the film thickness seems to decrease. Thus, a decomposition of the cinnamyl alcohol films is proposed. Since no effects are observed during water interaction with pure cinnamyl alcohol films at all, a catalytic reaction appears to take place. No decomposition is found for cinnamyl alcohol adsorbed on a closed silver film, indicating that Ag nanoparticles are required for this catalytical decomposition. The MIES and UPS spectra indicate the existence of a closed metallic film directly after silver adsorption on cinnamyl alcohol, while they suggest the presence of silver nanoparticles after the exposure to water. The formation of silver nanoparticles therefore seems to happen concurrently to the catalytic decomposition of cinnamyl alcohol.

  14. Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

    2014-02-01

    Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 μg/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

  15. A novel photosynthesis of carboxymethyl starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, M A

    2014-01-01

    The water soluble photoinitiator (PI) 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS), silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40 °C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25 °C) and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1-21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6-10 and 1-3 nm, respectively. PMID:24672325

  16. A Novel Photosynthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The water soluble photoinitiator (PI) 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS), silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40°C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25°C) and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1–21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6–10 and 1–3 nm, respectively. PMID:24672325

  17. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of gelatin doped with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, K. H.; Abbo, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) solution. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak is located at 430 nm. Doping of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with gelatin biopolymer was studied. The silver content in the polymer matrix was in the range of 0.4-1 wt%. The formation of nanoparticles disappeared for silver content higher than 1 wt%. The morphology and interaction of gelatin doped with Ag NPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The content of Ag NPs has a pronounced effect on optical and structural properties of gelatin. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant were calculated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single - oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Color properties of the prepared samples were discussed in the framework of CIE L*u*v* color space.

  19. The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole; Speakman, Jacquelyn; Nettleship, Ian

    2010-04-15

    As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

  20. Transformation of silver nanoparticles in fresh, aged, and incinerated biosolids.

    PubMed

    Impellitteri, Christopher A; Harmon, Stephen; Silva, R Gune; Miller, Bradley W; Scheckel, Kirk G; Luxton, Todd P; Schupp, Donald; Panguluri, Srinivas

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot-scale wastewater (WW) treatment system consisting of a primary clarifier (PC), aeration basin, and secondary clarifier. The partitioning of the AgNPs between the aqueous and solid phases in the system was monitored. Less than 3% of the total AgNPs introduced into the PC were measured at the overflow of the PC. Biosolids were collected from the pilot-scale system for silver analyses, including Ag concentration and speciation. Additionally, biosolids were collected from a publically owned treatment works (POTW). The POTW biosolids were spiked with AgNPs, AgNO3, and Ag2S. One set of the spiked POTW biosolids was aged for one month, and another set was analyzed within 24 h via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in order to determine Ag chemical speciation and elemental associations. Replicates of the aged and 24-h samples were also incinerated at 850 °C for 4 h. The residual ash was analyzed by XAS and SEM-EDX. The results show that AgNPs are converted to Ag-sulfur (as sulfide and sulfhydryl) species in fresh and aged biosolids, which is in agreement with other studies on AgNPs in biosolids. Results from linear combination fitting of the XAS data for incinerated biosolids show that a significant proportion of the spiked silver (30-50%) is converted to elemental Ag in the incineration process. In addition to elemental Ag, the results suggest the presence of additional Ag-S complexes such as Ag2SO4 (up to 25%), and silver associated with sulfhydryl groups (26-50%) in the incinerated biosolids. Incinerated biosolids spiked with AgNO3 and Ag2S exhibited similar transformations. These transformations of AgNPs should be

  1. Silver Nanoparticles Stabilized Using Chitosan Films: Preparation, Properties and Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Kolarova, K; Vosmanska, V; Rimpelova, S; Ulbrich, P; Svorcik, V

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present silver nanoparticles coated with chitosan films synthesized by a simple, environmentally friendly method. Silver nanoparticles were prepared and stabilized by reduction of silver nitrate with chitosan without addition of harmful reduction agents. The presence of silver nanoparticles in the solid films was studied by the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Solid films were dissolved and the solution was observed by the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The amount of silver in the solid samples was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of solid films with silver nanoparticles was tested by disc test on two bacterial strains, Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The presence of silver nanoparticles was confirmed both in solid film and in solution by the above mentioned methods. The films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains. These films could be used as a wound dressing, antimicrobial packaging material or for long-term storage of silver nanoparticles for various applications. PMID:26682457

  2. Degradable polyphosphoester-based silver-loaded nanoparticles as therapeutics for bacterial lung infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuwu; Smolen, Justin A.; Zhang, Shiyi; Li, Richen; Shah, Parth N.; Cho, Sangho; Wang, Hai; Raymond, Jeffery E.; Cannon, Carolyn L.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new type of degradable polyphosphoester-based polymeric nanoparticle, capable of carrying silver cations via interactions with alkyne groups, has been developed as a potentially effective and safe treatment for lung infections. It was found that up to 15% (w/w) silver loading into the nanoparticles could be achieved, consuming most of the pendant alkyne groups along the backbone, as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The well-defined Ag-loaded nanoparticles released silver in a controlled and sustained manner over 5 days, and displayed enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities against cystic fibrosis-associated pathogens and decreased cytotoxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells, in comparison to silver acetate.In this study, a new type of degradable polyphosphoester-based polymeric nanoparticle, capable of carrying silver cations via interactions with alkyne groups, has been developed as a potentially effective and safe treatment for lung infections. It was found that up to 15% (w/w) silver loading into the nanoparticles could be achieved, consuming most of the pendant alkyne groups along the backbone, as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The well-defined Ag-loaded nanoparticles released silver in a controlled and sustained manner over 5 days, and displayed enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities against cystic fibrosis-associated pathogens and decreased cytotoxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells, in comparison to silver acetate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials, experimental details, and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07103d

  3. Silver nanoparticles: behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Fabrega, Julia; Luoma, Samuel N; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S; Lead, Jamie R

    2011-02-01

    This review summarises and evaluates the present knowledge on the behaviour, the biological effects and the routes of uptake of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to organisms, with considerations on the nanoparticle physicochemistry in the ecotoxicity testing systems used. Different types of Ag NP syntheses, characterisation techniques and predicted current and future concentrations in the environment are also outlined. Rapid progress in this area has been made over the last few years, but there is still a critical lack of understanding of the need for characterisation and synthesis in environmental and ecotoxicological studies. Concentration and form of nanomaterials in the environment are difficult to quantify and methodological progress is needed, although sophisticated exposure models show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for Ag NPs in different environmental compartments are at the range of ng L(-1) to mg kg(-1). The ecotoxicological literature shows that concentrations of Ag NPs below the current and future PECs, as low as just a few ng L(-1), can affect prokaryotes, invertebrates and fish indicating a significant potential, though poorly characterised, risk to the environment. Mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood although it seems clear that in some cases nanoscale specific properties may cause biouptake and toxicity over and above that caused by the dissolved Ag ion. This review concludes with a set of recommendations for the advancement of understanding of the role of nanoscale silver in environmental and ecotoxicological research. PMID:21159383

  4. Ultrasound assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using weed plant.

    PubMed

    Manjamadha, V P; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the facile, green and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using weed plant Lantana camara L. leaf extract. The incorporation of ultrasound into this reduced the time and increased the reaction rate. The results showed that the AgNPs were spherical in shape with the average size of 33.8 nm. The EDAX pattern indicated the presence of abundant silver and XRD indicated that the (111) crystallographic plane more predominant than other planes. The possible functional groups responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The XPS results concluded that the nanoparticles were presented in its reduced metallic state. The antioxidant activity of AgNPs was assayed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. The increase in the concentration of AgNPs increased the DPPH scavenging activity. The AgNPs revealed superior antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. PMID:26753832

  5. One-pot facile green synthesis of biocidal silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudrat Hazarika, Shabiha; Gupta, Kuldeep; Shamin, Khan Naseem Ahmed Mohammed; Bhardwaj, Pushpender; Boruah, Ratan; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Naglot, Ashok; Deb, P.; Mandal, M.; Doley, Robin; Veer, Vijay; Baruah, Indra; Namsa, Nima D.

    2016-07-01

    The plant root extract mediated green synthesis method produces monodispersed spherical shape silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a size range of 15–30 nm as analyzed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The material showed potent antibacterial and antifungal properties. Synthesized AgNPs display a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm in UV–Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometer analysis revealed the crystalline and face-centered cubic geometry of in situ prepared AgNPs. Agar well diffusion and a colony forming unit assay demonstrated the potent biocidal activity of AgNPs against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas diminuta and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Intriguingly, the phytosynthesized AgNPs exhibited activity against pathogenic fungi, namely Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus versicolor and Candida albicans. Scanning electron microscopy observations indicated morphological changes in the bacterial cells incubated with silver nanoparticles. The genomic DNA isolated from the bacteria was incubated with an increasing concentration of AgNPs and the replication fidelity of 16S rDNA was observed by performing 18 and 35 cycles PCR. The replication efficiency of small (600 bp) and large (1500 bp) DNA fragments in the presence of AgNPs were compromised in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that the Thalictrum foliolosum root extract mediated synthesis of AgNPs could be used as a promising antimicrobial agent against clinical pathogens.

  6. Photobiologic-mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lim, Jeong-Muk; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Yool-Jin; Park, Youn-Jong; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    We present the simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using sunlight or green, red, blue, or white LED light together with Dryopteris crassirhizoma rhizome extract (DCRE) as the reducing and capping agent. The preliminary indication of AgNP production was a color change from yellowish green to brown after light exposure in the presence of DCRE. Optimization of parameters such as pH, inoculum dose, and metal ion concentration played an important role in achieving nanoparticle production in 30min. The spectroscopic and morphological properties of AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy through the presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band for AgNPs, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FT-IR results indicated that the phytochemical present in DCRE was the probable reducing/capping agent involved in the synthesis of AgNPs, and light radiation enhanced nanoparticle production. HR-TEM revealed that the AgNPs were almost spherical with an average size of 5-60nm under all light sources. XRD studies confirmed the face cubic center (fcc) unit cell structure of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs showed good antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study will bring a new insight in ecofriendly production of metal nanoparticles. PMID:27348063

  7. Antibacterial and Antimycotic Activity of Cotton Fabrics, Impregnated with Silver and Binary Silver/Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremenko, A. M.; Petrik, I. S.; Smirnova, N. P.; Rudenko, A. V.; Marikvas, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Effective method of obtaining of the bactericidal bandage materials by impregnation of cotton fabric by aqueous solutions of silver and copper salts followed by a certain regime of heat treatment is developed. The study of obtained materials by methods of optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray phase analysis showed the formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles (NPs) and bimetallic Ag/Cu composites with the corresponding surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands in the absorption spectra. High antimicrobial and antimycotic properties of tissues with low concentrations of Ag and Ag/Cu nanoparticles (Ag/Cu NPs) (in the range 0.06-0.25 weight percent (wt%) for Ag and 0.015-0.13 wt% for Ag/Cu) is confirmed in experiments with a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans yeasts, and micromycetes . Textile materials with Ag NPs demonstrate high antibacterial activity, while fabrics doped with bimetallic composite Ag/Cu have pronounced antimycotic properties. Bactericidal and antifungal properties of the obtained materials do not change after a washing. Production of such materials is extremely fast, convenient, and cost-effective.

  8. Antibacterial and Antimycotic Activity of Cotton Fabrics, Impregnated with Silver and Binary Silver/Copper Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A M; Petrik, I S; Smirnova, N P; Rudenko, A V; Marikvas, Y S

    2016-12-01

    Effective method of obtaining of the bactericidal bandage materials by impregnation of cotton fabric by aqueous solutions of silver and copper salts followed by a certain regime of heat treatment is developed. The study of obtained materials by methods of optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray phase analysis showed the formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles (NPs) and bimetallic Ag/Cu composites with the corresponding surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands in the absorption spectra. High antimicrobial and antimycotic properties of tissues with low concentrations of Ag and Ag/Cu nanoparticles (Ag/Cu NPs) (in the range 0.06-0.25 weight percent (wt%) for Ag and 0.015-0.13 wt% for Ag/Cu) is confirmed in experiments with a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans yeasts, and micromycetes. Textile materials with Ag NPs demonstrate high antibacterial activity, while fabrics doped with bimetallic composite Ag/Cu have pronounced antimycotic properties. Bactericidal and antifungal properties of the obtained materials do not change after a washing. Production of such materials is extremely fast, convenient, and cost-effective. PMID:26781286

  9. Effects of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in the earthworm reproduction test.

    PubMed

    Schlich, Karsten; Klawonn, Thorsten; Terytze, Konstantin; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), for example, in textiles and cleaning products, means that they are likely to reach the environment via biosolids or the effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The aim of the present study was to determine the ecotoxicity of Ag-NPs in the earthworm reproduction test using Eisenia andrei. In addition to the usual endpoints, the authors also investigated the uptake and accumulation of Ag by adult earthworms and the concentration of free Ag(+) in soil pore water. Silver nanoparticles and Ag nitrate showed similar toxicities in the earthworm reproduction test. The uptake of Ag from Ag-NPs in the earthworm was slightly higher than the uptake of Ag from Ag nitrate. Spiked soils showed a concentration-dependent effect on reproduction, but there was no concentration-dependent increase in the amount of Ag in earthworm tissues. The authors noted a concentration-dependent increase in the levels of free Ag(+) in the soil pore water regardless of the Ag source. The number of juveniles is a more suitable endpoint than biomass or mortality. The uptake of Ag does not appear to inhibit reproduction. Instead, inhibition seems to reflect Ag(+) released into the soil pore water, which affects cocoons and juveniles in the soil. Analysis of transformed Ag-NPs after purification in wastewater treatment plants would provide additional information. PMID:23059754

  10. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  11. Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, Priya; Ashok, Anuradha M.; Selvakumar, R.

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3-11 nm. I-V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

  12. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

    2012-06-01

    Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

  14. Toxicity of Nanoparticles Embedded in Paints Compared with Pristine Nanoparticles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter HM

    2014-01-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  15. Toxicity of nanoparticles embedded in paints compared with pristine nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter H M

    2014-09-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  16. Solid state synthesis of starch-capped silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hebeish, A; Shaheen, Th I; El-Naggar, Mehrez E

    2016-06-01

    The present research addresses the establishment of a technique which is solely devoted to environmentally friendly one-pot green synthesis of dry highly stable powdered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using starch as both reductant and stabilizing agent in the presence of sodium hydroxide. It is believed that the sodium hydroxide can improve the reduction potential of starch. Thus when the alkali treated starch is submitted to addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3), the alkali treated starch induces the well-established dual role of starch; reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to AgNPs and capping the as-formed AgNPs to prevent them from further growth and agglomeration. Beside assessment of AgNPs formation, structural and morphological characteristics of AgNPs are investigated by making use of UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Research outputs signify (a) the absorbance around 410-420nm in the UV-vis spectra of AgNPs appears most, probably owing to the presence of nanosized silver particles and the intensity of this peak increases by increasing AgNO3 concentration; (b) that highly stable AgNPs with well-dispersed particle are successfully prepared using the present research-based innovation; (c) that the size of AgNPs does not exceed 30nm with sphere-like morphology even at the highest Ag(+) concentration employed during synthesis operation; (d) that the XRD and FT-IR confirm the successful preparation of pure AgNPs without noticeable impurities; (d) and that the one-pot synthesis of powdered AgNPs in large scale is clean and easily operated and easily transportation which may be applied as per demands of industries such as textile and painting industry. PMID:26902893

  17. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities

    PubMed Central

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:27304672

  18. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:27304672

  19. Preparation of linoleic acid-capped silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial effect.

    PubMed

    Das, R; Gang, S; Nath, S S; Bhattacharjee, R

    2012-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared through the chemical reduction of silver ions by ethanol using linoleic acid as a stabilising agent. This colloidal solution shows an absorption band in the visible range with an absorption peak at 421 nm. The peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well with the standard values of the face-centred-cubic form of metallic silver. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) micrograph shows a nearly uniform distribution of the particles with an average size of 8 nm. This linoleic acid-capped silver nanoparticles show antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:22559712

  20. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of silver ions embedded nanocomposite glass.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Pitchamuthu; Manikandan, Durgachalam; Manikandan, Elayaperumal; Ferdinand, Arumainathan Christy

    2014-04-24

    Silver nanocomposites (Ag-NCs) glasses are formed by the ion exchange technique of dipping the host matrix in the molten metal salt bath. These ions exchanged glasses are then annealed at different temperatures in air for one hour. They exhibit striking linear and nonlinear optical properties with potential applications in the field of photonics materials. The optical absorption spectra of Ag ion exchanged and annealed glasses confirm the presence of the nano sized metal (Ag) cluster embedded inside the glass matrix. The size and morphology of the embedded silver nanoclusters are studied from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Post Ag ion exchange made some structural changes in the soda lime glass which can be observed from Raman spectroscopy. It is observed that diffusion process lead to depolymerization of the glass network as it determined by analyzing the various peaks of SERS spectra. Significant enhancement in the Raman signal by these Ag-NCs, prove them as effective SERS substrates. PMID:24486788

  1. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman; Arkile, Manisha; Wadhwani, Sweety; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Chopade, Snehal; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods Silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs) nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 μg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 μg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 μg/mL (ten times MIC concentration) after 48 hours. Among these, Au–AgNPs synthesized from S. cumini were found to be more specific toward mycobacteria, with their selectivity index in the range of 94–108. Conclusion This is the first study to report the antimycobacterial activity of AuNPs, AgNPs, and Au–AgNPs synthesized from medicinal plants. Among these, Au–AgNPs from S. cumini showed profound efficiency, specificity, and

  2. Tuning the SERS Response with Ag-Au Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer Thin Film Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Kesava; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-17

    Development of facile routes to the fabrication of thin film substrates with tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency and identification of the optimal conditions for maximizing the enhancement factor (EF) are significant in terms of both fundamental and application aspects of SERS. In the present work, polymer thin films with embedded bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag-Au are fabricated by a simple two-stage protocol. Ag nanoparticles are formed in the first stage, by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate by the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film through mild thermal annealing, without any additional reducing agent. In the second stage, aqueous solutions of chloroauric acid spread on the Ag-PVA thin film under ambient conditions, lead to the galvanic displacement of Ag by Au in situ inside the film, and the formation of Ag-Au particles. Evolution of the morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles into hollow cage structures and the distribution of Au on the nanoparticles are revealed through electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction of the nanocomposite thin film evolves with the Ag-Au composition; theoretical simulation of the extinction spectra provides insight into the observed trends. The Ag-Au-PVA thin films are found to be efficient substrates for SERS. The EF follows the variation of the LSPR extinction vis-à-vis the excitation laser wavelength, but with an offset, and the maximum SERS effect is obtained at very low Au content; experiments with Rhodamine 6G showed EFs on the order of 10(8) and a limit of detection of 0.6 pmol. The present study describes a facile and simple fabrication of a nanocomposite thin film that can be conveniently deployed in SERS investigations, and the utility of the bimetallic system to tune and maximize the EF. PMID:26035249

  3. Dynamic protein coronas revealed as a modulator of silver nanoparticle sulphidation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclăuş, Teodora; Beer, Christiane; Chevallier, Jacques; Scavenius, Carsten; Bochenkov, Vladimir E.; Enghild, Jan J.; Sutherland, Duncan S.

    2016-06-01

    Proteins adsorbing at nanoparticles have been proposed as critical toxicity mediators and are included in ongoing efforts to develop predictive tools for safety assessment. Strongly attached proteins can be isolated, identified and correlated to changes in nanoparticle state, cellular association or toxicity. Weakly attached, rapidly exchanging proteins are also present at nanoparticles, but are difficult to isolate and have hardly been examined. Here we study rapidly exchanging proteins and show for the first time that they have a strong modulatory effect on the biotransformation of silver nanoparticles. Released silver ions, known for their role in particle toxicity, are found to be trapped as silver sulphide nanocrystals within the protein corona at silver nanoparticles in serum-containing cell culture media. The strongly attached corona acts as a site for sulphidation, while the weakly attached proteins reduce nanocrystal formation in a serum-concentration-dependent manner. Sulphidation results in decreased toxicity of Ag NPs.

  4. Dynamic protein coronas revealed as a modulator of silver nanoparticle sulphidation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miclăuş, Teodora; Beer, Christiane; Chevallier, Jacques; Scavenius, Carsten; Bochenkov, Vladimir E; Enghild, Jan J; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2016-01-01

    Proteins adsorbing at nanoparticles have been proposed as critical toxicity mediators and are included in ongoing efforts to develop predictive tools for safety assessment. Strongly attached proteins can be isolated, identified and correlated to changes in nanoparticle state, cellular association or toxicity. Weakly attached, rapidly exchanging proteins are also present at nanoparticles, but are difficult to isolate and have hardly been examined. Here we study rapidly exchanging proteins and show for the first time that they have a strong modulatory effect on the biotransformation of silver nanoparticles. Released silver ions, known for their role in particle toxicity, are found to be trapped as silver sulphide nanocrystals within the protein corona at silver nanoparticles in serum-containing cell culture media. The strongly attached corona acts as a site for sulphidation, while the weakly attached proteins reduce nanocrystal formation in a serum-concentration-dependent manner. Sulphidation results in decreased toxicity of Ag NPs. PMID:27278102

  5. Dynamic protein coronas revealed as a modulator of silver nanoparticle sulphidation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Miclăuş, Teodora; Beer, Christiane; Chevallier, Jacques; Scavenius, Carsten; Bochenkov, Vladimir E.; Enghild, Jan J.; Sutherland, Duncan S.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins adsorbing at nanoparticles have been proposed as critical toxicity mediators and are included in ongoing efforts to develop predictive tools for safety assessment. Strongly attached proteins can be isolated, identified and correlated to changes in nanoparticle state, cellular association or toxicity. Weakly attached, rapidly exchanging proteins are also present at nanoparticles, but are difficult to isolate and have hardly been examined. Here we study rapidly exchanging proteins and show for the first time that they have a strong modulatory effect on the biotransformation of silver nanoparticles. Released silver ions, known for their role in particle toxicity, are found to be trapped as silver sulphide nanocrystals within the protein corona at silver nanoparticles in serum-containing cell culture media. The strongly attached corona acts as a site for sulphidation, while the weakly attached proteins reduce nanocrystal formation in a serum-concentration-dependent manner. Sulphidation results in decreased toxicity of Ag NPs. PMID:27278102

  6. Estimation of mutagenic effect and modifications of mitosis by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Prokhorova, I M; Kibrik, B S; Pavlov, A V; Pesnya, D S

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed mutagenic and mitosis-modifying effects of silver nanoparticles (Allium test). Chromosome aberrations and laggings and micronuclei were simultaneously registered in the same sample. Mitotic and phase indexes were calculated. No mutagenic effects were detected after treatment with silver nanoparticles in doses of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 50 mg/liter. Silver nanoparticles in a concentration of 50 mg/liter significantly increased the mitotic index. Nanoparticles in a dose of 5 mg/liter induced slight, but significant increase in mitotic index, but did not affect the ratio of phase indexes. Exposure to silver nanoparticles in concentrations of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/liter was not followed by modification of mitosis. PMID:24319763

  7. Continuous synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using a homogeneous heating microwave reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Masateru; Miyakawa, Masato; Kataoka, Haruki; Koda, Hidekazu; Sato, Koichi; Suzuki, Toshishige M.

    2011-06-01

    Continuous synthesis of silver nanoparticles based on a polyol process was conducted using a microwave-assisted flow reactor installed in a cylindrical resonance cavity. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) dissolved in ethylene glycol were used respectively as a silver metal precursor and as a capping agent of nanoparticles. Ethylene glycol worked as the solvent and simultaneously as the reductant. Silver nanoparticles of narrow size distributions were synthesized steadily for 5 h, maintaining almost constant yield (>93%) and quality. The reaction was achieved within 2.8 s of residence time, although nanoparticles were not formed under this flow rate by conventional heating. A narrower particle size distribution was realized by the increased flow rate of the reaction solution. Nanoparticles of 9.8 nm average size with a standard deviation of 0.9 nm were synthesized at the rate of 100 ml h-l.

  8. Extracellular synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Sporosarcina koreensis DC4 and their biological applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Kim, Yeon Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    The present study highlights the microbial synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Sporosarcina koreensis DC4 strain, in an efficient way. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which displayed maximum absorbance at 424nm and 531nm for silver and gold nanoparticles, respectively. The spherical shape of nanoparticles was characterized by field emission transmission electron microscopy. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental mapping were displayed the purity and maximum elemental distribution of silver and gold elements in the respective nanoproducts. The X-ray diffraction spectroscopy results demonstrate the crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles. The particle size analysis demonstrate the nanoparticles distribution with respect to intensity, volume and number of nanoparticles. For biological applications, the silver nanoparticles have been explored in terms of MIC and MBC against pathogenic microorganisms such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles in combination with commercial antibiotics, such as vancomycin, rifampicin, oleandomycin, penicillin G, novobiocin, and lincomycin have been explored for the enhancement of antibacterial activity and the obtained results showed that 3μg concentration of silver nanoparticles sufficiently enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of commercial antibiotics against pathogenic microorganism. Furthermore, the silver nanoparticles potential has been reconnoitered for the biofilm inhibition by S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli and the results revealed sufficient activity at 6μg concentration. In addition, gold nanoparticles have been applied for catalytic activity, for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol using sodium borohydride and positive results were attained. PMID:26992796

  9. Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Baker; Yashavantha Rao, Hoovinakola Chinnappa; Nagendra-Prasad, Mysore Nagalingaswamy; Prasad, Ashwini; Harini, Ballagere Puttaraju; Azmath, Pasha; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220), and (311) reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc) of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles. PMID:27403378

  10. Toxicity of silver and gold nanoparticles on marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Pérez, Sara; Blasco, Julián

    2015-10-01

    The increased use of nanomaterials in several novel industrial applications during the last decade has led to a rise in concerns about the potential toxic effects of released engineered nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment, as their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms is just beginning to be recognised. Toxicity of metallic nanoparticles to aquatic organisms, including microalgae, seems to be related to their physical and chemical properties, as well as their behaviour in the aquatic media where processes of dissolution, aggregation and agglomeration can occur. Although the production of these particles has increased considerably in recent years, data on their toxicity on microalgae, especially those belonging to marine or estuarine environments remain scarce and scattered. The literature shows a wide variation of results on toxicity, mainly due to the different methodology used in bioassays involving microalgae. These can range for up to EC50 data, in the case of AgNPs, representing five orders of magnitude. The importance of initial cellular density is also addressed in the text, as well as the need for keeping test conditions as close as possible to environmental conditions, in order to increase their environmental relevance. This review focuses on the fate and toxicity of silver, gold, and gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on microalgae, as key organisms in aquatic ecosystems. It is prompted by their increased production and use, and taking into account that oceans and estuaries are the final sink for those NPs. The design of bioassays and further research in the field of microalgae nanoecotoxicology is discussed, with a brief survey on newly developed technology of green (algae mediated) production of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic NPs, as well as some final considerations about future research on this field. PMID:26002248

  11. Antibacterial nano-structured titania coating incorporated with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Wang, Hairong; Huo, Kaifu; Cui, Lingyun; Zhang, Wenrui; Ni, Hongwei; Zhang, Yumei; Wu, Zhifen; Chu, Paul K

    2011-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) implants are widely used clinically but post-operation infection remains one of the most common and serious complications. A surface boasting long-term antibacterial ability is highly desirable in order to prevent implant associated infection. In this study, titania nanotubes (TiO(2)-NTs) incorporated with silver (Ag) nanoparticles are fabricated on Ti implants to achieve this purpose. The Ag nanoparticles adhere tightly to the wall of the TiO(2)-NTs prepared by immersion in a silver nitrate solution followed by ultraviolet light radiation. The amount of Ag introduced to the NTs can be varied by changing processing parameters such as the AgNO(3) concentration and immersion time. The TiO(2)-NTs loaded with Ag nanoparticles (NT-Ag) can kill all the planktonic bacteria in the suspension during the first several days, and the ability of the NT-Ag to prevent bacterial adhesion is maintained without obvious decline for 30 days, which are normally long enough to prevent post-operation infection in the early and intermediate stages and perhaps even late infection around the implant. Although the NT-Ag structure shows some cytotoxicity, it can be reduced by controlling the Ag release rate. The NT-Ag materials are also expected to possess satisfactory osteoconductivity in addition to the good biological performance expected of TiO(2)-NTs. This controllable NT-Ag structure which provides relatively long-term antibacterial ability and good tissue integration has promising applications in orthopedics, dentistry, and other biomedical devices. PMID:21565401

  12. Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 Ω /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

  13. Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 Ω /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%.

  14. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; De Souza, Gabriel IH; Esposito, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material. PMID:16014167

  15. Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 Ω /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

  16. Capsaicin-capped silver nanoparticles: its kinetics, characterization and biocompatibility assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amruthraj, Nagoth Joseph; Preetam Raj, John Poonga; Lebel, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Capsaicin was used as a bio-reductant for the reduction of silver nitrate to form silver nanoparticles. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was initially confirmed by color change and Tyndall effect of light scattering. It was characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and TEM. Hemagglutination (H) test and H-inhibition assay were performed in the presence of AgNPs-capsaicin conjugates. The silver colloid solution after complete reduction turned into pale gray color. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) was observed at 450 nm. Time taken for complete bio-reduction of silver nitrate and capping was found to be 16 hours. The amount of capsaicin required to reduce 20 ml of 1 mM silver nitrate solution was found to be 40 μg approximately. The FTIR results confirmed the capping of capsaicin on the silver metal. The particle size was within the range of 20-30 nm. The hemagglutination and H-inhibition test was negative for all the blood groups. The capsaicin-capped silver nanoparticles were compatible with blood cells in hemagglutination test implying biocompatibility as future therapeutic drug.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Delonix elata leaf broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiya, C. K.; Akilandeswari, S.

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternative method for the novel production of nanoparticles. This paper reports the bioreduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticle by the leaf extract of Delonix elata. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). In addition the size of the NPs was calculated by using Malvern Zetasizer and the stability by zeta potential. UV-vis spectra show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 432 nm. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver (Ag°) and indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes in the range of 35-45 nm and EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectra show the existence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate. The size of the AgNPs estimated from particle size distribution curve shows the 70 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs was found to be -18 mV, indicating the dispersion and stability.

  18. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: A Novel Approach Towards Weed Utilization.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naheed; Sharma, Seema; Singh, V N; Shamsi, S F; Fatma, Anjum; Mehta, B R

    2011-01-01

    A single-step environmental friendly approach is employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The biomolecules found in plants induce the reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ions demonstrated a peak at 425 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles in the range of 5-20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the AgNPs exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. The process of reduction is extracellular and fast which may lead to the development of easy biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plants during glycolysis produce a large amount of H(+) ions along with NAD which acts as a strong redoxing agent; this seems to be responsible for the formation of AgNPs. Water-soluble antioxidative agents like ascorbic acids further seem to be responsible for the reduction of AgNPs. These AgNPs produced show good antimicrobial activity against common pathogens. PMID:21350660

  19. Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial properties against some human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premanand, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Kannadasan, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2016-03-01

    In the present report, bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera is explained. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited surface Plasmon resonance at 410 nm. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction pattern. The functional groups responsible for bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Field emission transmission electron microscope micrographs showed the formation of well-separated silver nanoparticles of size in the range of 30-40 nm. The result of dynamic light scattering also confirms the mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles with average size of 35 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis.

  20. Noble metal nanoparticles embedding into polymeric materials: From fundamentals to applications.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Pivin, J C; Swart, H C

    2015-12-01

    This review covers some key concepts related to embedding of the noble metal nanoparticles in polymer surfaces. The metal nanoparticles embedded into the polymer matrix can provide high-performance novel materials that find applications in modern nanotechnology. In particular, the origin of various processes that drive the embedding phenomenon, growth of the nanostructure at the surface, factors affecting the embedding including role of surface, interface energies and thermodynamic driving forces with emphasis on the fundamental and technological applications, under different conditions (annealing and ion beams) have been discussed. In addition to the conventional thermal process for embedding which includes the measure of fundamental polymer surface properties with relevant probing techniques, this review discusses the recent advances carried out in the understanding of embedding phenomenon starting from thin metal films to growth of the nanoparticles and embedded nanostructures using novel ion beam techniques. PMID:26584861

  1. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    On page 3712, E. Fantino, A. Chiappone, and co-workers fabricate conductive 3D hybrid structures by coupling the photo-reduction of metal precursors with 3D printing technology. The generated structures consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix shaped into complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated with a digital light-processing printer incorporating silver salt into photocurable formulations. PMID:27167030

  2. Integration of silver nanoparticle-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers into murine-splinted cutaneous wound beds.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kathleen M; Agarwal, Ankit; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Abbott, Nicholas L; Murphy, Christopher J; Singh, Harpreet; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Schurr, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Silver is a commonly used topical antimicrobial. However, technologies to immobilize silver at the wound surface are lacking, while currently available silver-containing wound dressings release excess silver that can be cytotoxic and impair wound healing. We have shown that precise concentrations of silver at lower levels can be immobilized into a wound bed using a polyelectrolyte multilayer attachment technology. These silver nanoparticle-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers are noncytotoxic yet bactericidal in vitro, but their effect on wound healing in vivo was previously unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on wound healing of integrating silver nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayers into the wound bed. A full-thickness, splinted, excisional murine wound healing model was employed in both phenotypically normal mice and spontaneously diabetic mice (healing impaired model). Gross image measurements showed an initial small lag in healing in the silver-treated wounds in diabetic mice, but no difference in time to complete wound closure in either normal or diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed modest differences between silver-treated and control groups on day 9, but no difference between groups at the time of wound closure. We conclude that silver nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayers can be safely integrated into the wound beds of both normal and diabetic mice without delaying wound closure, and with transient histological effects. The results of this study suggest the feasibility of this technology for use as a platform to affect nanoscale wound engineering approaches to microbial prophylaxis or to augment wound healing. PMID:23511285

  3. Synergistic action of cinnamaldehyde with silver nanoparticles against spore-forming bacteria: a case for judicious use of silver nanoparticles for antibacterial applications

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Indro Neil; Patil, Supriya Deepak; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Silver has long been advocated as an effective antimicrobial. However, toxicity issues with silver have led to limited use of silver in nanoform, especially for food preservation. With the aim of exploring combinatorial options that could increase the antibacterial potency of silver nanoparticles and reduce the effective dosage of silver, we evaluated the extent of synergy that a combination of silver nanoparticles and an essential oil representative (cinnamaldehyde) could offer. A battery of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains was utilized for antibacterial assays, and extents of synergism were calculated from fractional inhibitory concentration indices. The activity of nanoparticles was greatly enhanced when utilized in the presence of cinnamaldehyde. We observed combinatorial effects that were strongly additive against all the bacterial strains tested, and genuine synergy was found against spore forming Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens – bacterial strains associated with release of cytotoxins in contaminated food and known for their persistence. Bacterial kill curve analysis revealed a very fast bactericidal action when a combination of two agents was used. The electron and atomic force microscopy also revealed extensive damage to the bacterial cell envelop in the presence of both agents. We also performed hemolysis assays to investigate and approximate the extent of toxicity exhibited by the two agents, and observed no adverse effect at the concentrations required for synergy. This study shows that safe levels of silver in nanoform in combination with essential oil component cinnamaldehyde can be effectively used for controlling the spore-forming bacterial species. PMID:24376352

  4. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells. PMID:27453530

  5. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells. PMID:27453530

  6. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-07-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells.

  7. Monolithic cryopolymers with embedded nanoparticles. I. Capillary liquid chromatography of proteins using neutral embedded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dario Arrua, R; Nordborg, Anna; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

    2013-01-18

    Rigid monolithic cryostructures were prepared in capillary format at sub-zero temperatures and used successfully in the separation of proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The polymerization mixture consisted of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) M(n)∼258 as the single monomer, a mixture of dioxane and water as the porogen and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator system. At sub-zero temperatures, the solvent mixture used as the porogen is frozen, leading to the formation of a polymeric structure templated by the solvent crystals that are formed. The optimization of the polymerization reaction was carried out by studying the influence of different reaction parameters including the temperature of the reaction, monomer concentration and solvent, on the porous characteristics of the polymers obtained. Separations were performed in HIC mode using 3 M ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 to 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 over a 15 min gradient. The addition of neutral nanoparticles synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization greatly improved the separation of the protein mixture, doubling the peak capacity of the control column without nanoparticles (from 7 to 17). Although the peak capacities and resolution values achieved were lower than those reported for conventional methacrylate monolithic columns, the use of this polymerization approach allows the preparation of polymeric structures which presented a more open porous structure and consequently exhibited significantly higher permeability than conventional polymer monoliths. PMID:23273630

  8. Green synthesis and antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles using Vitex negundo L.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Mohsen; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Bakar, Fatima Abu; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Shameli, Kamyar; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh; Farahani, Farah

    2011-01-01

    Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) due to their multiple applications. One of the most important applications of Ag-NPs is their use as an anti-bacterial agent. The use of plants in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Vitex negundo L. extract and its antimicrobial properties has been reported. The resulting silver particles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. The TEM study showed the formation of silver nanoparticles in the 10-30 nm range and average 18.2 nm in size. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The silver nanoparticles showed the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Vitex negundo L. was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). PMID:25134770

  9. [Research on the Fluorescence Enhancement Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Wu, Ying; Liu, Ying; Cai, Tina-dong; Sun, Song

    2016-01-01

    Based on traditional fluorescence spectroscopy and metal nanoparticles-enhanced fluorescence technology, this research explores a method of improving the accuracy and resolution of cholesterol detected by fluorescence spectroscopy in human whole blood solution. In experiment, an adult blood with silver nanoparticles is radiated by a laser pulse with wavelength of 407 nm, the fluorescence enhancement effect of cholesterol in blood is studied. The results show that, colloidal silver nanoparticles can enhance the fluorescence intensity of cholesterol in human blood with low concentration significantly. With the increase of the amount of silver colloids, the enhanced efficiency of fluorescence peaks at different positions increases first, and then decreases. However, the strongest enhanced efficiency of fluorescence peaks is different corresponding to different amount of silver colloids. According to the experimental results and the distribution of cholesterol molecules and silver nanoparticles in solution, molecular spatial distribution model is established by theoretical analyses, and the optimal distance for efficient fluorescence enhancement between cholesterol molecules and silver nanoparticles is calculated, the range is 12.19-25 nm, and the result is in good agreement with the theoretical values in other literatures. In summary, the fluorescence intensity of cholesterol in human blood can be enhanced by colloidal silver nanoparticles, and the results also provide a valuable reference on improving the sensitivity and accuracy of cholesterol detection. PMID:27228757

  10. Low temperature chemical synthesis and comparative studies of silver oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Al-Hartomy, Omar A.; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.; Kalam, Abul

    2015-03-01

    Silver oxide nanoparticles of various sizes (5-40 nm) have been successfully prepared by sonochemical, solvothermal and microemulsion methods. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the high phase purity of silver oxide nanoparticles with cubic and hexagonal symmetries. Transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of spherical silver oxide nanoparticles (5-8 nm) using sonochemical and solvothermal methods, however, microemulsion method results in the formation of non spherical silver oxide nanoparticles (10-40 nm). UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the band appearance at 400 nm and 420 nm which correspond to the surface plasmon resonance of silver in silver oxide nanoparticles. Surface area studies give the surface areas of 19.7 m2/g and 12.6 m2/g using the sonochemical and solvothermal methods respectively. Where as surface area of 29.5 m2/g and 13.3 m2/g were obtained for the silver oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microemulsion method using Tergitol and Triton X-100 as the surfactants, respectively.

  11. A novel reusable nanocomposite for complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and microbial load from water based on nanocellulose and silver nano-embedded pebbles.

    PubMed

    Suman; Kardam, Abhishek; Gera, Meeta; Jain, V K

    2015-01-01

    The present work proposed a nanocellulose (NC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded pebbles-based composite material as a novel reusable cost-effective water purification device for complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and microbes. NC was prepared using acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The AgNPs were generated in situ using glucose and embedded within the porous concrete pebbles by the technique of inter-diffusion of ion, providing a very strong binding of nanoparticles within the porous pebbles and thus preventing any nanomaterials leaching. Fabrication of a continual running water purifier was achieved by making different layering of NC and Ag nano-embedded pebbles in a glass column. The water purifier exhibited not only excellent dye and heavy metal adsorption capacity, but also long-term antibacterial activity against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. The bed column purifier has shown 99.48% Pb(II) and 98.30% Cr(III) removal efficiency along with 99% decontamination of microbial load at an optimum working pH of 6.0. The high adsorption capacity and reusability, with complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and Escherichia coli from the simulated contaminated water of composite material, will provide new opportunities to develop a cost-effective and eco-friendly water purifier for commercial application. PMID:25243917

  12. Solar cell enhancement using metallic nanoparticles embedded in titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Max A.; Allen, Kenneth W.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we model the effects of depositing gold nanospheres of varying radii and spatial separations onto a 500nm film of silicon in an effort to couple more light into silicon through the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticles. To further enhance the field at the interface, we study the effect of embedding the spheres within the dielectrics air, NBK7, and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The modeling is done through finite element analysis via COMSOL over the radiation spectrum (0.4μm 1.5μm) of the sun. A positive size dependency of the light coupled into silicon and the radii of the spheres is found and analyzed. Use of dielectrics greater than air, NBK7 and TiO2, results in greater field enhancement at the silicon interface.

  13. Laser-generated plasma by carbon nanoparticles embedded into polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Cutroneo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanoparticles have been embedded into polyethylene at different concentrations by using chemical-physical processes. The synthesized material was characterized in terms of physical modifications concerning the mechanical, compositional and optical properties. Obtained flat targets have been irradiated by Nd:YAG laser at intensities of the order of 1010 W/cm2 in order to generate non-equilibrium plasma in vacuum. The laser-matter interaction produces charge separation effects with consequent acceleration of protons and carbon ions. Plasma was characterized using time-of-flight measurements of the accelerated ions. Applications of the produced targets in order to generate carbon ion beams from laser-generated plasma are presented and discussed.

  14. Textile Functionalization and Its Effects on the Release of Silver Nanoparticles into Artificial Sweat.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Sandra; Dommershausen, Nils; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Mitrano, Denise; Nowack, Bernd; Schneider, Gregor; Luch, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the release of total silver (Ag) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from textiles into artificial sweat, particularly considering the functionalization technology used in textile finishing. Migration experiments were conducted for four commercially available textiles and for six laboratory-prepared textiles. Two among these lab-prepared textiles represent materials in which Ag-NPs were embedded within the textile fibers (composites), whereas the other lab-prepared textiles contain Ag particles on the respective fiber surfaces (coatings). The results indicate a smaller release of total Ag from composites in comparison to surface-coated textiles. The particulate fraction determined within the artificial sweat was negligible for most textiles, meaning that the majority of the released Ag is present as dissolved Ag. It is also relevant to note that nanotextiles do not release more particulate Ag than conventional Ag textiles. The results rather indicate that the functionalization type is the most important parameter affecting the migration. Furthermore, after measuring different Ag-NP types in their pristine form with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the single particle mode, there is evidence that particle modifications, like surface coating, may also influence the dissolution behavior of the Ag-NPs in the sweat solutions. These factors are important when discussing the likelihood of consumer exposure. PMID:27128362

  15. Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Alrokayan, Salman A.

    2011-04-01

    Although green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by various plants and microorganisms has been reported, the potential of plants as biological materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their compatibility to biological systems is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we report a simple green method for the synthesis of Ag NPs using garlic clove extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition to green synthesis, biological response of Ag NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells was also assessed. Ag NPs were rapidly synthesized using garlic clove extract and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The green synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data demonstrated that the particles were crystalline in nature and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 12 nm. Measurements of cell viability, cell membrane integrity and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species have shown that the green synthesized Ag NPs were nontoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study demonstrated a simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign synthesis of Ag NPs with excellent biocompatibility to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This preliminary in vitro investigation needs to be followed up by future studies with various biological systems.

  16. Titania-supported silver-based bimetallic nanoparticles as photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Barakat, M A; Al-Hutailah, R I; Hashim, M H; Qayyum, E; Kuhn, J N

    2013-06-01

    Photocatalytic process has shown recently a great potential as an environmental friendly and clean remediation technology for organic pollutants in wastewater. This work described the synthesis of silver-based bimetallic nanoparticles using colloid chemistry and the subsequent immobilization onto titania to form composite photocatalytic materials (titania-supported Ag-Pt nanoparticles). The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and nitrogen physisorption. The catalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in synthetic wastewater solutions. The photocatalytic processes were conducted in a batch photoreactor containing appropriate solutions of phenol and 2-CP with UV irradiation of 450 W. UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing the concentration of phenol and 2-CP in solutions. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic process such as the solution pH, phenol and 2-CP concentrations, and catalyst concentration were investigated. The results obtained revealed that TiO(2)-supported Ag/Pt nanoparticles showed a higher activity for UV-photocatalytic degradation of both phenol and 2-CP pollutants in the solution (as compared to the plain rutile TiO(2)). The photodegradation processes were optimized by the 0.5-g/L catalyst with a pollutant concentration of 50 mg/L for all the samples. Complete degradation for both phenol and 2-CP was achieved after 120 min. PMID:23161501

  17. Electron transfer in peptides: on the formation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kracht, Sonja; Messerer, Matthias; Lang, Matthieu; Eckhardt, Sonja; Lauz, Miriam; Grobéty, Bernard; Fromm, Katharina M; Giese, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Some microorganisms perform anaerobic mineral respiration by reducing metal ions to metal nanoparticles, using peptide aggregates as medium for electron transfer (ET). Such a reaction type is investigated here with model peptides and silver as the metal. Surprisingly, Ag(+) ions bound by peptides with histidine as the Ag(+)-binding amino acid and tyrosine as photoinducible electron donor cannot be reduced to Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) under ET conditions because the peptide prevents the aggregation of Ag atoms to form AgNPs. Only in the presence of chloride ions, which generate AgCl microcrystals in the peptide matrix, does the synthesis of AgNPs occur. The reaction starts with the formation of 100 nm Ag@AgCl/peptide nanocomposites which are cleaved into 15 nm AgNPs. This defined transformation from large nanoparticles into small ones is in contrast to the usually observed Ostwald ripening processes and can be followed in detail by studying time-resolved UV/Vis spectra which exhibit an isosbestic point. PMID:25663127

  18. Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles prepared by interfacial etching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Peng, Yi; Hu, Peiguang; Stofan, Jake; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-08-14

    Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles were prepared by chemical etching of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles at the air/water interface. Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition of a silver shell onto gold seed colloids followed by the self-assembly of 1-dodecanethiol onto the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticles then formed a monolayer on the water surface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and part of the silver shell was selectively etched away by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the water subphase, where the etching was limited to the side of the nanoparticles that was in direct contact with water. The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold cores, as manifested in transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Interestingly, the Au@Ag semishell Janus nanoparticles exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction reactions, as compared to their Au@Ag and Ag@Au core-shell counterparts, likely due to a synergistic effect between the gold cores and silver semishells that optimized oxygen binding to the nanoparticle surface. PMID:27417026

  19. Synchrotron Speciation of Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Aged in a Kaolin Suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Tolaymat, Thabet M.

    2010-07-23

    Assessments of the environmental fate and mobility of nanoparticles must consider the behavior of nanoparticles in relevant environmental systems that may result in speciation changes over time. Environmental conditions may act on nanoparticles to change their size, shape, and surface chemistry. Changing these basic characteristics of nanoparticles may result in a final reaction product that is significantly different than the initial nanomaterial. As such, basing long-term risk and toxicity on the initial properties of a nanomaterial may lead to erroneous conclusions if nanoparticles change upon release to the environment. The influence of aging on the speciation and chemical stability of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in kaolin suspensions was examined in batch reactors for up to 18 months. Silver nanoparticles remained unchanged in sodium nitrate suspensions; however, silver chloride was identified with the metallic silver nanoparticles in sodium chloride suspensions and may be attributed to an in situ silver chloride surface coating. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were rapidly converted via destabilization/dissolution mechanisms to Zn{sup 2+} inner-sphere sorption complexes within 1 day of reaction and these sorption complexes were maintained through the 12 month aging processes. Chemical and physical alteration of nanomaterials in the environment must be examined to understand fate, mobility, and toxicology.

  20. Fabrication of monodispersed silver nanoparticles and their optical characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Pemba

    This dissertation is about the fabrication of monodispersed (same size, shape, composition, structure, etc.) silver nanoparticles in gas media and their optical characterizations such as optical absorption, nonlinear optical response and plasmon assisted fluorescence. The first part of the thesis presents the fabrication method used to prepare monodispersed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) using heterogeneous condensation in gas media. Well defined and charged Ag NPs were separated based on their sizes by applying an electric field on unipolar charged Ag NPs and were collected on quartz substrates. Thin films consisting of monodispersed Ag NPs with size ranging from 35 nm to 120 nm were prepared by varying an applied electric field during the fabrication process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed that the samples have a uniform size distribution. In the second part of the thesis, optical characterization, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, are performed on monodispersed and polydispersed Ag NPs and analyzed. A strong plasmon resonance was observed for the monodispersed Ag NPs due to the coherent oscillations of the conduction band electrons, owing to the uniform size of the Ag NPs. Narrow extinction widths (~ 41 nm to ~ 69 nm) were observed for the Ag NPs compared to the width of the polydispersed Ag sample. Nonlinear optical characterizations were also performed on monodispersed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes using a picosecond Z-scan technique with excitation wavelengths at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The nonlinear refraction values were higher for the monodispersed Ag NPs whose surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak is closer to the excitation wavelength. The higher nonlinear optical response is explained in terms of an electric field enhancement near the SPR. Finally, plasmon assisted fluorescence of Rhodamine B dye was also investigated. Higher fluorescence quantum yield was obtained from Rhodamine B when using

  1. Mycosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: Optimization, characterization and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Balakumaran, M D; Ramachandran, R; Balashanmugam, P; Mukeshkumar, D J; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to isolate soil fungi from Kolli and Yercaud Hills, South India with the ultimate objective of producing antimicrobial nanoparticles. Among 65 fungi tested, the isolate, Bios PTK 6 extracellularly synthesized both silver and gold nanoparticles with good monodispersity. Under optimized reaction conditions, the strain Bios PTK 6 identified as Aspergillus terreus has produced extremely stable nanoparticles within 12h. These nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis. spectrophotometer, HR-TEM, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SAED, ICP-AES and Zetasizer analyses. A. terreus synthesized 8-20 nm sized, spherical shaped silver nanoparticles whereas gold nanoparticles showed many interesting morphologies with a size of 10-50 nm. The presence and binding of proteins with nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR study. Interestingly, the myco derived silver nanoparticles exhibited superior antimicrobial activity than the standard antibiotic, streptomycin except against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The leakage of intracellular components such as protein and nucleic acid demonstrated that silver nanoparticles damage the bacterial cells by formation of pores, which affects membrane permeability and finally leads to cell death. Further, presence of nanoparticles in the bacterial membrane and the breakage of cell wall were also observed using SEM. Thus, the obtained results clearly reveal that these antimicrobial nanoparticles could be explored as promising candidates for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26686609

  2. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  3. Bilayer hybrid nanoimprinting method for fabricating embedded silver nanostructure arrays with enhanced photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Sung, Sang-Keun; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Jung, Yeon-Ho; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2014-01-01

    A bilayer hybrid nanoimprinting (NI) method was developed for fabricating embedded metal nanopatterns with greater processability and improved reliability for enhanced photoluminescence (PL) in optoelectronic devices. Bilayer hybrid NI consists of the following: (a) spin-coating ultraviolet (UV) and thermally curable NI resists in sequence, (b) high-pressure thermal NI and UV exposure while maintaining the stamp in a pressed position, and (c) silver (Ag) deposition and lift-off using a thermal NI resist on the upper surface to create embedded Ag nanoarrays. Reference samples with no Ag nanopatterns and with protruding Ag dot-shaped nanopatterns were also fabricated for comparison. The transmittance and PL of all samples were measured. All samples containing Ag nanopatterns exhibited improved PL compared with reference samples with no Ag. For all pattern sizes, the samples with the embedded Ag nanoarrays exhibited the highest PL; the relative PL enhancements compared with samples with Ag dot-shaped nanoarrays were 32.2%, 36.1%, and 62.7% for pattern sizes of 150, 200, and 265 nm, respectively.

  4. Antibacterial cotton fibers treated with silver nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan Kyu; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Soojung; Lee, Jintae; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Roh, Changhyun; Lee, Jaewoong

    2016-10-20

    Cotton fibers were treated chemically with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTAC), a quaternary ammonium salt, and coated with silver nanoparticles/3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTMS) to increase the antibacterial efficacy. The coating process was accomplished by soaking the cotton fibers into a GTAC solution followed by a dry-cure method, and silver colloid/3-MPTMS solution was then applied at 43°C for 90min. The properties of the cotton fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis. SEM showed a rough surface when the cotton fibers were treated with GTAC/3-MPTMS/silver nanoparticles due to the increasing surface attachment. The existence of silver and 3-MPTMS on the cotton fibers was confirmed by XPS. The cotton fibers treated with both GTAC and silver nanoparticles showed synergistic antibacterial properties against P. aeruginosa. PMID:27474649

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  6. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf is used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. These methods allow the synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles having size ∼30 nm showing two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands by changing the relative concentration of HAuCl 4 and the extract. Broadening of SPR is observed at larger quantities of the extract possibly due to biosorption of gold ions. Silver nanoparticles with size in the range 10-20 nm having symmetric SPR band centered around 409 nm are obtained for the colloid synthesized at room temperature at a pH of 8. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the XRD pattern. Biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles as evidenced by the FTIR spectra.

  7. Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 μg mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of "green" synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Michael C; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M; Varma, Rajender S

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel "green" synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems. PMID:20648322

  9. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

  10. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine-carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing.

  11. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine-carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing. PMID:27091238

  12. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine–carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing. PMID:27091238

  13. Development of coated-wire silver ion selective electrodes on paper using conductive films of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Janrungroatsakul, Wanwisa; Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Ngeontae, Wittaya; Aeungmaitrepirom, Wanlapa; Chailapakul, Orawon; Ekgasit, Sanong; Tuntulani, Thawatchai

    2013-11-21

    Films of silver nanoparticles are used for the first time as an electrical conductor and ion-to-electron transducer to fabricate coated-wire ion selective electrodes (ISEs) on paper. The film of nano silver ink (nano silver film), synthesized from the reduction of AgNO3 by NaBH4, was screen printed on paper. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possessed a spherical shape with diameter ca. 5 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy supported the purity and good stability of the synthesized AgNPs. Nano silver films were sintered at room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C. Upon increasing the sintering temperature, atomic force microscopy showed that the size of AgNPs of nano silver films increased, but the sheet resistivity decreased. Silver ISEs were then fabricated from nano silver films and o-NPOE-plasticized polymeric membranes containing benzothiazolyl calix[4]arene () as ionophore and KTpClPB as anionic site. The performance of the developed Ag-ISEs was investigated by potentiometric measurements, potentiometric water layer tests, current reversal chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated-wire electrode fabricated from the nano silver film sintering at room temperature showed the best characteristics of Ag-ISEs giving a near Nernstian response slope of 59.7 ± 1.0 mV per decade, 10(-6) to 10(-2) M linear range, detection limit of 4.5 × 10(-7) M, long-term potential stability and good reversibility. PMID:24071789

  14. LL37 peptide@silver nanoparticles: combining the best of the two worlds for skin infection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignoni, Mariana; de Alwis Weerasekera, Hasitha; Simpson, Madeline J.; Phopase, Jaywant; Mah, Thien-Fah; Griffith, May; Alarcon, Emilio I.; Scaiano, Juan C.

    2014-05-01

    Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity.Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Changes on AgNP-SPB absorption; changes on AgNP-SPB as A/A0 measured in LB or DMEM media; number of survival colonies in the presence of LL37; human skin fibroblasts cell toxicity in the presence of different silver sources measured using MTS assay; effect of LL37@AgNP on the proliferation profile of human skin fibroblasts; effect of AgSD and AgNO3 on the proliferation profile of human skin fibroblasts in the presence of LL37 peptide; representative flow cytometry profiles for human skin fibroblasts stained with Alexa Fluor®488 annexin V/Dead cell apoptosis kit. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01284d

  15. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  16. Effect of a thioalkane capping layer on the first hyperpolarizabilities of gold and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El Harfouch, Yara; Benichou, Emmanuel; Bertorelle, Franck; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Jonin, Christian; Lascoux, Noelle; Brevet, Pierre F

    2012-03-28

    We have measured the first hyperpolarizabilities of thioalkane capped silver and gold metallic nanoparticles. The values found are β(AgC 12-10 nm) = (2.10 ± 0.23) × 10(-26) esu for 10 nm diameter silver nanoparticles and β(AuC 18-18 nm) = (3.37 ± 0.08) × 10(-26) esu for 18 nm diameter gold nanoparticles at the fundamental wavelength of 784 nm. By comparison to the corresponding values reported for citrate capped silver and gold metallic nanoparticles, after size corrections, decreases by factors of 4.3 and 6.5 respectively are observed. These decreases are tentatively attributed to the bonds formed between the gold and silver surface atoms and the sulfur atoms of the capping layer. PMID:22395007

  17. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with biological objects: antimicrobial properties and toxicity for the other living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, E. M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents several examples of the biological effects of small-sized silver nanoparticles (10.5±3.5nm) observed in experiments on bacteria, slim mold, unicellular alga and plant seeds. The nanoparticles were prepared by the biochemical synthesis, based on the reduction of metal ions in reverse vicelles by biological reductants - natural plant pigments (flavonoids). It is found that, except for the plant seeds, silver nanoparticles (SNP) act as a strong toxic agent, both in water solution and as part of liquid-phase material. It is shown also that the biological action of silver nanoparticles can not be reduced to the toxic action of silver ions in equivalent concentrations or to that of the surfactant (the SNP stabilizer) present in the SNP water solution. Possible SNP applications are suggested.

  18. Glucoxylan-mediated green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their phyto-toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Iram, Fozia; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Athar, Muhammad M; Saeed, Muhammad Z; Yasmeen, Abida; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-04-15

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles having exceptional high stability is reported. The synthesis involves the use of glucoxylans isolated from seeds of Mimosa pudica and excludes the use of conventional reducing and capping agents. The average particle sizes were 40 and 6 nm for gold and silver, respectively. The size of gold particles obtained in this work is suitable for drug delivery as they are non-cytotoxic. In phyto-toxicity tests the gold and silver nanoparticles did not show any significant effect on germination of radish seeds, whereas in radish seedling root growth assay the two particles behaved differently. The silver nanoparticles exhibited a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on root length, whereas the gold nanoparticles had no significant effect in this test. The likely mechanism of these effects is discussed. PMID:24607156

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using reducing agents obtained from natural sources (Rumex hymenosepalus extracts)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solutions using extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus, a plant widely found in a large region in North America, as reducing agent. This plant is known to be rich in antioxidant molecules which we use as reducing agents. Silver nanoparticles grow in a single-step method, at room temperature, and with no addition of external energy. The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, as a function of the ratio of silver ions to reducing agent molecules. The nanoparticle diameters are in the range of 2 to 40 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis show that two kinds of crystal structures are obtained: face-centered cubic and hexagonal. PMID:23841946

  20. Alterations in Physical State of Silver Nanoparticles Exposed to Synthetic Human Stomach Fluid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of ingested silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) depends in large part on initial particle size, shape and surface coating, properties which will influence aggregation, solubility and chemical composition during transit of the gastrointestinal tract. Citrate-stabilize...

  1. An evaluation of the influence of size and radiation in silver nanoparticle toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have made them popular in textile manufacturing, medical technology, and biomedical applications. Studies suggest that after ingestion, nanomaterials are distributed throughout the body to different organs, possibly incl...

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using reducing agents obtained from natural sources ( Rumex hymenosepalus extracts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Iñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Navarro, Rosa Elena; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Iñiguez-Palomares, Claudia; Maldonado, Amir

    2013-07-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solutions using extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus, a plant widely found in a large region in North America, as reducing agent. This plant is known to be rich in antioxidant molecules which we use as reducing agents. Silver nanoparticles grow in a single-step method, at room temperature, and with no addition of external energy. The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, as a function of the ratio of silver ions to reducing agent molecules. The nanoparticle diameters are in the range of 2 to 40 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis show that two kinds of crystal structures are obtained: face-centered cubic and hexagonal.

  3. Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Under {gamma}-Irradiation: Effect of Chitosan Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, N. M.; Radiman, S.; Ahmad, A.; Idris, H.; Lim, H. N.; Khiew, P. S.; Chiu, W. S.; Tan, T. K.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, a biopolymer, low molecular weight chitosan had been utilized as a 'green' stabilizing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles under {gamma}-irradiation. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles have particle diameters in the range of 5 nm-30 nm depending on the percentage of chitosan used (0.1 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 2.0 wt%). It was found that the yield of the silver nanoparticles was in accordance with the concentration of chitosan presence in the solution due to the reduction by the chitosan radical during irradiation. The highly stable chitosan encapsulated silver nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD)

  4. Electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antibacterial wound dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-03-01

    An open wound is highly prone to bacterial colonization and infection. Bacterial barrier property is an important factor that determines the success of a wound coverage material. Apart from the bacterial barrier property, presence of antibacterial agents can successfully eliminate the invasion and colonization of pathogen in the wound. Silver nanoparticles are well-known antimicrobial agents against a wide range of microorganisms. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are more acceptable for medical applications due to superior biocompatibility than chemically synthesized ones. Presence of biomolecules on biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhances its therapeutic efficiency. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a well-known material for biomedical applications including wound dressings. Electrospinning is an excellent technique for the fabrication of thin membranes for wound coverage applications with barrier property against microbes. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles for wound dressing applications.

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles fabrics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanh, Truong Thi; Thu, Nguyen Thi; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; An, Pham Ngoc; Loan, Truong Thi Kieu; Hoa, Phan Thi

    2016-04-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/peco fabrics were prepared by immobilization of AgNPs on fabrics in which AgNPs were synthesized by γ-irradiation of the 10 mM AgNO3 chitosan solution at the dose of 17.6 kGy. The AgNPs size has been estimated to be about 11 nm from TEM image. The AgNPs content onto peco fabrics was of 143±6 mg/kg at the initial AgNPs concentration of 100 ppm. The AgNPs colloidal solution was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM image. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs/peco fabrics after 60 washings against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be over 99%. Effects of AgNPs fabics on multidrug-resistant pathogens from the clinical specimens were also te