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1

Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.  

PubMed

Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were divided into control and test groups, and were exposed to either control medium or to a potentially toxic test medium. Inferences on toxicity were based on differences in BR between the two groups. The mouse embryo assay followed a stratified (mouse), randomized (embryo), and balanced (equal number of embryos per group and per mouse) design. The number of embryos needed was calculated using power analysis. The basal BR of the hybrid strain was determined in a historical population. Sixty-nine mouse embryos per group were required to detect toxic materials with sufficient sensitivity and to account for the considerable inter-mouse variation in blastocyst development. Fifty-two samples, divided over batches of seven different products were tested before use in the study IVF centre and five of these were found to be toxic. This test system, presented as the Nijmegen mouse embryo assay (NMEA), can be used to detect embryo-toxic materials in daily IVF practice, and this report may provide a starting point for standardization. PMID:19400995

Punt-van der Zalm, J P E M; Hendriks, J C M; Westphal, J R; Kremer, J A M; Teerenstra, S; Wetzels, A M M

2009-04-01

2

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID MARINE TOXICITY TESTS: SEA URCHIN EARLY EMBRYO GROWTH TEST, SEA URCHIN SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST AND MICROTOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Three rapid marine toxicity tests were evaluated to determine their potential usefulness in a toxicity testing program: early embryo growth test and sperm cell toxicity test, both using the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, and Microtox. Toxicity values (EC50s) were derived for eigh...

3

Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

4

PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing.  

PubMed

As part of the risk assessment process within REACh, prior to manufacturing and distribution of chemical substances their (eco)toxicological impacts have to be investigated. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish Danio rerio has gained a high significance as an in vitro alternative to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved concentration of ten PAHs at their saturation level in the FET. The experiments gave repeatable results, with the toxicity of the PAHs generally increasing with the maximum chemical activities of the PAHs. HPLC analysis confirmed constant exposure at the saturation level. In additional experiments, fish embryos without direct contact to the silicone surface showed similar mortalities as those exposed with direct contact to the silicone. Silicone oil overlaying the water phase as a novel passive dosing phase had no observable effects on the development of the fish embryos until hatching. This study provides further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates. PMID:25048891

Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Mřller; Hercht, Hendrik; Smith, Kilian E C; Braunbeck, Thomas; Mayer, Philipp; Hollert, Henner

2014-10-01

5

OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.  

PubMed

The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. PMID:24874798

Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

2014-08-01

6

A microscale test to measure petroleum oil toxicity to mummichog embryos.  

PubMed

A test was developed to compare the toxicity of different petroleum oils to mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos. Fertilized eggs were incubated for 11 days at 22.5 degrees C directly on the surface of oil-contaminated sand without a superficial water layer. The mortality rates, the stage of development, and the prevalence of malformations were determined. No effect was found in controls incubated on sand with water and mineral oil as compared with controls on sand with water alone. Two weathered oils, an Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANCO) and a Mesa light crude oil (MLCO), produced similar symptoms of toxicity: retarded growth and development, pericardial edema, hemostasis, hemorrhages, and spinal deformities. These symptoms are consistent with those observed in other fish species exposed to petroleum oils, suggesting that the results of the bioassay would be applicable to other species. MLCO was more embryotoxic than ANCO. The minimal oil concentrations causing a significant reduction in body length were 4.5 microg oil/g sand for MLCO and 12.7 microg oil/g for ANCO, indicating the assay is sensitive. The slopes and the intercepts of the relationships between concentration and growth did not differ in three dose-response experiments conducted with each oil, indicating that the assay is reliable. Finally, the bioassay is less costly than other available options to assess the toxicity of petroleum oils to marine fish embryos. Further work to improve the standardization of the assay will involve comparison of the toxicity of petroleum oils with reference toxicants and selection of a standard substrate. PMID:12112627

Couillard, C M

2002-01-01

7

Toxicity evaluation of single and mixed antifouling biocides using the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin embryo test.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the single and mixed toxicities of commonly used antifouling biocides (copper pyrithione, Sea nine 211, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid, and Irgarol 1051) on the early embryogenesis of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Their toxicities were quantified in terms of the median effective concentration (EC50) reducing the embryogenesis success by 50%. For individual biocides to the embryos, the toxicity was in order of copper pyrithione>Sea nine 211>?tolylfluanid>dichlofluanid>Irgarol 1051. The toxicities of mixture (binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary) of compounds, evaluated by toxic unit, additivity index, and mixture toxicity index, showed that the copper pyrithione-Sea nine 211 combination was the most toxic with the EC50 value of 7.87 nM in all mixtures. Synergistic enhancements of toxicity were observed for all mixtures except the combination of tolylfluanid-Sea nine 211, revealing antagonistic effect. Both the concentration addition and independent action concepts failed to accurately predict the mixture toxicities of the antifouling combinations; thus, a new log K(OW)-based model was developed to predict the combined toxicities of these antifouling chemicals, which were capable of predicting the mixture toxicities of antifouling biocides (R(2)=0.33). PMID:21154844

Wang, Heng; Li, Yan; Huang, Honghui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Yonghua

2011-03-01

8

Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.  

PubMed

An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. PMID:25113410

Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

2014-11-01

9

The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research.  

PubMed

Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments was considered and it is not known if fish embryos are sufficiently sensitive for consideration as a surrogate to the sub-chronic 7-day larval fish growth and survival test used in the United States, for example. Addressing these needs by via workshops, research, and additional data reviews were identified for future action by scientists and regulators. PMID:20061034

Embry, Michelle R; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas A; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E; Léonard, Marc A; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

2010-04-15

10

ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

11

Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected

G Zega; R Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; F De Bernardi

2009-01-01

12

The zebrafish embryo model in environmental risk assessment—applications beyond acute toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The use of fish embryos is not regulated by current legislations on animal welfare and is therefore considered as a refinement,\\u000a if not replacement of animal experiments. Fish embryos represent an attractive model for environmental risk assessment of\\u000a chemicals since they offer the possibility to perform small-scale, high-throughput analyses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Main features  Beyond their application for determining the acute

Stefan Scholz; Stephan Fischer; Ulrike Gündel; Eberhard Küster; Till Luckenbach; Doris Voelker

2008-01-01

13

The hen's fertile egg screening test (HEST): a comparison between the acute toxicity for chick embryos and rodents of 20 drugs.  

PubMed

The possibilities of using developing chick embryos for evaluating drug activities and toxicities were studied by determining LD50 values for 20 drugs with 14 different pharmacological activities. Fifteen-day old chick embryos received drugs through the air cell and deaths were measured at 48 hr after the treatments. The LD50 values were determined and compared to the i.v., i.p., s.c. and p.o. values from mice listed in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substance. The systemic toxicity of 15-day-old chick embryos to drugs were similar to those of mice with the following exceptions. The chick embryos seemed to be more sensitive than mice to antineoplastic or antibiotic agents such as actinomycin D and doxorubicin, whereas, LD50 values of cholinergic and cholinergic blocking drugs by this method were 10 to 20 fold of LD50 (i.v.) of mice. These observations are important for applying the hen's fertile screening test (HEST) to the determination of drug activities other than that of embryo toxicity or teratogenic activity. PMID:1493585

Nishigori, H; Mizumura, M; Iwatsuru, M

1992-01-01

14

Toxicity screening of Diclofenac, Propranolol, Sertraline and Simvastatin using Danio rerio and Paracentrotus lividus embryo bioassays.  

PubMed

Early life-stage bioassays have been used as an alternative to short-term adult toxicity tests since they are cost-effective. A single couple can produce hundreds or thousands of embryos and hence can be used as a simple high-throughput approach in toxicity studies. In the present study, zebrafish and sea urchin embryo bioassays were used to test the toxicity of four pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic classes: diclofenac, propranolol, simvastatin and sertraline. Simvastatin was the most toxic tested compound for zebrafish embryo, followed by diclofenac. Sertraline was the most toxic drug to sea urchin embryos, inducing development abnormalities at the ng/L range. Overall, our results highlight the potential of sea urchin embryo bioassay as a promising and sensitive approach for the high-throughput methods to test the toxicity of new chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, and identify several drugs that should go through more detailed toxicity assays. PMID:25615533

Ribeiro, Sílvia; Torres, Tiago; Martins, Rosário; Santos, Miguel M

2015-04-01

15

Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.  

PubMed

Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. PMID:24929227

Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

2014-08-01

16

Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles  

SciTech Connect

The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

Jong, Esther de, E-mail: Esther.de.Jong@rivm.nl [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Barenys, Marta [GRET-CERETOX, Toxicology Unit, Public Health Department, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Hermsen, Sanne A.B. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, NUTRIM, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M. [Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2011-06-01

17

Preimplantation factor negates embryo toxicity and promotes embryo development in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preimplantation factor (PIF) is secreted by viable mammalian embryos and promotes implantation and trophoblast invasion. Whether PIF also has a direct protective or promoting effect on the developing embryo in culture is unknown. This study examined the protective effects of synthetic PIF (sPIF) on embryos cultured with embryo toxic serum (ETS) from recurrent pregnancy loss patients (n=14), by morphological criteria

Christopher W. Stamatkin; Reumen G. Roussev; Mike Stout; Carolyn B. Coulam; Elisabeth Triche; Robert A. Godke; Eytan R. Barnea

2011-01-01

18

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

19

Toxic and teratogenic silica nanowires in developing vertebrate embryos  

PubMed Central

Silica-based nanomaterials show promise for biomedical applications such as cell-selective drug delivery and bioimaging. They are easily functionalized, which allows for the conjugation or encapsulation of important biomolecules. Although recent in vitro studies suggested that silica-derived nanomaterials are nontoxic, in vivo studies of silica nanomaterial toxicity have not been performed. Using the embryonic zebrafish as a model system, we show that silica nanomaterials with aspect ratios greater than 1 are highly toxic (LD50 = 110 pg/g embryo) and cause embryo deformities, whereas silica nanomaterials with an aspect ratio of 1 are neither toxic nor teratogenic at the same concentrations. Silica nanowires also interfere with neurulation and disrupt expression of sonic hedgehog, which encodes a key midline signaling factor. Our results demonstrate the need for further testing of nanomaterials before they can be used as platforms for drug delivery. From the Clinical Editor: Silica-based nanomaterials show promise for biomedical applications such as cell-selective drug delivery and bioimaging. Using an embryonic zebrafish model system silica nanomaterials with aspect ratios greater than one were found to be highly toxic; whereas silica nanomaterials with an aspect ratio of one are neither toxic nor teratogenic. These results demonstrate the need for testing “nanomaterials” before they can be used as platforms for drug delivery. PMID:19447201

Nelson, Steve M.; Mahmoud, Tarek; Beaux, Miles; Shapiro, Pamela; McIlroy, David N.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

20

Evaluation of MWNT toxic effects on daphnia and zebrafish embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organisms of daphnia (Daphnia magna) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to a range of different concentrations of COOH-functionalized MWCNT suspended in an aqueous solution of Tween 20. Immobilization of daphnia and growth retardation, inhibition and malformation of zebrafish embryos were the endpoints tested after 24 and 48 hours. Immobilization of daphnia could be observed from 3 to 16 ppm and an increasing mortality of zebrafish embryo was detected at all the concentration tested. To identify more subtle toxic effects, we took advantage of the extensive information available on the zebrafish genome and monitored by RT-PCR the expression patterns of different zebrafish genes that could act as toxicity bio-markers. At some of the concentrations tested, changes in the expression profiles of the genes examined were detected. Our results suggest that MWCNT could potentially represent a risk to human health and environment, therefore a wider range of concentrations and further testing of this molecules should be carried out to define possible limitations in their use.

Olasagasti, Maider; Alvarez, Noelia; Vera, Carolina; Rainieri, Sandra

2009-05-01

21

Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.  

PubMed

This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death. PMID:21514995

Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

2011-06-15

22

The use of the chicken embryo screening test and brine shrimp (artemia salina) bioassays to assess the toxicity of fumonisin B 1 mycotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken embryos and brine shrimp naulpii were utilized in short-term toxicity bioassays to assess their sensitivity to the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). Fertile chicken eggs (Cobb x) were dosed with FB1 on day 2 of incubation by the injection of 100 ?l of aqueous solution into the air space of each egg. Eggs were incubated with mechanical rotation until hatch,

J. J. Hlywka; M. M. Beck; L. B. Bullerman

1997-01-01

23

Developmental toxicity of carboxylic acids to Xenopus embryos: a quantitative structure-activity relationship and computer-automated structure evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental toxicity for each of 45 carboxylic acids was determined for Xenopus embryos. Acids tested included 12 unbranched, saturated aliphatics, 12 branched, saturated aliphatics, 12 unsaturated aliphatics, and 9 aromatics. Embryos were collected following hormone-induced breeding and exposed to at least eight concentrations of the acid, along with a control. For each concentration, 25 properly developing embryos were exposed

Douglas A. Dawson; T. Wayne Schultz; Robert S. Hunter

1996-01-01

24

Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

2009-05-01

25

Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Typically, time-consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2?days post-fertilization. Here we describe an automated image-based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post-acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth-retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources. PMID:24871937

Lantz-McPeak, Susan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Cuevas, Elvis; Dumas, Melanie; Newport, Glenn D; Ali, Syed F; Paule, Merle G; Kanungo, Jyotshna

2015-03-01

26

Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.  

PubMed

Summary The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ? 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

2014-09-26

27

Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos.  

PubMed

Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAFs; oil dissolved in water) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAFs; oil dispersed in water with Corexit 9500A) of Medium South American (MESA) crude oil. The CEWAF was approximately 100-fold more toxic than WAF based on nominal loadings of test solutions (% v/v). In contrast, the ratio of WAF and CEWAF toxicity expressed as measured oil concentrations approximated 1.0, indicating that the higher toxicity of CEWAFs was caused by an increase in exposure to hydrocarbons with chemical dispersion. In a second experiment, the chronic toxicity of Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos was compared to chemically dispersed Nujol, a nontoxic mineral oil. Dispersant alone was toxic, but caused different signs of toxicity than HFO 7102. Nujol at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20 was nontoxic, suggesting that dispersant was sequestered by oil and not present at toxic concentrations. In contrast, the same nominal loadings of dispersed HFO 7102 caused concentration-dependent increases in toxicity. Both experiments suggest that chemically dispersed oil was more toxic to fish embryos than solutions created by mechanical mixing due to the increased exposure of fish to petroleum hydrocarbons and not to changes in hydrocarbon toxicity. The Nujol control discriminated between the toxicity of oil and chemical dispersant and would be a practical addition to programs of dispersant testing. PMID:24115182

Adams, Julie; Sweezey, Michael; Hodson, Peter V

2014-01-01

28

Early developmental toxicity of saxitoxin on medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos.  

PubMed

Saxitoxin (STX) is the most potent paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin in crustaceans and molluscs, and is known to cause intoxication to humans and marine animals due to its neurotoxicity. However, the extent of its early developmental toxicity to marine species remains unknown. In this study, we examined the early developmental toxicity of STX using marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos as model. The medaka embryos were exposed to STX for four days, from the early blastula stage onwards, and this exposure period covered the main developmental stage of the central nervous system and somites. After exposure, the treated medaka eleutheroembryos at 15 day post fertilization exhibited abnormal growth with longer body length and relatively smaller yolk sac size. High cell proliferation, neuron development, and metabolism were confirmed using whole-mount immunostaining and two-dimensional electrophoresis. In summary, STX disturbed the normal growth of medaka embryos probably by affecting the metabolic rate in the exposed medaka embryos. PMID:24184516

Tian, Li; Cheng, Jinping; Chen, Xueping; Cheng, Shuk Han; Mak, Yim Ling; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Wang, Mingfu

2014-01-01

29

DEVELOPMENT OF ISOLATED MAMMALIAN EMBRYO TECHNIQUES FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES SCREENING  

EPA Science Inventory

A potential screen for assessing teratogenic potential of compounds in mammals was tested. The technique involves testing isolated mammalian embryos in culture by direct exposure to agents. Embryos from three species of mammals were used; the mouse, rabbit and swine. Four differe...

30

Estradiol uptake, toxicity, metabolism, and adverse effects on cadmium-treated amphibian embryos.  

PubMed Central

The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 25 micromol/L 17beta-estradiol (E2) resulted in 100% lethality within 48 hr, whereas 10 micromol//L E2 was the no observed effect concentration value for short-term chronic (7 days) exposure. The toxicity profile curves show that lethal effects were proportional to the E2 concentration and the time of exposure. The E2 uptake resulted in 20.1 ng E2/mg embryo at 8 hr posttreatment, but 67.3% of this value was achieved during the first 30 min of incubation with this estrogen. Regarding metabolism, the embryos synthesize estrone (E1) from E2 by means of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Simultaneous treatments of Bufo arenarum embryos with 1 mg/L Cd2+ and 0.1, 1, or 10 micromol/L E2 enhanced the lethality exerted by cadmium in 76.7, 80, and 83.3% of embryos, respectively. The results indicate that estrogenic endocrine disruptors could have an adverse effect on amphibian embryos and enhance the toxic effect of Cd on amphibian embryos. This study points to the possibility of using the AMPHITOX test as a screening method for potential endocrine disruption as well as the combined effects of chemical mixtures. PMID:15175173

Fridman, Osvaldo; Corró, Lucrecia; Herkovits, Jorge

2004-01-01

31

Nanomaterial Toxicity Screening in Developing Zebrafish Embryos  

EPA Science Inventory

To assess nanomaterial vertebrate toxicity, a high-content screening assay was created using developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. This included a diverse group of nanomaterials (n=42 total) ranging from metallic (Ag, Au) and metal oxide (CeO2, CuO, TiO2, ZnO) nanoparticles, to non...

32

Virtual Embryo: Systems Modeling in Developmental Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput and high-content screening (HTS-HCS) studies are providing a rich source of data that can be applied to in vitro profiling of chemical compounds for biological activity and potential toxicity. EPA?s ToxCast? project, and the broader Tox21 consortium, in addition t...

33

Mechanisms regulating toxicant disposition to the embryo during early pregnancy: an interspecies comparison.  

PubMed

The dose of toxicant reaching the embryo is a critical determinant of developmental toxicity, and is likely to be a key factor responsible for interspecies variability in response to many test agents. This review compares the mechanisms regulating disposition of toxicants from the maternal circulation to the embryo during organogenesis in humans and the two species used predominantly in regulatory developmental toxicity testing, rats and rabbits. These three species utilize fundamentally different strategies for maternal-embryonic exchange during early pregnancy. Early postimplantation rat embryos rely on the inverted visceral yolk sac placenta, which is in intimate contact with the uterine epithelium and is equipped with an extensive repertoire of transport mechanisms, such as pinocytosis, endocytosis, and specific transporter proteins. Also, the rat yolk sac completely surrounds the embryo, such that the fluid-filled exocoelom survives through most of the period of organogenesis, and can concentrate compounds such as certain weak acids due to pH differences between maternal blood and exocelomic fluid. The early postimplantation rabbit conceptus differs from the rat in that the yolk sac is not closely apposed to the uterus during early organogenesis and does not completely enclose the embryo until relatively later in development (approximately GD13). This suggests that the early rabbit yolk sac might be a relatively inefficient transporter, a conclusion supported by limited data with ethylene glycol and one of its predominant metabolites, glycolic acid, given to GD9 rabbits. In humans, maternal-embryo exchange is thought to occur via the chorioallantoic placenta, although it has recently been conjectured that a supplemental route of transfer could occur via absorption into the yolk sac. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying species-specific embryonic disposition, factored together with other pharmacokinetic characteristics of the test compound and knowledge of critical periods of susceptibility, can be used on a case-by-case basis to make more accurate extrapolations of test animal data to the human. PMID:15662707

Carney, Edward W; Scialli, Anthony R; Watson, Rebecca E; DeSesso, John M

2004-12-01

34

Use of Medaka in Toxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

Small aquarium fishes are increasingly used as animal models, and one of these, Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes), is frequently utilized for toxicity testing. While these vertebrates have many similarities with their terrestrial counterparts, there are differences that must be considered if these organisms are to be used to their highest potential. Testing commonly may employ either the developing embryo or adults; both are easy to use and to work with. We present here three main protocols to illustrate the utility and breadth of toxicity testing possible using medaka fish. The first protocol assesses neurotoxicity in developing embryos. The second protocol describes the sexual genotyping of medaka to evaluate toxicant effects on sexual phenotype after treatment with endocrine disrupting chemicals. The third protocol assesses hepatotoxicity in adult fish after treatment with a model hepatotoxicant. The methods run the gamut from immunohistology through PCR to basic histological techniques. PMID:20922755

Cowden, John; Hinton, David E.; Johnson, Rodney; Flynn, Kevin; Hardman, Ronald C.; Yuen, Bonny; Law, Sheran; Kullman, Seth W.; Au, Doris W.T.

2015-01-01

35

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Contemporary developmental toxicity testing focuses on the evaluation of a variety of adverse developmental effects which include structural malformations, intrauterine death, growth retardation, and deficits in postnatal function. n the extrapolation of information from animal s...

36

In Vivo Nanotoxicity Testing using the Zebrafish Embryo Assay  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are increasingly used for biomedical purposes. Many different diagnostic and therapeutic applications are envisioned for nanoparticles, but there are often also serious concerns regarding their safety. Given the fact that numerous new nanomaterials are being developed every day, and that not much is known about the long-term toxicological impact of exposure to nanoparticles, there is an urgent need to establish efficient methods for nanotoxicity testing. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo assay has recently emerged as an interesting ‘intermediate’ method for in vivo nanotoxicity screening, enabling (semi-) high-throughput analyses in a system significantly more complex than cultured cells, but at the same time also less ‘invasive’ and less expensive than large-scale biocompatibility studies in mice or rats. The zebrafish embryo assay is relatively well-established in the environmental sciences, but it has not yet gained wide notice in the nanomedicine field. Using prototypic polymeric drug carriers, gold-based nanodiagnostics and nanotherapeutics, and iron oxide-based nanodiagnostics, we here show that toxicity testing using zebrafish embryos is easy, efficient and informative, and faithfully reflects, yet significantly extends, cell-based toxicity testing. We therefore expect that the zebrafish embryo assay will become a popular future tool for in vivo nanotoxicity screening. PMID:24179674

Rizzo, Larissa Y.; Golombek, Susanne K.; Mertens, Marianne E.; Pan, Yu; Laaf, Dominic; Broda, Janine; Jayapaul, Jabadurai; Möckel, Diana; Subr, Vladimir; Hennink, Wim E.; Storm, Gert; Simon, Ulrich; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

2013-01-01

37

Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

2014-01-01

38

Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

2014-01-01

39

Toxicity testing for human in vitro fertilization programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a mouse embryo culture system, several procedures and materials associated with human in vitro fertilization protocols were tested for potential toxicity. Also, quality-control assays were performed for media prepared by nine different human in vitro fertilization programs. Detrimental effects upon embryo development were observed when culture media were exposed to the following substances: surgical instruments sterilized with Cidex or

Steven B. Ackerman; Gordon L. Stokes; R. James Swanson; Sherry P. Taylor; Lori Fenwick

1985-01-01

40

Virtual Embryo: Systems Modeling in Developmental Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) studies are providing a rich source of data that can be applied to chemical profiling to address sensitivity and specificity of molecular targets, biological pathways, cellular and developmental processes. EPA?s ToxCast project is testing 960 uniq...

41

Toxicity of urban highway runoff in Shanghai to Zebrafish (Danio rerio ) embryos and luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis.Q67).  

PubMed

Pollution from urban highway runoff has been identified as one of the major causes of the deterioration of receiving water quality. The purpose of this study is to assess the toxicity of urban storm water samples in Shanghai using the zebrafish (Danio rerio ) embryo test and the bacterial luminescence (Vibrio qinghaiensis ) assay. The toxicity of highway runoff from seventeen storm events was investigated in both grab and composite samples. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to the runoff samples and development parameters including lethality, spontaneous movements in 20 s, heart beat rate, hatching rate, and abnormality of zebrafish embryos were observed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure. Inhibition rates of luminescence intensity were also recorded. The results showed that in the zebrafish embryo toxicity tests, both grab and composite samples increased the lethality, reduced the percentage with spontaneous movements and heart beats, inhibited the hatching of embryos, and induced morphological abnormalities. In the Vibrio qinghaiensis toxicity test, all the grab samples inhibited the luminescence, while some of the composite samples promoted it, which indicated that different types of toxicants might have been affecting the species. The multivariate statistics analysis indicated that heavy metal (zinc, manganese, and copper) and PAHs might mainly contribute to the toxicity of runoff samples. PMID:24122161

Wu, Lingling; Jiang, Yue; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Haiping

2014-02-01

42

Toxicity of surface water from Huangpu River to luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis SP. Q67) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.  

PubMed

Degradation of water quality is an emerging problem in many developing countries. Bioassay is an effective approach to monitor quality of water in aquatic environments. Studies have used luminescent bacteria and zebrafish embryos as bioassay tools in monitoring river water quality. In this study, luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67) assay and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity test were performed to assess the ecotoxicity of surface water from the Huangpu River, China, collected during 2012-2013. River water samples inhibited the luminescence [inhibition rates 0-34.6% (±4.82%)] of Q67 and increased the lethal rates and induced morphological abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. The toxicity to luminous bacteria and zebrafish embryos were higher in winter than in summer months. In addition, samples collected in industrial area, urban sampling sites near drainage outlets, and at the intersection of the tributary that flows into the Huangpu River showed higher toxicity. PMID:25463864

Zhang, Lili; Li, Qian; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Ai; He, Jieni; Wen, Zhihao; Wu, Lingling

2015-02-01

43

Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly reduced after the embryos were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS until 132 hpf. The fry displayed gross developmental malformations, including epiboly deformities, hypopigmentation, yolk sac edema, tail and heart malformations and spinal curvature upon exposure to PFOS concentrations of 1 mg/L or greater. Growth (body length) was significantly reduced in the 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS-treated groups. To test whether developmental malformation was mediated via apoptosis, flow cytometry analysis of DNA content, acridine orange staining and TUNEL assay was used. These techniques indicated that more apoptotic cells were present in the PFOS-treated embryos than in the control embryos. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis, p53 and Bax, were both significantly up-regulated upon exposure to all the concentrations tested. In addition, we investigated the effects of PFOS on marker genes related to early thyroid development (hhex and pax8) and genes regulating the balance of androgens and estrogens (cyp19a and cyp19b). For thyroid development, the expression of hhex was significantly up-regulated at all concentrations tested, whereas pax8 expression was significantly up-regulated only upon exposure to lower concentrations of PFOS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/L). The expression of cyp19a and of cyp19b was significantly down-regulated at all exposure concentrations. The overall results indicated that zebrafish embryos constitute a reliable model for testing the developmental toxicity of PFOS, and the gene expression patterns in the embryos were able to reveal some potential mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

Shi Xiongjie [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Du Yongbing [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Lam, Paul K.S.; Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Zhou Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: bszhou@ihb.ac.cn

2008-07-01

44

Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.  

PubMed

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic. PMID:24375845

Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

2014-04-01

45

Formation of copper complexes in landfill leachate and their toxicity to zebrafish embryos  

SciTech Connect

Toxic metal organic complexes have not been found in natural waters, although some organic acids form bioavailable lipophilic and metabolite-type metal complexes. Landfill leachates usually contain organic acids and in the urban environment these leachates, when mixed with storm waters containing Cu, could be a source of toxic Cu organic complexes in streams and estuaries. The authors investigated the formation of Cu complexes in the leachate from an active urban landfill and found that some of the complexes formed were toxic to zebrafish embryos. High and low nominal molecular weight (NMWT) fractions; >5,000 Da and <700 Da, of leachate both formed Cu complexes with almost identical Cu complexing characteristics but the toxicity was due solely to the low NMWT complexes formed in the <700 Da fraction. Chemical equilibrium modeling with MINTEQA2 and H and Cu complex conditional association constants and ligand concentrations obtained from pH and Cu titrations with a Cu ion-selective electrode and van den Berg-Ruzic analyses of the titration data was used to calculate the copper speciation in the embryo test solutions. This calculated speciation, which was confirmed by measurements of Cu{sup 2+} in the test solutions, enabled the toxicity due to the free Cu ion and to the Cu complexes to be distinguished.

Fraser, J.K.; Butler, C.A.; Timperley, M.H.; Evans, C.W.

2000-05-01

46

Embryo Toxic Effects of Depleted Uranium on the Morphology of the Mouse Fetus  

PubMed Central

Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced growth of the offspring have been observed following uranium exposure at different gestation periods. For investigating the effects of DU on pregnant animals, three groups (control, sham and test) of NMRI mice were chosen. In test group 4 mg/Kg of DU were administered intraperitonealy at 11 day of gestation, in sham group only normal saline injected to interior peritoneum as indicated in the test group and in Control group which was considered as the comparison base line of our research, no injection was made. Caesarean sections were performed at 15 day of the gestation; and their placentas were examined externally. Base on our results DU caused significant external anomalies, and caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the weight and diameter of placentas, the number of the embryos, their body weight and crown-rump length of fetuses. PMID:24734072

Mirderikvand, Nina; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Baharak; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shaki, Fatemeh; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

2014-01-01

47

Toxicity of crude oil chemically dispersed in a wave tank to embryos of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).  

PubMed

Tests of crude oil toxicity to fish are often chronic, exposing embryos from fertilization to hatch to oil solutions prepared using standard mixing procedures. However, during oil spills, fish are not often exposed for long periods and the dynamic nature of the ocean is not easily replicated in the lab. Our objective was to determine if brief exposures of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos to dispersed oil prepared by standard mixing procedures was as toxic as oil dispersed in a more realistic model system. Embryos were first exposed to chemically dispersed Alaska North Slope crude and Arabian light crude oil for 2.4 h to 14 d from fertilization to determine if exposure time affected toxicity. Toxicity increased with exposure time, but 2.4-h exposures at realistic concentrations of oil induced blue-sac disease and reduced the percentage of normal embryos at hatch; there was little difference in toxicity between the two oils. Secondly, oil was chemically dispersed in a wave tank to determine if the resultant oil solutions were as toxic to herring embryos as laboratory-derived dispersed oil using a single exposure period of 24 h. Samples taken 15 min postdispersion were more toxic than laboratory-prepared solutions, but samples taken at 5, 30, and 60 min postdispersion were less toxic. Overall, the laboratory- and wave tank-derived solutions of dispersed oil provided similar estimates of toxicity despite differences in the methods for preparing test solutions, suggesting that laboratory and wave tank data are a reliable basis for ecological risk assessments of spilled oil. PMID:22488782

Greer, Colleen D; Hodson, Peter V; Li, Zhengkai; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth

2012-06-01

48

Cytogenetic and developmental toxicity of cerium and lanthanum to sea urchin embryos  

E-print Network

Cytogenetic and developmental toxicity of cerium and lanthanum to sea urchin embryos Rahime Oral1 was to evaluate the toxicity of two rare earth elements (REE), cerium and lanthanum on sea urchin embryos further studies of a more extended REE series. Key words: rare earth elements; cerium; lanthanum; sea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Marine toxicity tests development with a New Zealand echinoid  

SciTech Connect

The generally low levels of contamination around New Zealand lead to the search for a sensitive toxicity test, which could be used to screen effluent and to detect contaminant effects in coastal waters and sediments. Echinoid early life stage tests were considered ideal candidates. However, the adaptation of international toxicity test methods to indigenous species has not been straightforward or troublefree! The echinoid Fellaster zelandiae was selected because it is abundant around New Zealand and is fertile year round. Fertilization tests showed that gamete density, rather than sperm/egg ratio, was a crucial factor for successful control fertilization rates. This method, however, presented several problems related to (1) temporal variability in the quality of sperm batches, (2) rapid reduction of egg quality and viability after spawning, and (3) highly variable sensitivity in reference toxicant tests. Embryo tests were more reliable, with good control results (> 80% normal embryos) and consistent sensitivity to a reference toxicant, zinc sulfate. EC{sub 50} values averaged 0.06 mg Zn/L, comparable to the sensitivity of echinoid species used elsewhere. Brine prepared by freezing seawater was suitable for adjusting the salinity of effluents, with more than 90% normal embryos developing in brine diluted with UV-treated deionized water as a test-control. The assessment of the embryo development test as a tool for screening sediment toxicity (using sediment pore water), is presently underway, concurrently with growth and behavioral endpoint tests using indigenous amphipods and bivalves.

Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Martin, M.L.; Williams, E.K. [NIWA, Hamilton (New Zealand)

1995-12-31

50

Acute and embryo-larval toxicity of phenolic compounds to aquatic biota.  

PubMed

Because of the prevalence of phenolic compounds in various types of effluents, both acute and embryo-larval bioassays were performed on eight phenolic compounds with rainbow trout, fathead minnows and Daphnia pulicaria. In flow-through bioassays, the 96-hr LC50 values for rainbow trout and fathead minnows ranged from < 0.1 mg/L for hydroquinone to > 100 mg/L for resorcinol. Daphnia pulicaria was consistently the least sensitive species tested as measured in 48-hr bioassays, while fathead minnows and rainbow trout varied in their relative sensitivity to phenolics as measured in 96-hr tests. Fathead minnows were more sensitive to phenol at 25 degrees C than at 14 degrees C. In embryo-larval bioassays with phenol, fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by 2.5 mg/L phenol, while rainbow trout growth was significantly reduced by 0.20 mg/L phenol. For both species the embryo-larval effects concentration was 1.1% of the 96-hr LC50. Another embryo-larval bioassay was attempted with p-benzoquinone, a highly toxic phenolic compound found in fossil fuel processing wastewaters, which was discontinued because the compound was rapidly degraded chemically or biologically in the headtank and aquaria. PMID:7436545

DeGraeve, G M; Geiger, D L; Meyer, J S; Bergman, H L

1980-01-01

51

The Future of Toxicity Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a report, “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy,” that proposes a paradigm shift for toxicity testing of environmental agents. The vision is based on the notion that exposure to environmental agents leads to adverse health outcomes through the perturbation of toxicity pathways that are operative in

Melvin E. Andersen; Mustafa Al-Zoughool; Maxine Croteau; Margit Westphal; Daniel Krewski

2010-01-01

52

The toxicity of heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of 11 heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica was studied and the concentrations at which 50% of the embryos did not develop were determined. The most toxic metals and their LC50 values were mercury (0.0056 ppm), silver (0.0058 ppm), copper (0.103 ppm) and zinc (0.31 ppm). Those metals that were not as toxic

A. Calabrese; R. S. Collier; D. A. Nelson; J. R. MacInnes

1973-01-01

53

Drosophila Embryos as Model to Assess Cellular and Developmental Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in Living Organisms  

PubMed Central

Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery. PMID:24558411

Liu, Boyin; Campo, Eva M.; Bossing, Torsten

2014-01-01

54

VIRTUAL EMBRYO: SYSTEMS MODELING IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY - Symposium: SOT 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) studies are providing a rich source of data that can be applied to in vitro profiling of chemical compounds for biological activity and potential toxicity. Chemical profiling in ToxCast covered 965 drugs-chemicals in over 500 diverse assays testing...

55

Toxicity of binary mixtures of oil fractions to sea urchin embryos.  

PubMed

The assumption of additive toxicity for oil compounds is related to a narcotic mode of action. However, the joint toxicity of oil fractions has not been fully investigated. A fractionation of Maya crude oil into aliphatics, aromatics and polars was performed, fractions were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently toxicity of single fractions and binary mixtures was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. The descriptive ability of Concentration Addition (CA), Independent Action (IA) and modifications of both models for describing the joint toxicity of mixtures has also been evaluated. The hydrocarbon content extractable with dichloromethane of the fractions dissolved in DMSO was: 12.0 ± 1.8 mg mL(-1), 39.0 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 20.5 ± 2.5 mg mL(-1) for aliphatics, aromatics and polars, respectively. The toxicity of the extracts in DMSO of the fractions as EC50 (?LL(-1)) was: aliphatics (165.8-242.3)toxicity of oil fractions. In addition, synergistic or antagonistic effects were not observed. PMID:24231335

Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Menduińa, Araceli; García, Ana M; González, M Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Murado, Miguel A

2013-12-15

56

Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae  

SciTech Connect

Embryos and newly hatched larvae of three amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), were exposed to fluoranthene and ultraviolet (UV) light in two scenarios. Embryos were exposed in a laboratory setting from an early developmental stage through hatching under artificial UV light, and newly hatched larvae were exposed outdoors in varying sunlight intensity levels. Outdoor exposures indicated greater sensitivity in the toxic response than did laboratory exposures. In the laboratory, mortality and malformation of X. laevis were the most sensitive indicators of exposure. Xenopus laevis was also the most sensitive species tested to the effects of UV light alone. Hatching success of R. pipiens was monitored outdoors and was not a useful predictive endpoint in the determination of photoinduced toxicity; however, newly hatched larvae were sensitive to the effects of photoinduced toxicity. Amybstoma maculatum and X. laevis larvae were affected by low ({micro}g/L) concentrations of fluoranthene in sunlight. These findings suggest that low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be acting synergistically with environmental factors such as UV light to place young amphibians at risk.

Hatch, A.C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Burton, G.A. Jr. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1998-09-01

57

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF RODENT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE: SOLVENT TOXICITY AND WATER INSOLUBLE COMPOUND DELIVERY SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the in vitro embryotoxicity and dysmorphogenesis of water insoluble compounds, solvents or chemical delivery systems of low toxicity and teratogenicity to the developing embryo must be found. Therefore, day 10.5 rat embryos were cultured for 2 days in whole rat ...

58

Artifacts in ambient toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Short-term toxicity tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and Ceriodaphnia dubia can be used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of effluents or receiving water. The results of effluent toxicity tests may need to be interpreted differently from the results of ambient toxicity tests. In this paper we provide examples of common artifacts, which can cause either false positives or false negatives, that we have encountered when these tests are used in ambient assessments. The examples we provide are drawn from diverse effluent and ambient water toxicity tests conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from March, 1985 through November, 1991. Three types of artifacts which have been encountered when using these tests in ambient applications are explored here. One type involves unusual replicate-specific variance in survival of fathead minnow larvae. The second and third types of artifacts affect the C. dubia test and appear to be related to food availability.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.

1992-01-01

59

Artifacts in ambient toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Short-term toxicity tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and Ceriodaphnia dubia can be used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of effluents or receiving water. The results of effluent toxicity tests may need to be interpreted differently from the results of ambient toxicity tests. In this paper we provide examples of common artifacts, which can cause either false positives or false negatives, that we have encountered when these tests are used in ambient assessments. The examples we provide are drawn from diverse effluent and ambient water toxicity tests conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from March, 1985 through November, 1991. Three types of artifacts which have been encountered when using these tests in ambient applications are explored here. One type involves unusual replicate-specific variance in survival of fathead minnow larvae. The second and third types of artifacts affect the C. dubia test and appear to be related to food availability.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.

1992-10-01

60

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI- AND TETRACHLOROETHANE AND DICHLOROPROPANE IN EMBRYO CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI- AND TETRACHLOROETHANE AND DICHLOROPROPANE IN EMBRYO CULTURE. JE Andrews, H Nichols, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC. Disinfection of drinking water with chlorine results in numerous chlorinated byprodu...

61

Transient Overexpression of adh8a Increases Allyl Alcohol Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50?=?478 mg/L vs. fish LC50?=?0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50?=?0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in metabolization. PMID:24594943

Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P.; Scholz, Stefan

2014-01-01

62

Marked toxicity of Albizia bernieri extracts on embryo-larval development in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

Previous phytochemical studies have shown that the plants of the Albizia genus (Fabaceae) contain bioactive saponins, lignans, spermine alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides phenols and pyridoxine derivatives. Their extracts sometimes display medical properties, but can have also toxic effects. The purpose of our study was to determine the in vivo toxicity of Albizia bernieri seeds in the experimental model of the medaka fish embryo, which is recommended for use in toxicity studies. Our results show clearly that incubating the embryos or larvae of the medaka fish in a medium containing A. bernieri extracts caused a dose-dependent reduction in embryo or larvae survival. Embryos exposed to an extract of A. bernieri displayed cerebral lesions, such as cell lysis and the emergence of lysosomes in the glial tissue. We conclude that when comparing with data obtained with different plant extracts tested on medaka development in our laboratory, A. bernieri displays an unusually high toxicity. Focussing on the cerebral target as well as the fish behaviour could bring more specific informations. PMID:23287727

Randriamampianina, Lovarintsoa; Offroy, Anne; Mambu, Lengo; Randrianarivo, Ranjana; Rakoto, Danielle; Jeannoda, Victor; Djediat, Chakib; Puiseux Dao, Simone; Edery, Marc

2013-03-15

63

Bivalve embryo bioassay to assess the potential toxicity of dredged material before dumping  

SciTech Connect

Dredged harbor sediments frequently contain a wide spectrum of contaminants in addition to a significant percentage of organic matter. Also, dredging and dumping activities into sea water, of these highly contaminated soil may induce a harmful effect on the environment. In France, in accordance with Oslo convention guidelines, a working group on dredging activities and environment (GEODE) created since 1991 decided to set up a pilot research program to assess the intrinsic toxicity of four harbor sludges. Intrinsic toxicity of harbor muds were tested by solid phase (whole sediment) and aqueous extract bioassays (sea water elutriates) using the sublethal toxicity test bivalve embryo bioassay (Crassostrea gigas). Elutriates enable them to detect the toxicity of contaminants which may be released in the soluble form into the water column during dredging operations. While, whole sediment integrate the synergistic effects of all the contaminants (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) including pore water. Bioassays results, correlated to chemical analysis, are compared to contaminant levels determined by French working group GEODE and Canadian sediment quality criteria.

Quiniou, F. [IFREMER Brest, Plouzane (France)

1995-12-31

64

Spirotox Test — Spirostomum Ambiguum Acute Toxicity Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Objective and scope of the test method Protozoa play an important role in the environment as primary consumers. With bacteria they are major organisms in water self-purification systems. They are attractive in ecotoxicology due to their short life cycle, ease of culturing and high susceptibility to toxicants. The Spirotox test can be used as a screening tool for toxicity

Grzegorz Na??cz-jawecki

65

Assessing the toxicity to fish embryos of surface water from the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system  

SciTech Connect

Successful reproduction of fish populations requires the successful development of offspring into new reproductive cohorts. In order to evaluate the ability of fish offspring to survive and develop properly in the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system downstream of the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge, TN, a series of fish embryo-larval toxicity tests were conducted on surface water samples from Poplar Creek and the Clinch River adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation. Quarterly tests were conducted over an eighteen-month interval with embryos from laboratory stocks of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Eggs obtained from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) collected from reference sites during their respective breeding seasons were fertilized in vitro for additional embryo-larval tests utilizing fish species indigenous to the Watts Bar/Clinch River system. Average survival of medaka embryos decreased significantly in water from Poplar Creek sites within the Oak Ridge Reservation, coincident with an increase in the prevalence of certain developmental abnormalities. Similar but less pronounced results were also obtained with redbreast sunfish embryos. Development of largemouth bass eggs was not adversely affected by any of the tested water samples. These findings suggest that the development of fish eggs and fry in certain reaches of the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system may be negatively impacted by activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

Ivey, L.J.; Niemela, S.L.; McCracken, M.K.; Greeley, M.S. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

66

Developmental toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in artificially fertilized crucian carp (Carassius auratus) embryo.  

PubMed

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent bioaccumulative environmental contaminant that is an endocrine disruptor. Embryos of various fish species are responsive to TCDD and have been used as an alternative method to the acute toxicity test with juvenile and adult fish. The TCDD test has similar endpoints of developmental toxicity. However, their sensitivity and signs of TCDD-induced toxicity are different depending on fish species and its habit. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) - the sentinel species for persistent organic pollutants and a common foodfish in China, Japan, and Korea - was used to identify the developmental toxicity of TCDD. We obtained the fertilized eggs from the artificial fertilization of crucian carp (97.45% success rate). Embryos at 3h post fertilization (hpf) were exposed to no vehicle, vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, 0.1% v/v) or TCDD (0.128, 0.32, 0.8, 2 and 5 ?g/L) for 1h and then fresh water was changed and aerated. Embryonic development and toxicity were monitored until 150 hpf. TCDD-exposed group showed no effects on embryo mortality and hatching rate from 6 to 126 hpf. On the other hand, the post-hatching mortality rate in TCDD-exposed group was increased in a dose-dependent manner, especially at high doses (0.8, 2 and 5 ?g/L). The LD50 for larval mortality was calculated to 0.24 ng TCDD/g embryo. Pericardial edema was continuously observed in larvae of TCDD-exposed groups from hatching complete time (78 hpf), followed by the onset of yolk sac edema. Hemorrhage and edema showed a significant increase depending on exposure concentration and time. Expression of TCDD-related CYP1A genes was evaluated quantitatively. Embryo and larvae in TCDD-exposed groups displayed a significant increase of CYP1A gene expression. Overall, we defined TCDD-induced toxicity in artificially fertilized crucian carp embryo and these results suggest that crucian carp can be applied as an early life stage model of TCDD-induced toxicity. PMID:24751158

Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Min Jee; Kim, Ha Ryong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

2014-09-01

67

Toxicity of S-metolachlor containing formulation and heavy metals to chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution of metal modelled by copper sulphate, cadmium sulphate and a 960 g/l S-metolachlor containing herbicide formulation (Dual Gold 960 EC) were studied on chicken embryos after administration as a single compounds or in combination. The test materials were injected into the air-chamber in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg on day 0 of incubation. The concentration of copper, and cadmium sulphate was 0.01%. The applied concentration of Dual Gold 960 EC was 0.375%. Evaluation was done on day 19 of the hatching period. In comparison with the values of the control group, the rate of embryomortality also increased significantly in the groups which were treated by herbicide and heavy metals individually. When the herbicide (Dual Gold 960 EC) was used individually, one quarter of the treated animals died in comparison with the values measured in the control group. In the groups which were treated with cadmium sulphate and Dual Gold 960 EC embryomortality increased significantly in comparison with both the control and individually treated groups. In the groups, which were treated together, the occurrence of development disorders remained as low level as in the case individual treatments. Looking at the types of development disorders, the most frequent problems were the oedema, the shortening of the beak mandible, and the incorrect posture of the feet and the neck. As the collective result of the treatment with cadmium sulphate and Dual Gold 960 EC, the body mass of the treated embryos decreased significantly in comparison with the control and individually treated groups, therefore we can conclude that the combined treatment resulted in increased embryo toxic effect in comparison with the individual embryo damaging effect of the used components. PMID:22702210

Szabó, R; Budai, P; Lehel, J; Kormos, E

2011-01-01

68

Influence of sediment composition on PAH toxicity using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo-larval assays.  

PubMed

Due to hydrophobic and persistent properties, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have a high capacity to accumulate in sediment. Sediment quality criteria, for the assessment of habitat quality and risk for aquatic life, include understanding the fate and effects of PAHs. In the context of European regulation (REACH and Water Framework Directive), the first objective was to assess the influence of sediment composition on the toxicity of two model PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene using 10-day zebrafish embryo-larval assay. This procedure was undertaken with an artificial sediment in order to limit natural sediment variability. A suitable sediment composition might be then validated for zebrafish and proposed in a new OECD guideline for chemicals testing. Second, a comparative study of toxicity responses from this exposure protocol was then performed using another OECD species, the Japanese medaka. The potential toxicity of both PAHs was assessed through lethal (e.g., survival, hatching success) and sublethal endpoints (e.g., abnormalities, PMR, and EROD) measured at different developmental stages, adapted to the embryonic development time of both species. Regarding effects observed for both species, a suitable artificial sediment composition for PAH toxicity testing was set at 92.5 % dry weight (dw) silica of 0.2-0.5-mm grain size, 5 % dw kaolin clay without organic matter for zebrafish, and 2.5 % dw blond peat in more only for Japanese medaka. PAH bioavailability and toxicity were highly dependent on the fraction of organic matter in sediment and of the K ow coefficients of the tested compounds. The biological responses observed were also dependent of the species under consideration. Japanese medaka embryos appeared more robust than zebrafish embryos for understanding the toxicity of PAHs following a sediment contact test, due to the longer exposure duration and lower sensitivity of sediment physical properties. PMID:25175355

Perrichon, Prescilla; Le Bihanic, Florane; Bustamante, Paco; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélčne; Cachot, Jérôme; Cousin, Xavier

2014-12-01

69

vEmbryo In Silico Models: Predicting Vascular Developmental Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

The cardiovascular system is the first to function in the vertebrate embryo, reflecting the critical need for nutrient delivery and waste removal during organogenesis. Blood vessel development occurs by complex interacting signaling networks, including extra-cellular matrix remod...

70

Uptake, Toxicity, and Effects on Detoxication Enzymes of Atrazine and Trifluoroacetate in Embryos of Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, toxicity, and elimination of atrazine and trifluoroacetate (TFA) were studied in early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Furthermore, the effects of these xenobiotics on soluble (s) and microsomal (m) glutathione S-transferases (GST) of zebrafish embryos were investigated using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), and [14C]atrazine. [14C]Atrazine was taken up by the embryos within seconds, unhindered by the

C. Wiegand; S. Pflugmacher; M. Giese; H. Frank; C. Steinberg

2000-01-01

71

Effects of simulated weathering on the toxicity of selected crude oils and their components to sea urchin embryos.  

PubMed

Artificial weathering of Angolan crude and a Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) was performed by evaporation and photooxidation. The aliphatic, aromatic, polar and asphaltene fractions of the fresh and weathered oils were isolated. The toxicity of the water accommodated fraction or an oil/fraction dissolved in DMSO was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. Photooxidation was observed to decrease the aromatics content and increase polar compounds. A slight reduction in the toxicity of Angolan crude was observed following weathering for the water-accommodated fraction and the extract in DMSO, but no effect was seen for the Heavy Fuel Oil. For aliphatic compounds, the toxicity decreased in the order fresh>evaporated>photooxidated for both Angolan crude and HFO. Weathering slightly increased the toxicity of the aromatic and polar fractions of the oil. The aromatic fractions were responsible for most of the toxicity and the polar compounds were the second most important toxic components, despite having less or similar abundance than the aliphatic fraction. The toxic contribution of the aromatic compounds was higher for the HFO than for the Angolan crude. A decrease in the toxicity of Angolan crude following weathering correlated with a reduction in the toxicity of the aliphatic fraction. PMID:23747464

Rial, Diego; Radovi?, Jagoš R; Bayona, Josep M; Macrae, Kenneth; Thomas, Kevin V; Beiras, Ricardo

2013-09-15

72

METAL TOXICITY TO EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF EIGHT SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH--II: COPPER  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tes...

73

Aquatic toxicity assessment of single-walled carbon nanotubes using zebrafish embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zebrafish embryos selected at the 64-cell stage were exposed to various concentrations of amide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) ranging from 1 to 10 ?g/ml dissolved in 1% Pluronic F-68 (a cell culture grade surfactant), and the development of embryos was examined from 24 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Incubation of embryos in 1% F-68 did not induce overt abnormal phenotype as compared to the wild-type; neither did it cause significant mortality during the exposure period. Generally, there was a slight developmental delay in larvae treated with SWCNTs of 5 ?g/ml or above. Only larvae exposed to >= 5 ?g/ml SWCNTs showed significantly reduced survival rates. About 50% of the embryos exposed to 5 ?g/ml showed abnormal phenotypes at 24 hpf as compared to the control group. As development proceeds to 120 hpf, more embryos displayed defective morphology. A slight hatching delay was observed in embryos exposed to concentrations above 5 ?g/ml. There was a general reduction of body axes, including narrowed somite and shortened yolk stalk. In addition, pigmentation in the ventral trunk area was less than that observed in control group. The body lengths of the exposed embryos were decreased significantly at 48 hpf (3.11 mm in control vs. 3.00 mm in SWCNTs-exposed embryos). However, exposure to SWCNTs did not affect the number of somites. Other features that were noticed in the SWCNTs-exposed embryos included edema and shrinkage and blebbling of the epidermal lining. Most of these observed phenotypes persisted from 48 hpf through 120 hpf. Overall, the aforementioned results indicate that soluble amide-functionalized SWCNTs are toxic to zebrafish embryos at a minimum concentration of 5 ?g/ml.

Pan, Huichin; Lin, Yu-Jun; Li, Meng-Wei; Chuang, Han-Ni; Chou, Cheng-Chung

2011-07-01

74

Toxicity testing using Caenorhabditis elegans  

SciTech Connect

Caenorhabditis elegans is a small free-living nematode that is representative of what may be the most abundant animal group. It has been promoted as a possible model organism for toxicity testing in the laboratory and in field evaluations in part because more is known about its biology than any other animal, Toxicity tests using C. elegans have been developed with lethality, reproduction, and behavior as end points. The tests have also been developed to varying degrees using standard laboratory media, water, and soil. The results of the tests when exposing C. elegans to a variety of metals, inorganic, and organic compounds indicate it is typically at least as sensitive as other species currently used, such as Daphnia and earthworms, and is generally much easier to maintain in the laboratory. The advantages and disadvantages of C. elegans and the state of development of the tests will be discussed.

Middendorf, P.J.; Dusenbery, D.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

75

NEW EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE CALIFORNIA GRUNION (LEURESTHES TENUIS) AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

California grunion were continuously exposed as embryos and fry to technical chlorpyrifos in two toxicity tests conducted in the same exposure apparatus. The first test, a 35-day early life-stage (ELS) test, began with approximately 2.5-day-old embryos that were exposed in flow-t...

76

Humane endpoints in toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The current use of humane endpoints in the fields of animal testing for acute oral toxicity, skin and eye irritation and corrosion, and skin sensitization is presented. The data used were obtained within the framework of the regulatory activities for the development of new methods, and within the notification procedure for new chemicals in the European Union. It is

E. Schlede; W. Diener; I. Gerner

77

Toxicity and degradation of benefin in chicken embryos.  

PubMed

The herbicide formulation Flubalex (20% benefin) was applied, ROSS 308 embryonated hen eggs were treated on day 12 of incubation period. The pesticide was diluted in water to a concentration level of 3.0%, and the emulsion was injected into the air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg, or hen's eggs were treated by the immersion technique. Residues of benefin were measured in the samples on days 13, 15 and 19 of the incubation of chicken embryos, and morphological examinations were performed simultaneously. After the immersion treatment the mortality rate of embryos was remarkable compared to the injection treatment. Analytical chemistry data showed the concentration of the active ingredient which was 3.5 times higher on day 13 of incubation in the samples after immersion treatment than after the injection of benefin. This resulted an increased incidence rate of mortality. On day 19 of hatching period the benefin concentration was practically similar independently of treatment method. No macro- and microscopic alterations were seen. PMID:12701412

Várnagy, L; Budai, P; Molnár, E; Susan, M; Fáncsi, T

2002-01-01

78

Evaluation of developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of diclofenac using Xenopus embryos.  

PubMed

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. This compound is therefore used to treat pain, inflammatory disorders, and dysmenorrhea. Due to its multimodal mechanism of action and ability to penetrate placenta, diclofenac is known to have undesirable side effects including teratogenicity. However, limited data exist on its teratogenicity, and a detailed investigation regarding harmful effects of this drug during embryogenesis is warranted. Here, we analyzed the developmental toxic effects of diclofenac using Xenopus embryos according to the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) protocol. Diclofenac treatment exerted a teratogenic effect on Xenopus embryos with a teratogenic index (TI) value of 2.64 TI; if this value is higher than 1.2, the cut-off value indicative of toxicity. In particular, mortality of embryos treated with diclofenac increased in a concentration-dependent manner and a broad spectrum of malformations such as shortening and kinking of the axis, abdominal bulging, and prominent blister formation, was observed. The shape and length of internal organs also differed compared to the control group embryos and show developmental retardation on histological label. However, the expression of major tissue-specific markers did not change when analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In conclusion, diclofenac treatment can promote teratogenicity that results in morphological anomalies, but not disrupt the developmental tissue arrangement during Xenopus embryogenesis. PMID:24992311

Chae, Jeong-Pil; Park, Mi Seon; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Min, Byung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Park, Mae-Ja

2015-02-01

79

Toxic effects of triazophos on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Triazophos (TAP) has been widely used in agriculture for controlling insect pests and is a known organophosphorus pesticide. Due to TAP characteristics, such as high chemical and photochemical stability, its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has gained great interest. To explore the potential developmental toxicity of TAP, Gobiocypris rarus embryos and larvae were exposed to various concentrations of TAP (0.1-15 mg L(-1)) until 72 h. Results showed that values of 72 h LC50 and EC50 were 7.44 and 5.60 mg L(-1) for embryos, 2.52 and 1.37 mg L(-1) for larvae. Increased malformation, decreased heart rate and body length provide a gradual concentration-dependent pattern. Enzyme activities and mRNA levels were significantly changed even at low concentration (0.05 mg L(-1) for embryos and 0.01 mg L(-(1) for larvae). Overall, the present study points out that TAP is likely a risk to the early development of G. rarus. The information presented in this study will be helpful in better understanding the toxicity induced by TAP in fish embryos and larvae. PMID:24875911

Zhu, Bin; Gong, Yu-Xin; Liu, Lei; Li, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yuan; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-08-01

80

Individual and joint toxic effects of cadmium sulfate and ?-naphthoflavone on the development of zebrafish embryo*  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to evaluate the individual and joint toxicities of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) and ?-naphthoflavone (ANF) in zebrafish embryos. As a result, CdSO4 caused both lethal and sub-lethal effects, such as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) death and 72 hpf delayed hatching. However, ANF only caused sub-lethal effects, including 48 hpf cardiac edema and 72 hpf delayed hatching. Taking 24 hpf death and 48 hpf cardiac edema as endpoints, the toxicities of CdSO4 and ANF were significantly enhanced by each other. Consistently, both CdSO4 and ANF caused significant oxidative stress, including decreases in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish embryos, but these mixtures produced much more significant alterations on the biomarkers. Co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF significantly down-regulated the mRNA level of multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp) 1 and cytochrome P450 (cyp) 1a, which constituted the protective mechanisms for zebrafish embryos to chemical toxins. In conclusion, co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF exhibited a much more severe damage in zebrafish embryos than individual treatment. Meanwhile, production of oxidative stress and altered expression of mrp1 and cyp1a could be important components of such joint toxicity. PMID:25183031

Yin, Jian; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhang, Feng; Miao, Peng; Lin, Ying; Chen, Ming-li

2014-01-01

81

Investigation of developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of antiemetics on rat embryos cultured in vitro.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the direct toxic and teratogenic effects of dimenhydrinate, metoclopramide and trimethobenzamide HCl, antiemetic drugs on embryonic growth and development in cultured rat embryos. Embryos were explanted on day 9.5 of gestation and cultured. Whole rat serum was used as a culture medium for the control group while different concentrations of dimenhydrinate (2.5-20 ?g/ml), metoclopramide (10-50 ?g/ml) and trimethobenzamide HCl (25-100 ?g/ml) were added to serum for the experimental groups. Effects of antiemetics on embryonic developmental parameters were compared, and embryos were evaluated for the presence of any malformations. Also, the total DNA was extracted from the cells to determine the fragmentation of nuclear DNA of embryonic cells. Compared with the control embryos, the antiemetics significantly decreased all growth and developmental parameters dose dependently. There was no difference regarding the fragmentation of nuclear DNA of the all used agents and controls. Amongst the agents, trimethobenzamide HCl was found to have more toxic and teratogenic potential, and metoclopramide appears to be the least toxic antiemetic and therefore could be more safely used and might be preferred for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. PMID:23002952

Fazliogullari, Z; Karabulut, A K; Uysal, I I; Unver Dogan, N; Acar, H

2013-08-01

82

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of used drilling fluids to embryo development was investigated to ascertain the limits of safe usage of these fluids in marine environments. Embryos used as test systems were of the teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus, and four echinoderms Echinarachnius parma, Strongylocentr...

83

Assessment of the toxic effect exerted by fluorescent pseudomonads on embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus.  

PubMed

Strains of bacteria capable of growing on artificial culture media were isolated from the fouling of brass plates submerged in Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, and from tissues of the seastar Distolasterias nipon, caught in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. According to the complex of data of genetic and physiological/biochemical analyzes, two strains of cultivated bacteria were identified by us as the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two strains as Pseudomonas fluorescens, and one strain as Ruegeria sp. It was shown that the cultivated strains of P. aeruginosa released exotoxins, particularly phenazine pigments, into the environment. Production of the toxins did not depend on presence of a target organism in the system and was aimed at regulation of interactions in the microbial community. The toxicity of the studied natural isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads was analyzed by using embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus, which are the sensitive and dynamic toxicological sea-urchin embryo test (SET) system. As was established, exotoxins produced by the strains of P. aeruginosa inhibit activity of cilia in sea urchin larvae, as well as disturb processes of cell differentiation in embryos and larvae. Their toxic influence is accompanied by disturbances of protein synthesis and the disruptions of cytoskeleton in the course of zygote cleavage and larval development. Unlike P. aeruginosa, the strains of P. fluorescens and Ruegeria sp. did not exert the toxic effect on SET. The obtained data allow considering objects of the environment as the natural reservoir of opportunistic microorganisms posing a potential threat to human, whereas the use of SET for determination of toxicity of isolated bacteria provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms of their interactions with organisms in marine ecosystems. PMID:25728358

Beleneva, I A; Shamshurina, E V; Eliseikina, M G

2015-05-01

84

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MOUSE AND RAT EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methanol (MeOH), a widely used industrial solvent, had been proposed as an alternative motor vehicle fuel. nhaled MEOH is teratogenic in both rats and mice but the mouse has been demonstrated to be sensitive to the developmental toxicity of inhaled methanol at lower exposures tha...

85

Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to embryos of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque)  

SciTech Connect

This study correlates the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) residue and its toxicity to the fathead minnow embryo exposed to levels lower than the TCDD solubility range. The TCDD tissue doses in the embryo/larvae were related to gross lesions, delayed hatching, and death. A 7-day bioconcentration factor on a lipid basis (BCF{sub L}) was calculated. Embryos at the blatsula stage were exposed to [{sup 3}H] TCDD water concentrations (0.37, 0.59, 1.2, 2.83, and 10.1 6 ng/L), a nontreatment control and a solvent carrier control. Lesions were qualified as mild and severe based on their onset and their pathogenesis. Thus, mild lesions developed just prior to hatching or post-hatching at the fifth day of development. The severe lesions appeared at the third day of development. Embryos with tissue doses {le}2.46 {+-} 1.34 ng/g consistently developed mild lesions, while embryos with tissue doses {ge} 12.07 {+-} 4.91 ng/g developed severe lesions. The lowest observable adverse effect level was 0.04 {+-} 0.02 ng/g. The calculated 7-day ED{sub 50} was 0.14 ng/g. There was no delayed hatching at any of the concentrations tested. Embryo death occurred at a tissue concentration {ge}2.46 ng/g. The calculated 7-day LD{sub 50} was 25.71 ng/g. The relationship between the concentration of TCDD in the water (x = ng/L) and in the tissue dose (y = ng/g) fitted a linear curve y = {minus}1,143 + 3,792.5x, r{sup 2} = 0.98. The calculated BCF{sub L} (wet weight) was dose dependent. Embryos with tissue doses of 0.04 and 0.16 ng/g had BCF{sub L} of 2,700 and 3,325, respectively. Embryos with tissue doses of 2.46, 12.07, and 37.07 ng/g, had a BCF{sub L} of 104,225, 106,625 and 91,075, respectively.

Olivieri, C.; Cooper, K. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Cook Coll.

1995-12-31

86

Mechanisms of hexabromocyclododecanes induced developmental toxicity in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos.  

PubMed

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are widely used as additive brominated flame retardants, and are now ubiquitous contaminants in the environmental media and biota, including the marine environment and marine organisms. However, the impacts of HBCDs on marine fish are not well known. In this study the embryos of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) were used to assess the developmental toxicity of HBCDs. Freshly fertilized marine medaka embryos were exposed to various concentrations of technical HBCD (tHBCD, 0, 5, 20 and 50?g/L) until the first fry stage, and hatch success, morphology and cardiac function were examined. In all the exposure groups (5, 20 and 50?g/L) tHBCD significantly increased the embryo heart beats. The measurement of sinus venosus-bulbus arteriosus (SV-BA) distance indicated that tHBCD significantly enlarged the SV-BA distance at exposure concentrations of 20 and 50?g/L. The malformation rate at the first fry stage was also induced by tHBCD in a dose dependent manner, with the formation of pericardial edema and yolk sac edema as the most frequently observed malformation. In addition, the concentrations of total HBCD isomers (?HBCDs) in embryos in the current study were comparative with environmental levels and increased with increasing exposure duration. Furthermore, exposure to tHBCD also induced the level of 8-oxodG, a representative oxidative DNA damage. The mechanisms of HBCD-induced developmental toxicity were further explored by TUNEL assay, gel-based quantitative proteomic approach and measurement of the expression of several stress responsive genes, such as p53, TNF-?, IL-1?, CYP1A, COX-1 and COX-2, together with the activities of caspases. The results suggested that HBCDs exposure at environmentally realistic concentrations induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and suppressed nucleotide and protein synthesis, which all together resulted in developmental toxicity, particularly in the cardiovascular system, in the embryos of O. melastigma. PMID:24780359

Hong, Haizheng; Li, Dongmei; Shen, Rong; Wang, Xinhong; Shi, Dalin

2014-07-01

87

Teratogenicity testing of dimethoate containing insecticide formulation (BI 58 EC) in chicken embryos.  

PubMed

BI 58 EC insecticide formulation was tested for teratogenicity in chicken embryos after the treatment of embryonated eggs. The pesticide was diluted in water to 0.8% concentration level, and the emulsion was injected into air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg or hen eggs were treated by the immersion technique. The morphological examinations were done on the days 13, 15 and 19 of incubation of chicken embryos. BI 58 EC produced an increased embryo mortality after the treatment which was the most expressive on day 15 of incubation. The trend of embryo weight showed similarity in the control and treated groups after both treatments. The developmental anomalies were sporadic and dose-effect dependency was not seen. Light microscopic findings exhibited a degenerative change in the liver tissue of both treated groups. In summary, the 38% dimethoate containing pesticide formulation (BI 58 EC) was toxic to the developing embryo at 0.8% concentration in our study. PMID:12425115

Várnagy, L; Budai, P; Fejes, S; Molnár, E; Fáncsi, T

2001-01-01

88

Toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish of copper complexes with two malonic acids as models for dissolved organic matter  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) of Cu complexes with two substituted malonic acids, benzyl- and n-hexadecyl-, chosen as models for low-molecular-weight natural dissolved organic matter, were investigated. Toxicity test solutions at pH 6.5 {+-} 0.1 with the required Cu ion-specific electrode. In the absence of malonic acids, concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} up to 1.13 {mu}mol/L increased the embryo hatching time from approx. 2 d in control solutions (no Cu or malonic acid) and solutions containing malonic acids without Cu to approx. 8 d. The Cu-benzylmalonic acid complex in the presence of inorganic Cu species did not delay hatching beyond that attributable to Cu{sup 2+}. In contrast, 0.60 {mu}mol/L Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complexes delayed hatching by 5.5 d in excess of that attributable to 1.13 {mu}mol/L Cu{sup 2+}, assuming that the hatching delays caused by the different Cu species were additive, possibly because of Cu entry into the embryo as the lipophilic Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complex. None of the Cu-malonic acid complexes was acutely toxic to adult zebrafish at concentrations up to 1.4 {mu}mol/L, possibly because Cu was removed from the Cu-malonic acid complexes by stronger chelating groups at the gill surface. Substituted malonic acids with similar proton and Cu association constants can be readily prepared with a variety of simple substituents, radiolabeled if required. Their results show that these acids could be useful ligands for investigating intracellular transport and metabolism of metal-organic complexes.

Palmer, F.B.; Evans, C.W. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Butler, C.A. [Woodward Clyde NZ Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand); Timperley, M.H. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland (New Zealand)

1998-08-01

89

PRESENT APPROACHES TO TOXICITY TESTING - A PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Interest in aquatic toxicity tests is increasing as more emphasis is placed on control of highly toxic pollutants. While this interest offers an opportunity to increase the use of aquatic toxicity tests, there is a responsibility to recognize their limitations. Aquatic toxicology...

90

A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign}

Margaret W. Toussaint; Tommy R. Shedd; William H. van der Schalie; Gerald R. Leather

1995-01-01

91

Comparative study of non-invasive methods for assessing Daphnia magna embryo toxicity.  

PubMed

Embryos, unlike adults, are typically sessile, which allows for an increase in the available metrics that can be used to assess chemical toxicity. We investigate Daphnia magna development rate and oxygen consumption as toxicity metrics and compare them to arrested embryo development using four different techniques with potassium cyanide (KCN) as a common toxicant. The EC50 (95 % CI) for arrested development was 2,535 (1,747-3,677) ?g/L KCN. Using pixel intensity changes, recorded with difference imaging, we semi-quantitatively assessed a decrease in development rate at 200 ?g/L KCN, threefold lower than the arrested development lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC). Respirometry and self-referencing (SR) microsensors were two unique techniques used to assess oxygen consumption. Using respirometry, an increase in oxygen consumption was found in the 5 ?g/L KCN treatment and a decrease for 148 ?g/L, but no change was found for the 78 ?g/L KCN treatment. Whereas, with SR microsensors, we were able to detect significant changes in oxygen consumption for all three treatments: 5, 78, and 148 ?g/L KCN. While SR offered the highest sensitivity, the respirometry platform developed for this study was much easier to use to measure the same endpoint. Oxygen consumption may be subject to change during the development process, meaning consumption assessment techniques may only be useful only for short-term experiments. Development rate was a more sensitive endpoint though was only reliable four of the six embryonic developmental stages examined. Despite being the least sensitive endpoint, arrested embryo development was the only technique capable of assessing the embryos throughout all developmental stages. In conclusion, each metric has advantages and limitations, but because all are non-invasive, it is possible to use any combination of the three. PMID:24888613

Stensberg, Matthew C; Zeitchek, Michael Anthony; Inn, Kul; McLamore, Eric S; Porterfield, D Marshall; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2014-09-01

92

Sea urchin embryos as an in vivo model for the assessment of manganese toxicity: developmental and stress response effects.  

PubMed

In the marine environment increasing concentrations of bio-available compounds often result from anthropogenic activities. Among metal ions, manganese represents a new emergent factor in environmental contamination. Here, we studied the effects of manganese on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos using biological and biochemical approaches for the analysis of impact on development, tissue accumulation and stress markers. Embryos were continuously exposed from fertilization to manganese at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 61.6 mg l(-1), monitored for developmental abnormalities at 48 h after fertilization, and used for atomic spectrometric analysis at various times from 6 to 72 h. We found that concentration- and time-dependent increases in morphological abnormalities were directly correlated to manganese accumulation, with major defects in skeleton formation at 48 h. Concurrently, we found an upregulation of the hsc70 and hsc60 stress proteins detected by immunoblotting, whereas no induction of apoptosis or ROS production was observed by TUNEL and live tests, respectively. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the observed manganese embryo-toxicity is related to both its intracellular accumulation and misregulated homeostasis, and confirm the importance of stress proteins as protective agents in the acquisition of tolerance and resistance to apoptosis. PMID:19882348

Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria; Trinchella, Francesca; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

2010-03-01

93

Use of toxicogenomics to predict the potential toxic effect of Benzo(a)pyrene on zebrafish embryos: ocular developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which is ubiquitous in the environment. The toxic effects of BaP on fish embryos have been described in detail, but some potentially toxic effects of BaP might have been neglected owing to the limitations of traditional techniques. In the present research, global transcriptional patterns were used to study the potentially toxic effects of BaP, as well as its underlying toxicological mechanisms. The expression levels of multiple genes were significantly changed by BaP exposure. The results of ontology assignments and cluster analysis showed that BaP could affect the processes of photoreceptor maintenance and phototransduction. We also conducted an experiment on phototactic response and found that larvae exposed to BaP displayed a decreasing response to light. In addition, BaP exposure decreased the cellular density of the ganglion cell layer (GCL) significantly. These results suggested that BaP exposure induced visual system developmental defects and dysfunction by perturbation of photoreceptor development related genes. Our results were helpful for an understanding of the toxicity of BaP. This study also indicated that microarray analysis was effective for predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals with high sensitivity and accuracy. PMID:24875912

Huang, Lixing; Zuo, Zhenghong; Zhang, Youyu; Wu, Meifang; Lin, Jackie Jin; Wang, Chonggang

2014-08-01

94

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates the toxicity of Paclobutrazol on the digestive system of zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms. PBZ treatment of embryos resulted in dose-dependent morphological and functional abnormalities of the digestive organs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to show that PBZ strongly induces cyp1a1 expression in the digestive system, and slightly induces ahr2 expression in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of ahr2 with morpholino oligonucleotides prevents PBZ toxicity. Thus, the toxic effect of PBZ on digestive organs is mediated by AhR2, as was previously reported for retene and TCDD. These findings have implications for understanding the potential toxicity of PBZ during embryogenesis, and thus the potential impact of fungicides on public health and the environment. PMID:25500619

Wang, Wen-Der; Chen, Guan-Ting; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Wu, Chang-Yi

2015-02-01

95

Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. PMID:22052622

Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

2014-02-01

96

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow  

E-print Network

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow UNL Extension Educator, Water Quality Algae is a microscopic plant that occurs in all water. However, only certain conditions bring algae to the surface, making it toxic to animals, especially humans and dogs. Toxic algae often are naturally occurring from high

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

97

Potential protective effect of L-cysteine against the toxicity of acrylamide and furan in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos: an interaction study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added L-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used (a) 96-h LC5...

98

The status of toxicity tests with sediment in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The earliest studies in Brazil aiming to evaluate sediment quality through toxicity tests started in the beginning of the 80`s. These were developed by the Environmental Sanitation Agency of Sao Paulo State (CETESB) in Cubatao River and Billings Reservoir, which are located in industrialized and populous regions. Elutriate phase sediment toxicity tests were run with Daphnia similis. In the Cubatao River Basin the combination of toxicity, chemistry data and benthic community structure provided clear indications of sites with different levels of pollution. At this time there was a consensus that the study of a complex compartment such as sediment needed improvements in sampling and analysis procedures. Only in the 90`s the investigations involving sediment toxicity assessment were resumed by CETESB, and it was clear that integrative studies were needed in order to make environmental quality assessment. This kind of studies were conducted by CETESB in some highly polluted areas of Sao Paulo State, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Photobacterium phosphoreum interstitial water tests and Hyalella sp whole sediment tests were run, and the results correlated with several sediment organic and inorganic contaminants. The Sediment Quality Triad proposed by Chapman was applied in one of these studies. This approach was extremely useful in interpreting the data. At the same time marine sediment toxicity tests were developed by CETESB in collaboration with Sao Paulo University, and tests were run with the amphipods Tiburonella viscana, Battyporeiapus bisetosus; tanaidacean Kalliapseudes shubarti and the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus. The embryo test with L. variegatus was the most adequate in these studies. Nowadays there are other groups in some universities developing sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella and Chironomus in response to a growing concern in Brazil to establish adequate sediment quality assessment guidelines.

Araujo, R.P.A. [Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-12-31

99

BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

100

Spiking sediment with organochlorines for toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Sediment toxicity testing integrates responses to sediment variables and hence does not directly indicate cause and effect. One tool for determining cause and effect is sediment spiking, in which relatively uncontaminated sediment is amended with known amounts of contaminants, then tested for toxicity. However, sediment spiking methods vary considerably. The present study details appropriate methodologies (dry and wet spiking) for amending sediments with a range of organic contaminant concentrations, i.e., polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Target and actual concentrations were similar. A dose-response was determined, but PCB was not toxic in an acute sediment toxicity test. Chronic testing of these same sediments is reported in a companion article in this issue.

Murdoch, M.H.; Chapman, P.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Norman, D.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States); Quintino, V.M. [Univ. de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. Biologia

1997-07-01

101

Synthesis, culture medium stability, and in vitro and in vivo zebrafish embryo toxicity of metal-organic framework nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are among the most attractive porous materials available today. They have garnered much attention for their potential utility in many different areas such as gas storage, separation, catalysis, and biomedicine. However, very little is known about the possible health or environmental risks of these materials. Here, the results of toxicity studies on sixteen representative uncoated MOF nanoparticles (nanoMOFs), which were assessed for cytotoxicity to HepG2 and MCF7 cells in vitro, and for toxicity to zebrafish embryos in vivo, are reported. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between their in vitro toxicity and their in vivo toxicity. NanoMOFs were ranked according to their respective in vivo toxicity (in terms of the amount and severity of phenotypic changes observed in the treated zebrafish embryos), which varied widely. Altogether these results show different levels of toxicity of these materials; however, leaching of solubilized metal ions plays a main role. PMID:25504892

Ruyra, Ŕngels; Yazdi, Amirali; Espín, Jordi; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Roher, Nerea; Lorenzo, Julia; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

2015-02-01

102

In vitro fertilization: a potential means for toxicity testing  

PubMed Central

Uses and potential uses of in vitro fertilization are: (1) a research tool for investigating biochemistry of fertilization, (2) an assay for fertilizing ability, (3) a potentially useful clinical approach for certain cases of infertility, and (4) a potentially useful means for improving animal breeding. In vitro fertilization methodology is sufficiently advanced for gametes of several mammalian species, especially mouse, rabbit, and rat, for use in evaluating effects imposed by toxic agents of environmental or genetic origin. Alteration of the normal events of fertilization and/or embryonic development following transfer of in vitro fertilized embryos into surrogate dams can serve as end point(s) in applying this means for toxicity testing. In vitro fertilization of mouse and rat ova has been explored as an alternative to in vivo fertilization in male contraceptive development studies. Original observations on toxicity of abnormal O2 concentrations for rabbit fertilization in vitro are reported here. Ova were fertilized under 0, 20, 48, and 95% O2, but toxicity from the extreme conditions, 0 and 95% was apparent from comparison of proportions of fertilized ova reaching the 4-cell stage during the 24-hr incubation. Toxicity was further evidenced by inability of embryos fertilized under 0 and 95% O2 tensions, in contrast to those fertilized under 20% O2, to sustain normal gestation following their transfer into recipient does. Recent success in the fertilization of cow ova in vitro in this laboratory provides encouragement to develop a useful means for testing normalcy of gametes in this species. Such studies might lead to useful screening procedures for avoidance of human infertility resulting from hazardous environmental conditions. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2. PMID:17539157

Brackett, Benjamin G.

1978-01-01

103

Toxicity of mercury, copper, nickel, lead, and cobalt to embryos and larvae of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of mercury (HgCl2), copper (CuCl2: 5 H2O), nickel (NiSO4: 6 H2O), lead (Pb(CH3COO)2: 3 H2O) and cobalt (CoCl2: 6 H2O) was studied under standardized conditions in embryos and larvae of the zebrafish,Brachydanio rerio. Exposures were started at the blastula stage (2–4 h after spawning) and the effects on hatching and survival were monitored daily for 16 days. Copper

Göran Dave; Ruiqin Xiu

1991-01-01

104

Development of toxicant identification procedures for whole sediment toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

To effectively assess and manage contaminated sediments, identifying the specific contaminants responsible for sediment toxicity is highly desirable. Though effective toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods are well established for water column toxicity, new TIE methodologies are needed that address the special characteristics of whole sediment toxicity tests. Much of the effort to date has focused on the assessment of ammonia toxicity. Whereas pH manipulation is a key tool used to characterize ammonia toxicity in water column TIE, control of pH in interstitial water is much more challenging. Direct addition of hard acid has shown undesirable side effects (e.g., liberation and oxidation of iron), while CO{sub 2}-enrichment is limited in penetration of fine-grained sediments. Biological buffers (MES and POPSO) incorporated into the sediment are effective at altering interstitial pH without causing direct toxicity to Chironomus tentans, Lumbriculus variegatus, and to a lesser extent Hyalella azteca, but the range of pH control achieved has been small ({+-} 0.5 units). Introduction of aquatic plants reduces ammonia concentrations in the water column, but may not provide sufficient control of interstitial water. To date, the most promising results have been achieved using zeolite; adding zeolite to sediment produces moderate reductions in interstitial ammonia concentrations and is non-toxic to the organisms referenced above. Attempts to induce microbial removal of ammonia have been unsuccessful thus far. This presentation will review these and other sediment TIE methods currently under development in laboratories.

Mount, D.R.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Besser, J.M. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Ankley, G.T.; Norberg-King, T.J.; West, C.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States)

1995-12-31

105

Comparison of Methods to Obtain a Liquid Phase in Marine Sediment Toxicity Bioassays with Paracentrotus lividus Sea Urchin Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment toxicity bioassays using planktonic organisms are widespread tools in environmental quality assessment, but they\\u000a have limitations because the method for extracting and diluting the liquid phase may affect the final toxicity. The present\\u000a study compares the toxicity on sea urchin embryos and larvae of elutriates and pore water obtained from intertidal sediments\\u000a by various methods. The effects of mixing

R. Beiras

2002-01-01

106

POREWATER TOXICITY TESTING: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediments act as sinks for contaminants, where they may build up to toxic levels. Sediments containing toxic levels of contaminants pose a risk to aquatic life, human health, and wildlife. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that demonstrates chemicals in sediments are re...

107

Improved in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos using S-adenosylhomocysteine, a non-toxic epigenetic modifying reagent.  

PubMed

In this study, fibroblast cells were stably transfected with mouse POU5F1 promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to investigate the effect of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the reversible non-toxic inhibitor of DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs), at different intervals post-fusion on in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos. Treatment with SAH for 12?hr resulted in 54.6?±?7.7% blastocyst production, which was significantly greater than in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF: 37.2?±?2.7%), cloned embryos treated with SAH for 72?hr (31.0?±?7.6%), and control cloned embryos (34.6?±?3.6%). The fluorescence intensities of the EGFP-POU5F1 reporter gene at all intervals of SAH treatment, except of 72?hr, were significantly higher than control somatic cell nuclear transfers (SCNT) embryos. The intensity of DNA-methylation in cloned embryos treated with SAH for 48?hr was similar to that of IVF embryos, and was significantly lower than the other SCNT groups. The levels of H3K9 acetylation in all SCNT groups were significantly lower than IVF embryos. Real-time PCR analysis of gene expression revealed significantly higher expression of POU5F1 in cloned versus IVF blastocysts. Neither embryo production method (SCNT vs. IVF) nor the SAH treatment interval affected expression of the BCL2 gene. Cloned embryos at all intervals of SAH treatment, except for 24?hr, had significantly increased VEGF transcript compared to IVF and control SCNT embryos. It was suggested that the time interval of DNMT inhibition may have important consequences on different in vitro features of bovine SCNT, and the improving effects of DNMT inhibition on developmental competency of cloned embryos are restricted to a specific period of time preceding de novo methylation. PMID:21721066

Jafari, Shahram; Hosseini, Morteza S; Hajian, Mahdi; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Jafarpour, Farnoosh; Abedi, Parvaneh; Ostadhosseini, Somayyeh; Abbasi, Hassan; Gourabi, Hamid; Shahverdi, Abdol H; Dizaj, Ahmad Vosough Taghi; Anjomshoaa, Maryam; Haron, Wahid; Noorshariza, Noor; Yakub, Halimhatoon; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

2011-08-01

108

Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004

Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-04-01

109

GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TESTS WITH JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual represents a procedural guide for conducting embryo-larval early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). hese procedures are based upon evaluation of published papers and recent methods development work conducted at our laboratory in Du...

110

Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos  

SciTech Connect

Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of carbaryl, specifically its effects on the heart, in early developing zebrafish embryos. LC50 and EC50 values for carbaryl at 28 h post-fertilization were 44.66 {mu}g/ml and 7.52 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and 10 {mu}g/ml carbaryl was used in subsequent experiments. After confirming acetylcholinesterase inhibition by carbaryl using an enzymatic method, we observed red blood cell accumulation, delayed hatching and pericardial edema, but not heart malformation as described in some previous reports. Our chronic exposure data also demonstrated carbaryl-induced bradycardia, which is a common effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors due to the accumulation of acetylcholine, in embryos from 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) to 5 dpf. The distance between the sinus venosus, the point where blood enters the atrium, and the bulbus arteriosus, the point where blood leaves the ventricle, indicated normal looping of the heart tube. Immunostaining of myosin heavy chains with the ventricle-specific antibody MF20 and the atrium-specific antibody S46 showed normal development of heart chambers. At the same time, acute exposure resulted in carbaryl-induced bradycardia. Heart rate dropped significantly after a 10-min exposure to 100 {mu}g/ml carbaryl but recovered when carbaryl was removed. The novel observation of carbaryl-induced bradycardia in 1- and 2-dpf embryos suggested that carbaryl affected cardiac function possibly through an alternative mechanism other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition such as inhibition of calcium ion channels, since acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish are not functional until 3 dpf. However, the exact nature of this mechanism is currently unknown, and thus further studies are required.

Lin, C.C.; Hui, Michelle N.Y.; Cheng, S.H. E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

2007-07-15

111

Sulfide tolerance of four marine bioassay test species used to evaluate sediment toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen sulfide is a potential positive interference associated with marine sediment toxicity tests. It is necessary, therefore, to evaluate the possible contribution of sulfides to sediment toxicity before toxicity attributed to anthropogenic contaminants can be determined. The sulfide tolerances of several marine bioassay test species (R. abronius, E. estuaris, M. edulis and S. purpuratus) commonly used in bulk sediment and porewater toxicity tests have not been reported. The authors used a flow-through exposure system to expose these organisms to constant concentrations of sulfide during 48-h exposure periods. Significant abnormalities occurred at 3 to 5 micromoles total sulfide per liter ({mu}M/L) in M. edulis embryos, and at 6{mu}M/L in S. purpuratus embryos. Survivorship of amphipods was significantly reduced at total sulfide concentrations of 45 and 126 {mu}M/L for R. abronius and E estuaris, respectively. These tolerances provide guidelines for evaluating the potential for sulfide toxicity prior to the initiation of toxicity tests. Because sulfide concentrations in bulk sediment and pore-water may exceed these values, care must be taken to ensure that sulfide toxicity is not contributing to toxicity observed when using these test organisms.

Knezovich, J.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jelinski, J.A.; Anderson, S.L.; Steichen, D.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

112

Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

2014-02-01

113

Acute ZnO nanoparticles exposure induces developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage in embryo-larval zebrafish.  

PubMed

Nano-scale zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. However, the available toxicological information was inadequate to assess the potential ecological risk of nano-ZnO to aquatic organisms and the publics. In this study, the developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage of nano-ZnO embryos were investigated in the embryo-larval zebrafish, the toxicity of Zn(2+) releasing from nano-ZnO were also investigated to ascertain the relationship between the nano-ZnO and corresponding Zn(2+). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100mg/L nano-ZnO and 0.59, 2.15, 3.63, 4.07, 5.31, and 6.04 mg/L Zn(2+) for 144 h post-fertilisation (hpf), respectively. Up to 144 hpf, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, the genes related to oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in zebrafish embryos were measured. The nano-ZnO was found to exert a dose-dependent toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae, reducing the hatching rate and inducing malformation and the acute toxicity to zebrafish embryos was greater than that of the Zn(2+) solution. The generation of ROS was significantly increased at 50 and 100mg/L nano-ZnO. DNA damage of zebrafish embryo was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis and was enhanced with increasing nano-ZnO concentration. Moreover, the transcriptional expression of mitochondrial inner membrane genes related to ROS production, such as Bcl-2, in response to oxidative damage, such as Nqo1, and related to antioxidant response element such as Gstp2 were significantly down-regulated in the nano-ZnO treatment groups. However, the nano-ZnO up-regulated the transcriptional expression of Ucp2-related to ROS production. In conclusion, nano-ZnO induces developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage on zebrafish embryos and the dissolved Zn(2+) only partially contributed to the toxicity of nano-ZnO. The adverse effects of nano-ZnO may be the important mechanisms of its toxicity to zebrafish embryos. PMID:23643724

Zhao, Xuesong; Wang, Shutao; Wu, Yuan; You, Hong; Lv, Lina

2013-07-15

114

Random walk of single gold nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos leading to stochastic toxic effects on embryonic developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized and characterized stable (non-aggregating, non-photobleaching and non-blinking), nearly monodisperse and highly-pure Au nanoparticles, and used them to probe nanoparticle transport and diffusion in cleavage-stage zebrafish embryos and to study their effects on embryonic development in real-time. We found that single Au nanoparticles (11.6 +/- 0.9 nm in diameter) passively diffused into the chorionic space of the embryos via their chorionic pore canals and continued their random-walk through chorionic space and into the inner mass of embryos. Diffusion coefficients of single nanoparticles vary dramatically (2.8 × 10-11 to 1.3 × 10-8 cm2 s-1) as nanoparticles diffuse through the various parts of embryos, suggesting highly diverse transport barriers and viscosity gradients in the embryos. The amount of Au nanoparticles accumulated in embryos increases with nanoparticle concentration increases. Interestingly, however, their effects on embryonic development are not proportionally related to their concentration. The majority of embryos (74% on average) chronically incubated with 0.025-1.2 nM Au nanoparticles for 120 h developed to normal zebrafish, with some (24%) being dead and few (2%) deformed. We have developed a new approach to image and characterize individual Au nanoparticles embedded in tissues using histology sample preparation methods and localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of single nanoparticles. We found Au nanoparticles in various parts of normally developed and deformed zebrafish, suggesting that the random-walk of nanoparticles in embryos during their development might have led to stochastic effects on embryonic development. These results show that Au nanoparticles are much more biocompatible with (less toxic to) the embryos than the Ag nanoparticles that we reported previously, suggesting that they are better suited as biocompatible probes for imaging embryos in vivo. The results provide powerful evidences that the biocompatibility and toxicity of nanoparticles is highly dependent on their chemical properties, and that the embryos can serve as effective in vivo assays to screen their biocompatibility.We have synthesized and characterized stable (non-aggregating, non-photobleaching and non-blinking), nearly monodisperse and highly-pure Au nanoparticles, and used them to probe nanoparticle transport and diffusion in cleavage-stage zebrafish embryos and to study their effects on embryonic development in real-time. We found that single Au nanoparticles (11.6 +/- 0.9 nm in diameter) passively diffused into the chorionic space of the embryos via their chorionic pore canals and continued their random-walk through chorionic space and into the inner mass of embryos. Diffusion coefficients of single nanoparticles vary dramatically (2.8 × 10-11 to 1.3 × 10-8 cm2 s-1) as nanoparticles diffuse through the various parts of embryos, suggesting highly diverse transport barriers and viscosity gradients in the embryos. The amount of Au nanoparticles accumulated in embryos increases with nanoparticle concentration increases. Interestingly, however, their effects on embryonic development are not proportionally related to their concentration. The majority of embryos (74% on average) chronically incubated with 0.025-1.2 nM Au nanoparticles for 120 h developed to normal zebrafish, with some (24%) being dead and few (2%) deformed. We have developed a new approach to image and characterize individual Au nanoparticles embedded in tissues using histology sample preparation methods and localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of single nanoparticles. We found Au nanoparticles in various parts of normally developed and deformed zebrafish, suggesting that the random-walk of nanoparticles in embryos during their development might have led to stochastic effects on embryonic development. These results show that Au nanoparticles are much more biocompatible with (less toxic to) the embryos than the Ag nanoparticles that we reported previously, suggesting that they are better suited as biocompatible probes for

Browning, Lauren M.; Lee, Kerry J.; Huang, Tao; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Lowman, Jill E.; Nancy Xu, Xiao-Hong

2009-09-01

115

Synthesis, physicochemical studies, embryos toxicity and DNA interaction of some new Iron(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes derived from the condensation of o-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-histidine and L-arginine were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, and conductance measurements. The stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. The investigated Schiff bases exhibited tridentate coordination mode with the general formulae [Fe(HL)2]·nH2O for all amino acids except L-histidine. But in case of L-histidine, the ligand acts as tetradentate ([FeL(H2O)2]·2H2O), where HL = mono anion and L = dianion of the ligand. The structure of the prepared complexes is suggested to be octahedral. The prepared complexes were tested for their toxicity on chick embryos and found to be safe until a concentration of 100 ?g/egg with full embryos formation. The interaction between CT-DNA and the investigated complexes were followed by spectrophotometry and viscosity measurements. It was found that, the prepared complexes bind to DNA via classical intercalative mode and showed a different DNA cleavage activity with the sequence: nhi > nari > nali > nasi > nphali. The thermodynamic Profile of the binding of nphali complex and CT-DNA was constructed by analyzing the experimental data of absorption titration and UV melting studies with the McGhee equation, van't Hoff's equation, and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.

Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; El-Khatib, Rafat M.; Nassr, Lobna A. E.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.

2013-05-01

116

Acute and embryo-larval toxicity of phenolic compounds to aquatic biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the prevalence of phenolic compounds in various types of effluents, both acute and embryo-larval bioassays were performed on eight phenolic compounds with rainbow trout, fathead minnows andDaphnia pulicaria. In flow-through bioassays, the 96-hr LC50 values for rainbow trout and fathead minnows ranged from 100 mg\\/L for resorcinol.Daphnia pulicaria was consistently the least sensitive species tested as measured in

G. M. DeGraeve; D. L. Geiger; J. S. Meyer; H. L. Bergman

1980-01-01

117

Critical influence of chloride ions on silver ion-mediated acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) to aquatic organisms, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been demonstrated, but differing opinions exist on the contribution of the physical properties of the particles themselves and the free dissolved silver ions (Ag(+)) to the observed effects. High concentrations of chloride ions (Cl(-)) in the routinely used exposure media can cause precipitation of Ag(+) as AgCl, as well as complexation of silver in diverse soluble chlorocomplexes, thus masking the contribution of dissolved silver to AgNP toxicity. In the present study, we formulated a zebrafish exposure medium with a low chloride content and exposed zebrafish embryos to AgNO3 or carbonate-coated AgNP. The severity of toxicity caused by both silver forms depended on the time of exposure start, with younger embryos being most sensitive. Toxicity caused by both AgNO3 and AgNP was of the same order of magnitude when compared based on the total dissolved silver concentration and could be prevented by addition of the Ag(+) chelator cysteine. Further, we have analyzed the data from several previous studies to evaluate the influence of interactions between Ag(+) and Cl(-) on silver toxicity to zebrafish embryos. Our analysis demonstrates that the acute toxicity of AgNP to zebrafish embryos is largely mediated by Ag(+). The influence of particle size and coating can at least partially be explained by the differences in Ag(+) dissolution. High Cl(-) levels in the exposure medium indeed have a pivotal influence on the resulting toxicity of AgNP, appearing to significantly attenuate toxicity in several studies. This consideration should influence the choice of exposure medium to be used when evaluating and comparing AgNP toxicity. PMID:24625062

Groh, Ksenia J; Dalkvist, Trine; Piccapietra, Flavio; Behra, Renata; Suter, Marc J-F; Schirmer, Kristin

2015-02-01

118

Literature review on duckweed toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duckweed commonly refers to a group of floating, flowering plants of the family Lemnaceae. Duckweed plants are fast growing and widely distributed. They are easy to culture and to test. Some reports suggest that duckweed plants are tolerant to environmental toxicity. Other studies, however, indicate that duckweed plants are as sensitive to toxicity as other aquatic species. Duckweed plants are

W. Wang

1990-01-01

119

In Vivo Quantitative Study of Sized-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties (e.g., small sizes, high surface area-to-volume ratios) and promise a wide variety of applications, ranging from design of high quality consumer products to effective disease diagnosis and therapy. These properties can lead to toxic effects, potentially hindering advance in nanotechnology. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized purified and stable (non-aggregation) silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 41.6±9.1 nm in average diameters), and utilized early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos (critical aquatic and eco- species) as in vivo model organisms to probe diffusion and toxicity of Ag NPs. We found that single Ag NPs (30–72 nm diameters) passively diffused into the embryos through chorionic pores via random Brownian motion and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf). Dose and size dependent toxic effects of the NPs on embryonic development were observed, showing the possibility of tuning biocompatibility and toxicity of the NPs. At lower concentrations of the NPs (? 0.02 nM), 75–91% of embryos developed to normal zebrafish. At the higher concentrations of NPs (? 0.20 nM), 100% of embryos became dead. At the concentrations in between (0.02–0.2 nM), embryos developed to various deformed zebrafish. Number and sizes of individual Ag NPs embedded in tissues of normal and deformed zebrafish at 120 hpf were quantitatively analyzed, showing deformed zebrafish with higher number of larger NPs than normal zebrafish, and size-dependent nanotoxicity. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm), the results further demonstrate striking size-dependent nanotoxicity that, at the same molar concentration, the larger Ag NPs (41.6±9.1 nm) are more toxic than the smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm). PMID:22486336

Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Desai, Tanvi; Cherukui, Pavan K.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

2012-01-01

120

A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

1995-05-01

121

Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

1995-10-01

122

Literature review on duckweed toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Duckweed commonly refers to a group of floating, flowering plants of the family Lemnaceae. Duckweed plants are fast growing and widely distributed. They are easy to culture and to test. Some reports suggest that duckweed plants are tolerant to environmental toxicity. Other studies, however, indicate that duckweed plants are as sensitive to toxicity as other aquatic species. Duckweed plants are especially suitable for use in complex effluent bioassays, and for testing herbicide pollution in the aquatic environment, lake and river pollution, sediment toxicity, and the like. Duckweed and algae represent different levels of complexity in the plant kingdom. They complement each other as phytotoxicity test organisms, instead of mutually excluding each other. Many duckweed species have been studied, primarily of the Lemna and Spirodela genera. Lemna minor and L. gibba have been recommended as standard test species. Differences in duckweed test methodology occur with regard to test types, test vessels, control tests, nutrient media, end points, and applications. 76 references.

Wang, W. (Illinois State Water Survey, Peoria (USA))

1990-06-01

123

REGULATORY APPLICATIONS OF POREWATER TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the use of porewater toxicity tests in regulatory applications, including their potential use in the development of sediment quality guideline (SQG) values. Specifically, the following discussion focuses on the appropriateness and readin...

124

Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/temperature/humidity (FIFH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy Space Center.

Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

1997-01-01

125

Developmental toxicity and stress protein responses in zebrafish embryos after exposure to diclofenac and its solvent, DMSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in environmental water samples is the anti-rheumatic drug, diclofenac. Despite its increasing environmental significance, investigations concerning the effects of this drug on the early developmental stages of aquatic species are lacking up to now. To determine the developmental toxicity and proteotoxicity of this drug on the growing fish embryos, eggs of zebrafish were

A. V. Hallare; H.-R. Köhler; R. Triebskorn

2004-01-01

126

Total synthesis of Herbarin A and B, determination of their antioxidant properties and toxicity in zebrafish embryo model.  

PubMed

Herbarin A and B were isolated from the fungal strains of Cladosporium herbarum found in marine sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Callyspongia aerizusa. Total synthesis of Herbarin A and B was achieved by carrying out a multi-step synthesis approach, and the antioxidant properties were evaluated using FRAP assay. Toxicity of these compounds was determined using a zebrafish embryo model. PMID:25690788

Heimberger, Julia; Cade, Hannah C; Padgett, Jihan; Sittaramane, Vinoth; Shaikh, Abid

2015-03-15

127

Searching for biomarkers of developmental toxicity with microarrays: normal eye morphogenesis in rodent embryos  

SciTech Connect

Gene expression arrays reveal the potential linkage of altered gene expression with specific adverse effects leading to disease phenotypes. But how closely do microarray data reflect early physiological or pharmacological measures that predict toxic event(s)? To explore this issue, we have undertaken experiments in early mouse embryos exposed to various teratogens during neurulation stages with the aim of correlating large-scale changes in gene expression across the critical period during exposure. This study reports some of the large-scale changes in gene expression that can be detected in the optic rudiment of the developing mouse and rat embryo across the window of development during which the eye is exceedingly sensitive to teratogen-induced micro-/anophthalmia. Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from the headfold or ocular region at the optic vesicle and optic cup stages when the ocular primordium is enriched for Pax-6, a master control gene for eye morphogenesis. Statistical selection of differentially regulated genes and various clustering techniques identified groups of genes in upward or downward trajectories in the normal optic primordium during early eye development in mouse and rat species. We identified 165 genes with significant differential expression during eye development, and a smaller subset of 58 genes that showed a tight correlation between mouse-rat development. Significantly over-represented functional categories included fatty acid metabolism (up-regulated) and glycolysis (down-regulated). From studies such as these that benchmark large-scale gene expression during normal embryonic development, we may be able to identify the panel of biomarkers that best correlate with species differences and the risks for developmental toxicity.

Nemeth, Kimberly A. [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Singh, Amar V. [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); School of Dentistry, Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Knudsen, Thomas B. [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States) and School of Dentistry, Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.knudsen@louisville.edu

2005-08-07

128

Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.  

PubMed

A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

2014-12-01

129

Toxicity assessment of TiO? nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions.  

PubMed

The popularity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO2 under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96h to different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO2 appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the factors involved in the toxicity of these nanoparticles, as well as to the establishment of protocols for risk assessments of nanotechnology. PMID:24418748

Clemente, Z; Castro, V L S S; Moura, M A M; Jonsson, C M; Fraceto, L F

2014-02-01

130

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15

131

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: an approach to minimize environmental pollution risk.  

PubMed

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations. PMID:16930589

Paixăo, J F; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B L; Carvalho, G C; Silveira, J S C; Rebouças, M; Matias, G R A; Rodrigues, I L P

2007-03-01

132

Evaluation of effectiveness of EDTA and sodium thiosulfate in removing metal toxicity toward sea urchin embryo-larval applying the TIE.  

PubMed

Since the development of the TIE (Toxicity Identification and Evaluation) in 1988 it has been assumed that the capacity of EDTA and sodium thiosulfate to complex some metals, and thus remove their toxicity, can be applied to both freshwater and seawater ecotoxicological tests and the results subsequently interpreted. However, it is now known that there is a wide variability in the extent of this complexation. In this context, the removal of toxicity caused by the presence of Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(6+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Ag(1+) and Se(2+), through metal complexation by EDTA and sodium thiosulfate, in relation to the performance of embryo-larval tests with the sea urchin Arbacia lixula was investigated. It was observed that EDTA was capable of removing the toxicity of Pb(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) while sodium thiosulfate only reduced the toxicity of Ag(1+). Compared to the complexation observed in freshwater ecotoxicological tests, the complexing agents used in this study (EDTA and sodium thiosulfate) have a lower capacity to complex metals in the marine ecotoxicological test with A. lixula. PMID:22627151

Resgalla, C; Poleza, F; Souza, R C; Máximo, M V; Radetski, C M

2012-09-01

133

Toxicity of scorpion venom in chick embryo and mealworm assay depending on the use of the soluble fraction versus the whole venom.  

PubMed

The LD50 is an important metric for venom studies and antivenom development. It has been shown that several variables in the protocol influence the LD50 value obtained, such as venom source, extraction and treatment and administration route. These inconsistencies reduce the utility of the results of these test for comparative studies. In scorpion venom LD50 assays, often only the soluble fraction of the venom is used, whereas other studies use the whole venom. We here tested the toxicity of the soluble fraction in isolation, and of the whole venom in two different systems: chick embryos and mealworms Tenebrio molitor. Ten microliters of venom solutions from Hadrurus arizonensis, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus australis, Grosphus grandidieri and Heterometrus laoticus were applied to five day old chicken embryos at stage 25-27. Our results showed no significant differences between the LD50 based on the whole venom versus that of only the soluble fraction and in the chicken embryo assay in four of the five scorpion species tested. H. laoticus however, showed a significantly lower LD50 value for the whole venom than the soluble fraction. In assays on mealworms however, this pattern was not seen. Nonetheless, caution may be warranted when using LD50 values obtained from only the soluble fraction. The LD50 values of the five species in this study, based on the chicken embryo assay, showed good correlation with values from the literature based on mouse studies. This suggests that the chick embryo assay may be an economic alternative to rodent assays for scorpion LD50 studies. PMID:24951875

van der Valk, Tom; van der Meijden, Arie

2014-09-01

134

TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TEST SUBMISSIONS (TSCATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions (TSCATS) is an online index to unpublished, nonconfidential studies covering chemical testing results and adverse effects of chemicals on health and ecological systems. The studies are submitted by U.S. industry to EPA under several s...

135

A high-throughput lab-on-a-chip interface for zebrafish embryo tests in drug discovery and ecotoxicology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drug discovery screenings performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy. The tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and the fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, conventional methods utilising 96-well microtiter plates and manual dispensing of fish embryos are very time-consuming. They rely on laborious and iterative manual pipetting that is a main source of analytical errors and low throughput. In this work, we present development of a miniaturised and high-throughput Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for automation of FET assays. The 3D high-density LOC array was fabricated in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining while the off-chip interfaces were fabricated using additive manufacturing processes (FDM and SLA). The system's design facilitates rapid loading and immobilization of a large number of embryos in predefined clusters of traps during continuous microperfusion of drugs/toxins. It has been conceptually designed to seamlessly interface with both upright and inverted fluorescent imaging systems and also to directly interface with conventional microtiter plate readers that accept 96-well plates. We also present proof-of-concept interfacing with a high-speed imaging cytometer Plate RUNNER HD® capable of multispectral image acquisition with resolution of up to 8192 x 8192 pixels and depth of field of about 40 ?m. Furthermore, we developed a miniaturized and self-contained analytical device interfaced with a miniaturized USB microscope. This system modification is capable of performing rapid imaging of multiple embryos at a low resolution for drug toxicity analysis.

Zhu, Feng; Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Delaage, Pierre; Wlodkowic, Donald

2013-12-01

136

MINIATURIZED SEDIMENT PROCEDURES FOR ASESSING TOXICITY USING MARINE AND FRESHWATER AMPHIPODS AND EMBRYO/LARVAL FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment toxicity tests are needed that can be conducted with less sediment volume and fewer organisms. Bench scale remediation techniques often produce less sediment than is required to perform the standardized sediment methods and the excess sediments that are generated present...

137

16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

2013-01-01

138

16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

2014-01-01

139

Acute toxicity and synergism of binary mixtures of antifouling biocides with heavy metals to embryos of sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.  

PubMed

Acute toxicity and synergism of four antifouling biocides (Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid and Sea-Nine 211) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) are investigated using the sea urchin embryos of Glyptocidaris crenularis (G. crenularis) at six typical developmental stages, that is, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, blastula, gastrula and 4-arm pluteus. Our results show that the toxicity of the four biocides is in an order of Sea-Nine 211 > tolylfluanid > dichlofluanid > Irgarol 1051 and their -log EC(50) values at all stages are strongly linearly correlated with the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) values (correlation coefficients R > 0.72) indicating the importance of hydrophobicity for the embryonic toxicity. For the five heavy metals, the EC(50) ranges from 0.36 to 30.78 ?M and the toxicity follows an order of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cd >Ni. The significant correlation (R > 0.79) between the -log EC50 and the bioconcentration factor (log BCF) values of metals also indicate that the bioaccumulation property of metals contributes to their aquatic toxicity. In addition, the joint effects of the biocides with the heavy metals in embryonic development are assessed by using a concentration addition model. Synergistic effects are observed in almost all 25 mixtures, showing that Cu yields the strongest while Ni the weakest synergistic toxic effects on the embryos development. PMID:20930027

Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Yuan

2011-08-01

140

Evaluations of combined zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo and marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Ythan catchment, Scotland, UK.  

PubMed

A wide variety of organic contaminants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have previously been detected in surface waters in the river Ythan catchment, North East Scotland UK. While the concentrations detected were below Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards (WFD-EQSs) environmental exposures to the diverse mixtures of contaminants, known and unknown, may pose chronic and/or sublethal effects to non target organisms. The present study assessed the embryo and algal toxicity potential of freely dissolved organic contaminants from the Ythan catchment using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and miniaturised bioassay techniques. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and marine phytoplankton species (Diacronema lutheri) were exposed to extracts from SR-PSDs deployed at different locations along the river Ythan and an undeployed procedural blank. Statistically significant developmental and algal toxicities were measured in all tests of extracts from deployed samples compared with the procedural blanks. This indicates environmental exposure to, and the combined toxicity potential of, freely dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. The present and previous studies in the Ythan catchment, coupling SR-PSDs and bioassay techniques, have both helped to understand the interactions and combined effects of dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. They have further revealed the need for improvement in the techniques currently used to assess environmental impact. PMID:24407789

Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Pollard, Pat; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Heger, Sebastian; Hollert, Henner; Bresnan, Eileen; Best, Jennifer; Moffat, Colin F

2014-04-01

141

Toxicity Assessments of Near-infrared Upconversion Luminescent LaF3:Yb,Er in Early Development of Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

This study reports the effects of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) LaF3:Yb,Er on zebrafish, with the aim of investigating UCNPs toxicity. LaF3:Yb,Er were prepared by an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system, and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction. 140 zebrafish embryos were divided into six test groups and one control group, and respectively were injected into 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 ?g/mL LaF3:Yb,Er@SiO2 solution, and respectively were raised for 5 days. Each experiment was repeated ten times. Results showed that water-soluble LaF3:Yb,Er were successfully prepared, and did not exhibit obvious toxicity to zebrafish embryos under 100 ?g/mL, but exhibited chronic toxicities 200 ?g/mL in vivo, resulting in malformations and delayed hatching rate and embryonic and larval development. The excretion channels of LaF3:Yb,Er in adult zebrafish were mainly found in the intestine after being injected evenly for 24 h. In conclusion, the exploration of LaF3:Yb,Er for in vivo applications in animals and humans must consider UCNPs biocompatibility. PMID:23606912

Wang, Kan; Ma, Jiebing; He, Meng; Gao, Guo; Xu, Hao; Sang, Jie; Wang, Yuxia; Zhao, Baoquan; Cui, Daxiang

2013-01-01

142

Toxicity assessments of near-infrared upconversion luminescent LaF3:Yb,Er in early development of zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

This study reports the effects of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) LaF3:Yb,Er on zebrafish, with the aim of investigating UCNPs toxicity. LaF3:Yb,Er were prepared by an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system, and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction. 140 zebrafish embryos were divided into six test groups and one control group, and respectively were injected into 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 ?g/mL LaF3:Yb,Er@SiO2 solution, and respectively were raised for 5 days. Each experiment was repeated ten times. Results showed that water-soluble LaF3:Yb,Er were successfully prepared, and did not exhibit obvious toxicity to zebrafish embryos under 100 ?g/mL, but exhibited chronic toxicities 200 ?g/mL in vivo, resulting in malformations and delayed hatching rate and embryonic and larval development. The excretion channels of LaF3:Yb,Er in adult zebrafish were mainly found in the intestine after being injected evenly for 24 h. In conclusion, the exploration of LaF3:Yb,Er for in vivo applications in animals and humans must consider UCNPs biocompatibility. PMID:23606912

Wang, Kan; Ma, Jiebing; He, Meng; Gao, Guo; Xu, Hao; Sang, Jie; Wang, Yuxia; Zhao, Baoquan; Cui, Daxiang

2013-01-01

143

Earthworm bioassays: Adopting techniques from aquatic toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current theories suggest that the effective concentration of soil contaminants is that fraction that resides in the hydrosphere of soil particles; therefore, parallels may be drawn between toxicity testing in soil, sediment and water. Certain practices and concepts used in aquatic toxicity testing may be adapted into soil toxicity testing procedures and increase the general understanding of the toxicity of

R. P. Lanno; L. S. McCarty

1997-01-01

144

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and logKow values provided a rough estimation of structure-activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete explanation of the chronic toxicity of alkyl PAHs. PMID:25528422

Lin, Hongkang; Morandi, Garrett D; Brown, R Stephen; Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni; Jřrgensen, Kĺre B; Hodson, Peter V

2015-02-01

145

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in hydra attenuata and in rat whole-embryo culture. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a class of biaryl compounds that have little commercial application, but appear to be widespread in the environment. They have been found in wood preservative waste dumpsites and in fly ash from municipal waste incinerators. They have been detected in bird eggs and tissues, fish, and other edible marine organisms in the United States, Canada, and Europe. There are limited reports in the extant literature on the toxicity of PCDEs. This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of selected PCDEs in cultures of Hydra attenuata and post-implantation rat whole embryos. The toxicity of several closely related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated in both cultures and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated in whole embryo culture. Embryonic growth and development parameters (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, somite count, and DNA and protein content) and gross morphology were determined. Findings indicated that these chemicals were neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic. Thus, the PCDEs, which elicit other diverse toxic and biochemical responses in rodents, are relatively inactive in these bioassays for developmental toxicity.

Becker, M.C.

1991-05-01

146

Toxicity and enantiospecific differences of two ?-blockers, propranolol and metoprolol, in the embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

The risk presented by ?-blockers on aquatic organisms remains uncertain, particularly given the enantiospecific differences in toxicity of chiral ?-blockers. In this study, the toxicity of two ?-blockers, propranolol and metoprolol, was determined. The 96-h LC50 of propranolol in the zebrafish larvae was 2.48 mg/L, whereas 50 mg/L metoprolol did not result in death. Both ?-blockers decreased the heart rate and hatching rate and increased the mortality of the zebrafish embryos. Among these indicators, the heart rate was the most sensitive. However, the acute larval and embryo toxicity results displayed no enantioselectivity. Additionally, the transcriptional response of the genes encoding the ?-adrenergic receptors and those involved in other physiological processes, including the antioxidant response, detoxification, and apoptosis, in zebrafish larvae exposed to the ?-blockers was examined. Although the changes in gene transcription were fairly minor, significant enantioselectivity was observed for ?-blockers, suggesting that the transcriptional response was more sensitive for the evaluation of enantiospecific toxicity. Based on these results, the pharmaceutical drugs were not expected to pose a risk to fish; however, this conclusion should not be considered final. These results also demonstrated that the enantiospecific toxicity of chiral ?-blockers should be investigated when performing an ecological risk assessment. PMID:23661550

Sun, Liwei; Xin, Lihua; Peng, Zuhua; Jin, Rong; Jin, Yuanxiang; Qian, Haifeng; Fu, Zhengwei

2014-12-01

147

Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery.  

PubMed

The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a sub-chronic test with the midge Chironomus riparius, an early life stage test with the zebra fish Danio rerio, and an acute test with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The endpoints, namely survival, growth, reproduction, embryo development and light inhibition, differed between tests. The measured effects were compared to sediment contamination translated into toxic units (TU) on the basis of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas, and multi-substance Potentially Affected Fractions of species (msPAF) as an estimate for expected community effects. The test battery could clearly detect toxicity of the polluted sediments with test-specific responses to the different sediments. The msPAF and TU-based toxicity estimations confirmed the results of the biotests by predicting a higher toxic risk for the polluted sediments compared to the corresponding reference sediments, but partly having a different emphasis from the biotests. The results demonstrate differences in the sensitivities of species and emphasize the need for data on multiple species, when estimating the effects of sediment pollution on the benthic community. PMID:20833427

Tuikka, A I; Schmitt, C; Höss, S; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P C; de Zwart, D; de Deckere, E; Streck, G; Mothes, S; van Hattum, B; Kocan, A; Brix, R; Brack, W; Barceló, D; Sormunen, A J; Kukkonen, J V K

2011-01-01

148

Contact tests for pentachlorophenol toxicity to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The standardized contact filter paper test (EEC and OECD) provides an effective screening test for toxicity to earthworms in a laboratory setting. A need exists for a reliable and inexpensive technique for non-laboratory settings where screening is desired, but facilities cannot provide for the acquisition and maintenance of the glass vials required by the standardized test. This study evaluated two modifications of the standardized test using clear polyethylene bags, with and without filter paper, with Eisenia fetida and domesticated surface-feeding earthworms. The tests were conducted according to EEC and OECD guidelines. Results of the modified tests corresponded in dose and effect to the standardized contact filter paper test indicating the usefulness of the modified tests.

Spontak, D.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1994-12-31

149

MAMMALIAN WILDLIFE (MINK AND FERRET) TOXICITY TEST PROTOCOLS (LC50, REPRODUCTION, AND SECONDARY TOXICITY)  

EPA Science Inventory

Protocols describing guidelines for conducting dietary LC50 and reproduction toxicity tests and for assessing the primary versus secondary toxicity of a test substance using carnivorous mammalian wildlife, specifically mink (Mustela vison) or European ferrets (Mustela putorius fu...

150

CHIRONOMIDAE TOXICITY TESTS--BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests must be based on an understanding of the test animal's life cycle. The first section of this report describes the biological information needed to develop toxicity test procedures. The second section describes three categories of toxicity test systems - short-expos...

151

[Evaluation of toxic effects on yusho causal substances by chick embryo hepatic microsomal enzymes activities].  

PubMed

PCBs, non-ortho chlorine substituted PCBs (Co-PCBs), PCQs and (PCDFs + PCDDs), all of which contained similar compositions of those corresponding in yusho oil, were prepared from a PCB preparation used as a heat exchanger fluid. After dissolved in 1, 4-dioxane, they were applied into the air sac of white leghorn eggs incubated for 16.5 days at 37.5 degrees C. Forty eight hours after injection, the hepatic benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (AHH) and 7-ethoxyresorufin deethylase (EROD) activities were assayed. The average relative potencies of induction for the two microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes by (PCDFs + PCDDs), Co-PCBs, PCBs and PCQs were 100, 13.4, 0.0006 and 0.0004, respectively. The toxic effects for yusho disease by these substances were calculated from the relative enzyme induction potencies and the average concentrations in yusho oils with the production dates of February 9 and 10, 1968. Consequently, the relative toxicities of (PCDFs+PCDDs), Co-PCBs, PCBs and PCQs were 100, 13.2, 0.06 and 0.12, respectively. This result, as well as our previous investigations using rats and monkeys, insists that (PCDFs+PCDDs) are the primary causal agents for yusho disease. However, the Co-PCBs, which were recently detected in the yusho oils by us, were revealed to be fairly effective in yusho manifestation. In addition, it was cleared that the hepatic enzyme induction by the Co-PCBs fraction, which contained other several PCB isomers, was almost completely contributed by only Co-PCBs such as 3,4,3',4'-tetra- 3,4,5,3',4'-penta- and 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorinated biphenyls present in the fraction. A chemical uptake rate from the air sac by the chick embryo decreased significantly in the cases of extremely high doses of PCBs (10,000 micrograms/egg) and PCQs (3,333 and 10,000 micrograms/egg), and result the elevations of hepatic enzymes activities were depressed, indicating that the suitable chemical dose amount to be less than about 1,000 micrograms/egg. PMID:2501189

Kashimoto, T; Takayama, K; Mimura, M; Ohta, S; Miyata, H

1989-05-01

152

Ocular Toxicity Testing of Lunar Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of ocular testing to determine the toxicity of lunar dust. The OECD recommendations are reviewed. With these recommendations in mind the test methodology was to use EpiOcular, tissues derived from normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the cells of which have been differentiated on cell culture inserts to form a multi-layered structure, which closely parallels the corneal epithelium and to dose the tissue with 100 mg dust from various sources. The in-vitro study provides evidence that lunar dust is not severely corrosive or irritating, however, in vitro tests have limitations, and in vivo tests provides a more complete scenario, and information, it is recommended that in vivo tests be performed.

Meyers, Valerie E.

2010-01-01

153

The Red Tide Toxin, Brevetoxin, Induces Embryo Toxicity and Developmental Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Environmental Health Perspectives journal article documents a study on the relationship between brevetoxin, a toxin produced by red tide-related dinoflagellates, and abnormalities in fish embryos. The article features color photographs, charts, and tables.

Karen L. Kimm-Brinson

154

A new screening test for toxicity testing of dental materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The development of a micro plate assay for cytotoxicity testing of dental materials based on a bioassay using brine shrimp larvae (artemia salina) as sensitive organisms.Methods: Brine shrimp larvae are commonly used for cytotoxicity assays in pharmacology. These larvae are sensitive to toxic substances. The ratio between dead larvae (no motility) and living larvae (high motility) in comparison to

M Pelka; C Danzl; W Distler; A Petschelt

2000-01-01

155

Toxicity and degradation of metolachlor (Dual Gold 960 EC) in chicken embryos.  

PubMed

The herbicide formulation Dual Gold 960 EC (960 g/l metolachlor) was applied, ROSS 308 embryonated hen eggs were treated on day 12 of incubation period. The pesticide was diluted in water to a concentration level 0.3% and the emulsion was injected into the air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg, or hen's eggs were treated by the immersion technique (30 min). Residues of metolachlor were measured by GC in 14 collected embryo samples on days 13, 15 and 19 of the incubation of chicken embryos, and macro- and microscopic morphological examinations of 49 embryos were performed simultaneously on day 19. Body mass of embryos was weighed on 13th, 15th and 19th day of incubation. After the both treatments the mortality rate of embryos was similar. The average data of body mass showed a significant decrease compared to the control in the immersion study on day 15 and 19 of the hatching period. This phenomenon may only be in connection with the presence of metolachlor over the limit of quantification (LOQ) on day 13 of incubation period. The macroscopic deformations were sporadic in the embryos. No histologically detected alterations were seen. PMID:15151318

Várnagy, L; Budai, P; Fejes, S; Susan, M; Fáncsi, T; Keseru, M; Szabó, R

2003-01-01

156

In vitro models for liver toxicity testing  

PubMed Central

Over the years, various liver-derived in vitro model systems have been developed to enable investigation of the potential adverse effects of chemicals and drugs. Liver tissue slices, isolated microsomes, perfused liver, immortalized cell lines, and primary hepatocytes have been used extensively. Immortalized cell lines and primary isolated liver cells are currently most widely used in vitro models for liver toxicity testing. Limited throughput, loss of viability, and decreases in liver-specific functionality and gene expression are common shortcomings of these models. Recent developments in the field of in vitro hepatotoxicity include three-dimensional tissue constructs and bioartificial livers, co-cultures of various cell types with hepatocytes, and differentiation of stem cells into hepatic lineage-like cells. In an attempt to provide a more physiological environment for cultured liver cells, some of the novel cell culture systems incorporate fluid flow, micro-circulation, and other forms of organotypic microenvironments. Co-cultures aim to preserve liver-specific morphology and functionality beyond those provided by cultures of pure parenchymal cells. Stem cells, both embryonic- and adult tissue-derived, may provide a limitless supply of hepatocytes from multiple individuals to improve reproducibility and enable testing of the individual-specific toxicity. This review describes various traditional and novel in vitro liver models and provides a perspective on the challenges and opportunities afforded by each individual test system. PMID:23495363

Soldatow, Valerie Y.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Griffith, Linda G.; Rusyn, Ivan

2013-01-01

157

Acute Toxic Effects of the Herbicide Formulation and the Active Ingredient Used in Cycloxydim-Tolerant Maize Cultivation on Embryos and Larvae of the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Most genetically engineered herbicide-tolerant crops are still awaiting approval in Europe. There is, however, a recent trend for the cultivation of cycloxydim-tolerant maize hybrids for use in maize production. We studied the acute toxic effects of the complementary herbicide Focus(®) Ultra and its active ingredient cycloxydim on embryos and early-stage larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). The results indicate that the herbicide formulation is significantly more toxic than the active ingredient alone. Therefore, it is suggested that the added substances either solely or in a synergistic action with the active ingredient are responsible for adverse effects. The formulation was found to be moderately toxic to embryos but highly toxic to early larvae. Based on calculated teratogenic indices, both cycloxydim and Focus(®) Ultra seem to be non-teratogenic and also the minimum Focus(®) Ultra concentration to inhibit growth in embryos and larvae was close to the LC50 values. The data suggest that tests with the rainbow trout are not in all cases appropriate to assess the risk in aquatically developing anurans. This is demonstrated by 96-h LC50 values, which are for rainbow trout more than 50- to 20-fold higher than for early X. laevis larvae. However, based on worst-case predicted environmental concentrations for surface waters, there is apparently a large safety margin in field use of Focus(®) Ultra if buffer strips between the farm land and the amphibian habitats are regarded. PMID:25634323

Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan; Veith, Michael; Viertel, Bruno

2015-04-01

158

Integrated chip-based physiometer for automated fish embryo toxicity biotests in pharmaceutical screening and ecotoxicology.  

PubMed

Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micromechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo-trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold, and optically transparent indium tin oxide heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves, and embedded miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results showed that the innovative device has 100% embryo-trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hr in a confined microfluidic environment. We also showed data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational antiangiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish lines. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the lab-on-a-chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation. PMID:24664821

Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

2014-06-01

159

A novel one-pot green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and evaluation of its toxicity in zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Over the last 50 years, compelling evidence has accumulated on the beneficial role of selenium in human health. In the present study, different proteins were evaluated as reducing agents for the eco-friendly synthesis of selenium nanoparticles from an aqueous solution of sodium selenite. This method is a simple, low cost green synthesis alternative to chemical synthesis. The high conversion of selenium ions to selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) was achieved by a reaction mixture of 0.1 g bovine serum albumin and 0.1 g sodium selenite at a reaction temperature of 121°C for 20 min duration. The selenium nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The FTIR spectral bands were sharp with strong absorption peaks at 1649 and 1551 cm(- 1). SEM analysis of the synthesized selenium nanoparticles clearly showed the spherical shape with an average size ranging from 500 to 600 nm. The toxicity of SeNPs was evaluated using zebrafish embryos as a model system. SeNPs induced malformations in zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Selenium nanoparticles at 15-25 ?g/ml concentration caused pericardial edema, tail malformation and decrease in heart rate in zebrafish embryos. Treatments with lower concentrations did not alter the heart rate or display any heart abnormalities. This study underlines the importance of identifying optimal SeNP concentration that could have potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25287880

Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Jeyabharathi, Subhaschandrabose; Sundar, Krishnan; Muthukumaran, Azhaguchamy

2014-10-01

160

The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to

Nicola A Davies; Mark E Hodson; Stuart Black

2003-01-01

161

Comparison of bulk sediment and sediment elutriate toxicity testing methods  

EPA Science Inventory

Elutriate bioassays are among numerous methods that exist for assessing the potential toxicity of sediments in aquatic systems. In this study, interlaboratory results were compared from 96-hour Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas static-renewal acute toxicity tests conduct...

162

Evaluation of toxicity of medical devices using Spirotox and Microtox tests: I. Toxicity of selected toxicants in various diluents.  

PubMed

Significant effort has been directed toward developing in vitro alternatives, which can be the first step of toxicity analysis. Tissue culture assays are currently the most popular in vitro tests for evaluating acute toxicity. The possibility of applying two bioassays using microorganisms in assessing the toxicity of extracts of medical devices was investigated. The Microtox test system--a luminescent bacteria toxicity test--assesses changes in light output from a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri. Spirotox used a large ciliate protozoan: Spirostomum ambiguum. The most widely used extraction solvent, 0.9% NaCl, must be concentrated up to 2% for Microtox and diluted nine times for the Spirotox test. The organic solvents ethanol, DMSO, and polyethylene glycol 400 were not toxic in either test in concentrations of 1-2%. The toxicity of reference compounds Hg, Cd, Zn, Pb, and SDS was examined in various diluents. The sequence of toxicity of the tested compounds in Spirotox and Microtox was: Hg > Cd > Zn > Pb > SDS, and Hg > Pb = Zn > SDS > Cd, respectively. Addition of organic solvents changed the toxicity of compounds tested in 60% of Spirotox tests and only in 25% of Microtox tests. Changes were low, not exceeding 100% in almost all cases. No correlation was observed between diluent and toxicant in either bioassay. PMID:9104702

Na?ecz-Jawecki, G; Rud?, B; Sawicki, J

1997-04-01

163

Uptake, excretion and toxicity of nano-sized latex particles on medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles are particles with diameters of 100 nm or less. As the applications of these particles have increased in recent years, their potential impact on the physiology of humans and animals has also increased. However, little is known regarding the effect of nanoparticles on the physiology of aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the effect of nano-sized, fluorescent, latex particles on the freshwater fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Medakas were exposed to four different types of fluorescent latex particles and the uptake, excretion, and the effect of nanoparticle accumulation on survival rate in medaka larvae were examined. These are fluorescent latex particles, which are non-functionalized 50 and 500 nm in diameter and carboxyl-group functionalized 50 and 500 nm in diameter. Fluorescence intensity in fish embryos exposed to non-functionalized and carboxyl-group functionalized particles measuring 50 nm in diameter (Particle 50 nm and Particle c50 nm) was markedly higher compared to when embryos were exposed to particles measuring 500 nm in diameter (Particle 500 nm and Particle c500 nm). Moreover, the excretion of nano-sized particles (Particle 50 and Particle c50 nm) from embryos was considerably slow, compared to larger particles (Particle 500 and Particle c500 nm). In addition, the survival rate of larvae exposed to nano-sized particles in small cups was significantly lower than the survival rates of fish maintained in larger containers. The findings suggested that although the nano-sized fluorescent latex particles were not intrinsically toxic, a synergistic toxic effect arose in combination with other factors, which is not favorable for fish larvae. PMID:21946167

Manabe, Masahiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kinoshita, Masato

2011-10-01

164

Preliminary evaluation of in vitro prescreen assays for developmental toxicants based on cultured murine preimplantation embryos and a cell line developed from a bovine preimplantation embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to evaluate in vitro assays and compare their efficiency in accurate prediction of the potential of chemicals to cause abnormal embryonic\\/foetal development. In vitro assays were based on cultured murine preimplantation embryos and a continuous cell line derived from a bovine preimplantation embryo. Preimplantation embryos collected from superovulated mice were cultured for 72 hr

B. W. Kemppainen; P. Terse; O. Zurovac; D. Stringfellow

1996-01-01

165

Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low

Roger B. Yeardley; James M. Lazorchak; Michael A. Pence

1995-01-01

166

Effect of pH on pentachlorophenol toxicity to embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio)  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen ion is an important determinant of toxicity in the aquatic environment, especially for weak acids or bases. Pentachlorophenol is a weak acid and is consequently more toxic at low pH because of increasing proportions of free phenol. For some heavy metals the toxic interaction with ambient pH is complicated by complexation with organic and inorganic compounds. These complexes are affected by pH, and bioassays may be the easiest and most reliable method of determining the influence of pH in such cases. The objective of this study was to find a simple laboratory procedure for determination of the effect of pH on the toxicity of various chemicals added to or already present in various samples of ground and surface waters. Pentachlorophenol was selected as a reference toxicant and positive control because of its established pH-toxicity interaction in fish.

Dave, G.

1984-11-01

167

Acute Toxicity Test of Landfill Leachates Using Protozoan Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate contains high concentrations of organic matter, ammonia, metals, and other toxic compounds, which may pose serious risks to ecosystems and human health. In order to set up the appropriate toxicological criteria for the leachate, leachate toxicity tests with various organisms need to be conducted. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the toxicity of leachate using the protozoan

Ting Liu; Zhulei Chen; Qian Fu; Bofen Shi; Lie Yang

2010-01-01

168

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant\\/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a

M. E. Honeycutt; V. A. McFarland; A. S. Jarvis

1997-01-01

169

EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01

170

Effect of water hardness on peracetic toxicity to zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of peracetic acid (PAA) in aquaculture has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent as use of previous therapeutants becomes restricted. Few data are available concerning fish toxicity by PAA or factors that affect this toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influ...

171

Antimony and thallium toxicity to embryos and larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)  

SciTech Connect

Antimony, as antimony trioxide, is a commerically important metal used as a flame retarding agent. Thallium has industrial application as a catalyst for many organic reactions and in the production of alloys and electronic devices. Accordingly, both metals are potential pollutants through anthropogenic sources. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of these metals on the embryos and larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

LeBlanc, G.A.; Dean, J.W.

1984-05-01

172

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

173

Optimization of culturing conditions for toxicity testing with the alga Oophila sp. (Chlorophyceae), an amphibian endosymbiont.  

PubMed

Eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) have a symbiotic relationship with green algae. It has been suggested that contaminants that are preferentially toxic to algae, such as herbicides, may impair the symbiont and, hence, indirectly affect the development of the salamander embryo. To enable testing under near-standard conditions for first-tier toxicity screening, the authors isolated the alga from field-collected eggs and identified conditions providing exponential growth rates in the apparent asexual phase of the alga. This approach provided a uniform, single-species culture, facilitating assessment of common toxicity end points and comparison of sensitivity relative to other species. Sequencing of the 18s ribosomal DNA indicated that the isolated alga is closely related to the recently described Oophila amblystomatis but is more similar to other known Chlamydomonas species, suggesting possible biogeographical variability in the genetic identity of the algal symbiont. After a tiered approach to culturing method refinement, a modified Bristol's media with 1?mM NH4 (+) as nitrogen source was found to provide suitable conditions for toxicity testing at 18?°C and 200?µmol?m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on a 24-h light cycle. The validity of the approach was demonstrated with Zn(2+) as a reference toxicant. Overall, the present study shows that screening for direct effects of contaminants on the algal symbiont without the presence of the host salamander is possible under certain laboratory conditions. PMID:25113146

Rodríguez-Gil, José Luis; Brain, Richard; Baxter, Leilan; Ruffell, Sarah; McConkey, Brendan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

2014-11-01

174

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

SciTech Connect

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

Honeycutt, M.E. [TNRCC TARA, Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S. [USAEWES, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-10-01

175

Enhancing toxicity test performance by using a statistical criterion.  

PubMed

Aquatic toxicity tests are laboratory experiments that measure the biological effect (e.g., growth, survival, reproduction) of effluents, receiving waters, or storm water on aquatic organisms. These toxicity tests must be performed using the best laboratory practices, and every effort must be made to enhance repeatability of the test method. We evaluated the generated reference toxicant test data for insurance of a level of quality assurance for tests over time within a laboratory and among laboratories. We recommend the reporting and evaluation of the percent minimum significant difference (PMSD) value for all toxicity test results. The minimum significant difference (MSD) represents the smallest difference between the control mean and a treatment mean that leads to the statistical rejection of the null hypothesis (i.e., no toxicity) at each concentration of the toxicity test dilution series. The MSD provides an indication of within-test variability, and smaller values of MSD are associated with increased power to detect a toxic effect. We recommend upper and lower PMSD bounds for each test method in order to minimize within-test variability and increase statistical power. To ensure that PMSD does not exceed an upper bound, testing laboratories may need to increase replication, decrease variability among replicates, or increase the control mean performance. PMID:14551995

Denton, Debra L; Fox, John F; Fulk, Florence A

2003-10-01

176

Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

177

Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent toxicity tests using those two species. If the responses of specific listed species are important for management decisions, our study supports the value in developing culture and testing procedures for those species. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

2005-01-01

178

STATUS AND APPLICATIONS OF ECHINOID (PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA) TOXICITY TEST METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrolus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). he status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are descri...

179

RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

180

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REFERENCE TOXICANTS FOR USE IN THE EARTHWORM TOXICITY TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However,the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants...

181

Early life-stage toxicity test methods for gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and results using chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry, and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/liter. However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos concentrations from 3.7 to 150 micrograms/liter weighted significantly less than control fish: 9% lower in 3.7 micrograms/liter to 62% lower in 150 micrograms/liter. The 96-hr LC50 for juvenile fish was 520 micrograms/liter. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in toadfish and bioconcentration factors increased with increasing exposure concentration, a condition not generally observed with other marine fishes and other test chemicals. These results demonstrated the procedures for, and the practicality of, early life-stage tests with this marine species. We recommend the use of the gulf toadfish for comparative toxicity testing and for evaluating the toxicity of substances in conjunction with ontogenetical, physiological, and histological investigations of this considerably studied genus. We do not recommend it for routine effects testing.

Hansen, D.J.; Goodman, L.R.; Cripe, G.M.; Macauley, S.F.

1986-02-01

182

SURVIVAL OF BROOK TROUT EMBRYOS IN THREE EPISODICALLY ACIDIFIED STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors evaluated brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in three streams that undergo episodic acidification during critical periods of embryo development for survival of embryos from egg deposition to preemergence in natural redds and survival of sac fry in toxicity tests done i...

183

Reference toxicants for toxicity testing using Caenorhabditis elegans in aquatic media  

SciTech Connect

Caenorhabditis elegans aquatic toxicity assays were standardized with five common reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP). Aquatic toxicity testing was conducted in 3 media: a standard C. elegans medium; EPA moderately hard reconstituted water; and EPA moderately hard mineral water. Test duration in each medium was 24h without a food source, and 24h and 48h with Escherichia coli strain OP50 as a food source. Each test was replicated three times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration, 10 worms per well. LC{sub 50} values were calculated using probit analysis. The average LC{sub 50}s for each set of replications were compared to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the data, identifying expected variation between replicate tests. These reference toxicants increase the database for C. elegans and provide a benchmark for further application.

Cressman, C.P. III; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1997-09-01

184

The toxicity of substituted phenols in the nitrification inhibition test and luminescent bacteria test.  

PubMed

The nitrification inhibition test and the luminescent bacteria test were used to determine the inhibiting effect of different phenolic compounds. The chlorinated phenols demonstrated an increased toxicity in the nitrification inhibition test, which was much more sensitive to these compounds than other bacterial toxicity tests. In practice, the nitrification inhibition test was very useful for estimating the toxicity of chemical compounds to nitrifying bacteria, but the test is not recommended for the assessment of general bacterial toxicity. In comparison to other bacterial toxicity tests, the luminescent bacteria test also proved to be very sensitive. Due to its character, which measures a certain physiological parameter, this test system could be used as a screening tool for possible inhibitory effects to bacteria, although positive results should be confirmed by other bacterial toxicity tests. PMID:7541340

Strotmann, U J; Eglsäer, H

1995-04-01

185

Chlorinated phenol toxicity by bacterial and biochemical tests  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present investigation, carried out using E. coli as the test organism and poly-chlorophenols as the toxic organic compounds, was to define: (i) the activity ranges of different chlorinated phenols in the series from monochlorophenol to pentachlorophenol; (ii) the effect of the above mentioned compounds on growth and viability parameters, correlating experimental results with those obtained by enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase and beta-galactosidase); (iii) the relationships between toxicity and some physico-chemical properties of the considered organic compounds. The choice of chlorophenols depends on their implication in important industrial cycles and on their high toxicity for biological systems, so that their probable presence in the final effluents can be regarded also in terms of environmental toxicity. The phenol was selected as representative organic pollutant and the toxicity of other compounds was also expressed as relative phenol toxicity.

Cenci, G.; Caldini, G.; Morozzi, G.

1987-05-01

186

Optimization of Hyalella azteca IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} for prediction of 28-day sediment toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The IQ Toxicity Test, which is a rapid screening toxicity test consisting of the observation of in-vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process using a fluorescent substrate, has proven successful for the determination of 24 and 48-hour EC50`s of D. magna, C. dubia, D. pulex and M. bahia. The application of this concept to utilize the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca may be an excellent way in which to reduce the standard 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test to possibly one hour`s time. This study incorporates an additive experimental design to explore the effects of and interactions between five specific variables: size of the amphipod, exposure time to the toxicant, concentration of substrate, exposure time to the substrate, and length of time starved prior to testing. The results of the IQ toxicity test were compared to those of a 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test. Preliminary data indicate that there is an optimal combination of these variables which results in a concise, reproducible toxicity test for use with Hyalella azteca, and would potentially be applicable to other freshwater amphipods in the future.

Novotny, A.N.; Ezzard, C.L.; Douglas, W.S.; Home, M.T. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

187

Toxicity of inorganic compounds in the Spirotox test: a miniaturized version of the Spirostomum ambiguum test.  

PubMed

The Spirostomum ambiguum toxicity test has been intensively studied in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Warsaw University of Medicine for the last 5 years. The purpose of the present work was to develop and evaluate a miniaturized microplate version of the test, called the Spirotox test, and to estimate the toxicity of selected inorganic compounds to the Spirostomum ambiguum. The test was carried out in conventional 24-well (6 x 4) polystyrene multiwell plate. Preliminary test was one control and 11 toxicant concentrations with two duplicates. Definitive test was one control and five toxicant concentrations with three duplicates per concentration. Dilution of the sample was made directly in the plate. Toxicity series of heavy metals based on 24-h LC50 may be established as follows: Cu > Ag > Hg > Cr > Cd > Zn > Ni > Pb > Co > Mn. The series may be divided into four classes: extremely toxic: below 0.1 ppm (Cu, Ag, Hg); very toxic: 0.1-1.0 ppm (Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni); toxic: 1.0-10 ppm (Pb, Co); and low toxic: above 10 ppm (Mn). Anions were much less toxic to S. ambiguum than cations. Using the same classification, only cyanide (CN) was toxic, other anions were low toxic. Toxicity series based on 24-h LC50 may be established as follows: CN > SeO3 > Cr2O7 > NO2 > S2O3 >WO4 > BO3. PMID:9419266

Na?ecz-Jawecki, G; Sawicki, J

1998-01-01

188

The Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Platinum Group Metals in Developing Chick Embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies showed that platinum group metals (PGMs) such as Pt, Pd, and Rh from automobile catalytic converters, can accumulate in the soft tissues of a variety of living organisms. However, the effects of PGMs on bone and organs development of animals are not clearly understood. To examine these aspects, developing chick embryos were injected with 0.1, 1.0, 5, or 10 ppm solutions of Pt, Rh, Pd, or with a PGMs mixture. 1) Pathological Changes: were observed for all PGM treatments above 1 ppm. Bone Cells Assesment: Chondrocyte cells in thibiotarsus showed decreased diameter and length. 2) PGMs Accumulation in Tissues: was quantified by GFAAS spectrometry on finely ground tissue powder. 3) Bone Demineralization: was detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy imaging on paraffin embedded bone sections. 4) DNA Damage in Cells: was determined by using a Comet assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxidative Damage in Tissues: was analyzed using a glutathione peroxidase assay. The overall results indicated that PGMs presence in our environment raises concerns about their long-term health effects on all organisms.

Pavel, Ioana; Monahan, Jennifer; Markopoulos, Marjorie; Gagnon, Zofia; Nejame, Britney; Cawley, Jacob; Reens, David

2008-10-01

189

Hypersalinity toxicity thresholds for nine California ocean plan toxicity test protocols.  

PubMed

Currently, several desalination facilities have been proposed to operate or are actually operating in California. These facilities' use of reverse osmosis (RO) may discharge hypersaline reject brine into the marine environment. The risks, if any, this brine would pose to coastal receiving waters are unknown. To test the toxicity of hypersaline brine in the absence of any additional toxic constituents, we prepared brine and tested it with the seven toxicity test organisms listed in the 2009 California Ocean Plan. The most sensitive protocols were the marine larval development tests, whereas the most tolerant to increased salinities were the euryhaline topsmelt, mysid shrimp, and giant kelp tests. Reject brines from the Monterey Bay Aquarium's RO desalination facility were also tested with three species. The effects of the aquarium's brine effluent on topsmelt, mussels, and giant kelp were consistent with those observed in the salinity tolerance experiments. This information will be used by regulators to establish receiving water limitations for hypersaline discharges. PMID:23821235

Voorhees, Jennifer P; Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Siegler, Katie; Katz, Scott; Jennings, Lydia; Tjeerdema, Ron S; Jensen, Joanna; de la Paz Carpio-Obeso, Maria

2013-11-01

190

ESNATS conference - the use of human embryonic stem cells for novel toxicity testing approaches.  

PubMed

The main achievements and results of the ESNATS project (Embryonic Stem Cell-based Novel Alternative Testing Strategies) were presented at the final project conference that was held on 15 September 2013, the day before the traditional EUSAAT (European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing) Congress in Linz, Austria. The ESNATS project was an FP7 European Integrated Project, running from 2008 to 2013, the aim of which was to develop a novel toxicity testing platform based on embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and in particular, human ESC (hESCs), to accelerate drug development, reduce related R&D costs, and propose a powerful alternative to animal tests in the spirit of the Three Rs principles. Altogether, ESNATS offered the first proof of concept that hESCs can be used to create robust, reproducible and ready-to-use test assays for predicting human toxicity. In the end, essentially five test systems were developed to an adequate level for entering possible pre-validation procedures. These methods are based on hESCs, and can be combined to study the possible effects, on the human embryo, of exposure to a chemical during the early stages of development. In addition to the presentations by the main project partners, external speakers were invited to give lectures on relevant topics, both in the field of neurotoxicity and, more generally, on the applicability of hESCs in the development of advanced in vitro tests. PMID:24901904

Rovida, Costanza; Vivier, Manon; Garthoff, Bernward; Hescheler, Jürgen

2014-05-01

191

Enzyme biosynthesis in bacteria as a basis for toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

An assay based on the inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase biosynthesis was compared to a similar assay based on the inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase activity. In both test, Escherichia coli were induced to synthesize {beta}-galactosidase by exposure to isopropyl-{beta}-thiogalactoside (IPTG). The induction step preceded contact of the cells with toxic chemicals in the enzyme activity assay, whereas in the enzyme biosynthesis test, IPTG was added following contact of cells with the toxicant. Relative sensitivity was judged on the basis of responses to heavy metals and organic toxicants of environmental importance. Comparison of these results to median inhibitory concentration data (IC50s) achieved with other microbial systems, Daphnia bioassay, and fish bioassay indicate that the enzyme activity test was sensitive to heavy metals, but was insensitive to organic toxicants. The test based on inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase biosynthesis was sensitive to both heavy metals and organics.

Dutton, R.J.

1988-01-01

192

Bacterial and enzymatic bioassays for toxicity testing in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Microbioassays using bacteria or enzymes are increasingly applied to measure chemical toxicity in the environment. Attractive features of these assays may include low cost, rapid response to toxicants, high sample throughput, modest laboratory equipment and space requirements, low sample volume, portability, and reproducible responses. Enzymatic tests rely on measurement of either enzyme activity or enzyme biosynthesis. Dehydrogenases are the enzymes most used in toxicity testing. Assay of dehydrogenase activity is conveniently carried out using oxidoreduction dyes such as tetrazolium salts. Other enzyme activity tests utilize ATPases, esterases, phosphatases, urease, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, protease, amylase, or beta-glucosidase. Recently, the inhibition of enzyme (beta-galactosidase, tryptophanase, alpha-glucosidase) biosynthesis has been explored as a basis for toxicity testing. Enzyme biosynthesis was found to be generally more sensitive to organic chemicals than enzyme activity.107 references.

Bitton, G.; Koopman, B. (Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1992-01-01

193

The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) has been developed to estimate toxicological values for aquatic and mammalian species considering acute and chronic endpoints for screening purposes within TSCA and REACH programs....

194

THE TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals...

195

Comparative Toxicity of Diuron on Survival and Growth of Pacific Treefrog, Bullfrog, Red-Legged Frog, and African Clawed Frog Embryos and Tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog (Rana aurora), and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P. regilla and X. laevis embryos had reduced growth and developed increased deformities in diuron concentrations over 20 mg\\/L. Hindlimb bud and forelimb

G. S. Schuytema; A. V. Nebeker

1998-01-01

196

An overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing.  

PubMed

Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit's eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced to try to reduce animal testing and promote alternative techniques. These techniques include ex vivo tests on deceased animal tissue, computational models that use algorithms to apply existing data to new chemicals and in vitro assays based on two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in ocular toxicity testing techniques, and discuss the regulatory framework used to evaluate their suitability. PMID:25445805

Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew

2015-01-01

197

Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States); Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

198

Developmental toxicity of a commercial herbicide mixture in mice: I. Effects on embryo implantation and litter size.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the developmental toxicity in mice of a common commercial formulation of herbicide containing a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), mecoprop, dicamba, and inactive ingredients. Pregnant mice were exposed to one of four different doses of the herbicide mixture diluted in their drinking water, either during preimplantation and organogenesis or only during organogenesis. Litter size, birth weight, and crown-rump length were determined at birth, and pups were allowed to lactate and grow without additional herbicide exposure so that they could be subjected to additional immune, endocrine, and behavioral studies, the results of which will be reported in a separate article. At weaning, dams were sacrificed, and the number of implantation sites was determined. The data, although apparently influenced by season, showed an inverted or U-shaped dose-response pattern for reduced litter size, with the low end of the dose range producing the greatest decrease in the number of live pups born. The decrease in litter size was associated with a decrease in the number of implantation sites, but only at very low and low environmentally relevant doses. Fetotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in weight and crown-rump length of the newborn pups or embryo resorption, was not significantly different in the herbicide-treated litters. PMID:12417478

Cavieres, María Fernanda; Jaeger, James; Porter, Warren

2002-01-01

199

The effects of 4-nonylphenol and ethanol on acute toxicity, embryo development, and reproduction in Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

The mean 48-h EC(50) (n=3) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) using ethanol as the carrier solvent was 155 microg/L, compared to a mean 48-h EC(50) (n=3) of 281 microg/L without ethanol. The 96-h EC(50)'s for embryo lethality (arrested egg development) and deformities (curved or unextended shell spines and undeveloped second antennae) were 738 and 263 microg/L, respectively. Reproduction studies were conducted using conditions that stimulate male production (i.e., reduced photoperiod and food levels). An increase in neonate deformities was observed at 50 microg/L (without ethanol), but no changes were observed in fecundity or sex ratios. A decrease in sex ratios was observed at 25 and 50 microg/L (with ethanol) compared to the ethanol control. However, an increase in sex ratios was observed in the ethanol control compared to media controls. The use of ethanol as a solvent carrier confounds the effects of 4-NP on acute toxicity and male production in daphnids. PMID:12798767

Zhang, L; Gibble, R; Baer, K N

2003-07-01

200

76 FR 38170 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-8872-4] Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data AGENCY...announces EPA's receipt of test data on 12 chemicals listed in the Toxic Substance Control...Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2011-06-29

201

Development toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on rare minnow embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in industrial and commercial applications, but few studies systematically evaluate their developmental toxicity on aquatic organism. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at early life stages as experimental models, developmental toxicity of functionalized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) was investigated following exposure to 0-320?mg/L for 144?h. Results revealed that significantly increased in mortality and malformation was only observed after hatching. Decreased body length, heart rate and swimming speed provide a concentration-dependent manner on larvae; values of 144?h LC50 and EC50 were 140.8 and 109.8?mg/L, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) and antioxidant enzyme related mRNA expressions were significant changed; cell apoptosis activities (caspase-3, -8, -9) and cell apoptosis related mRNA expressions were significant up-regulated; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced when the concentration of SWCNTs above 100?mg/L. Fluorescence and electron microscopy sliced observation show that SWCNTs were well dispersed in larvae within 0.5?h, eventually cleared from the larvae at 144?h. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following SWCNTs exposure in the early life stages of fish. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that functionalized SWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic life when released into the aquatic environment and reached high concentration. In the increasing economical context of SWCNTs, complementary studies must be undertaken, especially including mechanistic and environmental investigations. PMID:25211547

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-09-11

202

A new biological test of water toxicity-yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae conductometric test.  

PubMed

This new biological test of water toxicity is based on monitoring of specific conductivity changes of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension as a result of yeast fermentation activity inhibition in toxic conditions. The test was verified on ten substances with various mechanisms of toxic effect and the results were compared with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhibition (EN ISO 6341) and Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (EN ISO 11348-2) and with the results of the S. cerevisiae lethal test (Rumlova and Dolezalova, 2012). The new biological test - S. cerevisiae conductometric test - is an express method developed primarily for field conditions. It is applicable in case of need of immediate information about water toxicity. Fast completion is an advantage of this test (time necessary for test completion is about 60min), the test is simple and the test organism - dried instant yeast - belongs among its biggest advantages because of its long-term storage life and broad availability. PMID:25461558

Dolezalova, Jaroslava; Rumlova, Lubomira

2014-11-01

203

Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of cyclopiazonic acid using H?y?d?r?a? a?t?t?e?n?u?a?t?a? and postimplantation rat whole embryo bioassays  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID USING HYDRA ATTENUATA AND POSTIMPLANTATION RAT WHOLE EMBRYO BIOASSAYS A Thesis by CATHERINE JEANE' DRYDEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID USING HYDRA A?TENUATA AND POSTIMPLANTATION RAT WHOLE EMBRYO...

Dryden, Catherine Jeane.?

1991-01-01

204

Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test  

SciTech Connect

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

205

A COMPARISON OF BULK SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTING METHODS AND SEDIMENT ELUTRIATE TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bulk sediment toxicity tests are routinely used to assess the level and extent of contamination in natural sediments. While reliable, these tests can be resource intensive, requiring significant outlays of time and materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the results ...

206

Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.  

PubMed

In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. PMID:25125279

Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

2015-01-01

207

Predictive modeling of developmental toxicity using EPA?s Virtual Embryo  

EPA Science Inventory

Standard practice in prenatal developmental toxicology involves testing chemicals in pregnant laboratory animals of two species, typically rats and rabbits, exposed during organogenesis and evaluating for fetal growth retardation, structural malformations, and prenatal death just...

208

Interpretation of reference toxicant tests in standard test procedures for sediment: How important are they?  

SciTech Connect

At SAIC`s Environmental Testing Center (ETC) 10-day solid-phase sediment toxicity tests using marine and estuarine amphipods are routinely conducted with a concurrent 96-hour water-only cadmium or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) reference toxicant test and with a negative control sediment collected from central Long Island Sound (LIS). Reference toxicant tests are performed to evaluate test organism sensitivity. A negative control is used to evaluate laboratory ability to obtain consistent, precise results. Analysis of data from over 100 tests revealed that four situations may arise: results obtained from both the reference toxicant test and the negative control are acceptable; results from both are unacceptable; reference toxicant tests results are acceptable but negative control survival is not; and reference toxicant test results are unacceptable but negative control survival is acceptable. The latter case is of greatest interest during data interpretation. Analyses indicate that failed reference toxicant tests rarely affect interpretation of sediment test data. Therefore, the authors recommend that the use of reference toxicant tests be restricted to documentation of ongoing laboratory performance rather than interpretation of specific test results.

Mueller, C.A.; Thursby, G.B.; Schlekat, C.E.; Scott, K.J. [SAIC, Narragansett, RI (United States)

1994-12-31

209

Expression of storm water runoff toxicity in three test organisms  

SciTech Connect

Storm water toxicity was monitored at numerous locations in the San Francisco Bay Area, using the EPA protocol for short-term chronic toxicity tests with freshwater organisms in the ``screening`` mode. Toxicity to Selenastrum capricomutum and Pimephales promelas was prevalent in samples collected at industrial catchments but was rarely detected in samples collected from other land use catchments. On the other hand, Ceriodaphnia dubia responded in most samples collected from industrial, commercial, residential, and transportation corridor catchments. In further analyses of C. dubia test results, the median time to lethality (LT{sub 50}) was derived to allow comparisons of the relative intensity of toxicity, and the number of offspring per female per reproductive day (OFRD) was calculated to allow separation of mortality from reproductive effects. This approach revealed that most of the moderately toxic (LT{sub 50} of 5--7 days) storm water samples collected from catchments of mixed land use (stream stations) did not inhibit reproduction, and that most storm water samples collected from transportation corridors did inhibit reproduction. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) indicated that diazinon is the major cause of toxicity in many stream samples, suggesting an explanation for the differential sensitivity observed in different species.

Katznelson, R. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Oakland, CA (United States); Markel, R.P. [ToxScan, Inc., Watsonville, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

210

Real-time in vivo imaging of size-dependent transport and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos using single nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) show distinctive plasmonic optical properties and superior photostability, enabling them to serve as photostable multi-coloured optical molecular probes and sensors for real-time in vivo imaging. To effectively study biological functions in vivo, it is essential that the NP probes are biocompatible and can be delivered into living organisms non-invasively. In this study, we have synthesized, purified and characterized stable (non-aggregated) gold (Au) NPs (86.2 ± 10.8 nm). We have developed dark-field single NP plasmonic microscopy and spectroscopy to study their transport into early developing zebrafish embryos (cleavage stage) and their effects on embryonic development in real-time at single NP resolution. We found that single Au NPs (75–97 nm) passively diffused into the embryos via their chorionic pore canals, and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 h). The majority of embryos (96 ± 3%) that were chronically incubated with the Au NPs (0–20 pM) for 120 h developed to normal zebrafish, while an insignificant percentage of embryos developed to deformed zebrafish (1 ± 1)% or dead (3 ± 3)%. Interestingly, we did not observe dose-dependent effects of the Au NPs (0–20 pM) on embryonic development. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Au NPs (11.6 ± 0.9 nm) and similar-sized Ag NPs (95.4 ± 16.0 nm), we found that the larger Au NPs are more biocompatible than the smaller Au NPs, while the similar-sized Ag NPs are much more toxic than Au NPs. This study offers in vivo assays and single NP microscopy and spectroscopy to characterize the biocompatibility and toxicity of single NPs, and new insights into the rational design of more biocompatible plasmonic NP imaging probes. PMID:24427540

Browning, Lauren M.; Huang, Tao; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

2013-01-01

211

Phytotoxicity of grey wastewater evaluated by toxicity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algal growth inhibition test and a short-term acute assay for willows were used in order to evaluate the phytotoxicity of grey wastewater from different sources. Bathroom grey wastewaters were toxic towards algae (EC10 = 36 – 375 mL\\/L), whereas kitchen and laundry wastewaters were found to be toxic to both organisms (EC10 = 55 – 198 mL\\/L). The investigation showed that untreated grey wastewater could pose an environmental hazard

Eva Eriksson; Anders Baun; Mogens Henze; Anna Ledin

2006-01-01

212

In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

Park, Margriet V.D.Z. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: Margriet.Park@rivm.nl; Annema, Wijtske [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna [Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan [Centre for Molecular Bioscience, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A. [Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Wim H. de [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2009-10-01

213

EVALUATION OF THE PEEP INDEX AND RECOMMENDED TOXICITY TESTS  

E-print Network

a Vancouver storm sewer. A flow-weighte~ composite sample from each site was tested for acute toxicity the mathematicalformula used to derive the index. A battery of bioassays is recommended for use in the FraserRiver Basin tliatthe SOS-Chromotest The test battery is identical to that used for the PEEP index, is replaced

214

GENETIC VARIATION FOR COPPER RESISTANCE IN FATHEAD MINNOW TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Unexplained variation in the results of aquatic organism toxicity tests is a consistently observed and troubling phenomenon. Possible sources of variation include differences in condition or nutritional status of the population prior to the test, as well as age, density and hand...

215

SIMPLIFIED FEEDING TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURING AND TOXICITY TESTING WITH 'CERIODAPHNIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Food used for Ceriodaphnia dubia in culture and toxicity testing should be uniform, adequate, and easily prepared. Using as a control the current standard food, YCTF, the authors tested a variety of foods made with algal species singly and in combination, prepared with several me...

216

Improved bacterial growth test for rapid water toxicity screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria have several attributes which make them attractive as test organisms for the rapid screening of chemical pollution in natural waters. They have relatively short life cycles and, therefore, respond rapidly to environmental change. The degree of toxicity of chemicals to bacteria is normally established by measuring viability or growth. A very sensitive test has been described measuring cell multiplication

J. L. Slabbert

1986-01-01

217

Acute systemic toxicity—prospects for tiered testing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

After many years of controversy and debate, the LD50 test was finally deleted by the end of 2002. Three alternative animal tests, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure have been developed which give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. They have recently undergone revision to improve their scientific performance but

P. A. Botham

2004-01-01

218

PROPOSED TEST PROTOCOL TO DETERMINE TOXICANT LEACHING INTO POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was conducted to develop a general test protocol to identify the possible deterioration of water quality as a result of leaching of toxicants from distribution/transmission pipes and tanks during distribution and storage of potable water. The developed protocol was teste...

219

THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

220

POREWATER CHEMISTRY: EFFECTS OF SAMPLING, STORAGE, HANDLING, AND TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

As a general principle, it is nearly impossible to remove a porewater sample from sediment, use it in a toxicity testing vessel with test organisms, and prevent changes in the chemistry of the natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic constituents. The degree of change in t...

221

Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity. PMID:9182035

Bignami, G

1996-01-01

222

A COUPLED MICROSOMAL-ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM: TOXICITY OF REDUCED BETA-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE (NADPH)  

EPA Science Inventory

An NADPH-dependent microsomal-activating system has been coupled to a rat embryo culture in vitro. No embryonic morphological abnormalities or decrease in final yolk sac or embryo DNA and protein contents occurred when 0.2 mM NADPH was used in this coupled system. In contrast, 1....

223

Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21--28, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

Simbeck, D.J.

1993-12-31

224

Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

1984-01-01

225

Biologically relevant exposure science for 21st century toxicity testing.  

PubMed

High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC) report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007a), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors of the National Academies report (NRC, 2007a) emphasize that population-based data and human exposure information are required at each step of their vision for toxicity testing and that these data will continue to play a critical role in both guiding development and use of the toxicity information. In fact, state-of-the-art exposure science is essential for translation of toxicity data to assess potential for risk to individuals and populations and to inform public health decisions. As we move forward to implement the NRC vision, a transformational change in exposure science is required. Application of a fresh perspective and novel techniques to capture critical determinants at biologically motivated resolution for translation from controlled in vitro systems to the open multifactorial system of real-world human-environment interaction will be critical. Development of an exposure ontology and knowledge base will facilitate extension of network analysis to the individual and population for translating toxicity information and assessing health risk. Such a sea change in exposure science is required to incorporate consideration of lifestage, genetic susceptibility, and interaction of nonchemical stressors for holistic assessment of risk factors associated with complex environmental disease. A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. Investment in 21st century exposure science is now required to fully realize the potential of the NRC vision for toxicity testing. PMID:19602574

Hubal, Elaine A Cohen

2009-10-01

226

40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part...268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) Note: The EP...

2011-07-01

227

40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B...IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method...

2010-07-01

228

Eugenic selection benefits embryos.  

PubMed

The primary question to be addressed here is whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), used for both negative and positive trait selection, benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The phrase 'potential supernumerary embryos' is used to indicate that PGD is typically performed on a set of embryos, only some of which will be implanted. Prior to any testing, each embryo in the set is potentially supernumerary in the sense that it may not be selected for implantation. Those embryos that are not selected, and hence destroyed or frozen, are 'actually supernumerary'. The argument to be advanced is hypothetical: If embryos may be said to benefit or be harmed by our actions, then PGD used to select for an embryo or embryos with the highest expected Wellbeing benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The argument shows that the 'non-identity' problem is not sufficient to show that eugenic selection does not benefit supernumerary embryos. PMID:22845885

Walker, Mark

2014-06-01

229

Sensitivity and precision of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency`s test method manuals recommend reference toxicant test be performed to determine test sensitivity and precision within a test and among tests over time. The levels of intra and interlaboratory precision with two reference toxicants (zinc and copper) were examined with six marine test species (Macrocystis pyrifera, Haliotis rufescens, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus, Mytilus spp., and Menidia beryllina) and with two freshwater test species (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Data from the EPA`s Reference Toxicant Database were used in the analysis. Data was used if the tests met the specified test acceptability criteria. The test sensitivity was examined by calculation of the minimum significant difference (e.g. MSD) and will be discussed. Results were compared to the national final chronic value (FCV) for copper and zinc. Greater than 99% of the EC25 values were above the FCV for copper with Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus and Macrocystis pyrifera. However, greater than 99% of the EC25 values were below the FCV for zinc with Haliotis rufescens.

Denton, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chapman, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR (United States); Fulk, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

230

REPORT ON ALGAL TOXICITY TESTS ON SELECTED OFFICE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES (OTS) CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) assays were performed on 11 chemicals selected from a larger list of candidate chemicals provided by the EPA's Office of Toxic Substances (OTS). imited chemical analysis of those chemicals that could be tested readily at ERL-C was performed in su...

231

Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wang, Q.; Shukla, R. [UC Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Fulk, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

232

Differential effect of solar light in increasing the toxicity of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to a fish cell line and zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

The increasing use of silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products and their inevitable seepage into the environment prompted us to investigate their potential toxicity to a fish cell line (BF-2) and zebrafish embryos under dark and Simulated Solar Light (SSL) exposure conditions. Using high throughput screening (HTS) platforms, we showed that the oxidative stress-dependent cytotoxicity and embryonic toxicity of NPs were significantly increased upon exposure to SSL. While, the toxicity of TiO2 NPs under SSL exposure could be explained by hydroxyl radical generation, the enhanced toxicity of Ag NPs under SSL exposure was due to surface oxidation and physicochemical modification of Ag NPs and shedding of Ag+, leading to an increased bioavailability of silver. Our observations that solar light could induce physicochemical transformation of TiO2 and Ag NPs and enhance their toxic potential emphasizes the need for conducting future toxicity studies under environmentally relevant exposure conditions to guide decision making on the safe handling of NPs. PMID:24811346

George, Saji; Gardner, Hannah; Seng, Eng Khuan; Chang, Hengky; Wang, Chunyan; Yu Fang, Crystal Hay; Richards, Mark; Valiyaveettil, Suresh; Chan, Woon Khiong

2014-06-01

233

Comparisons of Sediment Test Volumes for Freshwater Solid Phase Sediment Toxicity Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory tests with benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess the potential toxicity of contaminated sediments, and detailed standard test procedures have been developed for various species. For freshwater, two benthic organisms, Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dil...

234

Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing  

PubMed Central

The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

2014-01-01

235

Sun light mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles as carrier for 6-mercaptopurine: Preparation, characterization and toxicity studies in zebrafish embryo model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Gold nanoparticles prepared using eco-friendly method with good in vitro stability. ? Can be used as drug delivery system. ? Did not show any toxicity in zebrafish embryo. ? More toxic to cancer cells when compared to N-Au-Mp and Mp. -- Abstract: The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC{sub 50}) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp.

Ganeshkumar, Moorthy [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India); Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara [Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020 (India)] [Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020 (India); Sathish Kumar, Muniram [Department of Pharmaceutics, Anna University, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, Anna University, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India); Dinesh, Murugan Girija [Thanthai Hansroever College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu (India)] [Thanthai Hansroever College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu (India); Kannappan, Sudalyandi [Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai 600028 (India)] [Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai 600028 (India); Suguna, Lonchin, E-mail: slonchin@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)

2012-09-15

236

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

237

Scanning respirometer for toxicity tests using micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel respirometer is developed for microbial toxicity tests. The respirometer is based on luminescent quenching of oxygen to measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in cell vessels and evaluate the toxicity of chemicals by monitoring the effect of toxicants on cell respiration of micro-organisms. The oxygen sensing element is ruthenium complex absorbed on the surface of silica particles followed by immobilizing on a silicone rubber film. The oxygen sensing film is coated on the inner bottom of a transparent cell vessel. A sensing device scanning under the cell vessel is used for remote monitoring of the oxygen concentration inside the cell vessels so that a large number of samples can be handled in one batch. The sensing device includes the excitation light sources and an optical cable connected to a filter and a photomultiplier tube for detecting the luminescence in the cell vessel which can then be related to the dissolved oxygen concentration inside the cell vessel. The movement of the sensing device and data acquisition are controlled by a personal computer. The toxicity of heavy metals to activated sludge, soil bacteria and E. coli were tested using the present device. The scanning respirometer provides a new alternative for fast and large scale screening and monitoring of toxicants using micro-organisms.

Zhang, Min-Quan; Li, Xiang-Ming; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Kwan, FolkYear

1995-09-01

238

COMPUTER INTERFACED TOXICITY TESTING SYSTEM FOR SIMULATING VARIABLE EFFLUENT LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality criteria and standards are based primarily on toxicity tests carried out with single chemicals whose concentration is as nearly constant as possible. In the 'real world', however, organisms are exposed to mixtures of chemicals which usually have markedly fluctuating...

239

A FIELD VALIDATION OF TWO SEDIMENT-AMPHIPOD TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A field validation study of two sediment-amphipod toxicity tests was conducted using sediment samples collected subtidally in the vicinity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated Superfund site in Elliott Bay, WA, USA. Sediment samples were collected at 30 stati...

240

Assessment of toxicity test endpoints for freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia).  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to determine if the viability of freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia) is an ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity tests and to define the appropriate duration of those tests. The authors assessed 1) how viability (the shell closure response to sodium chloride) compares with infectivity (ability to attach to a host fish and successfully metamorphose to the juvenile stage), and 2) the decline of viability and infectivity over time after glochidia were released from female mussels. Glochidia of 7 mussel species were isolated from females, placed in water, and subsampled daily for 2 d to 5 d. Viability, when ?90%, was generally a good predictor of infectivity; however, when viability was <90%, infectivity was often disproportionately low, especially for glochidia collected near the end of the brooding period. Viability and infectivity declined more rapidly in natural water and sediment compared to reconstituted water. Following 24-h exposure to a toxicant (sodium chloride or copper), infectivity of the viable glochidia did not differ among concentrations of toxicants. The results indicate that viability is a valid proxy for infectivity and an ecologically relevant endpoint for standard toxicity tests with freshwater mussels for any test duration with control viability >90%. PMID:24122868

Fritts, Andrea K; Barnhart, M Christopher; Bradley, Megan; Liu, Na; Cope, W Gregory; Hammer, Edward; Bringolf, Robert B

2014-01-01

241

Toxicity testing: creating a revolution based on new technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology is evolving at a tremendous rate. Although drug discovery is now heavily focused on high throughput and miniaturized screening, the appli- cation of these advances to the toxicological assess- ment of chemicals and chemical products has been slow. Nevertheless, the impending surge in demands for the regulatory toxicity testing of chemicals provides the impetus for the incorporation of novel

Nirmala Bhogal; Christina Grindon; Robert Combes; Michael Balls

2005-01-01

242

THE FUTURE OF TOXICITY TESTING AND ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology is conducting a two-part study to assess and advance current approaches to toxicity testing and assessment to meet regulatory data needs. The first part of the study was completed January 2006, in which...

243

Joint toxic actions of organic flocculating polymers: Impact on Whole Effluent Toxicity testing. Part 3  

SciTech Connect

Most states and/or US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regions have adopted narrative water quality criteria requiring various forms of Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing as a component of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge criteria. Because polymers and inorganic coagulant aids are commonly used in conjunction with one another for wastewater treatment, an assessment of potential interactions between the two types of additives was warranted. Thus, joint-compound interaction studies with both the polymer and FeCl{sub 3} or Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} were conducted to determine the effect of co-treatment on WET. Results from these studies clearly demonstrated that the toxicity of these additives during combined treatment was much more dramatic than for each compound individually and that individual toxic assessment would not account for the total magnitude of toxicity induced during combined treatment. Combinations of flocculating polymers with different physical/chemical characteristics (i.e., chemical structure, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, molar refractivity, and charge density) are also commonly used in wastewater treatment. Thus, joint-polymer action studies with several polymer mixtures were performed. Polymers used in these studies included cationic polyquaternary amine (PQA), cationic epichlorohydrin/dimethylamine (EPI/DMA), anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM), and non-ionic polyacrylamide (N-PAM) polymers. Results from these studies are presented in this manuscript. Overall, results from these studies indicated that the type of polymer mixture was important in determining the joint toxic actions of the flocculating polymers.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1996-11-01

244

Effect of test conditions on relative toxicity rankings of fifteen materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifteen materials were evaluated for relative toxicity of pyrolysis effluents, using different test conditions in the USF methodology. Wool fabrics were consistently among the most toxic materials, and polystyrene and polychloroprene flexible foam were consistently among the least toxic materials.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

245

Selection and sensitivity comparisons of algal species for toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of 7 algal species representing the green and blue green algae was evaluated using EC50 values from the toxicity tests on 3 metal compounds (K2Cr2O7, CuSO4·5H2O, ZnSO4 and 3 formulated products of herbicides (oxyfluorphene, pendimethaline, atrazine). The growth inhibition tests were conducted in microplates. The variability in sensitivity was as high as 5 orders of magnitude (oxyfluorphene). The

Renata Rojí?ková; Blahoslav Maršálek

1999-01-01

246

Estimating low-toxic-effect concentrations in closed-system algal toxicity tests.  

PubMed

The no-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) and EC(10) values for 108 organic compounds were estimated, using multiple endpoints (i.e., biopopulation, growth rate, and dissolved oxygen production), from previous data obtained by a closed-system algal toxicity test (test alga: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). These low-toxic-effect concentrations are valuable to risk assessment of chemicals and protection of the aquatic environment as such information is quite scarce in existing toxicological databases. Furthermore, based on limited amount of available data, we found that the risk of organic toxicants to phytoplankton may be severely underestimated by existing databases, which are primarily derived by the conventional batch technique. Good correlation relationships between NOEC (or EC(10)) and EC(50) values were established. For polar and nonpolar narcotics, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) based on hydrophobicity, and/or the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (Elumo) were developed with satisfactory predictive powers. The above statistical relationships can be applied to derive a preliminary estimation for the low-toxic-effect levels for other (or new) organic compounds that has no toxicological data available. PMID:19342099

Chen, Chung Yuan; Wang, Yun Ju; Yang, Chao Fen

2009-07-01

247

An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

Osteen, D.V.

1999-12-17

248

In vitro Cell Culture Model for Toxic Inhaled Chemical Testing  

PubMed Central

Cell cultures are indispensable to develop and study efficacy of therapeutic agents, prior to their use in animal models. We have the unique ability to model well differentiated human airway epithelium and heart muscle cells. This could be an invaluable tool to study the deleterious effects of toxic inhaled chemicals, such as chlorine, that can normally interact with the cell surfaces, and form various byproducts upon reacting with water, and limiting their effects in submerged cultures. Our model using well differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures at air-liqiuid interface circumvents this limitation as well as provides an opportunity to evaluate critical mechanisms of toxicity of potential poisonous inhaled chemicals. We describe enhanced loss of membrane integrity, caspase release and death upon toxic inhaled chemical such as chlorine exposure. In this article, we propose methods to model chlorine exposure in mammalian heart and airway epithelial cells in culture and simple tests to evaluate its effect on these cell types. PMID:24837339

Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Neeves, Keith B.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara; Loader, Joan E.; White, Carl W.; Veress, Livia

2014-01-01

249

COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF FIELD AND LABORATORY TOXICITY TESTS WITH FENVALERATE ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

A combination of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted on the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. est results were compared with field toxicity tests to evaluate the usefulness of laboratory testing in estimating mortality from fenvalerate exposure associated with agricultural ru...

250

Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds in the Spirotox Test: A Miniaturized Version of the Spirostomum ambiguum Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The Spirostomum ambiguum toxicity test has been intensively studied in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Warsaw University of Medicine\\u000a for the last 5 years. The purpose of the present work was to develop and evaluate a miniaturized microplate version of the\\u000a test, called the Spirotox test, and to estimate the toxicity of selected inorganic compounds to the Spirostomum

J. Sawicki

1998-01-01

251

Hyalella IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} as a predictor of whole sediment toxicity with diversely contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

The IQ TOXICITY TEST{trademark} is a toxicity screening test that evaluates the organism`s galactosidase enzyme system functionality as a predictor of acute toxicity. Organisms are exposed to a potentially toxic solution for approximately one hour. Following the exposure, the organisms are exposed to a slurry of a galactoside sugar tagged with a fluorescent marker (methylumbelliferyl galactoside) for 15--20 minutes. A black light can then be used to examine whether the hemolymph of the organism contains free umbelliferone, which brightly fluoresces. The organisms are then scored as ``on`` or ``off`` with respect to free umbelliferone. This endpoint can then be used to calculate an EC50, which is comparable to a whole effluent, pure compound, or sediment toxicity test. Slightly different methodologies are used for different toxicity test organisms. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the use of the IQ{trademark} methodology with porewater extract exposures of the amphipod Hyalella azteca as a predictor of results of whole sediment toxicity tests. The results of over thirty 10 and 28-day whole sediment toxicity tests and the concurrent Hyalella azteca 10 TOXICITY TESTS{trademark} are compared and discussed. The use of screening tests as a reduced cost method for initial site assessment will be discussed.

Douglas, W.S.; Hayes, K.R. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

252

Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. (Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Elk Grove, CA (United States))

1993-03-01

253

Normal Calves Obtained after Direct Transfer of Vitrified Bovine Embryos Using Ethylene Glycol, Trehalose, and Polyvinylpyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, IVF bovine embryos were vitrified using as the cryoprotectants, ethylene glycol plus trehalose plus the polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In Experiment I, toxicity of the vitrification solution (VS) containing 20% PVP was tested in relation to temperature and exposure time. One hundred percent embryo development was observed with treatment at 5°C for 5 min, whereas only 55.5%

S. SAHA; T. OTOI; M. TAKAGI; A. BOEDIONO; C. SUMANTRI; T. SUZUKI

1996-01-01

254

Evaluation of chicken embryo, brine shrimp, and bacterial bioassays for saxitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chicken embryo, brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and selected bacteria (Staphylo?coccus epidermidis, Micrococcus flavus, and Bacillus subtilis) were evaluated as alternative test systems for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity (saxitoxin). Dose levels ranging from 0.045 to 0.3 \\\\ig were administered to the developing embryo through the air cell at either 0 or 96 h following incubation. Embryos dosed

Douglas L. Park; William F. Scott; Ellen Alterman

1986-01-01

255

The Role of Toxicity Testing in NASA's Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has deemed it necessary to perform the Toxicity Test (offgassing of toxic products) on all non-metallic materials proposed for use in habitable environments onboard the Shuttle and International Space Station flS,!J. This requirement stems from the desire to maintain a healthy, breathable atmosphere for the astronauts. As Shuttle missions have lengthened and with the habitation of the International Space Station, the need for understanding and controlling the contaminants in breathable atmospheres has increased. The increased duration of humans in space present two concerns to the astronauts with regard to their breathing air: 1. Breathing the on-board air. 2. Improved cleaning/filtering of existing air. Trends using existing toxicity data for materials and an understanding of the air cleaning/filtering capabilities in relation to Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC) of offgassed components are explored. Recommendations are made for materials selection practices that should be followed to ensure a safe and healthy breathing environment for astronauts aboard these long term projects. The importance and relevance of Toxicity testing and materials selection in conjunction with the new NASA missions of creating a human presence on the Moon and traveling to Mars are described.

Whitfield, Steve; Davis, Samuel; Wise, Harry; Moore, Robin

2005-01-01

256

Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

2014-01-01

257

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla  

PubMed Central

A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880??g/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052

Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

2010-01-01

258

In situ toxicity testing with locally collected Daphnia  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia middlendorffiana from local tundra ponds were transplanted into five reserve pits (sumps with used drilling wastes and precipitation) at drill sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field. Concurrently, Daphnia were transplanted into tundra ponds adjacent to the reserve pits (near ponds), into more distant but connected ponds (distant ponds), and into control ponds to evaluate the toxicity of the fluids along contaminant gradients. Twenty adult Daphnia were placed in eight waxed flow-through containers and exposed to the conditions of each test site. In each exposure container, the ratios of the number of dead Daphnia to the total number of adult Daphnia, the number of young Daphnia to the total number of adult Daphnia, the number of molting Daphnia to the total number of adult Daphnia, and the number of released ephippia to the total number of adult Daphnia were determined. The results not only indicate the utility of in situ testing of invertebrate toxicity but suggest that under certain conditions in situ tests may be more sensitive than traditional laboratory toxicity tests.

Snyder-Conn, E.

1993-07-01

259

Miniaturized Embryo Array for Automated Trapping, Immobilization and Microperfusion of Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation. In this work, we describe the development of an innovative miniaturized chip-based device for the in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos. We present evidence that automatic, hydrodynamic positioning, trapping and long-term immobilization of single embryos inside the microfluidic chips can be combined with time-lapse imaging to provide real-time developmental analysis. Our platform, fabricated using biocompatible polymer molding technology, enables rapid trapping of embryos in low shear stress zones, uniform drug microperfusion and high-resolution imaging without the need of manual embryo handling at various developmental stages. The device provides a highly controllable fluidic microenvironment and post-analysis eleuthero-embryo stage recovery. Throughout the incubation, the position of individual embryos is registered. Importantly, we also for first time show that microfluidic embryo array technology can be effectively used for the analysis of anti-angiogenic compounds using transgenic zebrafish line (fli1a:EGFP). The work provides a new rationale for rapid and automated manipulation and analysis of developing zebrafish embryos at a large scale. PMID:22606275

Akagi, Jin; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Evans, Barbara; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

2012-01-01

260

Toxicogenomic responses of zebrafish embryos/larvae to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is frequently present in indoor dust and can be detected in human milk. In order to evaluate the effects of TDCPP on vertebrate development, zebrafish embryos/larvae were used as an animal model to examine developmental phenotypes and explore possible mechanisms of toxicity by employing microarrays and iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomics. The results demonstrated that treatment with TDCPP (3 ?M) from 0.75 h postfertilization (hpf) inhibited cell rearrangement at 4 hpf, caused delay in epiboly at 5.7 and 8.5 hpf, and led to abnormal development (e.g., short tail, reduced body size) and lethality between 14 and 45 hpf, which might be related with altered expression of genes regulating embryogenesis. Furthermore, trunk curvature was observed as the main phenotype in 96 hpf zebrafish larvae exposed to 1 or 3 ?M TDCPP, possibly by changing somite formation and expression of proteins related to fast muscle and cartilage development. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCPP causes developmental toxicity in vertebrates and warrant the need for studies to evaluate the potential health risks of TDCPP to developing human embryos/infants/children, due to its frequent presence in indoor dust and potential for human exposure. PMID:23919627

Fu, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhou, Bingsheng; Gong, Zhiyuan; Santos, Eduarda M; Huo, Xiaojing; Zheng, Weiling; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia; Liu, Chunsheng

2013-09-17

261

Evaluation of the test of significant toxicity for determining the toxicity of effluents and ambient water samples.  

PubMed

The test of significant toxicity (TST) is a hypothesis-testing approach based on bioequivalence developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for analyzing whole-effluent toxicity (WET) and ambient toxicity data. The present study compares results of acute and chronic toxicity tests of effluent, storm-water, and ambient (i.e., receiving-water) samples using both the TST and the standard no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) approach. Valid WET data were analyzed from 890 tests provided by more than 25 dischargers in California and Washington, USA, representing the majority of test methods used in the U.S. WET program. An additional 3,201 freshwater chronic toxicity tests, obtained from ambient monitoring programs in California, were also analyzed. The TST and NOEC approaches both declared a low number (<6.5%) of tests toxic if effects were below the unacceptable toxicity regulatory management decision (RMD) of 25% effect in chronic tests or 20% effect in acute tests. However, those test methods having generally lower within-test variability and greater test power (e.g., urchin fertilization test) had a much lower percentage of tests declared toxic than the NOEC approach when effects were below the unacceptable toxicity RMD. In addition, the TST showed fewer tests to be nontoxic than NOEC if the test exhibited effects greater than the toxicity RMD (0.1 and 9.6% for TST and NOEC, respectively, for effluents and 0 and 9.5%, respectively, for ambient samples). Our results demonstrate that the TST is more likely to identify a toxic sample when effects are fairly substantial (? 25% effect in chronic testing and ? 20% effect in acute tests) and less likely to identify a sample as toxic when effects are negligible (? 10% effect). Furthermore, these results demonstrate that appropriate WET data interpretation benefits from having well-designed test methods with sufficient power to identify significant toxicity or biologically insignificant effects when they occur. PMID:23400869

Diamond, Jerry M; Denton, Debra L; Roberts, John W; Zheng, Lei

2013-04-01

262

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative

Daniel Krewski; Daniel Acosta Jr; Melvin Andersen; Henry Anderson; John C. Bailar III; Kim Boekelheide; Robert Brent; Gail Charnley; Vivian G. Cheung; Sidney Green Jr; Karl T. Kelsey; Nancy I. Kerkvliet; Abby A. Li; Lawrence McCray; Otto Meyer; Reid D. Patterson; William Pennie; Robert A. Scala; Gina M. Solomon; Martin Stephens; James Yager; Lauren Zeise

2010-01-01

263

Applicability of subchronic toxicity test with Hyalella azteca for toxicity identification evaluation programs  

SciTech Connect

A series of screening tests including the short-term chronic exposure of Ceriodaphnia dubia to sediment pore waters, 10-day exposures of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to bulk sediments and a bioaccumulation study with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed as part of an ecological risk assessment of Plow Shop Pond, Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Chronic endpoints such as reproduction and growth indicated sediment toxicity, however, a toxicity identification evaluation program was initiated to further define the source and extent of the toxicity. A short-term chronic exposure with C. dubia was a logical choice for the TIE, however, since amphipods are epibenthic organisms, they are a better surrogate of sediment dwelling organisms than a water column species such as C. dubia. Observations performed during H. azteca culture suggested that this species of amphipod could thrive in the water column for up to three weeks. Therefore, 7-day old H. azteca were exposed to pore water samples under static-renewal conditions for 10 days. Survival and growth (i.e., dry weight) were determined at the termination of each exposure. Laboratory control group performance consistently averaged a {>=}90% survival and {>=}43 {micro}g of dry weight per amphipod. Growth of amphipods used in each exposure generally exceeded two times the initial body weight after 10 days of exposure. Previous studies have indicated that the growth and reproductive response of H. azteca are positively correlated for a given set of exposure conditions. The results of these 10-day subchronic exposures with H. azteca provide a consistent and reliable measure of the chronic sediment toxicity with a benthic invertebrate for toxicity identification evaluation programs.

Putt, A.E.; Jop, K.M. [Springborn Labs., Wareham, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

264

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stainless steel or nylon screen (approximately...solution regularly flows through the cup...maintain the required flow of test water...stainless steel screen (or other acceptable...of the embryo cup screens and narrow flow passages....

2012-07-01

265

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stainless steel or nylon screen (approximately...solution regularly flows through the cup...maintain the required flow of test water...stainless steel screen (or other acceptable...of the embryo cup screens and narrow flow passages....

2013-07-01

266

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stainless steel or nylon screen (approximately...solution regularly flows through the cup...maintain the required flow of test water...stainless steel screen (or other acceptable...of the embryo cup screens and narrow flow passages....

2011-07-01

267

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...stainless steel or nylon screen (approximately...solution regularly flows through the cup...maintain the required flow of test water...stainless steel screen (or other acceptable...of the embryo cup screens and narrow flow passages....

2014-07-01

268

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stainless steel or nylon screen (approximately...solution regularly flows through the cup...maintain the required flow of test water...stainless steel screen (or other acceptable...of the embryo cup screens and narrow flow passages....

2010-07-01

269

A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests....

270

Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.  

PubMed

Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity. PMID:24988484

Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

2014-08-01

271

Field assessments in conjunction with whole effluent toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are widely used to assess potential effects of wastewater discharges on aquatic life. This paper represents a summary of chapters in a 1996 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry-sponsored workshop and a literature review concerning linkages between WET testing and associated field biomonitoring. Most published studies thus far focus primarily on benthic macroinvertebrates and on effluent-dominated stream systems in which effluents demonstrate little or no significant acute toxicity. Fewer studies examine WET test predictability in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetlands, estuaries, large rivers) or deal with instream biota such as fish and primary producers. Published results indicate that standards for the usual WET freshwater test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, may not always protect most of the species inhabiting a receiving stream. Although WET tests are useful in predicting aquatic individual responses, they are not meant to directly measure natural population or community responses. Further, they do not address bioconcentration or bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds; do not assess eutrophication effects in receiving systems; and lastly, do not reflect genotoxic effects or function to test for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Consequently, a more direct evaluation of ecosystem health, using bioassessment techniques, may be needed to properly evaluate aquatic systems affected by wastewater discharges.

La Point, T.W.; Waller, W.T.

2000-01-01

272

[Modification of the Photobacterium phosphoreum toxicity test method].  

PubMed

In order to reduce the variation of Photobacterium phosphoreum luminous intensity during testing, the Photobacterium phosphoreum toxicity test was modified by a correction factor, PIacetone, in this paper. The effects of magnetic stirring time, culture time, culture generation and culture temperature on the measured results were discussed. The modified method had good laboratory repeatability and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was between 2.1% and 13.1%. Reliable data could be obtained using the modified method. It would be beneficial to the development of the quantitative structure-activity relationships on multicomponent organic compounds. PMID:11432056

Lin, Z; Yu, H; Xu, S; Wang, L

2001-03-01

273

78 FR 66700 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9400-9] Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data AGENCY...announces EPA's receipt of test data on 21 chemicals. These data were submitted pursuant...technical information contact: Kathy Calvo, Chemical Control Division (7405M), Office...

2013-11-06

274

Bioavailability of fluoranthene in freshwater sediment toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

To examine equilibrium-partitioning model predictions of interstitial water concentrations of fluoranthene as part of the equilibrium-partitioning (EqP) approach to sediment quality criteria development, the bioavailability (toxicity) of fluoranthene-amended sediment to Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, and Chironomus tentans was determined. Fluoranthene was added to three freshwater sediments with similar organic carbon content. Predicted interstitial water concentrations from the equilibrium-partitioning model were similar to measured interstitial water concentrations for WRFS and TR sediment, but the model underpredicted measured values for LF sediment by a factor of two. EC50s for Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, and Chironomus tentans in interstitial water were a factor of two to five greater for LF than for WRFS and TR sediments. Factors other than organic carbon content of sediments probably contributed to the variability in bioavailability of fluoranthene. Based on 10-d sediment toxicity tests with Hylella azteca, Daphnia magna, and Chironomus tentans, organic carbon-normalized sediment concentrations were better predictors of toxicity than interstitial water and bulk sediment fluoranthene concentrations. In 10-d aqueous-phase tests with fluoranthene, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca were twice as sensitive as Daphnia magna.

Suedel, B.C.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr. (Univ. of Mississippi, University (United States)); Clifford, P.A. (EA Engineering Science and Technology, Inc., Sparks, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

275

Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ``Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,`` required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications.

Hood, C.A. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States); Mayo, R.R. [ENSR Environmental Toxicology Lab., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

276

A SURROGATE SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY TEST METHOD FOR WATERS WITH HIGH TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Total dissolved solids (TDS) are often identified as a toxicant in whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing. The primary test organism used in WET testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is very sensitive to TDS ions, which can be problematic when differentiating the toxicity of TDS from those...

277

Using the Caenorhabditis elegans soil toxicity test to identify factors affecting toxicity of four metal ions in intact soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously developed soil toxicity test for rapidly determining the toxicity of chemicals to the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Donkin and Dusenbery, 1993) was used to measure the toxicity of four metals (Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+) added to four soils common to the southeastern United States. Nematode survival after a 24-hour exposure in the presence of a bacterial food

Steven G. Donkin; David B. Dusenbery

1994-01-01

278

Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.  

PubMed

A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained. PMID:21922641

Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

2011-10-01

279

Establishing relative sensitivities of various toxicity testing organisms to ammonia  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of ammonia to various organisms was examined to develop a baseline for mortality in several commonly used testing species. This baseline data will assist in choosing the proper test species and in interpreting results as they pertain to ammonia. Responses for two juvenile fish species, three marine amphipods, and two species of mysid shrimp were compared for their sensitivity to levels of ammonia. All mortality caused by ammonia in the bottom-dwelling Citharichthys stigmaeus occurred within 24 h of exposure, whereas mortality in the silverside, Menidia beryllina, occurred over the entire 96-h test duration. Responses to ammonia varied among the amphipods Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, and Eohaustorius estuarius. R. abronius and A. abdita showed similar sensitivity to ammonia at lower concentrations; A. abdita appeared more sensitive than R. abronius at levels above 40 mg/L. Concentrations of ammonia required to produce significant mortality in the amphipod E. estuarius were far higher than the other species examined (> 100 mg/L NH{sub 3}). A comparison of ammonia toxicity with two commonly used invertebrates, Holmesimysis sculpts and Mysidopsis bahia, suggest that these two species of mysid have similar sensitivities to ammonia. Further studies with ammonia that examine sensitivity of different organisms should be conducted to assist regulatory and environmental agencies in determining appropriate test species and in interpreting toxicological results as they may be affected by levels of ammonia.

Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Karls, R.K. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

280

Sediment toxicity testing of Lake Orta after liming  

SciTech Connect

Lake Orta has been severely polluted by industrial effluents containing Cu, NH{sub 3}, Cr., Ni, and Zn. Ammonia oxidation caused a pH drop below 4. More than 60 papers have described the adverse chemical and biological changes which occurred in Lake Orta in the past several decades. In 1989, CaCO{sub 3} (10,900 tons) was added to the lake as a remedial action. The treatment was effective, improving water quality and allowing some original plankton, benthic, and fish populations to return. However, Cu and Cr are still present in the top 10 cm of sediment. The toxicity of the sediment was evaluated using multiple assays: Microtox (solid phase and pore water), Brachionus calyciflorus and Thamnocephalus platyurus Toxkits (pore water), seed germination and root elongation (solid phase and pore water). In addition, in situ and laboratory tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca and an indigenous species of Daphnia. Assays responses varied yet showed surficial sediments to be toxic. Toxicity increased with sediment in pre-liming deposition zones. Recovery of the ecosystem is evident, however the contaminated sediments may impede further improvement.

Baudo, R.; Beltrami, M.; Rossi, D. [CNR, Verbania-Pallanza (Italy). Ist. Italiano Idrobiologia; Gronda, A. [Ecotox LSD, Prenana Milanese (Italy); Abdel-Monem, A.M. [National Institutes of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo (Egypt); Burton, G.A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

281

Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of

Nicola A Davies; Mark E Hodson; Stuart Black

2003-01-01

282

FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that

John A. Bantle; Dennis T. Burton; Douglas A. Dawson; James N. Dumont; Robert A. Finch; Douglas J. Fort; Greg Linder; James R. Rayburn; David Buchwalter; Angela M. Gaudet-Hull; Margaret A. Maurice; Steven D. Turley

1994-01-01

283

Organotypic liver culture models: meeting current challenges in toxicity testing.  

PubMed

Prediction of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in humans from in vitro data continues to be a significant challenge for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Generally, conventional in vitro hepatic model systems (i.e. 2-D static monocultures of primary or immortalized hepatocytes) are limited by their inability to maintain histotypic and phenotypic characteristics over time in culture, including stable expression of clearance and bioactivation pathways, as well as complex adaptive responses to chemical exposure. These systems are less than ideal for longer-term toxicity evaluations and elucidation of key cellular and molecular events involved in primary and secondary adaptation to chemical exposure, or for identification of important mediators of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis. Progress in implementing a more effective strategy for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation and human risk assessment depends on significant advances in tissue culture technology and increasing their level of biological complexity. This article describes the current and ongoing need for more relevant, organotypic in vitro surrogate systems of human liver and recent efforts to recreate the multicellular architecture and hemodynamic properties of the liver using novel culture platforms. As these systems become more widely used for chemical and drug toxicity testing, there will be a corresponding need to establish standardized testing conditions, endpoint analyses and acceptance criteria. In the future, a balanced approach between sample throughput and biological relevance should provide better in vitro tools that are complementary with animal testing and assist in conducting more predictive human risk assessment. PMID:22582993

LeCluyse, Edward L; Witek, Rafal P; Andersen, Melvin E; Powers, Mark J

2012-07-01

284

Organotypic liver culture models: Meeting current challenges in toxicity testing  

PubMed Central

Prediction of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in humans from in vitro data continues to be a significant challenge for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Generally, conventional in vitro hepatic model systems (i.e. 2-D static monocultures of primary or immortalized hepatocytes) are limited by their inability to maintain histotypic and phenotypic characteristics over time in culture, including stable expression of clearance and bioactivation pathways, as well as complex adaptive responses to chemical exposure. These systems are less than ideal for longer-term toxicity evaluations and elucidation of key cellular and molecular events involved in primary and secondary adaptation to chemical exposure, or for identification of important mediators of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis. Progress in implementing a more effective strategy for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation and human risk assessment depends on significant advances in tissue culture technology and increasing their level of biological complexity. This article describes the current and ongoing need for more relevant, organotypic in vitro surrogate systems of human liver and recent efforts to recreate the multicellular architecture and hemodynamic properties of the liver using novel culture platforms. As these systems become more widely used for chemical and drug toxicity testing, there will be a corresponding need to establish standardized testing conditions, endpoint analyses and acceptance criteria. In the future, a balanced approach between sample throughput and biological relevance should provide better in vitro tools that are complementary with animal testing and assist in conducting more predictive human risk assessment. PMID:22582993

LeCluyse, Edward L.; Witek, Rafal P.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Powers, Mark J.

2012-01-01

285

CELLULAR TOXICITY IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL CULTURES. 2. A STATISTICAL APPRAISAL OF SENSITIVITY WITH THE RABBIT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE, SYRIAN HAMSTER EMBRYO, BALB 3T3 MOUSE, AND HUMAN NEONATAL FIBROBLAST CELL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chinese hamster ovary, rabbit alveolar macrophage, Syrian Hamster embryo, mouse, and human neonatal fibroblast cells were employed in a statistical evaluation of the relative sensitivity of the cells to toxic substances. The cells were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 2,4-dimet...

286

Validation and sensitivity comparisons of micro-scale toxicity tests for the evaluation of freshwater sediment toxicity  

SciTech Connect

A three-year study is currently underway to develop a representative and cost-effective battery of toxicity tests for evaluating freshwater sediment and porewater toxicity. Among the tests currently being evaluated are the following: Microtox{trademark} chronic test, Microtox{trademark} solid-phase test, Microtox{trademark} liquid phase test, Thamnotoxkit F{trademark}, Rotoxkit F{trademark}, Daphnia magna IQ test{trademark}, Sediment Toxkit, SOS Chromotest, a Selenastrum capricornutum short exposure assay, and trout hepatocyte assays. Conventional sediment tests with Chironomus tentans, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus, as well as benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and sediment chemical characterizations are being conducted at two contaminated sites. Toxicity test reproducibility, sensitivity, practicality, cost and ecological relevance are discussed.

Riebel, P.; Bureau, J. [BEAK Consultants Ltd., Dorval, Quebec (Canada); Blaise, C.; Michaud, J.R. [Environment Canada, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

287

Mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity. Part I: validation of test approach and acute inhalation toxicity.  

PubMed

Burning mosquito coils indoors to repel mosquitoes is a common practice in many households in tropical countries. The evaluation and assessment of the inhalation toxicity of smoke emitted from mosquito coils appear to be particularly challenging due to the complex nature of this type of exposure atmosphere. The potential health implications of the gases, volatile agents and particulate matter emitted from burning coils or incense have frequently been addressed; however, state-of-the-art inhalation toxicity studies are scarce. The focus of this paper was comparatively to evaluate and assess the appropriateness and practical constraints of the whole-body versus the nose-only mode of exposure for inhalation toxicity studies with burning mosquito coils. With regard to the controlled exposure of laboratory animals to complex smoke atmospheres the nose-only mode of exposure had distinct advantages over the whole-body exposure, which included a rapid attainment of the inhalation chamber steady state, minimization of particle coagulation and uncontrolled adsorption of condensate onto the chamber surfaces. While in whole-body chambers a different kinetic behaviour of volatile and particulate constituents was found which caused inhomogeneous, i.e. artificially enriched atmospheres with volatile components at the expense of aerosols, the nose-only mode of exposure provided maximum exposure intensities without losses of the particulate phase of the exposure atmosphere. Collectively, the results obtained support the conclusion that the dynamic nose-only mode of exposure is experimentally superior to the quasistatic whole-body exposure mode which provides the least control over exposure atmospheres and the outcome highly contingent on selected experimental factors. Acute inhalation toxicity studies in rats suggest that the most critical metrics of exposure are apparently related to (semi)volatile upper respiratory tract sensory irritants, whilst the asphyxic component, carbon monoxide, plays a role only at overtly irritant exposure levels. However, this study was conducted at exposure concentrations much higher than encountered by people in residential settings and the effects observed under these conditions may not be relevant to hazards from exposures at common use levels. Neither an acute 8 h exposure of rats nor the 1 h sensory irritation study in mice and rats provided experimental evidence that irritant particle-related effects had occurred in the lower respiratory tract. In summary, the protocols devised evaluate and assess the acute inhalation toxicity of mosquito coil smoke demonstrating that the nose-only mode of exposure of rats to the smoke of mosquito coils is suitable to assess the toxic potency of different coils. The nose-only mode has clear advantages over the whole-body exposure mode. The inhalation studies conducted show unequivocally that acute toxic effects are difficult to produce with this type of product even under rigorous testing conditions. PMID:16547916

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2006-01-01

288

PHOTOACTIVATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXICITY IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) EMBRYOS: RELEVANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN CONTAMINATED SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazard for photoactivated toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been clearly demonstrated; however, to our knowledge, the risk in contaminated systems has not been characterized. To address this question, a median lethal dose (LD50) for fluoranthene photoa...

289

Evaluation of a phytoplankton toxicity test for water pollution assessment and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suggested standard test protocol for the short term14C assimilation algal toxicity test method (photosynthesis inhibition test) has been evaluated with natural phytoplankton and cultures of the marine diatomSkeletonema costatum. A number of test technical factors as well as the variability in the sensitivity of natural phytoplankton have been investigated, using potassium dichromate as a reference toxicant in all tests.

Kresten Ole Kusk; Niels Nyholm

1991-01-01

290

Toxicity assessment and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae acutely exposed to bisphenol A, endosulfan, heptachlor, methoxychlor and tetrabromobisphenol A.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants, such as tetrabromobisphenol A and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pose an environmental hazard owing to their persistence, low solubility and estrogenic effects, and concerns have been raised regarding their effects on aquatic biota. In the present study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were used as a model to investigate the sublethal and lethal effects of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely methoxychlor, endosulfan and heptachlor, as well as the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A, and its precursor compound bisphenol A. Preliminary data for chemical exposure tests were obtained by determining the 96 h median effective concentration EC50 (hatching rate) and 96 h median lethal concentration LC50 . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the gene expression levels of the biomarker vitellogenin (vtg1) after 96 h exposures to 10, 25, 50 and 75% of the 96 h EC50 value for embryos and 96 h LC50 value for larvae. The use of vtg1 mRNA induction in zebrafish embryos and larvae was found to be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to these organic compounds, and was helpful in elucidating their adverse effects and setting water quality guidelines. PMID:22351617

Chow, Wing Shan; Chan, Winson Ka-Lun; Chan, King Ming

2013-07-01

291

Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.  

PubMed

A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17?-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative of anti-androgenic activity. In contrast, for medaka clear anti-androgenic response, e.g. transcriptional downregulation of 11?-hydroxylase, 3?-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, was already observed at the pre-hatch stage. Together, this data suggests that medaka and zebrafish embryos would provide a beneficial alternative testing platform for endocrine disruption that involves additive information on interspecies and exposure time variability when using both species. PMID:24992288

Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

2014-10-01

292

An interlaboratory comparison of sediment elutriate preparation and toxicity test methods  

EPA Science Inventory

Elutriate bioassays are among numerous methods that exist for assessing the potential toxicity of sediments in aquatic systems. In this study, interlaboratory results were compared from 96-hour Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas static-renewal acute toxicity tests conduct...

293

AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF SEVEN TECHNOLOGIES DETECTING TOXICITY IN DRINKING WATER (R2)  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapid toxicity technologies can detect certain toxins and with testing it can be determined their susceptibility to interfering chemical in controlled experimental matrix. Rapid toxicity technologies do not identify or determine the concentrations of specific contaminants, but s...

294

VALIDATION OF EMBRYO TESTS FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF FUNGAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS ON NONTARGET AQUATIC ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing embryos of the inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to conidiospores of the fungal weed control agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, f. sp. aeschynomene, and the entomopathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. nly Metarhiz...

295

Evaluation of municipal waste incinerator fly ash toxicity and the role of cadmium by two aquatic toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Japan is regulated under the hazardous waste regulation Waste under Special Control, according to the Amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, because it contains high concentrations of heavy metals which are available for leaching. To evaluate the toxicity of fly ash, a fly ash leachate was prepared according to the Japanese standard leaching procedure. The chemical analysis of the leachate showed that possibly one of the most toxic substances was cadmium. The toxicity of the leachate and the cadmium was determined by algal assay and a Daphnia acute toxicity test. The results showed that the leachate was about seven times more toxic to the growth of algae and 20 to 30 times more toxic to the survival of Daphnia than expected from its cadmium concentration. The toxicity interaction between cadmium and the other constituents in the leachate was also examined. The toxicity of cadmium showed an additive effect with the other constituents in the leachate in algal assay. In the Daphnia test, however, cadmium showed an antagonistic effect.

Kaneko, Hidehiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1996-12-31

296

Combined repeated-dose toxicity study of silver nanoparticles with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.  

PubMed

Combined repeated-dose toxicity study of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (7.9 ± 0.95 nm) with reproduction/developmental toxicity was investigated in rats orally treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg, once a day for 42 days for males and up to 52 days for females. The test was performed based on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 422 and Good Laboratory Practice principles. No death was observed in any of the groups. Alopecia, salivation and yellow discolouration of the lung were observed in a few rats but the symptoms were not dose-dependent. Haematology, serum biochemical investigation and histopathological analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between control group and the treated groups. Toxicity endpoints of reproduction/developmental screening test including mating, fertility, implantation, delivery and foetus were measured. There was no evidence of toxicity. PMID:23432083

Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Suhyon; Lee, Sang Hee; Jo, Eunhye; Lee, Byungcheun; Yoon, Junheon; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Moo Yeol; Seo, Yeong-Rok; Kim, Younghun; Lee, Yeonjin; Choi, Jonghye; Park, Kwangsik

2014-06-01

297

Toxicity of lead and zinc to developing mussel and sea urchin embryos: critical tissue residues and effects of dissolved organic matter and salinity.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) EC50 values in the very sensitive early development phases (48-72h post-fertilization) of the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossolus and sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in 100% sea water were: M. trossolus - 45 (95% C.I.=22-72) ?gL(-1); M. galloprovincialis - 63 (36-94) ?gL(-1); S. purpuratus - 74 (50-101) ?gL(-1). Salinity thresholds for normal development varied: M. trossolus>21ppt; M. galloprovincialis>28ppt; S. purpuratus?30ppt. Addition of two spectroscopically distinct dissolved organic matters (DOM) from fresh water (Nordic Reservoir) and sea water (Inshore) moderately decreased the toxicity of Pb to both mussels, but not in a concentration-dependent fashion, with only an approximate doubling of EC50 over the range of 1.4-11.2mgCL(-1). Independent Pb binding capacity determinations for DOC explained the lack of a relationship between DOM concentration and toxicity. Salinity had no effect on Pb toxicity down to 21ppt in M. trossolus, and low salinity (21ppt) did not enhance the protective effect of DOC. Both DOMs increased the toxicity of Pb in developing sea urchin embryos, in contrast to mussels. Relative to Pb, the organisms were 6-9 fold less sensitive to Zn on a molar basis in 100% seawater with the following Zn EC50s: M. trossolus - 135 (103-170) ?gL(-1); M. galloprovincialis - 172 (126-227) ?gL(-1), S. purpuratus - 151 (129-177) ?gL(-1). Nordic Reservoir and Inshore DOM (2-12mgCL(-1)) had no significant effect on Zn toxicity to mussels, in accord with voltammetry data showing an absence of any strong ligand binding for Zn by DOMs. As with Pb, DOMs increased Zn toxicity to urchin larvae. Critical Tissue Residues (CTR) based on whole body concentrations of Pb and Zn were determined for M. galloprovincialis at 48h and S. purpuratus at 72h. The median lethal CTR values (LA50s), useful parameters for development of saltwater Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), were approximately 4-fold higher on a molar basis for Zn than for Pb. The latter were not altered by DOM exposure, despite increased EC50 values, in accord with the tenets of the BLM. PMID:23603691

Nadella, Sunita R; Tellis, Margaret; Diamond, Rachael; Smith, Scott; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

2013-08-01

298

KEPONE (TRADEMARK): CHRONIC EFFECTS ON EMBRYO, FRY, JUVENILE, AND ADULT SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS ('CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS')  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the toxicity of Kepone to, and uptake by embryo, fry, juvenile, and adult sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) using intermittent-flow toxicity tests. Concentrations of Kepone and percentage of adult fish surviving in a 28-day exposure were--Control, 95...

299

Comparative toxicity of diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog, bullfrog, red-legged frog, and African clawed frog embryos and tadpoles.  

PubMed

The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog (Rana aurora), and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P. regilla and X. laevis embryos had reduced growth and developed increased deformities in diuron concentrations over 20 mg/L. Hindlimb bud and forelimb development were retarded in R. aurora following 14 days exposure to diuron concentrations of > 7.6 mg/L. Mean 14-day LC50s for P. regilla and X. laevis tadpoles were 15.2 and 11.3 mg/L diuron, respectively. The 21-day LC50 for R. catesbeiana tadpoles was 12.7 mg/L diuron. The 14-day LC50 for R. aurora tadpoles was 22.2 mg/L. The lowest NOAELs calculated in embryo tests were 14.5 mg/L for P. regilla (10 days) and 7.6 mg/L diuron for X. laevis (4 days). The lowest NOAELs calculated in tadpole tests were: P. regilla, 14.5 mg/L (14 days); R. catesbeiana, 7.6 mg/L (21 days); R. aurora, 7.6 mg/L (14 days); and X. laevis, > 29.1 mg/L (14 days). Diuron concentrations having an effect on survival, growth, and malformation in the laboratory were much higher than those found in normal field spray situations; field studies would be needed to determine the hazard to amphibians in areas of localized pooling of recently applied herbicide in the environment. PMID:9543507

Schuytema, G S; Nebeker, A V

1998-05-01

300

Multiple bio-analytical methods to reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate.  

PubMed

The flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) is a frequently detected contaminant in the environment, wildlife and human milk. The potentially toxic effects of TBEP and their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of TBEP from 4 hours of post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf, and effects on embryonic development and global protein expression patterns examined. Our results demonstrate that treatment with TBEP (0.8-100mg/L) causes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in embryonic survival and the hatching percentage. The median lethal concentration was 10.7 mg/L at 120 hpf. Furthermore, exposure to 150 or 800 ?g/L TBEP inhibited the degradation and utilization of vitellogenins and down-regulated the expression of proteins related to cation binding, and lipid transport, uptake and metabolism, accompanied by a decrease in heart rate and body length. Exposure to TBEP (150 or 800 ?g/L) also decreased the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and DNA repair, and led to an increased number of apoptotic cells in the tail region. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TBEP causes toxicity in the developing zebrafish by inhibiting the degradation and utilization of nutrients from the mother and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24685621

Han, Zhihua; Wang, Qiangwei; Fu, Jie; Chen, Hongshan; Zhao, Ye; Zhou, Bingsheng; Gong, Zhiyuan; Wei, Si; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Chunsheng; Yu, Hongxia

2014-05-01

301

Toxicity assessment for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration

Shi-ping ZHOU; Chang-qun DUAN; Hui FU; Yu-hui CHEN; Xue-hua WANG; Ze-fen YU

2007-01-01

302

Tests for the toxicity assessment of cyanobacterial bloom samples.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) blooms are one of the common consequences of the increasing eutrophication of surface waters. The production of cyanobacterial toxins and their presence in drinking and recreational waters represents a growing danger to human and animal health. Due to a lack of toxin standards and to resource limitations on the wide-scale use of analytical methods (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) in cyanobacterial toxin monitoring, it is necessary to assess and to develop additional methods for their detection and estimation. Microbiotests using invertebrates offer a possible approach for the inexpensive and straightforward detection and assessment of cyanobacterial bloom toxicity. Three microbiotests with: Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Spirostomum ambiguum were examined with bloom samples containing hepatotoxic microcystin-LR and up to five additional microcystin variants. Two kinds of cyanobacterial bloom sample preparations were tested: crude extracts (CE) and purified extracts (PE). The highest toxicity was found when CE was used for microbiotests. The sensitivity of microorganisms decreased from S. ambiguum to T. platyurus and to D. magna. A statistically significant correlation was found between microcystin concentration and T. platyurus biotest, and between mouse bioassay and S. ambiguum results. Addition of Me2SO (1%, v/v) is a possible method to increase the sensitivity of the microorganisms for microcystin-LR. PMID:11594024

Tarczynska, M; Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Romanowska-Duda, Z; Sawicki, J; Beattie, K; Codd, G; Zalewski, M

2001-10-01

303

Formulated sediment for use in whole-sediment toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

A formulated control sediment was developed to provide consistent and acceptable biological endpoints for a variety of species used in whole sediment toxicity testing. In an attempt to develop such a sediment the authors conducted multiple tests to evaluate: (1) {alpha}-cellulose as an organic carbon source, (2) various TOC concentrations, (3) various grain sizes, (4) different food types, and (5) overlying waters. Studies were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca the midges Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus in 10 d exposures and H. azteca in 28 d exposures. Sediment from West Bearskin Lake Minnesota was used as a control sediment with each species in each test. Survival of test organisms in all of the 10-d experiments, with the exception of C. riparius, was above the acceptable levels for a control sediment. Survival in the formulated sediments also was not significantly different when compared to the control sediment. Amphipod survival in the 28-d exposures was low; however, the use of reconstituted water in combination with the formulated sediment may have been a problem. The authors are currently evaluating various types of overlying water with formulated sediments and sublethal endpoints in each of the exposures (i.e., growth, sexual maturation or head capsule width).

Kemble, N.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

1995-12-31

304

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL CARRIERS ON AVIAN LC(50) TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The subacute dietary (LC50) toxicity of a pesticide as prescribed by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act and of toxic substances as defined by the Toxic Substances Control Act is a routine data point for many chemicals. The methods under which the LC50 data are ...

305

Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991  

SciTech Connect

Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

Specht, W.L.

1992-01-01

306

Influence of pH on the toxicity of nitrophenols to Microtox and Spirotox tests.  

PubMed

The toxicity of mononitrophenols and dinitrophenols (DNP) to luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox test) and ciliated protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum (Spirotox test) was evaluated. Spirotox was more sensitive to the tested nitrophenols (NPs) than the Microtox test. 2,5-DNP was the most toxic and 2-NP was the least toxic to the both bioindicators. The toxicity depended greatly on the pH of the medium. The highest changes were observed for DNPs, where the toxicity decreased more than 20-times when the pH increased from 6 to 8. No significant decrease of the toxicity was found for NPs, when the pH increased from 6 to 7. Greater increase of the pH to 8 caused from 1.5 to 4-fold decrease of the toxicity. PMID:12729708

Na?ecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Sawicki, Józef

2003-07-01

307

Custom-designed nanomaterial libraries for testing metal oxide toxicity.  

PubMed

Advances in aerosol technology over the past 10 years have enabled the generation and design of ultrafine nanoscale materials for many applications. A key new method is flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), which produces particles by pyrolyzing a precursor solution in the gas phase. FSP is a highly versatile technique for fast, single-step, scalable synthesis of nanoscale materials. New innovations in particle synthesis using FSP technology, including variations in precursor chemistry, have enabled flexible, dry synthesis of loosely agglomerated, highly crystalline ultrafine powders (porosity ? 90%) of binary, ternary, and mixed-binary-and-ternary oxides. FSP can fulfill much of the increasing demand, especially in biological applications, for particles with specific material composition, high purity, and high crystallinity. In this Account, we describe a strategy for creating nanoparticle libraries (pure or Fedoped ZnO or TiO?) utilizing FSP and using these libraries to test hypotheses related to the particles' toxicity. Our innovation lies in the overall integration of the knowledge we have developed in the last 5 years in (1) synthesizing nanomaterials to address specific hypotheses, (2) demonstrating the electronic properties that cause the material toxicity, (3) understanding the reaction mechanisms causing the toxicity, and (4) extracting from in vitro testing and in vivo testing in terrestrial and marine organisms the essential properties of safe nanomaterials. On the basis of this acquired knowledge, we further describe how the dissolved metal ion from these materials (Zn˛? in this Account) can effectively bind with different cell constituents, causing toxicity. We use Fe-S protein clusters as an example of the complex chemical reactions taking place after free metal ions migrate into the cells. As a second example, TiO? is an active material in the UV range that exhibits photocatalytic behavior. The induction of electron-hole (e?/h?) pairs followed by free radical production is a key mechanism for biological injury. We show that decreasing the bandgap energy increases the phototoxicity in the presence of near-visible light. We present in detail the mechanism of electron transfer in biotic and abiotic systems during light exposure. Through this example we show that FSP is a versatile technique for efficiently designing a homologous library, meaning a library based on a parent oxide doped with different amounts of dopant, and investigating the properties of the resulting compounds. Finally, we describe the future outlook and state-of-the-art of an innovative two-flame system. A double-flame reactor enables independent control over each flame, the nozzle distances and the flame angles for efficient mixing of the particle streams. In addition, it allows for different flame compositions, flame sizes, and multicomponent mixing (a grain-grain heterojunction) during the reaction process. PMID:23194152

Pokhrel, Suman; Nel, André E; Mädler, Lutz

2013-03-19

308

Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a ?Toxicity Identification Evaluation? (TIE), which is the focus of this...

309

Comparison of prehatch C-start responses in rainbow trout and lake trout embryos by means of a tactile stimulus test  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The C-start in teleost fishes, a type of startle response, mediates the ability to respond to abrupt, unexpected stimuli and is characterized by a short-latency, C-type fast start acceleration. In prehatch fish embryos, the C-start appears necessary for mechanical breakdown of the egg chorion and successful hatching by way of increased embryo movement and distribution of the hatching enzymes. In later stages, the C-start plays an important role in predator avoidance. Using tactile stimulation, we evaluated the C-start response in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 170 degree-days, when 6.6% of embryos exhibited C-starts, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush embryos at 320 degree-days, when 23% of embryos exhibited C-starts. Triplicate groups of embryos were later tested at three developmental stages: early (220 and 360 degree-days for rainbow trout and lake trout, respectively), middle (260 and 480 degree-days, respectively), and late (320 and 560 degree-days, respectively). The proportion of trout embryos exhibiting C-start increased through time, such that 100% had responded by the late stage, just prior to hatching. C-starts could be obtained by repeated stimulation, and the relative activity of the embryos (based on the number of flexures per stimulus) also increased over time. Rainbow trout and lake trout showed very similar C-start responses at parallel developmental stages, and these patterns of response were similar to those reported in other fish species.

Wright, P.J.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

2003-01-01

310

SEED GERMINATION AND ROOT ELONGATION TOXICITY TESTS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE EVALUATION: METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seed germination tests measure soil toxicity directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents which may be present in site-samples. n the seed germination toxicity test, site-soil is mixed with a reference soil to yield exposure co...

311

REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF MARINE ALGAL TOXICITY TESTING IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Algal toxicity testing is not new, but only within the past few years have data from such testing been used to help set standards for allowable contamination. arly toxicity testing with marine algae used a few planktonic species with inhibition of growth as the primary endpoint. ...

312

Toxicity of copper and zinc assessed with three different earthworm tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, standardised earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests are used to assess the toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils. These tests are, however, time-consuming, laborious and costly, and in addition, some sublethal responses may remain overlooked. Avoidance of metal contaminated soils by earthworms may be a useful parameter when assessing ecological risks with a low test effort. The objective

Tuomas Lukkari; Marjo Aatsinki; Ari Väisänen; Jari Haimi

2005-01-01

313

Spirotox--a new tool for testing the toxicity of volatile compounds.  

PubMed

A new method for estimating the toxicity of volatile compounds was developed. The test was carried out in the disposable polystyrene multiwells. After the organisms, protozoa Spirostomum ambiguum, were added to the wells, microplate was tightly closed using silicone grease and polyethylene film. The toxicities of 21 organic compounds were estimated. No control mortality was observed in all cases. Transparent PE film enabled good observation of test response. The toxicity of tested compounds varied over 4 orders of magnitude. Deformations were 2-4 more sensitive toxic response then lethality. The toxicity of tested compounds in Spirotox test correlates well with the log Kow and toxicity results from other bioassays: Microtox, D. magna and T. pyriformis. PMID:10390838

Na?ecz-Jawecki, G; Sawicki, J

1999-06-01

314

MARINE COMPLEX EFFLUENT TOXICITY PROGRAM: TEST SENSITIVITY, REPEATAELITY AND RELEVANCE TO RECEIVING WATER TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

In March 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a significant change in procedures regulating toxic materials in effluents through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Concurrent with this toxicity-based effluent control policy, the EP...

315

Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum. PMID:24231313

Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

2013-12-15

316

Field validation of 10-day freshwater sediment toxicity tests using Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans  

SciTech Connect

Two of the toxicity tests commonly used to evaluate freshwater sediments are the 10-day amphipod (Hyalella azteca) and chironomid (Chironomus tentans) tests. EPA and ASTM have recently developed standardized protocols for these tests. Although both tests are considered sensitive indicators of sediment toxicity, little information exists on how well test results correspond to adverse biological effects in the field. In this study, the lethal and sublethal (i.e., biomass) responses of the two toxicity tests were compared with alterations of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages (i.e., benthic effects) at 56 stations in Onondaga Lake, New York. The lake has received municipal and industrial discharges for more than 100 years, and sediment chemical concentrations range widely throughout the lake. Toxicity results for Onondaga Lake were compared with reference conditions using the t-test, and benthic effects were determined using classification analysis of log-transformed taxa abundances. In general, a relatively high level of agreement was found between results of the toxicity tests and alterations of benthic assemblages. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found between all toxicity test endpoints and taxa richness of benthic assemblages. In addition, significant concordance (P {le} 0.01, binomial test) was found between toxicity designations for the 56 stations based on toxicity tests and toxicity designations based on benthic effects. Despite the general level of agreement among the various biological indicators, chironomid biomass and benthic effects were found to be the most sensitive indicators of toxicity, whereas amphipod survival and biomass were the least sensitive indicators. This study suggests that results of the 10-day amphipod and chironomid toxicity tests are highly predictive of adverse biological effects in the field.

Becker, D.S.; Bigham, G.N. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

317

Quality testing of three species of Tephritid fruit flies after embryo cryopreservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies obtained from cryopreserved embryos. The Mexican, Anastrepah ludens, Caribbean, A. suspense, and Mediterranean, Certatitis capitata, fruit flies were...

318

Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depends on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water-quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more. importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants, and their sensitivities vary as conditions change. Therefore, each test method has particular uses and limitations, and no single test has universal applicability. One of the most informative approaches to toxicity testing is to combine biochemical tests with other test methods in a 'battery of tests' that is diversified enough to characterize different types of toxicants and different trophic levels. However, such an approach can be costly, and if not carefully designed, it may not yield enough additional information to warrant the additional cost. The application of toxicity tests to large-scale water-quality assessments is hampered by a number of difficulties. Toxicity tests often are not sensitive enough to enable detection of most contaminant problems in the natural environment. Furthermore, because sensitivities among different species and test conditions can be highly variable, conclusions about the toxicant problems of an ecosystem are strongly dependent on the test procedure used. In addition, the experimental systems used in toxicity tests cannot replicate the complexity or variability of natural conditions, and positive test results cannot identify the source or nature of

Elder, John F.

1990-01-01

319

Comparison of mathematically-predicted toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioassay-derived dioxin-equivalents (TCDD-EQs) in heron embryos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from an uncontaminated site (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge,VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, and was associated with concentrations of total PCBs and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to concern.to express toxicity through the Ah receptor. TEQs [mathematically predicted; summed product of PCB congener concentrations using 5 different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)] were compared to TCDD-EQs [derived by bioassay; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H411E rat hepatoma cells]. Although TEQs were up to 15-fold greater than TCDD-EQs, the pattern among sites was consistent and TEQs were highly correlated with TCDD-EQs. TEFs based on single congener mammalian studies yielded TEQs that greatly exceeded values from the H411E bioassay of field sample. TEFs generated from avian egg injection studies yielded TEQs that most closely approximated bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs. Cytochrome P450 parameters were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data document the general predictive value of TEQs and TCDD-EQs for P450 induction in field collected samples, but also indicate the need for development of TEFs for the species and biological end point of concern.

Rattner, B.; Hatfield, J.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Tillitt, D.

1995-01-01

320

Computational Systems Biology and Dose-Response Modeling in Relation to New Directions in Toxicity Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are

Qiang Zhang; Sudin Bhattacharya; Melvin E. Andersen; Rory B. Conolly

2010-01-01

321

Rapid toxicity testing based on mitochondrial respiratory activity  

SciTech Connect

The need exists for rapid and inexpensive methods to determine the health effects of environmental contaminants on biological systems. One of the current research approaches for assessing cytotoxicity is to monitor the respiratory activity of the mitochondrion, a sensitive, nonspecific subcellular target site. Detected changes in mitochondrial function after the addition of a test chemical could be correlated to toxic effects. Mitochondrial respiration can be characterized by three indices: state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR). State 4, the idle or resting state, results when coupled mitochondrial respire in a medium containing inorganic phosphate and a Kreb's cycle substrate in the absence of a phosphate acceptor such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). In the presence of ADP the respiration rate increases to a maximum (state 3), accompanied by phosphorylation of ADP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ratio of state 3 to state 4, or RCR, indicates how tightly the oxidative phosphorylation process is coupled. The synthesis of ATP by mitochondria is influenced by a number of compounds, most of which are either uncouplers or inhibitors.

Haubenstricker, M.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Holodnick, S.E.; Mancy, K.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Brabec, M.J. (Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti (USA))

1990-05-01

322

Evaluation of three soil toxicity tests used to monitor acceptable endpoints  

SciTech Connect

Three terrestrial toxicity tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of biological treatment of creosote and pentachlorophenol impacted soils at a Superfund site. Microtox, 5-day lettuce seed, and 14-day earthworm toxicity tests were performed on 10 soil samples at the beginning and end of 3 months of land treatment. Secondary endpoints of root length and earthworm weight loss were also evaluated. EC50 and LC50 values were calculated using a Trimmed Logit Statistical Program and compared to toxicity of 10 background samples collected from the site. Results for initial soils demonstrated toxicity with three of the five endpoints. End treatment results showed no measurable toxicity using all endpoints. Toxicity testing results are critical for obtaining regulatory approval for the full-scale treatment system. Post treatment closure requirements for the site will be based on bioassay results. Evaluation of the three tests used showed the Microtox test to be the most sensitive to this type of toxicity. Lettuce seed germination results were the least sensitive of the three primary endpoints chosen. Of the secondary endpoint criteria, root length demonstrated reliable EC50 values and showed toxicity trends similar to Microtox and earthworm tests. The earthworm weight loss endpoint was not a useful toxicity measurement at 14 days.

Brinkmann, M.; Stroo, H.; Leuschner, A.; Leuteritz, D.; Stromberg, M.; Brourman, M.

1995-12-31

323

Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native gulf of Mexico species.  

PubMed

Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used appropriately when determining risk. PMID:25563746

Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

2015-05-01

324

SEDIMENT TESTING INTERMITTENT RENEWAL SYSTEM FOR THE AUTOMATED RENEWAL OF OVERLYING WATER IN TOXICITY TESTS WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A sediment testing intermittent renewal (STIR) system (stationary or portable) for invertebrate toxicity with contaminated sediments has been successfully developed and thoroughly tested at ERL-Duluth. oth the stationary and portable systems enable the maintenance of acceptable w...

325

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY TESTING OF SELECTED BENTHIC AND EPIBENTHIC ORGANISMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT QUALITY TEST PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment contamination has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate suite of toxicity tests to assess ecotoxicological impacts on estuarine ecosystems. Existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols recommend a number of test organisms, including amphipods, polych...

326

PERIPHYTON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS AN INDICATOR OF EFFLUENT TOXICITY: RELATIONSHIP TO EFFECTS ON ANIMAL TEST SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of aquatic plants in effluent toxicity evaluations is uncommon despite the availability of test methods and numerous recommendations for their use. It has been assumed that aquatic plants are less sensitive than animal test species and consequently, results from toxicity ...

327

A comparison of relative toxicity rankings by some small-scale laboratory tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale laboratory tests for fire toxicity, suitable for use in the average laboratory hood, are needed for screening and ranking materials on the basis of relative toxicity. The performance of wool, cotton, and aromatic polyamide under several test procedures is presented.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

328

SUITABILITY OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS ('CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS') FOR LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Entire life-cycle toxicity tests are practical with sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. This is the only estuarine fish that has been utilized successfully in life-cycle toxicity tests, using methods formulated only since 1973. Salinity, temperature, and spawning requireme...

329

New technologies and approaches in toxicity testing and risk assessment (ESOT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The release of the National Research Council?s Report ?Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy? in 2007 initiated a broad-based movement in the toxicology community to re-think how toxicity testing and risk assessment are performed. Multiple efforts in the ...

330

Evaluation of the aquatic toxicity of two veterinary sulfonamides using five test organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic toxicity of sulfaquinoxaline (SQO) and sulfaguanidine (SGD) was evaluated on the following test organisms: Daphnia magna (reproduction test), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Scenedesmus dimorphus, Synecococcus leopoliensis (algal growth inhibition test) and Lemna gibba (duckweed growth inhibition test). Furthermore, the additivity of the two compounds was measured on D. magna (acute immobilisation test) and P. subcapitata (algal growth inhibition test) using

Marco De Liguoro; Vincenzo Di Leva; Guglielmo Gallina; Elisabetta Faccio; Gabriele Pinto; Antonino Pollio

2010-01-01

331

Evaluation of a chronic toxicity test based upon the use of luminescent bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously reported on the initial development of a new chronic toxicity test which utilizes the Microtox strain of luminescent bacteria as the test organism. These freeze-dried luminescent bacteria, following inoculation into a special growth medium, initiate a series of reproductive cycles and numerous metabolic pathways resulting in the production of light. Toxic materials which inhibit any aspect of the organisms` reproductive cycle or light production are detected in low levels. Critical test parameters associated with this test were evaluated and the resulting information summarized herein. These parameters include the following: (1) Data calculation methods and software used to capture, analyze, and present test data. (2) Evaluation of test data from 70 copper sulfate experiments with resulting information about test precision, sensitivity, and variability of light production from control cuvettes. 3. An analysis and summary of comparative test data from over 50 effluent samples which were co-tested with the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7 day chronic toxicity test and the Microtox 22 hour chronic toxicity test. (4) Luminescent bacteria chronic toxicity test data from whole effluent samples compared with corresponding test data from whole sediment toxicity test methods.

Bulich, A.; Huynh, H. [Microbics Corp., Carlsbad, CA (United States); Ulitzur, S. [Technion Univ., Haifa (Israel)

1995-12-31

332

Population growth rate determinants for Arbacia: Evaluating ecological relevance of toxicity test endpoints  

SciTech Connect

A population dynamics model for the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, was recently developed incorporating life stage endpoints frequently measured in acute and chronic toxicity studies. Model elasticity analysis was used to demonstrate that population growth rate was influenced most by adult survival and least by early life stage success, calling into question the ecological relevance of results from standardized Arbacia fertilization and larval development toxicity tests. Two approaches were used to continue this evaluation. Actual and hypothetical dose-response curves for toxicant exposures over multiple life stages were used to evaluate contributions to population growth rate of stage-specific toxicant effects. Additionally, relationships between critical life stages were developed from laboratory data for Arbacia. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of understanding both endpoint sensitivity to toxicants and sensitivity of population growth rate to test endpoints in determining the ecological relevance of toxicity tests results.

Nacci, D.; Gleason, T.; Munns, W.R. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1995-12-31

333

Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores  

SciTech Connect

An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

334

Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part III. Effluent Toxicity Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reports on the results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing....

335

ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

336

ADVANTAGES OF USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE RESULTS OF CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although it is traditional to calculate results of chronic toxicity tests using hypothesis testing to detect statistically significant differences from the control, calculation of results using regression analysis offers several major advantages. Regression analysis can directly ...

337

INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

338

AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

339

A comparison of sensitivity of spirotox biotest with standard toxicity tests.  

PubMed

The Spirotox test utilizes a large ciliate protozoan, Spirostomum ambiguum, as a bioindicator. Two kinds of test responses were observed after 24 and 48 h of incubation: different deformations and lethal response. The toxicity of 78 organic compounds evaluated by the Spirotox-volatile procedure varied over six orders of a magnitude from -log (24-h LC(50)) = -3.0 (methanol) to 3.0 (pentachlorophenol). Deformations of the S. ambiguum were two to three times more sensitive toxic response than lethality. The sensitivity of the Spirotox test was compared to four bioassay systems used worldwide: Tetrahymena pyriformis, Microtox, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas. The toxicants were sorted according to the mechanism of action. The toxicity data for both protozoa. T. pyriformis and S. ambiguum were almost identical. Microtox, D. magna, and P. promelas were in general six- to eightfold more sensitive than the 24-h LC(50) Spirotox. The best agreement of toxicity data appeared in the group of nonpolar narcotics. In contrast the toxicity data for all tests only slightly correlated for polar narcotics. Very low slope for polar narcotics indicates that the toxicity range was much broader for the Spirotox test comparing to the others. The most toxic polar narcotics were even more toxic to Spirotox than to Microtox, Daphnia, and fish. PMID:11994778

Na?ecz-Jawecki, G; Sawicki, J

2002-05-01

340

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

Vollmer, John J.; And Others

1987-01-01

341

In situ toxicity tests of fishes in acid waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of waters within the North Branch of the Moose River to various life stages of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus) were examined in situ. Study sites were selected that were expected to range from toxic to favourable water quality. For example, pH varied from 4.25 to 7.17,

David W. Johnson; Howard A. Simonin; James R. Colquhoun; Frank M. Flack

1987-01-01

342

TWO SHORT-TERM TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE CALANOID COPEPOD 'EURYTEMORA HERDMANI' USING A COMPLEX EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Test designs and methodologies for two short-term static renewal tests, a 96-hr lethality test and a 5-day reproductive test, are described and statistically evaluated. The tests were developed specifically for use in the assessment of the toxicity of mixed effluents to copepods....

343

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Defining New Risk Assessment Approaches Based on Perturbation of Intracellular Toxicity Pathways  

PubMed Central

The approaches to quantitatively assessing the health risks of chemical exposure have not changed appreciably in the past 50 to 80 years, the focus remaining on high-dose studies that measure adverse outcomes in homogeneous animal populations. This expensive, low-throughput approach relies on conservative extrapolations to relate animal studies to much lower-dose human exposures and is of questionable relevance to predicting risks to humans at their typical low exposures. It makes little use of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action by which chemicals perturb biological processes in human cells and tissues. An alternative vision, proposed by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, called for moving away from traditional high-dose animal studies to an approach based on perturbation of cellular responses using well-designed in vitro assays. Central to this vision are (a) “toxicity pathways” (the innate cellular pathways that may be perturbed by chemicals) and (b) the determination of chemical concentration ranges where those perturbations are likely to be excessive, thereby leading to adverse health effects if present for a prolonged duration in an intact organism. In this paper we briefly review the original NRC report and responses to that report over the past 3 years, and discuss how the change in testing might be achieved in the U.S. and in the European Union (EU). EU initiatives in developing alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic ingredients have run very much in parallel with the NRC report. Moving from current practice to the NRC vision would require using prototype toxicity pathways to develop case studies showing the new vision in action. In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair. PMID:21701582

Bhattacharya, Sudin; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L.; Boekelheide, Kim; Andersen, Melvin E.

2011-01-01

344

78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CAS No. 52556-42-0). properties; promotes Toxicity to Daphnia; adhesion of pigments; Toxicity to Algae; Acute emulsion polymerization in Inhalation Toxicity in paper, textile, fiber, and Rats; Bacterial Reverse adhesives industries....

2013-11-19

345

A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).  

PubMed

This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n?=?84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information. PMID:25773894

Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

2015-04-01

346

Sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita in Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharges from chemical and petrochemical manufacturing facilities have contaminated portions of Louisiana's Calcasieu River estuary with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. As part of a special study, sediment toxicity testing was conducted to assess potential impact to the benthic community. Ten-day flow-through sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita revealed significant toxicity at 68% (26 of 38) of the stations tested. A. abdita mortality was highest in the effluent-dominated bayous, which are tributaries to the Calcasieu River. Mortality was correlated with total heavy metal and total organic compound concentrations in the sediments. Ancillary experiments showed that sediment interstitial water salinity as low as 2.5 o/o-o did not significantly affect A. abdita's, response in the flow-through system; sediment storage for 7 weeks at 4??C did not significantly affect toxicity. Sediment toxicity to A. abdita was more prevalent than receiving water toxicity using three short-term chronic bioassays. Results suggest that toxicity testing using this amphipod is a valuable tool when assessing sediments containing complex contaminant mixtures and for assessing effects of pollutant loading over time. In conjunction with chemical analyses, the testing indicated that the effluent-dominated, brackish bayous (Bayou d'Inde and Bayou Verdine) were the portions of the estuary most impacted by toxicity.

Redmond, M.S.; Crocker, P.A.; McKenna, K.M.; Petrocelli, E.A.; Scott, K.J.; Demas, C.R.

1996-01-01

347

Method for testing the aquatic toxicity of sediment extracts for use in identifying organic toxicants in sediments.  

PubMed

Biologically directed fractionation techniques are a fundamental tool for identifying the cause of toxicity in environmental samples, but few are available for studying mixtures of organic chemicals in aquatic sediments. This paper describes a method for extracting organic chemicals from sediments and then re-introducing them into water column toxicity tests in a way that mimics, at least in part, the partitioning processes that govern bioavailability in sediment. This involves transferring solvent extracts of sediment into triolein and then placing the mixture inside low-density polyethylene dialysis tubing in a configuration similar to semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used for environmental monitoring. For four model compounds, SPMDs were shown to effectively maintain water column exposure in static systems for 10-14 d, with partition coefficients similar to K(OW). Toxicity tests indicated that the SPMDs were compatible with four of five freshwater organisms tested and could be used to measure both lethal and sublethal end points. An example application showed good correspondence between organism responses in intactsediment and extracts in SPMDsfor both field-collected and spiked sediments. The SPMD-based method offers a simple, flexible test design, amenable to several different test organisms, and the ability to work with complex mixtures of contaminants while maintaining partitioning behavior similar to that within intact sediments. PMID:15597879

Heinis, Larry J; Highland, Terry L; Mount, David R

2004-12-01

348

The sensitivity of relative toxicity rankings by the USF/NASA test method to some test variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pyrolysis temperature and the distance between the source and sensor of effluents are two important variables in tests for relative toxicity. Modifications of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method to increase the upper temperature limit of pyrolysis, reduce the distance between the sample and the test animals, and increase the chamber volume available for animal occupancy, did not significantly alter rankings of relative toxicity of four representative materials. The changes rendered some differences no longer significant, but did not reverse any rankings. The materials studied were cotton, wool, aromatic polyamide, and polybenzimidazole.

Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Leon, H. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hsu, M.-T. S.

1976-01-01

349

Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

2013-12-01

350

Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

2009-01-01

351

Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (DE-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings.  

PubMed

Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 microg/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 microg/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 microg/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 microg total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife. PMID:19045936

McKernan, Moira A; Rattner, Barnett A; Hale, Robert C; Ottinger, Mary Ann

2009-05-01

352

Development and evaluation of multispecies test protocols for assessing chemical toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity testing is a well-recognized tool to assist in evaluating the hazards of chemicals to individual biological species. Multispecies toxicity tests, however, are now well developed. Three test systems were examined: the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for N-fixation, soil microbial populations, and algal multispecies interactions. Test protocols were to be developed and tested using several different chemicals. Test protocols for the legume-Rhizobium and soil microorganisms systems were developed and are presented. The algal multispecies system will require more research, and thus no protocol was recommended at this time. Separate abstracts were prepared for each test system. (ACR)

Garten, C.T. Jr.; Suter, G.W. II; Blaylock, B.G. (eds.)

1985-06-01

353

Relationships between exposure and dose in aquatic toxicity tests for organic chemicals.  

PubMed

There is continuing debate about the merits of exposure-based toxicity metrics such as median lethal concentration (LC50) versus organism-based metrics such as critical body residue (CBR) as indicators of chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms. To demonstrate relationships and differences between these 2 metrics, the authors applied a simple one-compartment toxicokinetic mass-balance model for water-exposed fish for a series of hypothetical organic chemicals exhibiting baseline narcotic toxicity. The authors also considered the influence of several toxicity-modifying factors. The results showed that the results of standard toxicity tests, such as the LC50, are strongly influenced by several modifying factors, including chemical and organism characteristics such as hydrophobicity, body size, lipid content, metabolic biotransformation, and exposure durations. Consequently, reported LC50s may not represent consistent dose surrogates and may be inappropriate for comparing the relative toxicity of chemicals. For comparisons of toxicity between chemicals, it is preferable to employ a delivered dose metric, such as the CBR. Reproducible toxicity data for a specific combination of chemical, exposure conditions, and organism can be obtained only if the extent of approach to steady state is known. Suggestions are made for revisions in test protocols, including the use of models in advance of empirical testing, to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of tests and reduce the confounding influences of toxicity-modifying factors, especially exposure duration and metabolic biotransformation. This will assist in linking empirical measurements of LC50s and CBRs, 2 different but related indicators of aquatic toxicity, and thereby improve understanding of the large existing database of aquatic toxicity test results. PMID:24889496

Mackay, Donald; McCarty, Lynn S; Arnot, Jon A

2014-09-01

354

Cytogenetic Alterations in Preimplantation Mice Embryos Following Male Mouse Gonadal Gamma-irradiation: Comparison of Two Methods for Reproductive Toxicity Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Genome instability is a main cause of chromosomal alterations in both somatic and germ cells when exposed to environmental, physical and chemical genotoxicants. Germ cells especially spermatozoa are more vulnerable to suffering from DNA damaging agents during spermatogenesis and also more potent in transmitting genome instability to next generation. Methods To investigate the effects of ?-rays on inducing abnormalities manifested as numerical Chromosome Aberrations (CA) and Micronucleus (MN) in preimplantation embryos, adult male NMRI mice were irradiated with 4 Gy of ?-rays. They were then mated at weekly intervals with superovulated, non-irradiated female mice in 6 successive weeks. About 68 hr post coitous, four to eight cell embryos were retrieved and fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for CA and MN. Results In embryos generated from irradiated mice, the frequency of aneuploidy and MN increased dramatically at all post-irradiation sampling times as compared to the control (p<0.01). The frequency of embryos expressed MN was much higher than chromosomally abnormal embryos, although the trend of MN formation was similar to chromosomal abnormalities seen in corresponding sampling times. Conclusion Irradiation of sperms at any stages of spermatogenesis may lead to stable chromosomal abnormalities affecting pairing and disjunction of chromosomes in successive preimplantation embryos that are expressed as MN. Although chromosome analysis of embryos showed various types of chromosomal abnormalities, MN assay provide a simpler and faster technique for investigating the genotoxicity of agents affecting embryos at preimplantation stages. PMID:25215176

Salimi, Mahdieh; Mozdarani, Hossein; Nazari, Elmina

2014-01-01

355

Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods. Acute toxicity tests showed that when comparing LC50 values for C. dubia and D. ambigua, D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) while more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Results of chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in the same NOEC/LOEC values for both species. When exposed to unaltered SRS stream water, C. dubia demonstrated a `toxic` response for two of the three streams tested, while reproduction for D. ambigua was higher in all stream samples. Acute toxicity tests with sodium chloride in stream water, generally followed the sensitivity trend noted in tests conducted with regular laboratory water.

Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Harmon, S.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1997-09-01

356

Polychloroprene flexible foam as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polychloroprene flexible foam was evaluated as a reference material for fire toxicity tests. A commercial sample was evaluated using nine different test conditions of the USF methodology. The material exhibited a wide range of relative toxicity depending on the test conditions. Times to incapacitation and times to death were shortest at 16 ml/sec (1 l/min) air flow, at any fixed heating rate and upper limit temperature.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Morford, R. H.

1977-01-01

357

Interlaboratory Evaluation of Hyalella Azteca and Chironomus Tentans Short-term and Long-term Sediment Toxicity Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results of interlaboratory toxicity tests on sediment toxicity methods for use in routine testing and this data has been presented in an EPA report and this is a summary of that data....

358

Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

359

[Effect of Equisetum hyemale on experimental hyperlipemia in rats and its toxic test].  

PubMed

The results of an experimental study in rats fed with Equisetum hyemale and hyperlipid food have proved that inhibiting effects on the elevation of triglyceride and cholesterol can be obviously observed in both high and low doses of Equisetum. The study also shows that Equisetum hyemale can antagonize the hyperlipemia in rats. The acute toxic test has proved its low toxicity. PMID:8323687

Xu, C F; Bian, X Y; Qu, S M; You, L H; Qi, Z M; Cheng, W; Liu, X J; Liu, W Z; Ren, S J

1993-01-01

360

TOXICITY REDUCTION TEST TO ASSIST IN PREDICTING LAND TREATABILITY OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Migration of toxic organics contained in the water soluble fraction (WSF) of land applied hazardous wastes poses the most serious threat to ground-water resources. A toxicity reduction (TR) test system is being proposed that will serve to determine if, and to what extent, attenua...

361

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY TEST SYSTEM USING PRIMARY RAT LIVER CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A model in vitro rat liver parenchymal cellular toxicity system employing cells obtained by the in situ collagenase perfusion technique has been developed to detect potential liver toxicants. The initial evaluation of this test system was accomplished using cadmium chloride, chro...

362

Periphyton photosynthesis as an indicator of effluent toxicity: Relationship to effects on animal test species  

SciTech Connect

The use of freshwater and marine plants in effluent toxicity evaluations is uncommon despite the presence of test methods and recommendations for their use. It has been assumed that aquatic plants are less sensitive than animal test species and consequently, results from toxicity tests with invertebrates and fish have been used often as a surrogate data base. The study evaluated the ability of these animal toxicity tests to provide safe concentrations for in-stream periphyton. The toxicity of several samples of a treated municipal effluent were determined during a five-month period by monitoring short-term changes in periphyton photosynthesis (carbon-14 uptake) and by observing the effects on young production and survival of cultured daphnids and the fathead minnow. The effect levels from the various tests were compared. The effluent was seldom acutely toxic to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) but it was consistently acutely and chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic effect levels ranged between 17 and 71% effluent. Significant inhibition and stimulation of periphyton photosynthesis occurred at concentrations of 6 to 39% effluent. Periphyton photosynthesis was a more sensitive effect parameter than animal survival and in some cases than Ceriodaphnia reproductive performance. The results indicate that effluent toxicity tests conducted routinely with daphnids and fish may not be sufficient to predict effects on indigenous flora in receiving waters.

Lewis, M.A.

1992-01-01

363

THE ROLE OF IONORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper assessess the issue of ion imbalance, provides summary of applicable data, presents several successful technical tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalances, and discusses regulatory/compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imb...

364

Testing, Toxicity and Exposure: How Safe is "No Unreasonable  

E-print Network

#12;2 2 Outline Pesticide Regulations Risk Assessments ­ Hazard Assessments ­ Exposure Assessments-occupational sources (diet, water, residential use) - aggregate risk assessment consider exposure to chemicals ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT EXPOSURE Risk Assessment ­ 4 elements Toxicity of the pesticide ­ potential hazards

Watson, Craig A.

365

ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA is completing the Phase I pilot for a chemical prioritization research program, called ToxCastTM. Here EPA is developing methods for using computational chemistry, high-throughput screening, and toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize l...

366

The use of phytotoxicity tests (common duckweed, cabbage, and millet) for determining effluent toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to use higher plants for detecting effluent toxicity. Eight effluent samples were obtained from three industrial sources prior to their entry into a sewer system. The tests were the duckweed reproduction test, and root growth tests using cabbage and millet. The results of repeated phytotoxicity tests were reproducible. Of the three industrial sources, the

Wuncheng Wang; Judson M. Williams

1990-01-01

367

Survival of brook trout embryos in three episodically acidified streams  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in three streams that undergo episodic acidification during critical periods of embryo development for survival of embryos from egg deposition to preemergence in natural redds and survival of sac fry in toxicity tests done in situ. Twenty-five natural redds were used for comparisons among streams. Median survival to preemergence (range, 16-68%) was different among streams and was inversely related to stream concentration of inorganic monomeric aluminum. Survival to preemergence was not related to intragravel dissolved oxygen concentration, gravel quality, or depth or velocity of stream water at redd sites.

Fiss, F.C.; Carline, R.F.

1993-01-01

368

Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

369

Development of a test system for screening toxic substances: a comparison using organic substances  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a test system for screening toxic substances by predicting their aquatic ecosystem effects. The system studied was a static, one liter microcosm with a diverse species assemblage. The microcosm was composed of biotic inoculum, chemically defined medium and sediment. The biotic inoculum contained primary producers, grazers, carnivores and decomposers. Three different types of sediment were studied: sand, clay, and clay plus sand. Four organic chemicals: phenol, triethylene glycol (TEG), quinoline and naphthoquinone were evaluated with this test system. The toxicities of TEG, quinoline and naphthoquinone were compared for each sediment type. Toxicity was evaluated in terms of the chemical's effects on primary productivity and heterotrophic activity though other effects are also noted. Naphthoquinone concentration exhibited no correlation between ecosystem property values and therefore, could not be ranked. Phenol exhibited the greatest toxicity to net production immediately after the toxicant addition. Quinoline was most toxic to net production over the longer time scale. TEG exhibited the least toxicity to net production, however, TEG exhibited higher toxicity to heterotrophic activity than either quinoline or phenol. Although the type of sediment used in the microcosms did not change the relative toxicities of the chemicals, the microcosms with clay sediment always were observed to exhibit lower net production and higher variability.

Thomas, C.L.

1985-01-01

370

Evaluation of alternative and standard toxicity assays for screening of environmental samples: Selection of an optimal test battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six muniaturized alternative assays (called microbiotests) and three standard toxicity tests were used for a comparative study based on the evaluation of acute toxicity of fifty environmental samples. The test species used in the alternative assays were microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Ceriodaphnia dubia, rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus,protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum and bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The standard toxicity tests utilized

Renata Rojí?ková-Padrtová; Blahoslav Maršálek; Ivan Holoubek

1998-01-01

371

Assessment of four different test designs for Hyalella azteca 10 days sediment toxicity test  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of four experimental designs of the Hyalella azteca 10 days sediment toxicity test. The authors conducted a series of sediment toxicity tests using an EPA recommended experimental design (8 chambers with 10 organisms per treatment) and three other designs. These had the same total number of organisms (80) per treatment and the same sediment:water ratio (1:1.5) but different number of chambers (4,2,1). The number of organisms recovered, the time to sort and count the animals, as well as the time to make a water change were compared for these four designs. Logistic regression was used to analyze the recovery data while one-way analysis of variance methods were used to analyze the time responses. The results showed that the four treatments were comparable in terms of proportion of organisms recovered. However, the sorting time and the water change time decreased as the number of chambers decreased, making those designs with less chambers more desirable.

Ramirez-Romero, P. [Autonomous Metropolitan Univ., Mexico City (Mexico). Hydrobiology Dept.; [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Zoology Dept.; Oris, J.T.; Bailer, J.; DePoy, M. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

372

Toxicity testing strategies for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the use of short-term, EPA-approved laboratory toxicity tests for assessing water-quality conditions in streams and rivers. Strategies for the cost-effective application of such tests for long-term monitoring objectives are considered in the context of logistic constraints and statistical design. A subtle but important difference in objectives for effluent versus ambient testing is this: in effluent testing for regulatory purposes, a key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. This difference shapes the strategy for cost-effective ambient testing and determines the framework for effective statistical analysis and interpretation of ambient toxicity test results. Recommendations derived as `` lessons learned`` from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective, in terms of information gained per dollar spent, than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Various laboratory and in situ methods for environmental assessment are now under development, but these methods probably will not gain acceptance for use in regulatory situations for many years. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Thus, laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

Stewart, A.J.

1994-12-31

373

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

1998-01-01

374

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

SciTech Connect

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

1998-01-01

375

MOTOR ACTIVITY: A SURVEY OF METHODS WITH POTENTIAL USE IN TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Activity measurements are expected to have widespread use in toxicity testing. The multifaceted nature of motor activity will directly influence the selection of a measurement technique since the relative contribution of various motor acts to any particular measurement will depen...

376

Modifying Foods and Feeding Regimes to Optimize the Performance of Hyalella azteca during Chronic Toxicity Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

The amphipod Hyalella azteca is commonly used to assess the toxicity of sediments and waters. However, laboratories have reported varying success in maintaining healthy cultures and in obtaining consistent growth and reproduction (where applicable), especially during tests...

377

DEVELOPMENT OF EPA'S TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING THE TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS.  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS)and genomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize the use of limited testing resources....

378

EVALUATION OF A SHORT-TERM CHRONIC EFFLUENT TOXICITY TEST USING SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to recent changes in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit regulations, rapid (7-day) static renewal toxicity tests have been developed to detect chronic (sublethal and lethal) effect concentrations of municipal and industrial effluents on fre...

379

TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

380

USE OF MARSH PLANTS FOR TOXICITY TESTING OF WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The freshwater wetland plants, Echinochlo crusgalli crusgalli andEchinocloa crusgalli zelayensis, and the saltmarsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, were exposed to the herbicides, metolachlor and norflurazon, in two types of toxicity tests: eed germination and early seedling growth...

381

EPA's Toxcast ? Program for Predicting Hazard and Priortizing Toxicity Testing of Environemntal Chemicals (T)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals that likely represent the greatest hazard to human ...

382

EPA'S TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING HAZARD AND PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals that likely represent the greatest hazard to human ...

383

A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

384

Comparative use of bacterial, algal and protozoan tests to study toxicity of azo- and anthraquinone dyes.  

PubMed

Toxicity of two azo dyes (Reactive Orange 16 (RO16); Congo Red (CR)) and two anthraquinone dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR); Disperse Blue 3 (DB3)) were compared using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, microalga Selenastrum capricornutum and ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The following respective endpoints were involved: acute toxicity measured as bacterial luminescence inhibition, algal growth inhibition, and the effects on the protozoa including viability, growth inhibition, grazing effect and morphometric effects. In addition, mutagenicity of the dyes was determined using Ames test with bacterium Salmonella typhimurium His(-). DB3 dye was the most toxic of all dyes in the bacterial, algal and protozoan tests. In contrast to other dyes, DB3 exhibited mutagenic effects after metabolic activation in vitro in all S. typhimurium strains used. Of the methods applied, the algal test was the most sensitive to evaluate toxicity of the dyes tested. PMID:16297428

Novotný, Cenek; Dias, Nicolina; Kapanen, Anu; Malachová, Katerina; Vándrovcová, Marta; Itävaara, Merja; Lima, Nelson

2006-06-01

385

Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

386

Concentration-time data in toxicity tests and resulting relationships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Periodic analyses for carbon monoxide and methane in the animal exposure chamber during pyrolysis of polyethylene at 800 C without forced air flow showed that the concentrations of these compounds increased with exposure time. These observations, and similar observations for polyurethane flexible foam, permitted the calculation of carbon monoxide toxicity in terms of a DP (Death Product Concentration) value, in addition to flammability in terms of HC (Hydro Carbon) value. Observed DP values exceeding the critical DP(CO) value of 47,200 ppm-min for carbon monoxide may indicate that lethal exposures were reached earlier but not immediately manifested because of the time delay involved in physiological processes. On the basis of this DP(CO) value, carbon monoxide could have been the sole toxicant in the case of polyethylene, polypropylene, polyoxymethylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, ethylene propylene diene rubber, and wood.

Hilado, C. J.; Brauer, D. P.

1979-01-01

387

Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water quality assessments. These purposes may include identification that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. A wide variety of toxicity test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the full selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoints (acute or chronic), (3) test enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity test approachs vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing is more likely to meet these needs than are the procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depend on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because of the fact that most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments, and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants and their sensitivities vary as conditions change. One of the most informative approaches for toxicity testing is to combine biochemical tests with other test methods in a ' battery or tests ' that is diversified enough to characterize different types of toxicants and different trophic levels. (Lantz-PTT)

Elder, J.F.

1989-01-01

388

Toxic stress prioritizes and imbalances stem cell differentiation: implications for new biomarkers and in vitro toxicology tests.  

PubMed

This hypothesis and review introduces rules of stem cell stress responses that provide biomarkers and alternative testing that replaces or reduces gestational tests using whole animals. These rules for the stress responses of cultured stem cells validate the organismal strategy of the stress response and show that it emulates what must happen if the conceptus implants during a response to stress in vivo. Specifically there is a profound threshold during a stress dose response where stem cell accumulation is significantly reduced. Below this threshold stress enzymes manage the stress response by converting anabolic to catabolic processes and by suppressing apoptosis, without affecting differentiation. However above this threshold the stem cell survival response converts to an organismal survival response where stress enzymes switch to new substrates and mediate loss of potency factors, gain of early essential differentiated lineages, and suppression of later essential lineages. Stressed stem cells 'compensate' for lower accumulation rates by differentiating a higher fraction of cells, and the organismal survival response further enhances adaptation by prioritizing the differentiation of early essential lineages. Thus compensatory and prioritized differentiation and the sets of markers produced are part of a response of cultured embryos and stem cells that emulate what must happen during implantation of a stressed gestation. Knowledge of these markers and use of stressed stem cell assays in culture should replace or reduce the number of animals needed for developmental toxicity and should produce biomarkers for stressed development in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22239079

Rappolee, Daniel A; Xie, Yufen; Slater, Jill A; Zhou, Sichang; Puscheck, Elizabeth E

2012-02-01

389

Development and testing of a low-toxicity acid corrosion inhibitor for industrial cleaning applications  

SciTech Connect

A low toxicity corrosion inhibitor for use in hydrochloric acid cleaning formulations has been developed. This formulation does not contains formaldehyde. It contains cinnamaldehyde, quaternary nitrogen salts, and a nonionic surfactant, none of which are currently known or suspected to be carcinogens. In laboratory tests, corrosion protection values were equivalent to those provided by current commercial acid inhibitors. Field tests using the low toxicity inhibitor have been conducted.

Frenier, W.W. [HydroChem Industrial Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01

390

Improvement of in vivo genotoxicity assessment: combination of acute tests and integration into standard toxicity testing.  

PubMed

A working group convened at the 2009 5th IWGT to discuss possibilities for improving in vivo genotoxicity assessment by investigating possible links to standard toxicity testing. The working group considered: (1) combination of acute micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays into a single study, (2) integration of MN assays into repeated-dose toxicity (RDT) studies, (3) integration of Comet assays into RDT studies, and (4) requirements for the top dose when integrating genotoxicity measurements into RDT studies. The working group reviewed current requirements for in vivo genotoxicity testing of different chemical product classes and identified opportunities for combination and integration of genotoxicity endpoints for each class. The combination of the acute in vivo MN and Comet assays was considered by the working group to represent a technically feasible and scientifically acceptable alternative to conducting independent assays. Two combination protocols, consisting of either a 3- or a 4-treament protocol, were considered equally acceptable. As the integration of MN assays into RDT studies had already been discussed in detail in previous IWGT meetings, the working group focussed on factors that could affect the results of the integrated MN assay, such as the possible effects of repeated bleeding and the need for early harvests. The working group reached the consensus that repeated bleeding at reasonable volumes is not a critical confounding factor for the MN assay in rats older than 9 weeks of age and that rats bled for toxicokinetic investigations or for other routine toxicological purposes can be used for MN analysis. The working group considered the available data as insufficient to conclude that there is a need for an early sampling point for MN analysis in RDT studies, in addition to the routine determination at terminal sacrifice. Specific scenarios were identified where an additional early sampling can have advantages, e.g., for compounds that exert toxic effects on hematopoiesis, including some aneugens. For the integration of Comet assays into RDT studies, the working group reached the consensus that, based upon the limited amount of data available, integration is scientifically acceptable and that the liver Comet assay can complement the MN assay in blood or bone marrow in detecting in vivo genotoxins. Practical issues need to be considered when conducting an integrated Comet assay study. Freezing of tissue samples for later Comet assay analysis could alleviate logistical problems. However, the working group concluded that freezing of tissue samples can presently not be recommended for routine use, although it was noted that results from some laboratories look promising. Another discussion topic centred around the question as to whether tissue toxicity, which is more likely observed in RDT than in acute toxicity studies, would affect the results of the Comet assay. Based on the available data from in vivo studies, the working group concluded that there are no clear examples where cytotoxicity, by itself, generates increases or decreases in DNA migration. The working group identified the need for a refined guidance on the use and interpretation of cytotoxicity methods used in the Comet assay, as the different methods used generally lead to inconsistent conclusions. Since top doses in RDT studies often are limited by toxicity that occurs only after several doses, the working group discussed whether the sensitivity of integrated genotoxicity studies is reduced under these circumstances. For compounds for which in vitro genotoxicity studies yielded negative results, the working group reached the consensus that integration of in vivo genotoxicity endpoints (typically the MN assay) into RDT studies is generally acceptable. If in vitro genotoxicity results are unavailable or positive, consensus was reached that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is acceptable as the top dose in RDT studies in many cases, such as when the RDT study MTD or exposure is close (50% or greater) to an acute study MTD or exposure. Finally, the group

Rothfuss, Andreas; Honma, Masamitu; Czich, Andreas; Aardema, Marilyn J; Burlinson, Brian; Galloway, Sheila; Hamada, Shuichi; Kirkland, David; Heflich, Robert H; Howe, Jonathan; Nakajima, Madoka; O'Donovan, Mike; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Recio, Leslie; Schuler, Maik; Uno, Yoshifumi; Martus, Hans-Jörg

2011-08-16

391

The use of pore-water toxicity tests to evaluate potential contaminated groundwater intrusion areas  

SciTech Connect

Pore-water toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to evaluate the lake bottom in areas of suspected contaminated groundwater intrusion from a Superfund Site on the shore of a northern Michigan lake. Toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia were performed using sediment pore-water from 27 lake sites and samples from 12 lake-based and land-based groundwater monitoring wells. The toxicity test results were used to guide subsequent phases of the preliminary investigation which indicated that sediment pore-water from the intrusive areas were clearly toxic and did not meet state water quality regulations. Toxicity tests using lake-based groundwater samples from the suspected groundwater intrusion area were toxicologically, chemically and physically similar to the contaminated pore-water and to the contaminated groundwater plume. Phase 1 TIE procedures were inconclusive, but granular activated carbon treatment removed 79 percent of the toxicity from contaminated pore-water, and 77 percent of the toxicity from contaminated groundwater. These findings, along with supportive well hydraulic head data and benthic community data indicate that contaminated groundwater is entering the lake through the sediments and degrading the pore-water quality and the benthic community.

Forgette, T.A.; Navarro, J.E.; DeGraeve, G.M. [Great Lakes Environmental Center, Traverse City, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

392

Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

393

Toxic actions of dinoseb in medaka ( Oryzias latipes) embryos as determined by in vivo 31P NMR, HPLC-UV and 1H NMR metabolomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in metabolism of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol), a substituted dinitrophenol herbicide, were determined by in vivo 31P NMR, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV, and 1H NMR metabolomics. ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) metabolism were characterized within intact embryos by in vivo 31P NMR; concentrations of ATP, GTP, ADP, GDP, AMP and PCr were determined by HPLC-UV;

Mark R. Viant; Christopher A. Pincetich; David E. Hinton; Ronald S. Tjeerdema

2006-01-01

394

Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Hyalella azteca  

SciTech Connect

ASTM and EPA standard methods for sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca typically recommend use of lethality as the endpoint in a 10-d exposure. However, data from 10- to 28-d exposures with amphipods indicate sublethal endpoints (i.e., growth, sexual maturation, or reproduction) identify additional samples as toxic. The authors compared the frequency that lethal and sublethal endpoints identified a sediment sample as toxic in 14- and 28-d amphipod exposures. In the 14-d amphipod exposures, lethality identified 20% of the samples as toxic, and sublethal endpoints identified an additional 16% of the samples as toxic using sublethal endpoints only. Similarly, in the 28-d exposures, lethality identified 14% of the samples as toxic and sublethal endpoints identified an additional 18% of the samples as toxic. The authors are also currently evaluating Sediment Effect Concentrations (SECs) relative to both lethal and sublethal endpoints in H. azteca exposures. These SECs will be used to evaluate reliability in estimating toxicity of samples. Potential factors which may confound interpretation of sublethal endpoints in sediment tests include: (1) changes in sediment chemistry resulting from long-term storage or feeding (2) the influence of physical characteristics of sediment (grain size), and (3) effects of ammonia or hydrogen sulfide.

Kemble, N.E.; Brunson, E.B.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ehrhardt, E.A.; Hardesty, D.K.; Haverland, P.S.; Ingersoll, C.G. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

1995-12-31

395

Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment  

SciTech Connect

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with two varieties of the freshwater marsh plant Echinochloa crusgalli (Linneaus) Palisot de Beauvois (Poaceae), and complex effluents. Two tests are described: a seed germination and early seedling growth test in water, and a survival and seedling growth test in natural and synthetic sediments. Effects of effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, coking plant and sewage treatment plant included inhibition of germination, chlorophyll synthesis and growth. The tests with rooted marsh plants were sensitive to pollutants and detected toxicity of a range of pollutants in water and sediment. Synthetic sediments similar to natural sediments allowed toxicity tests to be done under carefully controlled conditions of particle size distribution, organic content, pH, electrode potential (Eh) and cation exchange capacity (CEC).

Walsh, G.E.; Weber, D.E.; Simon, T.L.; Brashers, L.K.

1991-01-01

396

USE OF THE AMPHIPOD CRUSTACEAN HYALELLA AZTECA IN FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hyalella azteca (Saussure), which are currently used in toxicity tests with freshwater sediments, were tested to determine their suitability for tests with estuarine sediments. eproduction was good after 24 d at and below 12.5 g/L (ppt) salinity in water only. C50 values (50% red...

397

Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore is vital for performing such ecotoxicity tests, particularly in the tropics. We studied the suitability of

Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

2009-01-01

398

Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

2010-01-01

399

Influence of sediment composition on apparent toxicity in a solid-phase test using bioluminescent bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Clean and spiked sediment formulations of various silt:sand and clay:sand ratios were tested for toxicity using a bioassay that utilizes bioluminescent bacteria. Measured toxicities of clean and copper sulfate-spiked sediments were negatively but nonlinearly related with percent silt and percent clay, but no significant relationship existed between measured toxicity and sediment composition for methyl parathion-spiked formulations. Results suggest that solid-phase sediment bioassays using bioluminescence bacteria may be useful for testing the toxicities of single contaminants in formulated artificial sediments of known particle-size composition, and for repeated samples collected from the same site. However, extreme caution must be taken when testing sediments of varying composition or which may be differentially contaminated or contain a suite of contaminants.

Benton, M.J. [East Tennessee State Univ., Johnson City, TN (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Malott, M.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)]|[Dept. of Agriculture, Oxford, MS (United States); Knight, S.S.; Cooper, C.M. [Dept. of Agriculture, Oxford, MS (United States); Benson, W.H. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

1995-03-01

400

Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study  

SciTech Connect

A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

Stiffey, A.V. (Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Lab. (US))

1992-03-01

401

Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

2008-03-31

402

Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

Wong, M.H.; Chui, V.W. (Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1990-03-01

403

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update (on magnetic tape). Data file  

SciTech Connect

The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data are submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test data are broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data.

NONE

1996-07-01

404

EPA?s ToxCast Program for Predicting Toxicity and Prioritizing Chemicals for Further Screening and Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

Testing of environmental and industrial chemicals for toxicity potential is a daunting task because of the wide range of possible toxicity mechanisms. Although animal testing is one means of achieving broad toxicity coverage, evaluation of large numbers of chemicals is challengin...

405

An evaluation of nickel toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna in a contaminated stream and in laboratory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to document ambient toxicity in two industrially contaminated streams in southeastern Tennessee. Low survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia was linked to concentrations of Ni below EPA water quality criteria. A toxicity identification evaluation consisting of Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas toxicity tests with Ni, chemical analyses, and experiments with a Ni-selective resin

Lynn Adams Kszos; Arthur J. Stewart; Paul A. Taylor

1992-01-01

406

40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and conditions using freshwater and marine algae to develop data on the phytotoxicity... means having the property of killing algae. (2) Algistatic means having the...solution. Start the test by introducing algae into the test and control...

2014-07-01

407

40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and conditions using freshwater and marine algae to develop data on the phytotoxicity... means having the property of killing algae. (2) Algistatic means having the...solution. Start the test by introducing algae into the test and control...

2012-07-01

408

40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and conditions using freshwater and marine algae to develop data on the phytotoxicity... means having the property of killing algae. (2) Algistatic means having the...solution. Start the test by introducing algae into the test and control...

2011-07-01

409

40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and conditions using freshwater and marine algae to develop data on the phytotoxicity... means having the property of killing algae. (2) Algistatic means having the...solution. Start the test by introducing algae into the test and control...

2013-07-01

410

DEVELOPMENT OF A FATE/TOXICITY SCREENING TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

A shake-flask screening test was designed to rapidly evaluate the relative degradation rates of a wide spectrum of chemicals, each compared to methyl parathion. Test chemicals evaluated were bolero, bravo, dibutylphthalate, dimilin, dursban, endosulfan, hoelon, pentachlorobenzene...

411

Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)  

EPA Science Inventory

Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

412

Establishment of quality assurance procedures for aquatic toxicity testing with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

SciTech Connect

In this study initial data were generated to develop laboratory control charts for aquatic toxicity testing using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tests were performed using two reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2} and CuCl{sub 2}. All tests were performed for 24 h without a food source and of 48 h with a food source in a commonly used nematode aquatic medium. Each test was replicated 6 times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration with 10 {+-} 1 worms per well. Probit analysis was used to estimate LC{sub 50} values for each test. The data were used to construct a mean ({bar x}) laboratory control chart for each reference toxicant. The coefficient of variation (CV) for three of the four reference toxicant tests was less than 20%, which demonstrates an excellent degree of reproducibility. These CV values are well within suggested standards for determination of organism sensitivity and overall test system credibility. A standardized procedure for performing 24 h and 48 h aquatic toxicity studies with C. elegans is proposed.

Freeman, M.N.; Marse, T.J.; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Health Science Program

1998-12-31

413

Testing the use of the water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) in laboratory toxicity assays.  

PubMed

Tests aiming to determine the toxic properties of compounds discharged into aquatic systems have relied more on fish or invertebrates than on primary producers and among a number of producers; algae are the most popular test organisms. Macrophytes are important ecological elements in freshwaters and are therefore potentially key organisms for use in toxicity testing of compounds suspected of acting in primary producers. The most common macrophyte used in toxicity testing is Lemna sp., but as a floating plant, it has the limitation of being exposed to toxic compounds only through its lower leaf surface, including roots and rhizoids. Therefore, it is questionable whether tests with Lemna may accurately predict potential effects on submersed and exposed plant species, which have different routes of exposure and morphology. Few other submersed macrophytes have been tested, notably Myriophyllum. In the Iberian peninsula M. spicatum is the most common species within its genus and has been presented as a good bioaccumulator of heavy metals (Wang et al. 1996) and as being sensitive to several toxicants (e.g. Hanson et al. 2003). The aim of this study was to assess the potential of M. spicatum as a testing organism in laboratory assays, by obtaining axenic cultures of this plant and exposing them to several reference compounds to determine the sensitive endpoints. PMID:17492386

Sánchez, David; Graça, Manuel A S; Canhoto, Jorge

2007-06-01

414

Sporadic mortality in chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque): Cases of characterization and control  

SciTech Connect

In whole effluent toxicity tests, organisms are exposed to various effluent concentrations for a specific time period to estimate the potential effects of an effluent on a receiving stream. Laboratories typically have good success performing valid chronic toxicity tests. However, some difficulty in conducting valid chronic whole effluent toxicity tests with Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) has been encountered as a result of sporadic control mortality. Some investigators report an interference that causes anomalous patterns of survival in chronic fathead minnow tests. This interference has been termed sporadic mortality phenomenon. Characteristics of sporadic mortality phenomenon include high variability among replicates, nonmonotonic dose responses, mortality beginning on or about day 4 of the test, and fungal growths often observed on the larvae. Histopathologic examinations often indicate bacterial and/or fungal infections on fish exhibiting symptoms of sporadic mortality phenomenon. The most plausible explanation of sporadic mortality phenomenon is a naturally occurring pathogen or pathogens that interfere with the test method. This