Sample records for embryo toxicity test

  1. Use of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) embryos for toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; O`Malley, K. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    After fertilization, blue crab embryos develop in egg sacs attached to the female pleopods, often referred to as the sponge. Lipovitellin and lipid droplets in the egg sacs provide energy and nutrition for the developing embryos. Embryos were removed from the sponge and transferred to 24 well culture plates containing sea water with or without toxicants, Each well contained 10 embryos. After 7 to 10 days, embryos hatched to swimming zoea. The effects of toxicants at various concentrations on hatching were determined and the EC{sub 50} calculated. For example, the EC{sub 50} for tributyltin, fenvalerate and mercuric chloride were 50, 30 and 90 ng/liter, respectively. The hatching success of control embryos ranged from 95 to 98%. Formation of the heart, eyespot formation, appendage formation and utilization rate of lipovitellin were also effected by exposure to toxicants. At a low concentration of mercuric ion (30ng/liter) the heart formed, but there was no heart beat. Eyespot formation was abnormal in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium (2 {micro}g/liter) and zinc (5 {micro}g/liter), Crab embryos offer many advantages for toxicity testing of pure compounds or mixtures in water, including toxicity testing of sediment pore water. The crab embryos may also serve as models to understand the effect of specific toxicants on the heart and eye spots of crustaceans.

  2. IMPROVED SEA URCHIN DNA-BASED EMBRYO GROWTH TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article presents an improved DNA-based embryo toxicity test in which growth is measured as the increase in DNA during a 5-h postfertilization period. The test, using direct fluorometric determination of DNA rather than thymidine incorporation, is fast, sensitive, easy to cond...

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID MARINE TOXICITY TESTS: SEA URCHIN EARLY EMBRYO GROWTH TEST, SEA URCHIN SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST AND MICROTOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three rapid marine toxicity tests were evaluated to determine their potential usefulness in a toxicity testing program: early embryo growth test and sperm cell toxicity test, both using the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, and Microtox. Toxicity values (EC50s) were derived for eigh...

  4. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish acute toxicity test or application of assessment factors while considering the very good fish embryo-acute fish toxicity correlation for other compounds. PMID:25939044

  5. Simple test for toxicity of number 2 fuel oil and oil dispersants to embryos of grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Fisher; S. S. Foss

    1993-01-01

    A simple test, using embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, was employed to determine the toxicity of two commercial oil dispersants (Corexit 7664 and Corexit 9527) and toxicity of the water soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil (WSF oil) prepared with and without the addition of the dispersants. Tests revealed P. pugio embryos were similar to previously measured

  6. Optimization of high-throughput nanomaterial developmental toxicity testing in zebrafish embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterial (NM) developmental toxicities are largely unknown. With an extensive variety of NMs available, high-throughput screening methods may be of value for initial characterization of potential hazard. We optimized a zebrafish embryo test as an in vivo high-throughput assay...

  7. Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

  8. A test for evaluating the toxicity of oils, dispersants, and oil biodegradation products to embryos of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, S.S.; Fisher, W.S.; Chapman, P.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Shelton, M.

    1994-12-31

    A test has been developed to determine the toxicity of oil, commercial oil dispersants, and oil biodegradation products to embryos of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. The system has several advantages over traditional toxicity tests: Embryos are exposed separately in glass tubes eliminating interaction between individuals, they do not require feeding, are easily examined, and require low volumes of test toxicant. Additionally, tests can be performed using artificial sea salts and adult P. pugio can be maintained and cultured year round in the laboratory. Toxicity tests demonstrated that oil dispersants increased the toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of No. 2 Fuel Oil with estimated LC50 values approximating those obtained with the 7d chronic tests using Mysidopsis bahia. Embryos exposed to neutral fractions derived by microbial degradation of weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil showed toxicity of metabolic products at relatively low concentrations and cause virtually 100% mortality within a narrow time interval. P. pugio embryos were especially responsive to oil metabolites, exhibiting high sensitivity and low variability. All tests showed a consistently high survival (90--100%) of control embryos to hatch under a variety of temperatures and salinities; embryos at any given test condition usually hatched within 24h of one another.

  9. Characterization of grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio) embryo toxicity tests using the water soluble fraction of number 2 fuel oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Rayburn; Patricia S. Glas; Steve S. Foss; William S. Fisher

    1996-01-01

    Toxicity test procedures using grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio exposed to water soluble fraction (WSF) of Number 2 fuel oil were modified to improve test utility and efficiency. The original test procedure, a 12-day embryo exposure period in glass tubes, was compared with modified 4-day and 12-day tests in plastic tissue culture plates. Comparison of LC50 values, coefficients of variation and

  10. Comparison of toxicity test methods using embryos of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.; Foss, S.S.; Glas, P.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water soluble fraction of number 2 fuel oil (WSF{sub oil}). To determine the repeatability and versatility of the grass shrimp in bioassays, detailed concentration-response curves were performed using altered test methods. These alterations were to make the test system easier to use, require less volume of toxic material and to shorten the time of the assay. LC50 values for each method were obtained. The methods evaluated the differences between altering time of exposure from 12 to 4 days. The 4-day assay in 24-well plastic plates included the time of hatch, a critical life stage of these embryos. The average 12-day LC50 in the glass Leighton tubes was 11.8% VN WSF{sub oil}. The coefficient of variation of the individual test methods were approximately 25%, showing that the repeatability was reasonable for bioassays. These results show that a 4-day assay is practical for screening for the detection of number 2 fuel oil contamination. However, the 12-day assay may be necessary for detection of developmental abnormalities.

  11. Simple test for toxicity of number 2 fuel oil and oil dispersants to embryos of grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.S.; Foss, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    A simple test, using embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, was employed to determine the toxicity of two commercial oil dispersants (Corexit 7664 and Corexit 9527) and toxicity of the water soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil (WSF oil) prepared with and without the addition of the dispersants. Tests revealed P. pugio embryos were similar to previously measured life stages in their sensitivity to WSF oil prepared without dispersants. They were approximately ten times more sensitive to water soluble fractions of dispersed oil, which may have been due to the approximately ten-fold increases in total hydrocarbons measured analytically. Both temperatures and salinity of the sea water affected toxicity of WSF prepared with dispersants, the most obvious effect being earlier onset of mortalities at higher temperatures. (Copyright (c) 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd.)

  12. Toxicity evaluation of single and mixed antifouling biocides using the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin embryo test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Li, Yan; Huang, Honghui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the single and mixed toxicities of commonly used antifouling biocides (copper pyrithione, Sea nine 211, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid, and Irgarol 1051) on the early embryogenesis of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Their toxicities were quantified in terms of the median effective concentration (EC50) reducing the embryogenesis success by 50%. For individual biocides to the embryos, the toxicity was in order of copper pyrithione>Sea nine 211>?tolylfluanid>dichlofluanid>Irgarol 1051. The toxicities of mixture (binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary) of compounds, evaluated by toxic unit, additivity index, and mixture toxicity index, showed that the copper pyrithione-Sea nine 211 combination was the most toxic with the EC50 value of 7.87 nM in all mixtures. Synergistic enhancements of toxicity were observed for all mixtures except the combination of tolylfluanid-Sea nine 211, revealing antagonistic effect. Both the concentration addition and independent action concepts failed to accurately predict the mixture toxicities of the antifouling combinations; thus, a new log K(OW)-based model was developed to predict the combined toxicities of these antifouling chemicals, which were capable of predicting the mixture toxicities of antifouling biocides (R(2)=0.33). PMID:21154844

  13. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. PMID:25113410

  14. ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

  15. Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Zega; R Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; F De Bernardi

    2009-01-01

    Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected

  16. Toxicity screening of diclofenac, propranolol, sertraline and simvastatin using Danio rerio and Paracentrotus lividus embryo bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sílvia; Torres, Tiago; Martins, Rosário; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-04-01

    Early life-stage bioassays have been used as an alternative to short-term adult toxicity tests since they are cost-effective. A single couple can produce hundreds or thousands of embryos and hence can be used as a simple high-throughput approach in toxicity studies. In the present study, zebrafish and sea urchin embryo bioassays were used to test the toxicity of four pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic classes: diclofenac, propranolol, simvastatin and sertraline. Simvastatin was the most toxic tested compound for zebrafish embryo, followed by diclofenac. Sertraline was the most toxic drug to sea urchin embryos, inducing development abnormalities at the ng/L range. Overall, our results highlight the potential of sea urchin embryo bioassay as a promising and sensitive approach for the high-throughput methods to test the toxicity of new chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, and identify several drugs that should go through more detailed toxicity assays. PMID:25615533

  17. Toxicity of 15 veterinary pharmaceuticals in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar; Patring, Johan; Kreuger, Jenny; Norrgren, Leif; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2013-01-15

    Extensive use of veterinary pharmaceuticals may result in contamination of water bodies adjacent to pasture land or areas where animal manure has been applied. In order to evaluate the potential risk to fish embryos 15 veterinary pharmaceuticals were investigated by use of an extended zebrafish embryo toxicity test. Chemical analysis of the exposure medium was performed by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) for 11 of the compounds and potential metabolism by the embryos was studied for albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole and oxfendazole. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed under static conditions in 96-well plates for 6 days to the pharmaceuticals: 5 antibacterials and 10 antiparasitics. Endpoints including mortality, malformations and other sublethal responses were recorded at 24, 48 and 144 h post fertilization (hpf). The pharmaceuticals causing the highest toxicity were antiparasitics whereas the tested antibacterials, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, tylosine, trimethoprim and oxytetracyclin had a much lower toxic potency in zebrafish embryos. Most toxic were fenbendazole, albendazole and flumethrin with no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) around 0.02 mg/L. The overall NOEC was determined by lethality for the following pharmaceuticals: albendazole, fenbendazole and oxfendazole. Sublethal endpoints, including malformations, side-laying embryos, tremors, reduced movements and altered heart rate increased the sensitivity of the tests and determined the overall NOECs for febantel, doramectin, ivermectin, flumethrin and toltrazuril. Exposure to doramectin and ivermectin caused a decrease in movements at 24 hpf and a decrease in heart rate at 48 hpf. Flumethrin exposure resulted in decreased time to hatching, except at the highest concentrations, and caused an increase in heart rate at 48 hpf. In contrast, toltrazuril caused an increased time to hatching and a decrease in heart rate. Chemical analysis of the exposure medium after the tests revealed great differences between nominal and measured concentrations, emphasizing the need of including analysis of the actual exposure concentrations. The results indicated that metabolism of albendazole into its sulfoxide protected the embryos from toxicity. Albendazole was metabolized efficiently into albendazole sulfoxide at lower exposure concentrations, resulting in reduced toxicity. At higher concentrations, an increasing proportion of albendazole remained unmetabolized and embryo mortality occurred. Metabolism by the embryos of febantel into fenbendazole and oxfendazole and of fenbendazole into oxfendazole was demonstrated. It is suggested that the toxic effect of febantel in zebrafish embryos is due to metabolism into fenbendazole. PMID:23142600

  18. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge. PMID:22449444

  19. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Esther; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Bessems, Jos G M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds,(1) flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays. PMID:21443896

  20. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Esther de, E-mail: Esther.de.Jong@rivm.nl [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Barenys, Marta [GRET-CERETOX, Toxicology Unit, Public Health Department, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Hermsen, Sanne A.B. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, NUTRIM, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M. [Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  1. The fish embryo toxicity test as a replacement for the larval growth and survival test: A comparison of test sensitivity and identification of alternative endpoints in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Stephens, Dane A; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as an alternative to the larval growth and survival (LGS) test. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the sensitivity of the FET and LGS tests in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) and to determine if the inclusion of sublethal metrics as test endpoints could enhance test utility. In both species, LGS and FET tests were conducted using 2 simulated effluents. A comparison of median lethal concentrations determined via each test revealed significant differences between test types; however, it could not be determined which test was the least and/or most sensitive. At the conclusion of each test, developmental abnormalities and the expression of genes related to growth and toxicity were evaluated. Fathead minnows and zebrafish exposed to mock municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent in a FET test experienced an increased incidence of pericardial edema and significant alterations in the expression of genes including insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, heat shock protein 70, and cytochrome P4501A, suggesting that the inclusion of these endpoints could enhance test utility. The results not only show the utility of the fathead minnow FET test as a replacement for the LGS test but also provide evidence that inclusion of additional endpoints could improve the predictive power of the FET test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1369-1381. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25929752

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death. PMID:21514995

  3. Toxic Effects of Silica Nanoparticles on Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huiqin; Tian, Linwei; Guo, Caixia; Huang, Peili; Zhou, Xianqing; Peng, Shuangqing; Sun, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been widely used in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitable as they become part of our daily life. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the possible toxic effects of SiNPs exposure. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with SiNPs (25, 50, 100, 200 µg/mL) during 4–96 hours post fertilization (hpf). Mortality, hatching rate, malformation and whole-embryo cellular death were detected. We also measured the larval behavior to analyze whether SiNPs had adverse effects on larvae locomotor activity. The results showed that as the exposure dosages increasing, the hatching rate of zebrafish embryos was decreased while the mortality and cell death were increased. Exposure to SiNPs caused embryonic malformations, including pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, tail and head malformation. The larval behavior testing showed that the total swimming distance was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The lower dose (25 and 50 µg/mL SiNPs) produced substantial hyperactivity while the higher doses (100 and 200 µg/mL SiNPs) elicited remarkably hypoactivity in dark periods. In summary, our data indicated that SiNPs caused embryonic developmental toxicity, resulted in persistent effects on larval behavior. PMID:24058598

  4. Acute Toxicity of Synthetic Pyrethroid Cypermethrin on the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi Ayd?n; Kenan Köprücü; Mustafa Dörücü; Sibel ?im?ek Köprücü; Murat Pala

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the toxic effects on the embryos and larvae of the common carp were used as a model to investigate the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin, which contaminates aquatic ecosystems. Data obtained from the cypermethrin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit Analysis Statistical Method. The control and eight test experiments were repeated five times. The number of

  5. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  6. Early developmental toxicity of saxitoxin on medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Cheng, Jinping; Chen, Xueping; Cheng, Shuk Han; Mak, Yim Ling; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Wang, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) is the most potent paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin in crustaceans and molluscs, and is known to cause intoxication to humans and marine animals due to its neurotoxicity. However, the extent of its early developmental toxicity to marine species remains unknown. In this study, we examined the early developmental toxicity of STX using marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos as model. The medaka embryos were exposed to STX for four days, from the early blastula stage onwards, and this exposure period covered the main developmental stage of the central nervous system and somites. After exposure, the treated medaka eleutheroembryos at 15 day post fertilization exhibited abnormal growth with longer body length and relatively smaller yolk sac size. High cell proliferation, neuron development, and metabolism were confirmed using whole-mount immunostaining and two-dimensional electrophoresis. In summary, STX disturbed the normal growth of medaka embryos probably by affecting the metabolic rate in the exposed medaka embryos. PMID:24184516

  7. Developmental toxicity and brain aromatase induction by high genistein concentrations in zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jae; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baek, Min-Won; Lee, Hui-Young; Na, Yi-Rang; Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Dutta, Noton Kumar; Kawakami, Koichi; Park, Jae-Hak

    2009-01-01

    Genistein is a phytoestrogen found at a high level in soybeans. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that high concentrations of genistein caused toxic effects. This study was designed to test the feasibility of zebrafish embryos for evaluating developmental toxicity and estrogenic potential of high genistein concentrations. The zebrafish embryos at 24 h post-fertilization were exposed to genistein (1 × 10?4 M, 0.5 × 10?4 M, 0.25 × 10?4 M) or vehicle (ethanol, 0.1%) for 60 h. Genistein-treated embryos showed decreased heart rates, retarded hatching times, decreased body length, and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. After 0.25 × 10?4 M genistein treatment, malformations of survived embryos such as pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, and spinal kyphosis were also observed. TUNEL assay results showed apoptotic DNA fragments in brain. This study also confirmed the estrogenic potential of genistein by EGFP expression in the brain of the mosaic reporter zebrafish embryos. This study first demonstrated that high concentrations of genistein caused a teratogenic effect on zebrafish embryos and confirmed the estrogenic potential of genistein in mosaic reporter zebrafish embryos. PMID:19750021

  8. Estradiol uptake, toxicity, metabolism, and adverse effects on cadmium-treated amphibian embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Fridman, Osvaldo; Corró, Lucrecia; Herkovits, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 25 micromol/L 17beta-estradiol (E2) resulted in 100% lethality within 48 hr, whereas 10 micromol//L E2 was the no observed effect concentration value for short-term chronic (7 days) exposure. The toxicity profile curves show that lethal effects were proportional to the E2 concentration and the time of exposure. The E2 uptake resulted in 20.1 ng E2/mg embryo at 8 hr posttreatment, but 67.3% of this value was achieved during the first 30 min of incubation with this estrogen. Regarding metabolism, the embryos synthesize estrone (E1) from E2 by means of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Simultaneous treatments of Bufo arenarum embryos with 1 mg/L Cd2+ and 0.1, 1, or 10 micromol/L E2 enhanced the lethality exerted by cadmium in 76.7, 80, and 83.3% of embryos, respectively. The results indicate that estrogenic endocrine disruptors could have an adverse effect on amphibian embryos and enhance the toxic effect of Cd on amphibian embryos. This study points to the possibility of using the AMPHITOX test as a screening method for potential endocrine disruption as well as the combined effects of chemical mixtures. PMID:15175173

  9. Nanomaterial Toxicity Screening in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess nanomaterial vertebrate toxicity, a high-content screening assay was created using developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. This included a diverse group of nanomaterials (n=42 total) ranging from metallic (Ag, Au) and metal oxide (CeO2, CuO, TiO2, ZnO) nanoparticles, to non...

  10. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Engineering Bulletin is intended to provide site managers with information on ecological assessment and biological toxicity testing, applicability of biological toxicity testing, planning effective biological toxicity assessments, descriptions of test methods, limitations, c...

  11. Toxicity testing for human in vitro fertilization programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Ackerman; Gordon L. Stokes; R. James Swanson; Sherry P. Taylor; Lori Fenwick

    1985-01-01

    Using a mouse embryo culture system, several procedures and materials associated with human in vitro fertilization protocols were tested for potential toxicity. Also, quality-control assays were performed for media prepared by nine different human in vitro fertilization programs. Detrimental effects upon embryo development were observed when culture media were exposed to the following substances: surgical instruments sterilized with Cidex or

  12. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  13. [Interaction between calcium and lead affects the toxicity to embryo of zebrafish (Danio rerio)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Zhi; Zhu, Lin; Yao, Kun; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Ding, Jun-Nan

    2009-04-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased Ca2+ content increases the sensitivity of the developing embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Pb. And the aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which calcium can individually mitigate lead ion toxicity based on the concept of biotic ligand model (BLM). Embryos of the zebrafish were exposed to various Pb concentrations. Chemical characteristics of water and representative toxicological endpoints of zebrafish embryo were recorded. And general growth retardation as a major toxicological endpoint was used for analysis at 72 h due to its sensitivity and facility. The BLM software of Visual MINTEQ (Version 2.5.2) was employed to calculate the chemical speciation in the solution. The results showed that when Ca2+ concentration increased from 0.25 mmol/L to 2.00 mmol/L, the toxicity of lead on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) decreased markedly after 72 h. And a large part of these decrease can be explained by the positive linear relations between EC50{Pb2+}/EC50[Pb]T (expressed as lead ion activity/dissolved total concentration) and activity/total concentration of Ca2+, through which the influence of Ca2+ on toxicity could be predicted. The results support the assumptions of the BLM and associated with competition between lead and calcium for binding on transport and toxic action sites on biological surfaces. However, when Ca2+ concentration increased from 2.00 mmol/L to 4.00 mmol/L, the toxicity of lead on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) seemed to be constant at 72 h. PMID:19545030

  14. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

  15. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

  16. Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    van Aerle, Ronny; Lange, Anke; Moorhouse, Alex; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Ball, Katie; Johnston, Blair D; de-Bastos, Eliane; Booth, Timothy; Tyler, Charles R; Santos, Eduarda M

    2013-07-16

    Silver nanoparticles cause toxicity in exposed organisms and are an environmental health concern. The mechanisms of silver nanoparticle toxicity, however, remain unclear. We examined the effects of exposure to silver in nano-, bulk-, and ionic forms on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) using a Next Generation Sequencing approach in an Illumina platform (High-Throughput SuperSAGE). Significant alterations in gene expression were found for all treatments and many of the gene pathways affected, most notably those associated with oxidative phosphorylation and protein synthesis, overlapped strongly between the three treatments indicating similar mechanisms of toxicity for the three forms of silver studied. Changes in oxidative phosphorylation indicated a down-regulation of this pathway at 24 h of exposure, but with a recovery at 48 h. This finding was consistent with a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption at 24 h, but not at 48 h, following exposure to silver ions. Overall, our data provide support for the hypothesis that the toxicity caused by silver nanoparticles is principally associated with bioavailable silver ions in exposed zebrafish embryos. These findings are important in the evaluation of the risk that silver particles may pose to exposed vertebrate organisms. PMID:23758687

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles cause toxicity in exposed organisms and are an environmental health concern. The mechanisms of silver nanoparticle toxicity, however, remain unclear. We examined the effects of exposure to silver in nano-, bulk-, and ionic forms on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) using a Next Generation Sequencing approach in an Illumina platform (High-Throughput SuperSAGE). Significant alterations in gene expression were found for all treatments and many of the gene pathways affected, most notably those associated with oxidative phosphorylation and protein synthesis, overlapped strongly between the three treatments indicating similar mechanisms of toxicity for the three forms of silver studied. Changes in oxidative phosphorylation indicated a down-regulation of this pathway at 24 h of exposure, but with a recovery at 48 h. This finding was consistent with a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption at 24 h, but not at 48 h, following exposure to silver ions. Overall, our data provide support for the hypothesis that the toxicity caused by silver nanoparticles is principally associated with bioavailable silver ions in exposed zebrafish embryos. These findings are important in the evaluation of the risk that silver particles may pose to exposed vertebrate organisms. PMID:23758687

  18. Copper toxicity to sperm, embryos and larvae of topsmelt 'Atherinops affinis', with notes on induced spawning

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.S.; Middaugh, D.P.; Hunt, J.W.; Turpen, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    Topsmelt, Atherinops affinis, were induced to spawn repeatedly in the laboratory using a combination of environmental cues. Temperature spikes appeared to be the most important factor to induce spawning. Egg production peaked four days after a 2C increase in water temperature, and declined thereafter. A series of static toxicity tests compared the relative sensitivity of topsmelt sperm, embryos, and larvae to copper chloride. Of the three developmental stages compared, sperm were more sensitive than embryos, and embryos were more sensitive than larvae. The mean EC50 from four separate 48-h fertilization experiments was 109 micrograms copper/liter. The mean EC50 from three, 12-day embryo development development tests was 142-147 micrograms copper/liter, depending on the endpoint used. The mean LC50 from three, 96-h larval mortality tests was 238 micrograms copper/liter. Topsmelt are amenable to laboratory culture and are a promising eastern Pacific toxicity test species. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, England.)

  19. Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo assay for developmental toxicity incorporating individual embryo incubations: Evaluations of controls, a pure compound (BaP), soil extracts, and stream effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    A non-indigenous, but useful fish species has been largely overlooked by organizations preparing protocols for toxicity testing in research and environmental regulation. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been used in basic and applied research in the United States and Japan for many years. All life-history stages have been used and studied, including numerous different types of embryo and embryo-larval assays. However, a medaka embryo assay has yet to be recommended by the American Society for Testing and Materials, the United States Environmental Protection Agency or the American Public Health Association for use as a test species in water quality control. The authors have developed and refined methods for evaluating toxicity and abnormalities in embryos exposed to contaminants in a variety of media. Individual embryos exposed to benzo[a]pyrene showed both increased mortalities and abnormalities. In the two field applications, individual embryos were exposed to: (1) soil extracts from two hydrocarbon-contaminated sites on U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll, in the General Republic of the Marshall Islands, or (2) water samples from ten sites on East Fork Poplar Creek, in Oak Ridge, TN, a stream that originates inside the DOE Y-12 Plant. The two soil extracts were from diesel fuel-contaminated soil; treated embryos showed significant responses ranging from increased mortalities to abnormalities and developmental delays. The stream has a history of industrial contamination, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals, (particularly mercury); other typical industrial discharges (i.e. chlorine, ammonia, and nitrates) are also present at some sites. Treatment groups showed high mortality and dose-dependent mortality in diluted samples compared to control and reference water samples. This study demonstrates the flexibility of this medaka embryo assay for assessing the toxicity of complex environmental sites.

  20. Developmental toxicity of methanol in whole embryo culture: A comparative study with mouse and rat embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.E.; Ebron-McCoy, M.; Logsdon, T.R.; Mole, L.M.; Kavlock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH), a widely used industrial solvent, has been proposed as an alternative motor vehicle fuel. Inhaled MeOH is developmentally toxic in both rats and nice but the mouse is more sensitive than is the rat. The contribution of the embryo to this differential sensitivity was studied in whole embryo culture (WEC) using equivalent stage rat (day 9) and mouse (day 8) embryos (plug day = day 0). Rat embryos were explanted and cultured in 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 or 16 mg MeOH/ml rat serum for 24 h and then transferred to rat serum alone for 24 h. Embryonic development of the 2 and 4 mg MeOH/ml groups was not significantly different from the controls whereas the higher concentrations resulted in a concentration related decrease in somite number, head length and developmental score. The 12 mg/ml dose resulted in some embryolethality as well as dysmorphogenesis, while the highest dose was embryolethal. MeOH was dysmorphogenic in vitro in rat embryos at a MeOH concentration comparable to that reported in maternal serum following teratogenic in vivo exposures. Day 8 mouse embryos were explanted and cultured in 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg MeOH/ml culture medium (75% rat serum, 25% Tyrode's salt solution) for 24 h. Embryonic development in the 2 mg/ml MeOH group was not significantly different from the controls but all higher concentration groups had a significant decrease in developmental score and crown-rump length. The high concentration group also suffered 80% embryolethality. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)

  1. Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiongjie [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Du Yongbing [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Lam, Paul K.S.; Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Zhou Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: bszhou@ihb.ac.cn

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly reduced after the embryos were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS until 132 hpf. The fry displayed gross developmental malformations, including epiboly deformities, hypopigmentation, yolk sac edema, tail and heart malformations and spinal curvature upon exposure to PFOS concentrations of 1 mg/L or greater. Growth (body length) was significantly reduced in the 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS-treated groups. To test whether developmental malformation was mediated via apoptosis, flow cytometry analysis of DNA content, acridine orange staining and TUNEL assay was used. These techniques indicated that more apoptotic cells were present in the PFOS-treated embryos than in the control embryos. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis, p53 and Bax, were both significantly up-regulated upon exposure to all the concentrations tested. In addition, we investigated the effects of PFOS on marker genes related to early thyroid development (hhex and pax8) and genes regulating the balance of androgens and estrogens (cyp19a and cyp19b). For thyroid development, the expression of hhex was significantly up-regulated at all concentrations tested, whereas pax8 expression was significantly up-regulated only upon exposure to lower concentrations of PFOS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/L). The expression of cyp19a and of cyp19b was significantly down-regulated at all exposure concentrations. The overall results indicated that zebrafish embryos constitute a reliable model for testing the developmental toxicity of PFOS, and the gene expression patterns in the embryos were able to reveal some potential mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

  2. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic. PMID:24375845

  3. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae. PMID:23334459

  4. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sřrhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Řrjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  5. Unexpected interaction with dispersed crude oil droplets drives severe toxicity in atlantic haddock embryos.

    PubMed

    Sřrhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Karlsen, Řrjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  6. Embryo toxic effects of depleted uranium on the morphology of the mouse fetus.

    PubMed

    Mirderikvand, Nina; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Baharak; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shaki, Fatemeh; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced growth of the offspring have been observed following uranium exposure at different gestation periods. For investigating the effects of DU on pregnant animals, three groups (control, sham and test) of NMRI mice were chosen. In test group 4 mg/Kg of DU were administered intraperitonealy at 11 day of gestation, in sham group only normal saline injected to interior peritoneum as indicated in the test group and in Control group which was considered as the comparison base line of our research, no injection was made. Caesarean sections were performed at 15 day of the gestation; and their placentas were examined externally. Base on our results DU caused significant external anomalies, and caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the weight and diameter of placentas, the number of the embryos, their body weight and crown-rump length of fetuses. PMID:24734072

  7. Embryo Toxic Effects of Depleted Uranium on the Morphology of the Mouse Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Mirderikvand, Nina; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Baharak; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shaki, Fatemeh; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced growth of the offspring have been observed following uranium exposure at different gestation periods. For investigating the effects of DU on pregnant animals, three groups (control, sham and test) of NMRI mice were chosen. In test group 4 mg/Kg of DU were administered intraperitonealy at 11 day of gestation, in sham group only normal saline injected to interior peritoneum as indicated in the test group and in Control group which was considered as the comparison base line of our research, no injection was made. Caesarean sections were performed at 15 day of the gestation; and their placentas were examined externally. Base on our results DU caused significant external anomalies, and caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the weight and diameter of placentas, the number of the embryos, their body weight and crown-rump length of fetuses. PMID:24734072

  8. Cytogenetic and developmental toxicity of cerium and lanthanum to sea urchin embryos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cytogenetic and developmental toxicity of cerium and lanthanum to sea urchin embryos Rahime Oral1 was to evaluate the toxicity of two rare earth elements (REE), cerium and lanthanum on sea urchin embryos further studies of a more extended REE series. Key words: rare earth elements; cerium; lanthanum; sea

  9. Differential developmental toxicity of naphthoic acid isomers in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Michael W.; Erwin, Kyle; Hardman, Ron; Yuen, Bonny; Volz, David C.; Hinton, David E.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread persistent pollutants that readily undergo biotic and abiotic conversion to numerous transformation products in rivers, lakes and estuarine sediments. Here we characterize the developmental toxicity of four PAH transformation products each structural isomers of hydroxynaphthoic acid: 1H2NA, 2H1NA, 2H3NA, and 6H2NA. Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos and eleutheroembryos were used to determine toxicity. A 96-well micro-plate format was used to establish a robust, statistically significant platform for assessment of early life stages. Individual naphthoic acid isomers demonstrated a rank order of toxicity with 1H2NA > 2H1NA > 2H3NA > 6H2NA being more toxic. Abnormalities of circulatory system were most pronounced including pericardial edema and tube heart. To determine if HNA isomers were AhR ligands, spatial-temporal expression and activity of CYP1A was measured via in vivo EROD assessments. qPCR measurement of CYP1A induction proved different between isomers dosed at respective concentrations affecting 50% of exposed individuals (EC50s). In vitro, all ANH isomers transactivated mouse AhR using a medaka CYP1A promoter specific reporter assay. Circulatory abnormalities followed P450 induction and response was consistent with PAH toxicity. A 96-well micro-plates proved suitable as exposure chambers and provided statistically sound evaluations as well as efficient toxicity screens. Our results demonstrate the use of medaka embryos for toxicity analysis thereby achieving REACH objectives for the reduction of adult animal testing in toxicity evaluations. PMID:18433798

  10. The toxicity of heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Calabrese; R. S. Collier; D. A. Nelson; J. R. MacInnes

    1973-01-01

    The acute toxicity of 11 heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica was studied and the concentrations at which 50% of the embryos did not develop were determined. The most toxic metals and their LC50 values were mercury (0.0056 ppm), silver (0.0058 ppm), copper (0.103 ppm) and zinc (0.31 ppm). Those metals that were not as toxic

  11. Drosophila Embryos as Model to Assess Cellular and Developmental Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyin; Campo, Eva M.; Bossing, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery. PMID:24558411

  12. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. The test for...at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty embryos, 9 to 11...

  13. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. The test for...at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty embryos, 9 to 11...

  14. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. The test for...at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty embryos, 9 to 11...

  15. The Future of Toxicity Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin E. Andersen; Mustafa Al-Zoughool; Maxine Croteau; Margit Westphal; Daniel Krewski

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a report, “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy,” that proposes a paradigm shift for toxicity testing of environmental agents. The vision is based on the notion that exposure to environmental agents leads to adverse health outcomes through the perturbation of toxicity pathways that are operative in

  16. GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR REGULATION IN THE RAT EMBRYO: A POTENTIAL SITE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat embryo: a potential site for developmental toxicity? Ghosh B, Wood CR, Held GA, Abbott BD, Lau C. National Research Council, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA. ...

  17. Transient Overexpression of adh8a Increases Allyl Alcohol Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P.; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50?=?478 mg/L vs. fish LC50?=?0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50?=?0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in metabolization. PMID:24594943

  18. Rethinking guideline toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    The guidelines for risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) and other non-pharmaceuticals were developed over three decades ago and have generally not been updated to incorporate advancements in toxicology and exposure sciences. These guidelines recommend using maximum-tolerated-dose (MTD) even when human relevance of such high doses is mostly limited due to orders of magnitude margin-of-exposure. Conducting animal studies at such high doses often requires further mode-of-action (MoA) studies elucidating human relevance. In order to improve data, ILSI/HESI-ACSA technical committee proposed a tiered approach with emphasis on determining systemic dose of parent and/or metabolite(s) in test animals as biological effects are reflective of systemic rather than administered dose. Any deviation from linearity in systemic dose (saturation of absorption or elimination) in animal studies may have profound toxic effect(s) not expected to occur in likely human exposure scenarios and should be avoided. Toxicity studies should ideally be conducted at kinetically linear doses or slightly above the point of departure from linearity or kinetically-derived maximum dose (KMD) as the systemic dose nonlinearity is a more sensitive parameter occurring much earlier than the MTD endpoints. Therefore, determining systemic dose, especially KMD, in study animals is an improvement to hazard assessment of PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals allowing toxicologists to better understand findings in animals at systemically linear as well as nonlinear doses to likely human exposures which can easily be accomplished using core study animals as outlined below. Determining systemic dose in studies will also increase the understanding of initial potential MoA of a PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals and reduce the use of animals by avoiding unnecessary additional MoA studies. PMID:25980640

  19. Artifacts in ambient toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Short-term toxicity tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and Ceriodaphnia dubia can be used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of effluents or receiving water. The results of effluent toxicity tests may need to be interpreted differently from the results of ambient toxicity tests. In this paper we provide examples of common artifacts, which can cause either false positives or false negatives, that we have encountered when these tests are used in ambient assessments. The examples we provide are drawn from diverse effluent and ambient water toxicity tests conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from March, 1985 through November, 1991. Three types of artifacts which have been encountered when using these tests in ambient applications are explored here. One type involves unusual replicate-specific variance in survival of fathead minnow larvae. The second and third types of artifacts affect the C. dubia test and appear to be related to food availability.

  20. Artifacts in ambient toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-10-01

    Short-term toxicity tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and Ceriodaphnia dubia can be used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of effluents or receiving water. The results of effluent toxicity tests may need to be interpreted differently from the results of ambient toxicity tests. In this paper we provide examples of common artifacts, which can cause either false positives or false negatives, that we have encountered when these tests are used in ambient assessments. The examples we provide are drawn from diverse effluent and ambient water toxicity tests conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from March, 1985 through November, 1991. Three types of artifacts which have been encountered when using these tests in ambient applications are explored here. One type involves unusual replicate-specific variance in survival of fathead minnow larvae. The second and third types of artifacts affect the C. dubia test and appear to be related to food availability.

  1. Effects of storage temperature and duration on toxicity of sediments assessed by Crassostrea gigas oyster embryo bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Beiras, R. [Univ. de Vigo, Galicia (Spain). Area de Ecoloxia; His, E. [IFREMER Station d`Arcachon (France). Quai Silohuette; Seaman, M.N.L. [Inst. of Marine Research, Kiel (Germany). Fisheries Biology Dept.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of temperature and duration of storage on the toxicity of estuarine sediments were investigated with the Crassostrea gigas oyster embryo bioassay. Sediments ranging from unpolluted (controls) to extremely polluted with heavy metals (>100 ppm Hg, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and total hydrocarbons (>1,000 ppm) were collected from sites in southwest France and northern Spain, Control sediments were toxic only at the highest concentrations tested and after freezing in liquid nitrogen ({minus}196 C). Polluted sediments significantly reduced the success of oyster embryogenesis. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of storage temperature on toxicity increased with the prolongation of storage. Prolonged storage of fresh (4 C) sediments resulted in a loss of toxicity, which was more rapid in the less-polluted sediments. Deep-frozen sediments ({minus}196 C) were highly toxic regardless of origin and storage time, and because deep-freezing causes spurious toxicity in the control samples, it cannot be recommended for toxicological studies. In the context of the assessment of sediment toxicity by embryo-larval bioassays, fresh (4 C) storage is recommended when sediments need to be stored for no longer than a few days. The advisable duration of fresh storage to avoid false-negative results is directly related to the degree of toxicity. Should the sediments require prolonged storage, freezing at {minus}20 C appears to be the best choice.

  2. Differential toxicity of three PCB congeners in developing sea urchin embryos and implication of TEQ approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, L.; Suffet, I. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hose, J. [Occidental Coll., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bay, S. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Westminster, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between body burden and toxicity of three individual PCB congeners in developing sea urchin embryos was investigated to evaluate the validity of current predictive models of PCB toxicity in an invertebrate system. The uptake and accumulation of radiolabeled PCB congeners from sea water was measured in the sea urchin embryo tissues and the relative toxicity determined. According to the toxic equivalents (TEQ) approach of assessing risk to mammals, congener 77, a nonortho-substituted congener, is predicted to be more toxic than the diortho-substituted congeners 47 and 153. Using a 72 hour embryo development assay, congener 47 was found to be at least four times as toxic as congener 77, with EC50s of 15.7 and > 72.5 mmol/kg, respectively. Congener 153, a hexachlorobiphenyl, was virtually nontoxic even at the highest dose used. Cytologic and cytogenetic anomalies were studied to find a possibly more sensitive endpoint and to suggest a mechanism of toxicity. The cytogenetic analysis revealed that the PCBs inhibited mitosis. At the highest doses, complete mitotic arrest was observed. Congener 77 was found to be at least two times more toxic than congener 153 but not as toxic as congener 47 using mitotic activity as the endpoint. Thus, the two endpoints of toxicity did not change the order in which the congeners are toxic, but established different EC50s. The relative toxicities of these congeners in this study contradict the structure-activity prediction of the mammalian-based TEQ approach.

  3. Nickel and Copper Toxicity to Embryos of the Long-Spined Sea Urchin, Diadema savignyi.

    PubMed

    Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Colvin, M A; Dolecal, R E; Raymundo, L J; Earley, P J

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of long-spined sea urchins (Diadema savignyi) collected from Guam (Northern Marianas Islands), USA, to nickel and copper in seawater was explored using 48-h embryo-larval development toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) averaged 94 µg L(-1) for nickel, and 19 µg L(-1) from a single exposure to copper, and suggest relatively high sensitivity of this species to nickel compared with other sea urchin genera, but similar sensitivity to copper. Ambient nickel and copper concentrations concurrently sampled from 16 near-shore locations around Guam were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those that would be expected to result in adverse effects to D. savignyi embryos. Although nationally recommended chronic ambient water quality criteria, currently 8.2 and 3.1 µg L(-1) for nickel and copper, respectively, were not exceeded, recently derived qualifying toxicity data should be considered for updating these criteria to ensure protectiveness of sensitive tropical species. PMID:25573279

  4. Effects of simulated weathering on the toxicity of selected crude oils and their components to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Radovi?, Jagoš R; Bayona, Josep M; Macrae, Kenneth; Thomas, Kevin V; Beiras, Ricardo

    2013-09-15

    Artificial weathering of Angolan crude and a Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) was performed by evaporation and photooxidation. The aliphatic, aromatic, polar and asphaltene fractions of the fresh and weathered oils were isolated. The toxicity of the water accommodated fraction or an oil/fraction dissolved in DMSO was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. Photooxidation was observed to decrease the aromatics content and increase polar compounds. A slight reduction in the toxicity of Angolan crude was observed following weathering for the water-accommodated fraction and the extract in DMSO, but no effect was seen for the Heavy Fuel Oil. For aliphatic compounds, the toxicity decreased in the order fresh>evaporated>photooxidated for both Angolan crude and HFO. Weathering slightly increased the toxicity of the aromatic and polar fractions of the oil. The aromatic fractions were responsible for most of the toxicity and the polar compounds were the second most important toxic components, despite having less or similar abundance than the aliphatic fraction. The toxic contribution of the aromatic compounds was higher for the HFO than for the Angolan crude. A decrease in the toxicity of Angolan crude following weathering correlated with a reduction in the toxicity of the aliphatic fraction. PMID:23747464

  5. METAL TOXICITY TO EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF EIGHT SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH--II: COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tes...

  6. [Toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS QDs to zebrafish embryos].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Fei; Huang, Cheng-Zhi; Pu, De-Yong; Zheng, Chao-Yi; Yuan, Kai-Mi; Jin, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Jin, Li

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS QDs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different developmental stages were investigated in this study. The voluntary movement frequency, body length, hatching rate, mortality and malformation rate, SOD activities, MDA contents, mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT) and heat stress protein 70 (Hsp70) were used as indicators. The results showed that the EC50 was 316.994 nmol x L(-1) for zebrafish embryos (72 hpf) when exposed to CdSe/ZnS QDs. After the CdSe/ZnS QDs exposure, the embryos showed a significant increase in mortality and malformation rate, a decrease in hatching rate and body length, an advance in hatching time, and a changing in the spontaneous movement frequency, and many other toxic effects, such as the condensation of embryonic eggs, the formation of pericardial cysts and curvature of the spine. Moreover, it was found that the MDA contents in the embryos in CdSe/ZnS QDs groups were significantly increased, and the SOD activities were changed. In addition, the mRNA expression level of MT and Hsp70 were up-regulated. All the information suggests that exposure of CdSe/ZnS QDs can cause toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, and the effects may be related to the releasing of Cd2+, particle size and oxidative stress. PMID:26031104

  7. Aquatic toxicity assessment of single-walled carbon nanotubes using zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huichin; Lin, Yu-Jun; Li, Meng-Wei; Chuang, Han-Ni; Chou, Cheng-Chung

    2011-07-01

    Zebrafish embryos selected at the 64-cell stage were exposed to various concentrations of amide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) ranging from 1 to 10 ?g/ml dissolved in 1% Pluronic F-68 (a cell culture grade surfactant), and the development of embryos was examined from 24 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Incubation of embryos in 1% F-68 did not induce overt abnormal phenotype as compared to the wild-type; neither did it cause significant mortality during the exposure period. Generally, there was a slight developmental delay in larvae treated with SWCNTs of 5 ?g/ml or above. Only larvae exposed to >= 5 ?g/ml SWCNTs showed significantly reduced survival rates. About 50% of the embryos exposed to 5 ?g/ml showed abnormal phenotypes at 24 hpf as compared to the control group. As development proceeds to 120 hpf, more embryos displayed defective morphology. A slight hatching delay was observed in embryos exposed to concentrations above 5 ?g/ml. There was a general reduction of body axes, including narrowed somite and shortened yolk stalk. In addition, pigmentation in the ventral trunk area was less than that observed in control group. The body lengths of the exposed embryos were decreased significantly at 48 hpf (3.11 mm in control vs. 3.00 mm in SWCNTs-exposed embryos). However, exposure to SWCNTs did not affect the number of somites. Other features that were noticed in the SWCNTs-exposed embryos included edema and shrinkage and blebbling of the epidermal lining. Most of these observed phenotypes persisted from 48 hpf through 120 hpf. Overall, the aforementioned results indicate that soluble amide-functionalized SWCNTs are toxic to zebrafish embryos at a minimum concentration of 5 ?g/ml.

  8. NEW EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE CALIFORNIA GRUNION (LEURESTHES TENUIS) AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    California grunion were continuously exposed as embryos and fry to technical chlorpyrifos in two toxicity tests conducted in the same exposure apparatus. The first test, a 35-day early life-stage (ELS) test, began with approximately 2.5-day-old embryos that were exposed in flow-t...

  9. Assessing contamination levels of amprolium and tylosin using the embryo toxicity assay and three biomarkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Hu; Yong Liang; Minjie Chen; Xiaorong Wang

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the adverse biological effects of two veterinary pharmaceuticals (Amprolium and tylosin) on aquatic organisms. The zebrafish embryo toxicity assays were performed in combination with three biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and heat shock protein 70(Hsp70). The LPO extent was expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) in this paper. Logit Loglinear analysis was used

  10. Developmental toxicity of copper chloride, methylene chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide to embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R. [Jacksonville State Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Fisher, W.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.

    1999-05-01

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide, three known teratogenic chemicals. Two exposure periods were used, 4 d and 12 d, and both periods extended through hatching. The average 4-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.071% v/v, 1.82 mg/L, and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. The average 12-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.031% v/v, 1.44 mg/L, and 0.057 mg/ml, respectively. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to concentrations greater than 3 mg/L copper chloride or greater than 0.07% v/v methylene chloride. Very few abnormalities were observed in embryos exposed to 6-aminonicotinamide. Abnormal larval development was found with exposure to copper chloride at concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The sensitivity and low variability found here further supports the development of these relatively simple methods using grass shrimp embryos. Establishment of sublethal developmental endpoints warrants further investigation because of their potential correspondence to mechanisms of toxic action.

  11. Particle-specific toxic effects of differently shaped zinc oxide nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Vijver, Martina G; Richardson, Michael K; Ahmad, Farooq; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is proposed that allows for quantifying the relative toxic contribution of ions released from metallic nanoparticles and of the particles themselves, as exemplified for the case of differently shaped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposed to zebrafish embryos. First of all, the toxicity of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (NP(total))--nanospheres, nanosticks, cuboidal submicron particles (SMPs), and Zn(NO3)2--to the embryos was assessed. The observed toxicity of ZnO NP(total) is assumed to result from the combined effect of the particles present in the suspensions (NP(particle)) and of the dissolved Zn(2+) ions released from the particles (NP(ion)). Different addition models were used to explicitly account for the toxicity of NP(particle). The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of NP(particle) of nanospheres, nanosticks, and SMPs were found to range between 7.1 mg Zn/L and 11.9 mg Zn/L (i.e., to differ by a factor of 1.7). Behavioral performance showed no significant differences among all types of the NP(particle). The median effective concentrations (EC50) of the particles were found to range between 1.0 mg Zn/L and 2.2 mg Zn/L. At the LC50 of each particle suspension, the main contribution to lethality to zebrafish embryos was from the NP(particle) (52%-72%). For hatching inhibition, the NP(particle) was responsible for 38% to 83% of the adverse effects observed. The ZnO nanosticks were more toxic than any of the other NPs with regard to the endpoints mortality and hatching inhibition. The main contribution to toxicity to zebrafish embryos was from the NP(particle) at the LC50 and EC50 of each particle suspension. PMID:25244315

  12. Individual and joint toxic effects of cadmium sulfate and ?-naphthoflavone on the development of zebrafish embryo*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhang, Feng; Miao, Peng; Lin, Ying; Chen, Ming-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the individual and joint toxicities of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) and ?-naphthoflavone (ANF) in zebrafish embryos. As a result, CdSO4 caused both lethal and sub-lethal effects, such as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) death and 72 hpf delayed hatching. However, ANF only caused sub-lethal effects, including 48 hpf cardiac edema and 72 hpf delayed hatching. Taking 24 hpf death and 48 hpf cardiac edema as endpoints, the toxicities of CdSO4 and ANF were significantly enhanced by each other. Consistently, both CdSO4 and ANF caused significant oxidative stress, including decreases in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish embryos, but these mixtures produced much more significant alterations on the biomarkers. Co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF significantly down-regulated the mRNA level of multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp) 1 and cytochrome P450 (cyp) 1a, which constituted the protective mechanisms for zebrafish embryos to chemical toxins. In conclusion, co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF exhibited a much more severe damage in zebrafish embryos than individual treatment. Meanwhile, production of oxidative stress and altered expression of mrp1 and cyp1a could be important components of such joint toxicity. PMID:25183031

  13. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to embryos of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque)

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, C.; Cooper, K. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Cook Coll.

    1995-12-31

    This study correlates the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) residue and its toxicity to the fathead minnow embryo exposed to levels lower than the TCDD solubility range. The TCDD tissue doses in the embryo/larvae were related to gross lesions, delayed hatching, and death. A 7-day bioconcentration factor on a lipid basis (BCF{sub L}) was calculated. Embryos at the blatsula stage were exposed to [{sup 3}H] TCDD water concentrations (0.37, 0.59, 1.2, 2.83, and 10.1 6 ng/L), a nontreatment control and a solvent carrier control. Lesions were qualified as mild and severe based on their onset and their pathogenesis. Thus, mild lesions developed just prior to hatching or post-hatching at the fifth day of development. The severe lesions appeared at the third day of development. Embryos with tissue doses {le}2.46 {+-} 1.34 ng/g consistently developed mild lesions, while embryos with tissue doses {ge} 12.07 {+-} 4.91 ng/g developed severe lesions. The lowest observable adverse effect level was 0.04 {+-} 0.02 ng/g. The calculated 7-day ED{sub 50} was 0.14 ng/g. There was no delayed hatching at any of the concentrations tested. Embryo death occurred at a tissue concentration {ge}2.46 ng/g. The calculated 7-day LD{sub 50} was 25.71 ng/g. The relationship between the concentration of TCDD in the water (x = ng/L) and in the tissue dose (y = ng/g) fitted a linear curve y = {minus}1,143 + 3,792.5x, r{sup 2} = 0.98. The calculated BCF{sub L} (wet weight) was dose dependent. Embryos with tissue doses of 0.04 and 0.16 ng/g had BCF{sub L} of 2,700 and 3,325, respectively. Embryos with tissue doses of 2.46, 12.07, and 37.07 ng/g, had a BCF{sub L} of 104,225, 106,625 and 91,075, respectively.

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MOUSE AND RAT EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanol (MeOH), a widely used industrial solvent, had been proposed as an alternative motor vehicle fuel. nhaled MEOH is teratogenic in both rats and mice but the mouse has been demonstrated to be sensitive to the developmental toxicity of inhaled methanol at lower exposures tha...

  15. Mechanisms of hexabromocyclododecanes induced developmental toxicity in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haizheng; Li, Dongmei; Shen, Rong; Wang, Xinhong; Shi, Dalin

    2014-07-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are widely used as additive brominated flame retardants, and are now ubiquitous contaminants in the environmental media and biota, including the marine environment and marine organisms. However, the impacts of HBCDs on marine fish are not well known. In this study the embryos of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) were used to assess the developmental toxicity of HBCDs. Freshly fertilized marine medaka embryos were exposed to various concentrations of technical HBCD (tHBCD, 0, 5, 20 and 50?g/L) until the first fry stage, and hatch success, morphology and cardiac function were examined. In all the exposure groups (5, 20 and 50?g/L) tHBCD significantly increased the embryo heart beats. The measurement of sinus venosus-bulbus arteriosus (SV-BA) distance indicated that tHBCD significantly enlarged the SV-BA distance at exposure concentrations of 20 and 50?g/L. The malformation rate at the first fry stage was also induced by tHBCD in a dose dependent manner, with the formation of pericardial edema and yolk sac edema as the most frequently observed malformation. In addition, the concentrations of total HBCD isomers (?HBCDs) in embryos in the current study were comparative with environmental levels and increased with increasing exposure duration. Furthermore, exposure to tHBCD also induced the level of 8-oxodG, a representative oxidative DNA damage. The mechanisms of HBCD-induced developmental toxicity were further explored by TUNEL assay, gel-based quantitative proteomic approach and measurement of the expression of several stress responsive genes, such as p53, TNF-?, IL-1?, CYP1A, COX-1 and COX-2, together with the activities of caspases. The results suggested that HBCDs exposure at environmentally realistic concentrations induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and suppressed nucleotide and protein synthesis, which all together resulted in developmental toxicity, particularly in the cardiovascular system, in the embryos of O. melastigma. PMID:24780359

  16. Taxifolin mitigates oxidative DNA damage in vitro and protects zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos against cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, Krishnan; Jayaraj, Richard L; Jagatheesh, Kaliaperumal; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2015-05-01

    Taxifolin (TAX) is a natural source of bioflavonoid found in various conifers. In this study, initially we investigated the antioxidant potential of TAX under in vitro assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The activities of DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and OH radical levels were significantly inhibited by TAX with an IC50 values of 16.48, 66.34, 18.17 and 11.42?g/ml, respectively. Secondly, TAX exhibited a strong protection against OH mediated DNA damage on pUC19 plasmid DNA at 1.0?g/ml. Finally, we evaluated the protective mechanism of TAX against cadmium intoxicated zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). We found that embryos exposed to 100?M Cd exhibited significantly reduced survival, delayed hatching and phenotypic abnormalities at 24, 48, 72 and 96hours post fertilization (hpf). Similarly, Cd intoxicated embryos showed significantly increased cardiac function (131beats/min) at 60hpf. Conversely, treatment with TAX (0.1, 1.0 and 10?M) significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR) by reducing the lipid peroxidation (MDA) in zebrafish embryos. Collectively, our results concluded that TAX could act as a potent redox scavenger against oxidative DNA damage and also functions as a crucial suppressor of Cd toxicity in zebrafish embryos. PMID:26002187

  17. Toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish of copper complexes with two malonic acids as models for dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, F.B.; Evans, C.W. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Butler, C.A. [Woodward Clyde NZ Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand); Timperley, M.H. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1998-08-01

    The toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) of Cu complexes with two substituted malonic acids, benzyl- and n-hexadecyl-, chosen as models for low-molecular-weight natural dissolved organic matter, were investigated. Toxicity test solutions at pH 6.5 {+-} 0.1 with the required Cu ion-specific electrode. In the absence of malonic acids, concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} up to 1.13 {mu}mol/L increased the embryo hatching time from approx. 2 d in control solutions (no Cu or malonic acid) and solutions containing malonic acids without Cu to approx. 8 d. The Cu-benzylmalonic acid complex in the presence of inorganic Cu species did not delay hatching beyond that attributable to Cu{sup 2+}. In contrast, 0.60 {mu}mol/L Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complexes delayed hatching by 5.5 d in excess of that attributable to 1.13 {mu}mol/L Cu{sup 2+}, assuming that the hatching delays caused by the different Cu species were additive, possibly because of Cu entry into the embryo as the lipophilic Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complex. None of the Cu-malonic acid complexes was acutely toxic to adult zebrafish at concentrations up to 1.4 {mu}mol/L, possibly because Cu was removed from the Cu-malonic acid complexes by stronger chelating groups at the gill surface. Substituted malonic acids with similar proton and Cu association constants can be readily prepared with a variety of simple substituents, radiolabeled if required. Their results show that these acids could be useful ligands for investigating intracellular transport and metabolism of metal-organic complexes.

  18. Toxic effects of perfluorononanoic acid on the development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Sheng, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a nine-carbon perfluoroalkyl acid widely used in industrial and domestic products. It is a persistent organic pollutant found in the environment as well as in the tissues of humans and wildlife. There is a concern that this chemical might be a developmental toxicant and teratogen in various ecosystems. In the present study, the toxic effects of PFNA were evaluated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. One hour post-fertilization embryos were treated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 350, and 400?mol/L PFNA for 96hr in 6-well plates. Developmental phenotypes and hatching rates were observed and recorded. Nineteen genes related to oxidative stress and lipid metabolism were examined using Quantitative RT-PCR and confirmed by whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Results showed that PFNA delayed the development of zebrafish embryos, reduced the hatching rate, and caused ventricular edema and malformation of the spine. In addition, the amount of reactive oxygen species in the embryo bodies increased significantly after exposure to PFNA compared with that of the control group. The Quantitative RT-PCR and WISH experiments demonstrated that mRNA expression of the lfabp and ucp2 genes increased significantly while that of sod1 and mt-nd1 decreased significantly after PFNA exposure. The mRNA expression levels of gpx1 and mt-atp6 decreased significantly in the high concentration group. However, the mRNA expression levels of both ppara and pparg did not show any significant variation after exposure. These findings suggest that PFNA affected the development of zebrafish embryos at relatively low concentrations. PMID:26040728

  19. PRESENT APPROACHES TO TOXICITY TESTING - A PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in aquatic toxicity tests is increasing as more emphasis is placed on control of highly toxic pollutants. While this interest offers an opportunity to increase the use of aquatic toxicity tests, there is a responsibility to recognize their limitations. Aquatic toxicology...

  20. Opportunities for embryo transfer in the age of DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryo transfer (ET) has contributed to increasing selection intensity in cattle breeding for many years. Preimplantation DNA testing offers the opportunity to increase selection response further through increasing within-family selection intensity. Further increases in between-family selection inte...

  1. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret W. Toussaint; Tommy R. Shedd; William H. van der Schalie; Gerald R. Leather

    1995-01-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign}

  2. Use of toxicogenomics to predict the potential toxic effect of Benzo(a)pyrene on zebrafish embryos: ocular developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixing; Zuo, Zhenghong; Zhang, Youyu; Wu, Meifang; Lin, Jackie Jin; Wang, Chonggang

    2014-08-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which is ubiquitous in the environment. The toxic effects of BaP on fish embryos have been described in detail, but some potentially toxic effects of BaP might have been neglected owing to the limitations of traditional techniques. In the present research, global transcriptional patterns were used to study the potentially toxic effects of BaP, as well as its underlying toxicological mechanisms. The expression levels of multiple genes were significantly changed by BaP exposure. The results of ontology assignments and cluster analysis showed that BaP could affect the processes of photoreceptor maintenance and phototransduction. We also conducted an experiment on phototactic response and found that larvae exposed to BaP displayed a decreasing response to light. In addition, BaP exposure decreased the cellular density of the ganglion cell layer (GCL) significantly. These results suggested that BaP exposure induced visual system developmental defects and dysfunction by perturbation of photoreceptor development related genes. Our results were helpful for an understanding of the toxicity of BaP. This study also indicated that microarray analysis was effective for predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals with high sensitivity and accuracy. PMID:24875912

  3. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. PMID:22052622

  4. 7 day chronic ceriodaphnia toxicity test -- reproductive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC).

  5. Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow UNL Extension Educator, Water Quality Algae is a microscopic plant that occurs in all water. However, only certain conditions bring algae to the surface, making it toxic to animals, especially humans and dogs. Toxic algae often are naturally occurring from high

  6. The status of toxicity tests with sediment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, R.P.A. [Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The earliest studies in Brazil aiming to evaluate sediment quality through toxicity tests started in the beginning of the 80`s. These were developed by the Environmental Sanitation Agency of Sao Paulo State (CETESB) in Cubatao River and Billings Reservoir, which are located in industrialized and populous regions. Elutriate phase sediment toxicity tests were run with Daphnia similis. In the Cubatao River Basin the combination of toxicity, chemistry data and benthic community structure provided clear indications of sites with different levels of pollution. At this time there was a consensus that the study of a complex compartment such as sediment needed improvements in sampling and analysis procedures. Only in the 90`s the investigations involving sediment toxicity assessment were resumed by CETESB, and it was clear that integrative studies were needed in order to make environmental quality assessment. This kind of studies were conducted by CETESB in some highly polluted areas of Sao Paulo State, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Photobacterium phosphoreum interstitial water tests and Hyalella sp whole sediment tests were run, and the results correlated with several sediment organic and inorganic contaminants. The Sediment Quality Triad proposed by Chapman was applied in one of these studies. This approach was extremely useful in interpreting the data. At the same time marine sediment toxicity tests were developed by CETESB in collaboration with Sao Paulo University, and tests were run with the amphipods Tiburonella viscana, Battyporeiapus bisetosus; tanaidacean Kalliapseudes shubarti and the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus. The embryo test with L. variegatus was the most adequate in these studies. Nowadays there are other groups in some universities developing sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella and Chironomus in response to a growing concern in Brazil to establish adequate sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  7. Triazole-induced toxicity in developing rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at early-life stages as experimental models, the developmental toxicity of five widely used triazole fungicides (myclobutanil, fluconazole, flusilazole, triflumizole, and epoxiconazole) were investigated following exposure to 1-15 mg/L for 72 h. Meanwhile, morphological parameters (body length, body weight, and heart rate), enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE)), and mRNA levels (hsp70, mstn, mt, apaf1, vezf1, and cyp1a) were also recorded following exposure to 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L for 72 h. Results indicated that increased malformation and mortality, decreased body length, body weight, and heart rate provide a concentration-dependent pattern; values of 72 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) ranged from 3 to 12 mg/L. Most importantly, the results of the present study suggest that even at the lowest concentration, 0.2 mg/L, five triazole fungicides also caused notable changes in enzyme activities and mRNA levels. Overall, the present study points out that those five triazole fungicides are highly toxic to the early development of G. rarus embryos. The information presented in this study will be helpful in better understanding the toxicity induced by triazole fungicides in fish embryos. PMID:25028328

  8. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  9. A novel algal toxicity testing technique for assessing the toxicity of both metallic and organic toxicants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jui-Ho Lin; Wei-Chen Kao; Kuo-Pei Tsai; Chung-Yuan Chen

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a closed-system algal toxicity test technique that is capable of detecting the effects of both organic and metallic toxicants. Toxicity testing was conducted by transferring adequate amounts of algal suspension, dilution water (with culture growth medium), and toxicants into 300-mL BOD bottles. The BOD bottles were completely filled up with no head-space left. The initial cell density

  10. Toxicity screening of produced water extracts in a zebrafish embryo assay.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, G; Norrgren, L; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    Produced water is the largest effluent discharge from oil and gas/condensate production facilities in the North Sea. There is concern that contaminants originating from the reservoir and chemicals used in the production process may affect marine organisms. Developmental toxicity of extractable organic compounds in produced water effluents from oil and gas/condensate production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was assessed in a temporal and spatial manner using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Large-scale solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-column fractionation of water-soluble fraction (WSF) and an oil/particulate fraction was used in a rapid screening bioassay for embryotoxicity. Exposure to produced water extracts increased rate of mortality and reduced pigmentation and heart rate, as well as delaying time to hatch. The oil/particulate fraction was 10-fold less toxic than WSF, indicating that toxicity was predominantly produced by moderately polar and bioavailable compounds. Large spatial and temporal variation in produced water toxicity was observed, displaying considerable variability in the reservoir, oil well, and effluent composition over time. The noted toxicity did not correlate well with either reported produced water composition or parameters such as total hydrocarbons, thus challenging chemical measurements as a reliable source of information for predicting complex effects. Although embryotoxicity was observed following exposure to the extracts, dilution and transformation of produced water in the recipient are expected to rapidly reduce the concentrations of compounds in the effluents to levels below the thresholds of observed effects. PMID:24754395

  11. Development of toxicant identification procedures for whole sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Besser, J.M. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Ankley, G.T.; Norberg-King, T.J.; West, C.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    To effectively assess and manage contaminated sediments, identifying the specific contaminants responsible for sediment toxicity is highly desirable. Though effective toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods are well established for water column toxicity, new TIE methodologies are needed that address the special characteristics of whole sediment toxicity tests. Much of the effort to date has focused on the assessment of ammonia toxicity. Whereas pH manipulation is a key tool used to characterize ammonia toxicity in water column TIE, control of pH in interstitial water is much more challenging. Direct addition of hard acid has shown undesirable side effects (e.g., liberation and oxidation of iron), while CO{sub 2}-enrichment is limited in penetration of fine-grained sediments. Biological buffers (MES and POPSO) incorporated into the sediment are effective at altering interstitial pH without causing direct toxicity to Chironomus tentans, Lumbriculus variegatus, and to a lesser extent Hyalella azteca, but the range of pH control achieved has been small ({+-} 0.5 units). Introduction of aquatic plants reduces ammonia concentrations in the water column, but may not provide sufficient control of interstitial water. To date, the most promising results have been achieved using zeolite; adding zeolite to sediment produces moderate reductions in interstitial ammonia concentrations and is non-toxic to the organisms referenced above. Attempts to induce microbial removal of ammonia have been unsuccessful thus far. This presentation will review these and other sediment TIE methods currently under development in laboratories.

  12. Low-dose agrochemicals and lawn-care pesticides induce developmental toxicity in murine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Anne R; Ellis, Tammy M; Berg, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposures to pesticides may increase parental risk of infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and congenital anomalies. Less is known about residential use of pesticides and the risks they pose to reproduction and development. In the present study we evaluate environmentally relevant, low-dose exposures to agrochemicals and lawn-care pesticides for their direct effects on mouse preimplantation embryo development, a period corresponding to the first 5-7 days after human conception. Agents tested were those commonly used in the upper midwestern United States, including six herbicides [atrazine, dicamba, metolachlor, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)], pendimethalin, and mecoprop), three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and permethrin), two fungicides (chlorothalonil and mancozeb), a desiccant (diquat), and a fertilizer (ammonium nitrate). Groups of 20-25 embryos were incubated 96 hr in vitro with either individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals simulating exposures encountered by handling pesticides, inhaling drift, or ingesting contaminated groundwater. Incubating embryos with individual pesticides increased the percentage of apoptosis (cell death) for 11 of 13 chemicals (p embryo for 3 of 13 agents (p embryos (p embryo (p

  13. Toxicity, uptake kinetics and behavior assessment in zebrafish embryos following exposure to perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haihua; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Lijun; Ye, Xiaowei; Bai, Chenglian; Simonich, Michael T.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS), a persistent organic contaminant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and humans, but few studies have assessed its effect on aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effect of PFOS on zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos exhibited bent spine and developmental toxicity after exposure to various PFOS concentrations (0.01-16.0 ?M) from 6 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The LC50 at 120 hpf was 4.39 ?M and the EC50 at 120 hpf was 2.23 ?M. PFOS induced apoptosis at 24 hpf was consistently located in the brain, eye, and tail region of embryos. PFOS elevated the basal rate of swimming after 4 days of exposure, and larvae exposed to PFOS (0.5-8.0?M) for only 1 h at 6 dpf swam faster with increasing PFOS concentration. Larvae exposed to 16.0 ?M PFOS for 24 h periods from 1 to 121 hpf showed the highest incidence of malformations in the 97-121 hpf window. Continuous exposure to PFOS from 1 to 121 hpf resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Our results further the understanding of the health risks of PFOS to aquatic organisms and identify additional research needed on PFOS toxicology. PMID:20171748

  14. POREWATER TOXICITY TESTING: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments act as sinks for contaminants, where they may build up to toxic levels. Sediments containing toxic levels of contaminants pose a risk to aquatic life, human health, and wildlife. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that demonstrates chemicals in sediments are re...

  15. Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

  16. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.C.; Hui, Michelle N.Y.; Cheng, S.H. E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-07-15

    Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of carbaryl, specifically its effects on the heart, in early developing zebrafish embryos. LC50 and EC50 values for carbaryl at 28 h post-fertilization were 44.66 {mu}g/ml and 7.52 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and 10 {mu}g/ml carbaryl was used in subsequent experiments. After confirming acetylcholinesterase inhibition by carbaryl using an enzymatic method, we observed red blood cell accumulation, delayed hatching and pericardial edema, but not heart malformation as described in some previous reports. Our chronic exposure data also demonstrated carbaryl-induced bradycardia, which is a common effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors due to the accumulation of acetylcholine, in embryos from 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) to 5 dpf. The distance between the sinus venosus, the point where blood enters the atrium, and the bulbus arteriosus, the point where blood leaves the ventricle, indicated normal looping of the heart tube. Immunostaining of myosin heavy chains with the ventricle-specific antibody MF20 and the atrium-specific antibody S46 showed normal development of heart chambers. At the same time, acute exposure resulted in carbaryl-induced bradycardia. Heart rate dropped significantly after a 10-min exposure to 100 {mu}g/ml carbaryl but recovered when carbaryl was removed. The novel observation of carbaryl-induced bradycardia in 1- and 2-dpf embryos suggested that carbaryl affected cardiac function possibly through an alternative mechanism other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition such as inhibition of calcium ion channels, since acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish are not functional until 3 dpf. However, the exact nature of this mechanism is currently unknown, and thus further studies are required.

  17. In vitro methodologies for enhanced toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    DelRaso, N J

    1993-05-01

    This report will give a general overview of some of the in vitro methodologies used in toxicity testing. The use of computer-based structure-activity relationships and cell culture testing systems can provide valuable toxicological data for hazard and risk assessments. In vitro systems allow for a more rapid identification of toxic compounds and can be utilized to study mechanisms of toxicity at the cellular and subcellular level. The data derived from these types of studies can be used to improve the predictability of animal models for chemical or drug toxicity. This report focused on primary hepatocytes as an in vitro model for cytotoxicity and metabolic studies. PMID:8516778

  18. Toxic effects of pentachlorophenol, azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos on the development of Paracentrotus lividus embryos.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Manzo, Sonia; Maria, Giovanna; Sansone, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    The application of many current-use pesticides has increased after the disuse of persistent, bioaccumulative or toxic ones as DDT or chlordane. Many of the used pesticides are considered less dangerous towards the environment for their physico-chemical properties. This study investigated the toxic effects of three current-use pesticides, pentachlorophenol (PCP), azinphos-methyl (AZM), and chlorpyrifos, on Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus early development and offspring quality. The experimental results showed that the most toxic pesticides were PCP and AZM at EC50 level. Nevertheless at low concentration PCP resulted the less toxic compound and showed EC1 value more protective than NOEC. PCP at high concentration seemed to modify cytoskeleton assembly, while at low concentrations, it could alter the deposition of the larval skeleton. OPs at low concentrations until 300 ?g/l showed a similar toxicological behaviour with a trend corresponding to the pesticide concentrations. At high concentration (500 ?g/l) the effect mainly observed was the embryos pre-larval arrest. This investigation highlighted the relevance to evaluate, in coastal seawaters, the levels of the used pesticides to understand the real impact on benthic populations mainly in sites characterized by intensive agriculture or floriculture activities, such as the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:22101977

  19. RAPID AQUATIC TOXICITY ASSAY USING INCORPORATION OF TRITIATED-THYMIDINE INTO SEA URCHIN, 'ARBACIA PUNCTULATA', EMBRYO: EVALUATION OF TOXICANT EXPOSURE PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of substances in seawater was measured using growth inhibition of embryonic sea urchins during a short period after fertilization. Growth of Arbacia punctulata embryos was monitored by incorporation of tritium-labeled thymidine. The paper presents a comparison of toxican...

  20. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  1. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  2. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40 Section 1500.40...REGULATIONS § 1500.40 Method of testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in §...

  3. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/ temperature / humidity (FTH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy Space Center.

  4. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/temperature/humidity (FIFH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy Space Center.

  5. Searching for biomarkers of developmental toxicity with microarrays: normal eye morphogenesis in rodent embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Kimberly A. [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Singh, Amar V. [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); School of Dentistry, Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Knudsen, Thomas B. [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States) and School of Dentistry, Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.knudsen@louisville.edu

    2005-08-07

    Gene expression arrays reveal the potential linkage of altered gene expression with specific adverse effects leading to disease phenotypes. But how closely do microarray data reflect early physiological or pharmacological measures that predict toxic event(s)? To explore this issue, we have undertaken experiments in early mouse embryos exposed to various teratogens during neurulation stages with the aim of correlating large-scale changes in gene expression across the critical period during exposure. This study reports some of the large-scale changes in gene expression that can be detected in the optic rudiment of the developing mouse and rat embryo across the window of development during which the eye is exceedingly sensitive to teratogen-induced micro-/anophthalmia. Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from the headfold or ocular region at the optic vesicle and optic cup stages when the ocular primordium is enriched for Pax-6, a master control gene for eye morphogenesis. Statistical selection of differentially regulated genes and various clustering techniques identified groups of genes in upward or downward trajectories in the normal optic primordium during early eye development in mouse and rat species. We identified 165 genes with significant differential expression during eye development, and a smaller subset of 58 genes that showed a tight correlation between mouse-rat development. Significantly over-represented functional categories included fatty acid metabolism (up-regulated) and glycolysis (down-regulated). From studies such as these that benchmark large-scale gene expression during normal embryonic development, we may be able to identify the panel of biomarkers that best correlate with species differences and the risks for developmental toxicity.

  6. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  7. Toxicity of scorpion venom in chick embryo and mealworm assay depending on the use of the soluble fraction versus the whole venom.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Tom; van der Meijden, Arie

    2014-09-01

    The LD50 is an important metric for venom studies and antivenom development. It has been shown that several variables in the protocol influence the LD50 value obtained, such as venom source, extraction and treatment and administration route. These inconsistencies reduce the utility of the results of these test for comparative studies. In scorpion venom LD50 assays, often only the soluble fraction of the venom is used, whereas other studies use the whole venom. We here tested the toxicity of the soluble fraction in isolation, and of the whole venom in two different systems: chick embryos and mealworms Tenebrio molitor. Ten microliters of venom solutions from Hadrurus arizonensis, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus australis, Grosphus grandidieri and Heterometrus laoticus were applied to five day old chicken embryos at stage 25-27. Our results showed no significant differences between the LD50 based on the whole venom versus that of only the soluble fraction and in the chicken embryo assay in four of the five scorpion species tested. H. laoticus however, showed a significantly lower LD50 value for the whole venom than the soluble fraction. In assays on mealworms however, this pattern was not seen. Nonetheless, caution may be warranted when using LD50 values obtained from only the soluble fraction. The LD50 values of the five species in this study, based on the chicken embryo assay, showed good correlation with values from the literature based on mouse studies. This suggests that the chick embryo assay may be an economic alternative to rodent assays for scorpion LD50 studies. PMID:24951875

  8. Automated Zebrafish Chorion Removal and Single Embryo Placement: Optimizing Throughput of Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Screens

    PubMed Central

    Mandrell, David; Truong, Lisa; Jephson, Caleb; Sarker, Mushfiqur R.; Moore, Aaron; Lang, Christopher; Simonich, Michael T.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of the developing zebrafish model for toxicology and drug discovery is limited by inefficient approaches to manipulating and chemically exposing zebrafish embryos—namely, manual placement of embryos into 96- or 384-well plates and exposure of embryos while still in the chorion, a barrier of poorly characterized permeability enclosing the developing embryo. We report the automated dechorionation of 1600 embryos at once at 4 h postfertilization (hpf) and placement of the dechorionated embryos into 96-well plates for exposure by 6 hpf. The process removed ?95% of the embryos from their chorions with 2% embryo mortality by 24 hpf, and 2% of the embryos malformed at 120 hpf. The robotic embryo placement allocated 6-hpf embryos to 94.7% ± 4.2% of the wells in multiple 96-well trials. The rate of embryo mortality was 2.8% (43 of 1536) from robotic handling, the rate of missed wells was 1.2% (18 of 1536), and the frequency of multipicks was <0.1%. Embryo malformations observed at 24 hpf occurred nearly twice as frequently from robotic handling (16 of 864; 1.9%) as from manual pipetting (9 of 864; 1%). There was no statistical difference between the success of performing the embryo placement robotically or manually. PMID:22357610

  9. Juvenile toxicity testing protocols for chemicals.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Aldert H; Tonk, Elisa C M; Makris, Susan L; Crofton, Kevin M; Dietert, Rodney R; van Loveren, Henk

    2012-11-01

    There is increased awareness of the specific position of children when it comes to hazards of xenobiotic exposures. Children are not small adults, since their exposure patterns, compound kinetics and metabolism, and sensitivity of their developing organs may differ extensively from adults. Current international hazard assessment test guidelines do not specifically address juvenile exposures and effects. In conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the European Teratology Society, a satellite meeting was organized to specifically address juvenile toxicity testing issues for chemicals. The workshop focused on developmental neurotoxicity and developmental immune toxicity testing in juvenile animals. A clear case was made for the importance of juvenile toxicity testing, showing that in animal studies developmental neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters express specifically high sensitivities after exposure during the juvenile period. Additional data will be generated in the coming years, and OECD initiatives will need to further the issue at the global regulatory level. PMID:22564981

  10. TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TEST SUBMISSIONS (TSCATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions (TSCATS) is an online index to unpublished, nonconfidential studies covering chemical testing results and adverse effects of chemicals on health and ecological systems. The studies are submitted by U.S. industry to EPA under several s...

  11. MINIATURIZED SEDIMENT PROCEDURES FOR ASESSING TOXICITY USING MARINE AND FRESHWATER AMPHIPODS AND EMBRYO/LARVAL FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity tests are needed that can be conducted with less sediment volume and fewer organisms. Bench scale remediation techniques often produce less sediment than is required to perform the standardized sediment methods and the excess sediments that are generated present...

  12. Evaluations of combined zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo and marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Ythan catchment, Scotland, UK.

    PubMed

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Pollard, Pat; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Heger, Sebastian; Hollert, Henner; Bresnan, Eileen; Best, Jennifer; Moffat, Colin F

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of organic contaminants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have previously been detected in surface waters in the river Ythan catchment, North East Scotland UK. While the concentrations detected were below Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards (WFD-EQSs) environmental exposures to the diverse mixtures of contaminants, known and unknown, may pose chronic and/or sublethal effects to non target organisms. The present study assessed the embryo and algal toxicity potential of freely dissolved organic contaminants from the Ythan catchment using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and miniaturised bioassay techniques. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and marine phytoplankton species (Diacronema lutheri) were exposed to extracts from SR-PSDs deployed at different locations along the river Ythan and an undeployed procedural blank. Statistically significant developmental and algal toxicities were measured in all tests of extracts from deployed samples compared with the procedural blanks. This indicates environmental exposure to, and the combined toxicity potential of, freely dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. The present and previous studies in the Ythan catchment, coupling SR-PSDs and bioassay techniques, have both helped to understand the interactions and combined effects of dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. They have further revealed the need for improvement in the techniques currently used to assess environmental impact. PMID:24407789

  13. Using citrate-functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles to study the effect of particle size on zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, M-S; Louis, K M; Pedersen, J A; Hamers, R J; Peterson, R E; Heideman, W

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are photoactive, potentially producing toxicity in vivo in the presence of sunlight. We have previously demonstrated photodependent toxicity in zebrafish embryos exposed to TiO2 NPs. Here we investigate the effect of particle size on developing zebrafish exposed to 6, 12 and 15 nm citrate-functionalized anatase TiO2 NPs under either simulated sunlight illumination or in the dark. All three sizes of TiO2 NPs caused photo-dependent toxicity. Under simulated sunlight illumination, the acute toxicity of the 6 nm citrate-TiO2 NPs (120 h LC50 of 23.4 mg L(-1)) exceeded that of the 12 and 15 nm citrate-TiO2 NPs. Exposure to 6 nm particles under illumination also caused a higher incidence of developmental defects than the larger particles. These abnormalities included pericardial edema, yolk-sac edema, craniofacial malformation, and opaque yolk. To gain insight into the mechanisms of toxicity, we measured hydroxyl radicals (?OH) generated by NPs in vitro and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in vivo. We found that on a mass basis, smaller particles generated higher levels of ROS both in vitro and in vivo, and the 6 nm citrate-TiO2 NPs induced more oxidative stress than larger particles in the zebrafish embryo. We examined oxidative DNA damage by measuring 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in zebrafish exposed to different-sized citrate-TiO2 NPs and found that 6 nm particles caused more DNA damage than did larger particles (12 and 15 nm) under illumination. Our results indicate a photo-dependent toxicity of citrate-TiO2 NPs to zebrafish embryos, with an inverse relationship between particle size and toxicity. Production of more ROS, resulting in more oxidative stress and more DNA damage, represents one possible mechanism of the higher toxicity of smaller citrate-TiO2 NPs. These results highlight the relationship between citrate-TiO2 NP size and toxicity/oxidative stress in developing zebrafish embryos. PMID:24384696

  14. Avian models for toxicity testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The use of birds as test models in experimental and environmental toxicology as related to health effects is reviewed, and an overview of descriptive tests routinely used in wildlife toxicology is provided. Toxicologic research on birds may be applicable to human health both directly by their use as models for mechanistic and descriptive studies and indirectly as monitors of environmental quality. Topics include the use of birds as models for study of teratogenesis and embryotoxicity, neurotoxicity, behavior, trends of environmental pollution, and for use in predictive wildlife toxicology. Uses of domestic and wild-captured birds are discussed.

  15. Effects of heavy metals on sea urchin embryo development. Part 2. Interactive toxic effects of heavy metals in synthetic mine effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomasa Kobayashi; Hideo Okamura

    2005-01-01

    Interactive toxic effects between heavy metals were investigated using a sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) bioassay. An effluent from an abandoned mine showed significant inhibitory effects on embryo development as well as producing specific malformations. The effects on the embryos were reproduced by synthetic polluted seawater consisting of eight metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, iron, and copper) at the

  16. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in hydra attenuata and in rat whole-embryo culture. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, M.C.

    1991-05-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a class of biaryl compounds that have little commercial application, but appear to be widespread in the environment. They have been found in wood preservative waste dumpsites and in fly ash from municipal waste incinerators. They have been detected in bird eggs and tissues, fish, and other edible marine organisms in the United States, Canada, and Europe. There are limited reports in the extant literature on the toxicity of PCDEs. This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of selected PCDEs in cultures of Hydra attenuata and post-implantation rat whole embryos. The toxicity of several closely related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated in both cultures and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated in whole embryo culture. Embryonic growth and development parameters (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, somite count, and DNA and protein content) and gross morphology were determined. Findings indicated that these chemicals were neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic. Thus, the PCDEs, which elicit other diverse toxic and biochemical responses in rodents, are relatively inactive in these bioassays for developmental toxicity.

  17. Automated Phenotype Recognition for Zebrafish Embryo Based In Vivo High Throughput Toxicity Screening of Engineered Nano-Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Lin, Sijie; Rallo, Robert; Zhao, Yan; Damoiseaux, Robert; Xia, Tian; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre; Cohen, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    A phenotype recognition model was developed for high throughput screening (HTS) of engineered Nano-Materials (eNMs) toxicity using zebrafish embryo developmental response classified, from automatically captured images and without manual manipulation of zebrafish positioning, by three basic phenotypes (i.e., hatched, unhatched, and dead). The recognition model was built with a set of vectorial descriptors providing image color and texture information. The best performing model was attained with three image descriptors (color histogram, representative color, and color layout) identified as most suitable from an initial pool of six descriptors. This model had an average recognition accuracy of 97.40±0.95% in a 10-fold cross-validation and 93.75% in a stress test of low quality zebrafish images. The present work has shown that a phenotyping model can be developed with accurate recognition ability suitable for zebrafish-based HTS assays. Although the present methodology was successfully demonstrated for only three basic zebrafish embryonic phenotypes, it can be readily adapted to incorporate more subtle phenotypes. PMID:22506062

  18. Toxicity test of a dental commercial composite

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Santa; Martínez-Rivera, José-Luis; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Background International rules must be followed for testing biosecurity in dental materials. A new brand of restorative material appeared in the market and regulations indicated that it should be tested for toxicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the 90-day sub chronic toxicity of one triethylene glycol dimethacrylate containing composite (MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite™) orally administered to rats according to Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development no. 48 guidelines and the requirements specified in the ISO 10993-11. Material and Methods Wistar rats ate the polymerized composite during 90 days and were observed to determine changes in their behavior, eye and skin signs and other attitudes such as aggressiveness, posture, walking and response to handling. After 90 days were sacrificed to ascertain blood alterations, we did special hematological tests and assessed microscopic slides from 33 different organs. Results We recorded no significant changes in clinical behavior of the animals. Microscopic review of the H&E stained slides obtained from the analyzed organs showed no abnormal inflammatory or cytological changes and all hematological special tests were within normal limits. Conclusions Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions the MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite™ does not produce inflammatory or cytological changes suggestive of toxicity. Key words:Dental materials, composite resin, toxicity, inflammation, TEGDMA.

  19. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection...CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental... § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  20. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection...CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental... § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  1. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection...CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental... § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  2. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection...CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental... § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  3. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Gammarid acute toxicity test. 795.120 Section 795.120 Protection...CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROVISIONAL TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Environmental... § 795.120 Gammarid acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This...

  4. MAMMALIAN WILDLIFE (MINK AND FERRET) TOXICITY TEST PROTOCOLS (LC50, REPRODUCTION, AND SECONDARY TOXICITY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols describing guidelines for conducting dietary LC50 and reproduction toxicity tests and for assessing the primary versus secondary toxicity of a test substance using carnivorous mammalian wildlife, specifically mink (Mustela vison) or European ferrets (Mustela putorius fu...

  5. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. PMID:25261610

  6. Teratogenic and toxic effects of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), on zebrafish embryo as model.

    PubMed

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Alfonso, Noel F; Eguchi, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the teratogenic and toxic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom) extract on zebrafish embryos. Hatchability, malformations, and lethality rate of zebrafish embryos were assessed to provide valuable information regarding the potential teratogenic activity of G. lucidum. Hatching was completed 48 h post treatment application (hpta) at 1% or lower concentrations of extract and embryo water. The hatching rate of embryos treated with 5% or higher concentrations was significantly lower (p> 0.05) than the control. Tail malformation was the most marked morphological abnormality in embryos at 72 hpta, which was obviously caused by 1% extract (55.56% tail malformation) and was observed in all embryos exposed to 5% of extract. Growth retardation was evident in embryos exposed to 5%, 10%, and 20%. However, lethal effect of extract of G. lucidum was dependent on dose and time of exposure. Mortality rates of embryos treated with 5% (44.44%) or higher concentrations of the extract was significantly higher (p > 0.05) than that of the control embryos at 72 hpta. These results suggest that G. lucidum extract has lethal and sub-lethal effects on zebrafish embryos. PMID:23510220

  7. Ocular Toxicity Testing of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ocular testing to determine the toxicity of lunar dust. The OECD recommendations are reviewed. With these recommendations in mind the test methodology was to use EpiOcular, tissues derived from normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the cells of which have been differentiated on cell culture inserts to form a multi-layered structure, which closely parallels the corneal epithelium and to dose the tissue with 100 mg dust from various sources. The in-vitro study provides evidence that lunar dust is not severely corrosive or irritating, however, in vitro tests have limitations, and in vivo tests provides a more complete scenario, and information, it is recommended that in vivo tests be performed.

  8. Toxicity of beta-blockers in a rat whole embryo culture: concentration-response relationships and tissue concentrations.

    PubMed

    Klug, S; Thiel, R; Schwabe, R; Merker, H J; Neubert, D

    1994-01-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor blockers are widely used drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Since beta-blockers cross the placenta, it is essential to consider possible adverse effects on the embryo. Six beta-adrenoceptor blockers were tested at various concentrations (10-5000 microM) in a rat whole embryo culture. Although inducing a very similar pattern of dysmorphogenetic effects (incomplete flexure, disturbed development of the neural tube, the head, the heart and the tail bud), the compounds exhibited a wide range of embryotoxic potency. Estimation of the EC50 (median-concentration producing dysmorphogenesis in 50% of the embryos) for the six compounds revealed differences of more than two orders of magnitude: propranolol 25 microM, alprenolol 30 microM, metoprolol 100 microM, pindolol 150 microM, acebutolol 500 microM, atenolol 4000 microM. Measurements of the concentrations of the various drugs in the cultured embryos at corresponding EC50 levels showed differing values: metoprolol 4.5 microM, propranolol 5.2 microM, alprenolol 8.4 microM, pindolol 9.0 microM, acebutolol 12.5 microM and atenolol 77.0 microM. With regard to the EC50 and the degree of substance transfer to the embryo it can be stated that propranolol and metoprolol show a much higher intrinsic potency to interfere with normal in vitro embryonic development than, e.g. atenolol. PMID:7916561

  9. Prediction and assessment of mixture toxicity of compounds in antifouling paints using the sea-urchin embryo-larval bioassay.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan

    2008-07-30

    The ecotoxicological assessment of alternative "booster" biocides is urgently needed in order to develop environmentally acceptable antifouling paints. However, research has focused mainly on single compounds, and there is still a lack of data on their mixture toxicity. The present study investigated the single and mixture toxicity of three of the most widely used antifouling biocides: zinc pyrithione, chlorothalonil and Sea-Nine, using the sea-urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryo-larval bioassay. Also, the predictive ability of the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) concepts for antifouling mixtures was evaluated. Both concepts failed to accurately predict the toxicity of the antifouling mixtures, with the exception of the zinc pyrithione and Sea-Nine mixture, which was accurately predicted by the IA concept, suggesting a dissimilar mode of action of those substances. In general, CA predicted consistently higher toxicity than IA; however, CA overestimated the toxicity of the studied mixtures by a factor of only 1.6, representing a reasonable worst-case approach to be used in the predictive hazard assessment of antifouling mixtures. Finally, the present study demonstrates that the risk of antifouling mixtures for the early developmental stages of sea urchin is higher than the risk of each single substance, and therefore, the inclusion of mixture considerations in the development of water quality criteria for antifouling compounds is strongly recommended. PMID:18586336

  10. Developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of two matrine-type alkaloids, matrine and sophocarpine, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao-Guang; Li, Ming-Hui; Wang, Jun-Song; Wei, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qing-Wang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Matrine and sophocarpine are two major matrine-type alkaloids included in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Kushen (the root of Sophora flavescens Ait.). They have been widely used clinically in China, however with few reports concerning their potential toxicities. This study investigated the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of matrine and sophocarpine on zebrafish embryos/larvae from 0 to 96/120h post fertilization (hpf). Both drugs displayed teratogenic and lethal effects with the EC50 and LC50 values at 145 and 240mg/L for matrine and 87.1 and 166mg/L for sophocarpine, respectively. Exposure of matrine and sophocarpine significantly altered spontaneous movement and inhibited swimming performance at concentrations below those causing lethality and malformations, indicating a neurotoxic potential of both drugs. The results are in agreement with most mammalian studies and clinical observations. PMID:24911943

  11. TOXICITY TESTS FOR SEDIMENT QUALITY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic sediments have contributed to a wide-variety of environmental problems around the world. The observed effects include direct toxic effects to aquatic life, bio-magnification of toxicants in the food chain, and economic impacts. This chapter discusses the use of toxicity...

  12. Sodium cholate-templated blue light-emitting Ag subnanoclusters: in vivo toxicity and imaging in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Chandirasekar, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Muthukumarasamyvel, Thangavel; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam; Rajendiran, Nagappan

    2015-01-28

    We report a novel green chemical approach for the synthesis of blue light-emitting and water-soluble Ag subnanoclusters, using sodium cholate (NaC) as a template at a concentration higher than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at room temperature. However, under photochemical irradiation, small anisotropic and spherically shaped Ag nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were obtained upon changing the concentration of NaC from below to above the CMC. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectra showed that the cluster sample was composed of Ag4 and Ag6. The optical properties of the clusters were studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectroscopy. The lifetime of the synthesized fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) was measured using a time-correlated single-photon counting technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to assess the size of clusters and nanoparticles. A protocol for transferring nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Toxicity and bioimaging studies of NaC templated AgNCs were conducted using developmental stage zebrafish embryos. From the survival and hatching experiment, no significant toxic effect was observed at AgNC concentrations of up to 200 ?L/mL, and the NC-stained embryos exhibited blue fluorescence with high intensity for a long period of time, which shows that AgNCs are more stable in living system. PMID:25552345

  13. Comparison of bulk sediment and sediment elutriate toxicity testing methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elutriate bioassays are among numerous methods that exist for assessing the potential toxicity of sediments in aquatic systems. In this study, interlaboratory results were compared from 96-hour Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas static-renewal acute toxicity tests conduct...

  14. The red tide toxin, brevetoxin, induces embryo toxicity and developmental abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Kimm-Brinson, K L; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-01-01

    Brevetoxins are lipophilic polyether toxins produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, and their neurotoxic effects on adult animals have been documented. In this study, we characterized adverse developmental effects of brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1) using an exposure paradigm that parallels the maternal oocyte transfer of toxin. Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to PbTx-1 via microinjection of toxin reconstituted in a triolein oil droplet. Embryos microinjected with doses of 0.1-8.0 ng/egg (ppm) of brevetoxin-1 exhibited pronounced muscular activity (hyperkinesis) after embryonic day 4. Upon hatching, morphologic abnormalities were commonly found in embryos at the following lowest adverse effect levels: 1.0-3.0 ppm, lateral curvature of the spinal column; 3.1-3.4 ppm, herniation of brain meninges through defects in the skull; and 3.4-4.0 ppm, malpositioned eye. Hatching abnormalities were also commonly observed at brevetoxin doses of 2.0 ppm and higher with head-first, as opposed to the normal tail-first, hatching, and doses > 4.1 ng/egg produced embryos that developed but failed to hatch. Given the similarity of developmental processes found between higher and lower vertebrates, teratogenic effects of brevetoxins have the potential to occur among different phylogenetic classes. The observation of developmental abnormalities after PbTx-1 exposure identifies a new spectrum of adverse effects that may be expected to occur following exposure to G. breve red tide events. PMID:11335186

  15. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo

  16. Sand spiked with copper as a reference toxicant material for sediment toxicity testing: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Rogers, B.A.; Rego, S.A.; Corbin, J.M.; Morrison, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Routine use of solid-phase sediment toxicity tests for scientific and regulatory purposes necessitates the development of solid-phase reference toxicant materials. In order to evaluate an approach for developing such materials, 12 solid-phase 96-h reference toxicant tests were conducted over 12 weeks with the marine bivalve Mulinia lateralis. Measured concentrations of copper in the water column above the reference material during testing showed that the toxicant exposures were relatively consistent between tests. Coefficients of variation (CV) for mortality and sublethality (growth) endpoints were 39% and 42%, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1994 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.)

  17. Scanning respirometer for toxicity tests using micro-organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Quan Zhang; Xiang-Ming Li; Yuk-Shan Wong; Frances Kwan

    1995-01-01

    A novel respirometer is developed for microbial toxicity tests. The respirometer is based on luminescent quenching of oxygen to measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in cell vessels and evaluate the toxicity of chemicals by monitoring the effect of toxicants on cell respiration of micro-organisms. The oxygen sensing element is ruthenium complex absorbed on the surface of silica particles followed

  18. Effect of water hardness on peracetic toxicity to zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of peracetic acid (PAA) in aquaculture has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent as use of previous therapeutants becomes restricted. Few data are available concerning fish toxicity by PAA or factors that affect this toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influ...

  19. Antimony and thallium toxicity to embryos and larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, G.A.; Dean, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Antimony, as antimony trioxide, is a commerically important metal used as a flame retarding agent. Thallium has industrial application as a catalyst for many organic reactions and in the production of alloys and electronic devices. Accordingly, both metals are potential pollutants through anthropogenic sources. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of these metals on the embryos and larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

  20. The Red Tide Toxin, Brevetoxin, Induces Embryo Toxicity and Developmental Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Kimm-Brinson; John S. Ramsdell

    Brevetoxins are lipophilic polyether toxins produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, and their neurotoxic effects on adult animals have been documented. In this study, we characterized adverse developmental effects of brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1) using an exposure paradigm that parallels the maternal oocyte transfer of toxin. Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to PbTx-1 via microinjection of toxin reconstituted

  1. Toxicity assessment of dye containing industrial effluents by acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Verma, Yogendra

    2011-02-01

    Toxicity of dye containing effluent of tannery, textile, dyes and pulp-paper industries was evaluated in an acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna. The 48-hour EC(50) values were 4.33% and 19.5% for tannery effluents (Tn1 and Tn2). Textile effluents (Tx1-Tx7) had 48-hour EC(50) values; >100%, >100%, 62.9%, 63.0%, 40.3%, >100% and >100%, respectively. Dye industries (D1-D7) had 48-hour EC(50) values; 14.1%, 15.5%, 24.5%, 29.7%, 23.2%, >100% and >100%, respectively. Similarly pulp-paper effluents (P1-P5) showed acute toxicity as 100%, 77.87%, 46.44%, 69.55% and 82.84%, respectively. These results showed linear relationship with high degree of confidence (r(2) ? 0.84-0.99) between immobility and test concentrations. Toxicity classification criteria showed that out of five effluents from pulp-paper mill, four were minor acutely toxic having 48-hour EC(50) value in between >46%-100%. Out of seven textile effluents, four were not acutely toxic (48-hour EC(50) value >100%) and three were minor acutely toxic (48-hour EC( 50) value in the range of 40.3%-63.0%). Similarly, out of seven dye industrial effluents, two were not acutely toxic and five minor acutely toxic. One of the two tanneries was moderately acutely toxic and another one was minor acutely toxic. Classification based on toxic unit revealed that four out of five pulp-paper effluent, three out of seven textile effluents, five out of seven dye effluents and both the tannery effluents were toxic. Overall, 66.67% effluents were found toxic and 33.33% as non-toxic. In general, tannery and dyes effluents showed more toxicity than textile and paper mill effluents. PMID:20823054

  2. Optimization of culturing conditions for toxicity testing with the alga Oophila sp. (Chlorophyceae), an amphibian endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gil, José Luis; Brain, Richard; Baxter, Leilan; Ruffell, Sarah; McConkey, Brendan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) have a symbiotic relationship with green algae. It has been suggested that contaminants that are preferentially toxic to algae, such as herbicides, may impair the symbiont and, hence, indirectly affect the development of the salamander embryo. To enable testing under near-standard conditions for first-tier toxicity screening, the authors isolated the alga from field-collected eggs and identified conditions providing exponential growth rates in the apparent asexual phase of the alga. This approach provided a uniform, single-species culture, facilitating assessment of common toxicity end points and comparison of sensitivity relative to other species. Sequencing of the 18s ribosomal DNA indicated that the isolated alga is closely related to the recently described Oophila amblystomatis but is more similar to other known Chlamydomonas species, suggesting possible biogeographical variability in the genetic identity of the algal symbiont. After a tiered approach to culturing method refinement, a modified Bristol's media with 1?mM NH4 (+) as nitrogen source was found to provide suitable conditions for toxicity testing at 18?°C and 200?µmol?m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on a 24-h light cycle. The validity of the approach was demonstrated with Zn(2+) as a reference toxicant. Overall, the present study shows that screening for direct effects of contaminants on the algal symbiont without the presence of the host salamander is possible under certain laboratory conditions. PMID:25113146

  3. In vitro Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Roggen, Erwin L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) article “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy” (National Research Council, 2007) was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound. Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modeling tools for, e.g., system biology, physiologically based modeling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the twenty-first century. PMID:21713102

  4. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part III. Effluent toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Canfield, T J; Mount, D R; Mayer, F L

    2005-02-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia--or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent toxicity tests using those two species. If the responses of specific listed species are important for management decisions, our study supports the value in developing culture and testing procedures for those species. PMID:15750777

  5. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent toxicity tests using those two species. If the responses of specific listed species are important for management decisions, our study supports the value in developing culture and testing procedures for those species. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  6. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  7. NEW FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most commonly used test for evaluating the toxicity of effluents to fish and invertebrates has been the acute lethality test. However, effluents frequently are not acutely toxic, and so assessing the sublethal effects on fish and invertebrates is important. Described herein i...

  8. Effects of salinity on the toxicity and biotransformation of L-selenomethionine in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos: mechanisms of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Ramon; Shi, Dalin; Schlenk, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies in mammals have shown that organoselenium depletes the cellular antioxidant, glutathione (GSH) due to activation of organoselenides to organoselenoxides by flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO). Since FMO tends to be induced in euryhaline fish exposed to hypersaline conditions, the developmental toxicity of salinity and organoselenium was examined in the euryhaline fish Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). FMO activity, GSH, and selenium concentrations in Japanese medaka embryos were measured following a 24-h exposure to 0.05 mM L-selenomethionine (SeMet) under different saline conditions: freshwater (<0.5 dS/m), 4.2, 6.7, and 16.8 dS/m. Concentrations of GSH and the hatch-out ratio of the SeMet-treated embryos decreased in a salinity dependent manner. While SeMet treatment led to accumulation within embryos, selenium concentrations were unaltered by salinity treatment. Compared to freshwater-exposed embryos, microsomes from embryos at 6.7 and 16.8 dS/m had enhanced oxidation of SeMet to the selenoxide (10- and 14.3-fold, respectively), which correlated with GSH depletion. The results show that increased SeMet oxidation by hypersaline conditions with subsequent GSH depletion may play an important role in the developmental toxicity of selenomethionine. PMID:22265608

  9. RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

  10. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REFERENCE TOXICANTS FOR USE IN THE EARTHWORM TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However,the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants...

  11. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C?bere, B.; Falti?a, E.; Zel??ns, N.; Kalni?a, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  12. Effects of uranium poisoning on cultured preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Kundt, M; Ubios, A M; Cabrini, R L

    2000-01-01

    The toxic effect of uranium in cultured preimplantation embryos of the mouse is presented. Embryos were obtained from hybrid females CBA x C57 BL following induction of superovulation and were incubated in M16 cultured medium. Two different experiments were performed. In one, embryos in a one-cell stage were placed in culture media with final concentrations of uranyl nitrate of 104 and 208 microg/mL during 120 h in the same dish. In the other experiment, embryos in a one-cell stage were placed in culture medium with uranyl nitrate with final U concentrations of 26, 52, 104, and 208 microg/mL. At 24 h, those embryos which had reached the two-cell stage were transferred to another culture dish to which fresh solutions with uranyl nitrate were added. The percentage of embryos in two-cell stage, morula, early blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, and hatched blastocyst were recorded at 24, 72, 96 and 120 h of culture. The results obtained showed that concentrations as from 26 microg U/mL induced the delay of embryo development and the impairment of blastomere proliferation. The toxic effect of uranium increased in those experiments in which the embryos were transferred to a new medium. This embryo-culture system appears to be appropriate to evaluate the toxic effect of uranium on embryos removed from maternal influences and represents a suitable test system for environmental pollutants. PMID:11051613

  13. Reference toxicants for toxicity testing using Caenorhabditis elegans in aquatic media

    SciTech Connect

    Cressman, C.P. III; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans aquatic toxicity assays were standardized with five common reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP). Aquatic toxicity testing was conducted in 3 media: a standard C. elegans medium; EPA moderately hard reconstituted water; and EPA moderately hard mineral water. Test duration in each medium was 24h without a food source, and 24h and 48h with Escherichia coli strain OP50 as a food source. Each test was replicated three times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration, 10 worms per well. LC{sub 50} values were calculated using probit analysis. The average LC{sub 50}s for each set of replications were compared to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the data, identifying expected variation between replicate tests. These reference toxicants increase the database for C. elegans and provide a benchmark for further application.

  14. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture 

    E-print Network

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01

    . The composites were prepared to provide human body burden data based on the 9 U. S. census divisions and three age groups (0-14, 15-44, and 45+ years). This study, with its ability to detect low levels of PCDEs, demonstrates the ubiquity of these ethers... results of PCDE toxicity studies vary considerably depending upon the particular congener under investigation. In general, PCDEs aie much poorer inducers of xenobiotic metabolism than might be expected based on studies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers...

  15. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture

    E-print Network

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01

    . The composites were prepared to provide human body burden data based on the 9 U. S. census divisions and three age groups (0-14, 15-44, and 45+ years). This study, with its ability to detect low levels of PCDEs, demonstrates the ubiquity of these ethers... results of PCDE toxicity studies vary considerably depending upon the particular congener under investigation. In general, PCDEs aie much poorer inducers of xenobiotic metabolism than might be expected based on studies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers...

  16. Acute toxicity of MPTP and MPP(+) in the brain of embryo and newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Sai, Takafumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes damage to dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system, similar to that seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, a few reports have confirmed neuroblastic apoptosis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult C57BL/6J mice by i.p. injection of MPTP, and concluded that MPTP is also toxic to neuroblasts in the SVZ. While there have been many researches on the neurotoxicity of MPTP in adult mice, there have been only a few in fetal mice. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of MPTP to embryonic and newborn mice after a single injection into pregnant or newborn mice. MPTP and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), a metabolite of MPTP, caused loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells or fibers and increased apoptotic cells in embryonic and newborn mice. In addition, MPTP and MPP(+) induced a marked increase of apoptotic cells in the SVZ compared to the nigrostriatal system. The present results may indicate that MPTP and MPP(+) pass through the placenta and blood-brain barrier (BBB) and that a different mechanism may be involved in MPTP- or MPP(+)-induced toxicity in the SVZ and in the nigrostriatal system of embryonic and newborn mice. PMID:21798732

  17. The Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Platinum Group Metals in Developing Chick Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Ioana; Monahan, Jennifer; Markopoulos, Marjorie; Gagnon, Zofia; Nejame, Britney; Cawley, Jacob; Reens, David

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies showed that platinum group metals (PGMs) such as Pt, Pd, and Rh from automobile catalytic converters, can accumulate in the soft tissues of a variety of living organisms. However, the effects of PGMs on bone and organs development of animals are not clearly understood. To examine these aspects, developing chick embryos were injected with 0.1, 1.0, 5, or 10 ppm solutions of Pt, Rh, Pd, or with a PGMs mixture. 1) Pathological Changes: were observed for all PGM treatments above 1 ppm. Bone Cells Assesment: Chondrocyte cells in thibiotarsus showed decreased diameter and length. 2) PGMs Accumulation in Tissues: was quantified by GFAAS spectrometry on finely ground tissue powder. 3) Bone Demineralization: was detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy imaging on paraffin embedded bone sections. 4) DNA Damage in Cells: was determined by using a Comet assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxidative Damage in Tissues: was analyzed using a glutathione peroxidase assay. The overall results indicated that PGMs presence in our environment raises concerns about their long-term health effects on all organisms.

  18. Optimization of Hyalella azteca IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} for prediction of 28-day sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, A.N.; Ezzard, C.L.; Douglas, W.S.; Home, M.T. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The IQ Toxicity Test, which is a rapid screening toxicity test consisting of the observation of in-vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process using a fluorescent substrate, has proven successful for the determination of 24 and 48-hour EC50`s of D. magna, C. dubia, D. pulex and M. bahia. The application of this concept to utilize the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca may be an excellent way in which to reduce the standard 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test to possibly one hour`s time. This study incorporates an additive experimental design to explore the effects of and interactions between five specific variables: size of the amphipod, exposure time to the toxicant, concentration of substrate, exposure time to the substrate, and length of time starved prior to testing. The results of the IQ toxicity test were compared to those of a 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test. Preliminary data indicate that there is an optimal combination of these variables which results in a concise, reproducible toxicity test for use with Hyalella azteca, and would potentially be applicable to other freshwater amphipods in the future.

  19. 76 FR 38169 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2003-0006; FRL-8872-5] Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing...test data on five chemicals listed in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section...Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency,...

  20. 78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2009-0112; FRL-9902-68] Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing...to a test rule issued by EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The purpose...Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency,...

  1. The Environmental Toxicant 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin Disturbs the Establishment and Maintenance of Cell Polarity in Preimplantation Rat Embryos1

    PubMed Central

    Hutt, Karla J.; Shi, Zhanquan; Petroff, Brian K.; Albertini, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal exposure to the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a variety of defects in compaction-stage embryos, including monopolar spindle formation, errors in chromosome segregation, and fragmentation resulting from aberrant cytokinesis. In this study, we investigated the possibility that a failure in centrosome duplication, separation, or positioning within blastomeres might underlie the observed effects of TCDD on early embryos. The subcellular localization of the centrosomal marker TUBG1 was analyzed in preimplantation embryos collected from female rats exposed to either chronic (50 ng kg?1 wk?1 for 3 wk) or acute (50 ng/kg or 1 ?g/kg at proestrus) doses of TCDD. In treated embryos, interphase TUBG1 foci were more abundant and cortically displaced when compared to those in controls. At prophase, some blastomeres exhibited a single large perinuclear TUBG1 aggregate, suggesting a failure in centrosome duplication or separation. Furthermore, the presence of monopolar spindles at metaphase was confirmed by the localization of TUBG1 to the single spindle pole. Therefore, the misregulation of centrosome number and localization, as indicated by TUBG1 staining, may contribute to errors in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in embryos following maternal TCDD exposure. PMID:20089886

  2. MANUAL FOR THE EVALUATION OF LABORATORIES PERFORMING AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes guidelines and standardized procedures for conducting on-site audits and evaluations of laboratories performing toxicity tests. ncluded are pre-survey information activities, on-site evaluation activities, evaluation criteria, organizational history and labo...

  3. THE TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals...

  4. The way forward in reproductive/developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Horst

    2009-12-01

    The use of experimental animals in reproductive toxicity testing is critically reviewed on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Three Rs concept by Russell and Burch, since there is major concern that reproductive toxicity testing will significantly increase due to the requirements of the EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system. A comparison of the test guidelines for drugs, agrochemicals and industrial chemicals shows that, for historical reasons, significantly different testing strategies are applied. The current status of development and validation of in vitro tests in reproductive toxicology is also critically evaluated. The mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST) is the most advanced and promising of the in vitro tests. Although it has not yet been accepted for regulatory purposes, its use in preclinical drug development is well established. Moreover, promising molecular endpoints have been established in the mEST, including proteomic and toxicogenomic endpoints. Preliminary results have been obtained with a human EST (hEST). In addition, an overview is given on new in vitro reproductive toxicity tests that are currently being developed in the EU FP6 project, ReProTect, since the ReProTect test battery, which covers the essential steps of female and male fertility, implantation and embryotoxicity, holds promise for use as a screening assay for reproductive toxicity testing according to the EU REACH legislation. However, since validated in vitro methods will not be available in the short term, opportunities for the refinement of the standard in vivo tests are discussed, in order to reduce the numbers of animal used in reproductive toxicity testing. Finally, recommendations for toxicity testing in the 21st century call for the harmonisation of test methods across all areas of regulatory testing as a first step. Since the REACH system testing framework for industrial chemicals is driven by the reproductive safety testing requirements of agrochemicals, a shift is proposed to exposure-driven testing of industrial chemicals. In particular, the implementation of a new 'extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study' (EOGRTS), which includes triggers for additional testing for fertility, developmental neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, would significantly reduce test animal numbers. It is concluded that in vitro methods hold great promise for reproductive toxicity testing in the 21st century, e.g. the ReProTect in vitro battery and the embryonic stem cell (ESC) technology focusing on molecular endpoints in both the mEST and the hEST. PMID:20105000

  5. Preliminary investigation of lethally toxic sera of sudden infant death syndrome victims and neutralisation by commercially available immunoglobulins and adult sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola M. Sayers; David B. Drucker; Ian V. Hutchinson; Anthony J. Barson

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypotheses (i) that sudden infant death syndrome sera are toxic to 11-day old chick embryos and (ii) that such a toxicity can be counteracted by immunoglobulin or adult sera. Serum samples from 11 SIDS victims and five controls were tested for lethal toxicity in the chick embryo bioassay. Five serum samples

  6. Toxicity of five antidepressant drugs on embryo-larval development and metamorphosis success in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Di Poi, C; Evariste, L; Serpentini, A; Halm-Lemeille, M P; Lebel, J M; Costil, K

    2014-12-01

    Unlike conventional pollutants, pharmaceutical residues are continuously discharged at low levels (low to mid ng l(-1) concentrations), which results in the chronic contamination of non-target organisms, but little is known about the effects of these residues. The purpose of this study was to provide the first assessment of the ecotoxicity of five antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] fluoxetine and sertraline, tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs] clomipramine and amitriptyline, and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI] duloxetine) at a wide range of concentrations from 0.1 to 100,000 ?g l(-1) on two early life stages in the Pacific oyster. The toxicity was quantified in D-shaped larvae after 36 h of exposure, and in 21-day-old pediveliger larvae after 24 h of exposure using the percentage of normal larval development and the metamorphosis rate as endpoints, respectively. The embryotoxicity assays reported that the EC50 values were within the same range of concentrations (67 to 192 ?g l(-1)) for all of the tested molecules. The metamorphosis tests revealed that the antidepressants can be ranked along an increasing severity gradient: clomipramine < amitriptyline < duloxetine ~ fluoxetine. Sertraline appeared to be the less toxic molecule on this endpoint; however, a different concentration range was used. The embryotoxicity test was more sensitive than the metamorphosis bioassay for three of the five molecules tested, but the latter test showed more practical benefits. Overall, the obtained toxicity values were at least 10,000-fold higher than the reported environmental concentrations. PMID:24122267

  7. Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States); Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

  8. Development toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on rare minnow embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in industrial and commercial applications, but few studies systematically evaluate their developmental toxicity on aquatic organism. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at early life stages as experimental models, developmental toxicity of functionalized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) was investigated following exposure to 0-320?mg/L for 144?h. Results revealed that significantly increased in mortality and malformation was only observed after hatching. Decreased body length, heart rate and swimming speed provide a concentration-dependent manner on larvae; values of 144?h LC50 and EC50 were 140.8 and 109.8?mg/L, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) and antioxidant enzyme related mRNA expressions were significant changed; cell apoptosis activities (caspase-3, -8, -9) and cell apoptosis related mRNA expressions were significant up-regulated; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced when the concentration of SWCNTs above 100?mg/L. Fluorescence and electron microscopy sliced observation show that SWCNTs were well dispersed in larvae within 0.5?h, eventually cleared from the larvae at 144?h. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following SWCNTs exposure in the early life stages of fish. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that functionalized SWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic life when released into the aquatic environment and reached high concentration. In the increasing economical context of SWCNTs, complementary studies must be undertaken, especially including mechanistic and environmental investigations. PMID:25211547

  9. Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

  10. Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. PMID:25125279

  11. Neurobehavioral toxicity testing for risk assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral evaluations are key components in neurotoxicity testing. In the realm of regulatory testing, these evaluations range from a functional observational battery (FOB) and an Irwin?s screen, which assess the neurological, motor, and functional integrity of the subject...

  12. Expression of storm water runoff toxicity in three test organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Katznelson, R. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Oakland, CA (United States); Markel, R.P. [ToxScan, Inc., Watsonville, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Storm water toxicity was monitored at numerous locations in the San Francisco Bay Area, using the EPA protocol for short-term chronic toxicity tests with freshwater organisms in the ``screening`` mode. Toxicity to Selenastrum capricomutum and Pimephales promelas was prevalent in samples collected at industrial catchments but was rarely detected in samples collected from other land use catchments. On the other hand, Ceriodaphnia dubia responded in most samples collected from industrial, commercial, residential, and transportation corridor catchments. In further analyses of C. dubia test results, the median time to lethality (LT{sub 50}) was derived to allow comparisons of the relative intensity of toxicity, and the number of offspring per female per reproductive day (OFRD) was calculated to allow separation of mortality from reproductive effects. This approach revealed that most of the moderately toxic (LT{sub 50} of 5--7 days) storm water samples collected from catchments of mixed land use (stream stations) did not inhibit reproduction, and that most storm water samples collected from transportation corridors did inhibit reproduction. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) indicated that diazinon is the major cause of toxicity in many stream samples, suggesting an explanation for the differential sensitivity observed in different species.

  13. Test chambers and test procedures for in situ toxicity testing with zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, A.M.M; Da Maia Soares, A.M.V.; Goncalves, F.; Ribeiro, R.

    1999-09-01

    Ecotoxicity assessment is usually done by classical tests under controlled conditions. However, field situations may not be accurately predicted by laboratory testing. In situ testing is a pertinent way for assessing the ecological relevance of laboratory bioassays. The objectives of this study were to develop an in situ test chamber and respective test protocols suitable for ecotoxicity testing with zooplankton and to evaluate the use of laboratory protocols (water column and solid phase) by comparing results obtained under controlled conditions with in situ results at an aquatic system receiving acid mine drainage. At the most contaminated stations and at the reference stations, good agreement was found between in situ and classical setting. At intermediate stations, in situ toxicity was generally higher than that in classical tests. Sample collection and preservation probably altered actual toxicity, thus emphasizing the need for caution in estimating or extrapolating field effects from laboratory results.

  14. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC50s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 microgPb g(-1)soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 microgPb g(-1)soil. The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 microg g(-1) soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)) than those in the 3000 microg g(-1) soil (2.21 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 microgPb g(-1)soil. Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 degrees C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration time of artificially amended Pb-bearing soils increases the bioavailability of Pb decreases. Thus addition of worms shortly after addition of Pb to soils may result in the over-estimate of Pb toxicity to worms. The current OECD acute worm toxicity test fails to take these two phenomena into account thereby reducing the environmental relevance of the contaminant toxicities it is used to calculate. PMID:12475061

  15. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21--28, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  16. Eugenic selection benefits embryos.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The primary question to be addressed here is whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), used for both negative and positive trait selection, benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The phrase 'potential supernumerary embryos' is used to indicate that PGD is typically performed on a set of embryos, only some of which will be implanted. Prior to any testing, each embryo in the set is potentially supernumerary in the sense that it may not be selected for implantation. Those embryos that are not selected, and hence destroyed or frozen, are 'actually supernumerary'. The argument to be advanced is hypothetical: If embryos may be said to benefit or be harmed by our actions, then PGD used to select for an embryo or embryos with the highest expected Wellbeing benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The argument shows that the 'non-identity' problem is not sufficient to show that eugenic selection does not benefit supernumerary embryos. PMID:22845885

  17. SIMPLIFIED FEEDING TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURING AND TOXICITY TESTING WITH 'CERIODAPHNIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Food used for Ceriodaphnia dubia in culture and toxicity testing should be uniform, adequate, and easily prepared. Using as a control the current standard food, YCTF, the authors tested a variety of foods made with algal species singly and in combination, prepared with several me...

  18. POREWATER CHEMISTRY: EFFECTS OF SAMPLING, STORAGE, HANDLING, AND TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a general principle, it is nearly impossible to remove a porewater sample from sediment, use it in a toxicity testing vessel with test organisms, and prevent changes in the chemistry of the natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic constituents. The degree of change in t...

  19. GENETIC VARIATION FOR COPPER RESISTANCE IN FATHEAD MINNOW TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unexplained variation in the results of aquatic organism toxicity tests is a consistently observed and troubling phenomenon. Possible sources of variation include differences in condition or nutritional status of the population prior to the test, as well as age, density and hand...

  20. Acute systemic toxicity—prospects for tiered testing strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Botham

    2004-01-01

    After many years of controversy and debate, the LD50 test was finally deleted by the end of 2002. Three alternative animal tests, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure have been developed which give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. They have recently undergone revision to improve their scientific performance but

  1. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  2. A COUPLED MICROSOMAL-ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM: TOXICITY OF REDUCED BETA-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE (NADPH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An NADPH-dependent microsomal-activating system has been coupled to a rat embryo culture in vitro. No embryonic morphological abnormalities or decrease in final yolk sac or embryo DNA and protein contents occurred when 0.2 mM NADPH was used in this coupled system. In contrast, 1....

  3. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  4. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 ...MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. (a) Scope —(1)...

  5. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 ...MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. (a) Scope —(1)...

  6. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 ...MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. (a) Scope —(1)...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 ...MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. (a) Scope —(1)...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 ...MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. (a) Scope —(1)...

  9. Acute toxicity testing with the European estuarine amphipod Corophium multisetosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Ré; A. M. Rodrigues; V. Quintino

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the use of the estuarine amphipod Corophium multisetosum in acute toxicity testing. The species was successfully acclimated to the laboratory and was used in a water-only whole effluent\\u000a 96 h acute bioassay and in a 10 days whole estuarine sediment test. C. multisetosum response was compared to other species in 96 h bioassays, testing boiling cork

  10. Sun light mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles as carrier for 6-mercaptopurine: Preparation, characterization and toxicity studies in zebrafish embryo model

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India); Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara [Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020 (India)] [Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020 (India); Sathish Kumar, Muniram [Department of Pharmaceutics, Anna University, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, Anna University, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India); Dinesh, Murugan Girija [Thanthai Hansroever College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu (India)] [Thanthai Hansroever College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu (India); Kannappan, Sudalyandi [Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai 600028 (India)] [Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai 600028 (India); Suguna, Lonchin, E-mail: slonchin@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? Gold nanoparticles prepared using eco-friendly method with good in vitro stability. ? Can be used as drug delivery system. ? Did not show any toxicity in zebrafish embryo. ? More toxic to cancer cells when compared to N-Au-Mp and Mp. -- Abstract: The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC{sub 50}) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp.

  11. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wang, Q.; Shukla, R. [UC Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Fulk, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  12. Use of DNA strand damage (Comet assay) and embryo hatching effects to assess contaminant exposure in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.F.; Steinert, S.A.; Nakayama, K.; Oshima, Y.

    1999-07-01

    After fertilization, blue crab eggs are embedded in a sponge which is attached to the female abdomen during embryo development. Embryos after 9 stages in the egg sac hatch into a swimming zoea stage (stage 10). The authors have developed a bioassay where embryo development is monitored in culture plates with and without toxicants in the water. Toxicant effects are based on determining the percentage of embryos which hatch to zoea. Hatching EC{sub 50} (toxicant concentration at which 50% of the embryos fail to hatch) for a number of pesticides, organometallics and metals were determined. The test takes from 2 to 6 days depending on the embryo stage selected for the study. In addition to embryo development effects the prevalence of DNA single-strand breaks in individual embryo cells were determined using the single cell gel electrophoresis method (Comet assay). A good correlation between DNA strand breakage and embryo defects was found after exposure to genotoxic contaminants. Thus, the bioassay linking DNA damage to embryo hatching effects is rapid, sensitive and mechanistically relevant.

  13. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  14. Estimation of the hazard of landfills through toxicity testing of leachates—I. Determination of leachate toxicity with a battery of acute tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clément Bernard; Persoone Guido; Janssen Colin; Anne Le Dű-Delepierre

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven landfill leachates were tested on a battery of conventional toxicity tests (microalgae, daphnids, duckweeds) and new microbiotests (rotifers, crustaceans, protozoans, luminescent bacteria).The toxicity varied substantially from one test species to the other, from one site to the other, as well as from one type of landfill to the other. Leachates of domestic wastes were significantly more toxic than those

  15. Chronic toxicity of the azaarene quinoline, a synthetic fuel component, to the pond snail Physa gyrina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond E. Millemann; Daniel S. Ehrenberg

    1982-01-01

    The azaarene quinoline was tested for chronic toxicity to embryos of the pulmonate snail Physa gyrina. Toxicity criteria were effects on embryogenesis, embryo survival, time to hatching, hatching success, and posthatching survival. Of the controls, 91% hatched, compared with 99, 78, and 5% exposed to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg\\/L of quinoline, respectively. No eggs hatched at or above 100

  16. Use of rat embryo limb bud cell cultures to screen organochlorine compounds detected in the water and sediment of rivers in Tokyo metropolis for developmental toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junzo Yonemoto; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Yuko Soma; Kazuho Inaba; Hideko Sone; Satoshi Kobayashi

    1997-01-01

    Developmental toxicity of nine organochlorine compounds commonly detected in the water and sediment of rivers in the Tokyo metropolitan area was screened by rat embryo limb bud cell culture (LBC). The chemicals were p?dichlorobenzene (pDCB), o?dichlorobenzene (oDCB), p?chloroaniline (pCA), 3,4?dichloroaniline (DCA), tris (2?chloroethyl)phosphate, 2,5?dichlorophenol (DP), 2,5?dichloro?anisole (DA), Triclosan (IR) and Triclocarban (TC).The ID50 (50% inhibitory concentration for differentiation) and the

  17. Normal Calves Obtained after Direct Transfer of Vitrified Bovine Embryos Using Ethylene Glycol, Trehalose, and Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. SAHA; T. OTOI; M. TAKAGI; A. BOEDIONO; C. SUMANTRI; T. SUZUKI

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, IVF bovine embryos were vitrified using as the cryoprotectants, ethylene glycol plus trehalose plus the polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In Experiment I, toxicity of the vitrification solution (VS) containing 20% PVP was tested in relation to temperature and exposure time. One hundred percent embryo development was observed with treatment at 5°C for 5 min, whereas only 55.5%

  18. A FIELD VALIDATION OF TWO SEDIMENT-AMPHIPOD TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field validation study of two sediment-amphipod toxicity tests was conducted using sediment samples collected subtidally in the vicinity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated Superfund site in Elliott Bay, WA, USA. Sediment samples were collected at 30 stati...

  19. COMPUTER INTERFACED TOXICITY TESTING SYSTEM FOR SIMULATING VARIABLE EFFLUENT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria and standards are based primarily on toxicity tests carried out with single chemicals whose concentration is as nearly constant as possible. In the 'real world', however, organisms are exposed to mixtures of chemicals which usually have markedly fluctuating...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE PEEP INDEX AND RECOMMENDED TOXICITY TESTS

    E-print Network

    #12;EVALUATION OF THE PEEP INDEX AND RECOMMENDED TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE FRASER RIVER BASIN DOE FRAP Bermingham, in the development of the PEEP Index. This consultant's report was funded by Environment Canada. One approach being considered for these purposes is the Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) which

  1. Toxicity of waste drilling fluids in modified allium test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Željka Vidakovi?; Dražena Papeš; Mihovil Tomi?

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity of four waste water samples from reserve pit upon the root-tip cells of Allium ascalonicum L. was researched by applying modified Allium test. The samples were a mixture of substances and their chemical composition was only partly known. The first task was to find out the optimal duration for root-tips treatment. The treatment lasting 48 h has been

  2. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  3. In vitro Cell Culture Model for Toxic Inhaled Chemical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Neeves, Keith B.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara; Loader, Joan E.; White, Carl W.; Veress, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures are indispensable to develop and study efficacy of therapeutic agents, prior to their use in animal models. We have the unique ability to model well differentiated human airway epithelium and heart muscle cells. This could be an invaluable tool to study the deleterious effects of toxic inhaled chemicals, such as chlorine, that can normally interact with the cell surfaces, and form various byproducts upon reacting with water, and limiting their effects in submerged cultures. Our model using well differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures at air-liqiuid interface circumvents this limitation as well as provides an opportunity to evaluate critical mechanisms of toxicity of potential poisonous inhaled chemicals. We describe enhanced loss of membrane integrity, caspase release and death upon toxic inhaled chemical such as chlorine exposure. In this article, we propose methods to model chlorine exposure in mammalian heart and airway epithelial cells in culture and simple tests to evaluate its effect on these cell types. PMID:24837339

  4. Hyalella IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} as a predictor of whole sediment toxicity with diversely contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Hayes, K.R. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The IQ TOXICITY TEST{trademark} is a toxicity screening test that evaluates the organism`s galactosidase enzyme system functionality as a predictor of acute toxicity. Organisms are exposed to a potentially toxic solution for approximately one hour. Following the exposure, the organisms are exposed to a slurry of a galactoside sugar tagged with a fluorescent marker (methylumbelliferyl galactoside) for 15--20 minutes. A black light can then be used to examine whether the hemolymph of the organism contains free umbelliferone, which brightly fluoresces. The organisms are then scored as ``on`` or ``off`` with respect to free umbelliferone. This endpoint can then be used to calculate an EC50, which is comparable to a whole effluent, pure compound, or sediment toxicity test. Slightly different methodologies are used for different toxicity test organisms. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the use of the IQ{trademark} methodology with porewater extract exposures of the amphipod Hyalella azteca as a predictor of results of whole sediment toxicity tests. The results of over thirty 10 and 28-day whole sediment toxicity tests and the concurrent Hyalella azteca 10 TOXICITY TESTS{trademark} are compared and discussed. The use of screening tests as a reduced cost method for initial site assessment will be discussed.

  5. Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

  6. Shrimp Antimicrobial Testing. II. Toxicity Testing and Safety Determination for Twelve Antimicrobials with Penaeid Shrimp Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney R. Williams; Thomas A. Bell; Donald V. Lightner

    1992-01-01

    The need for federally approved chemotherapeutants for use in domestic shrimp culture in the USA is acute. A summary of toxicity testing of 12 antimicrobials against penaeid shrimp larvae is presented. In addition, the toxicity data are examined in concert with previously reported data on minimum inhibitory concentrations to establish a therapeutic index (a measure of margin of safety) for

  7. The Role of Toxicity Testing in NASA's Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, Steve; Davis, Samuel; Wise, Harry; Moore, Robin

    2005-01-01

    NASA has deemed it necessary to perform the Toxicity Test (offgassing of toxic products) on all non-metallic materials proposed for use in habitable environments onboard the Shuttle and International Space Station flS,!J. This requirement stems from the desire to maintain a healthy, breathable atmosphere for the astronauts. As Shuttle missions have lengthened and with the habitation of the International Space Station, the need for understanding and controlling the contaminants in breathable atmospheres has increased. The increased duration of humans in space present two concerns to the astronauts with regard to their breathing air: 1. Breathing the on-board air. 2. Improved cleaning/filtering of existing air. Trends using existing toxicity data for materials and an understanding of the air cleaning/filtering capabilities in relation to Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC) of offgassed components are explored. Recommendations are made for materials selection practices that should be followed to ensure a safe and healthy breathing environment for astronauts aboard these long term projects. The importance and relevance of Toxicity testing and materials selection in conjunction with the new NASA missions of creating a human presence on the Moon and traveling to Mars are described.

  8. Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Käufer, M; Gartiser, S; Hafner, C; Schiwy, S; Keiter, S; Gründemann, C; Hollert, H

    2014-12-01

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating throughput-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose-response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet assay and molecular biomarker analysis should prospectively be considered to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments allowing for a comprehensive hazard ranking. In order to elucidate mode of action, novel techniques such as flow cytometry have been adopted and proved to be valuable tools for advanced risk assessment and management. PMID:25471716

  9. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

    2010-01-01

    A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880??g/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052

  10. Large-scale compartment-fire toxicity study: comparison with small-scale toxicity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.L.; Clark, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Ten large-scale single-compartment fire tests were performed using two polyurethane foams and a cotton upholstery fabric. Animals were exposed to the products of decomposition of cushion assemblies burned under three different combustion modes: smoldering combustion; flaming combustion; and smoldering-to-flaming transition combustion. Comparison of gas yields (CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN) between these tests and prior large- and small-scale tests showed that the CO and CO/sub 2/ yields agreed within a factor of 3, while the NBS Toxicity Protocol produced 10 times more HCN in the flaming mode and ramped heating mode than the large-scale tests. Model calculations showed that within-exposure animal deaths in small- and large-scale tests correlated with model values greater than 0.7. Burn room animal deaths could not be explained in terms of the four gases used in the N-gas model.

  11. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krewski; Daniel Acosta Jr; Melvin Andersen; Henry Anderson; John C. Bailar III; Kim Boekelheide; Robert Brent; Gail Charnley; Vivian G. Cheung; Sidney Green Jr; Karl T. Kelsey; Nancy I. Kerkvliet; Abby A. Li; Lawrence McCray; Otto Meyer; Reid D. Patterson; William Pennie; Robert A. Scala; Gina M. Solomon; Martin Stephens; James Yager; Lauren Zeise

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative

  12. Applicability of subchronic toxicity test with Hyalella azteca for toxicity identification evaluation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, A.E.; Jop, K.M. [Springborn Labs., Wareham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A series of screening tests including the short-term chronic exposure of Ceriodaphnia dubia to sediment pore waters, 10-day exposures of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to bulk sediments and a bioaccumulation study with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed as part of an ecological risk assessment of Plow Shop Pond, Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Chronic endpoints such as reproduction and growth indicated sediment toxicity, however, a toxicity identification evaluation program was initiated to further define the source and extent of the toxicity. A short-term chronic exposure with C. dubia was a logical choice for the TIE, however, since amphipods are epibenthic organisms, they are a better surrogate of sediment dwelling organisms than a water column species such as C. dubia. Observations performed during H. azteca culture suggested that this species of amphipod could thrive in the water column for up to three weeks. Therefore, 7-day old H. azteca were exposed to pore water samples under static-renewal conditions for 10 days. Survival and growth (i.e., dry weight) were determined at the termination of each exposure. Laboratory control group performance consistently averaged a {>=}90% survival and {>=}43 {micro}g of dry weight per amphipod. Growth of amphipods used in each exposure generally exceeded two times the initial body weight after 10 days of exposure. Previous studies have indicated that the growth and reproductive response of H. azteca are positively correlated for a given set of exposure conditions. The results of these 10-day subchronic exposures with H. azteca provide a consistent and reliable measure of the chronic sediment toxicity with a benthic invertebrate for toxicity identification evaluation programs.

  13. Produced water toxicity tests accurately measure the produced water toxicity in marine environments?

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States); Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region VI has issued a general permit for offshore oil and gas discharges to the Gulf of Mexico that places numerical limits on whole effluent toxicity (WEI) for produced water. Recently proposed EPA general permits for other produced water discharges in Regions VI and X also include enforceable numerical limits on WET. Clearly, the industry will be conducting extensive produced water WET testing. Unfortunately, the WET test may not accurately measure the toxicity of the chemical constituents of produced water. Rather the mortality of test organisms may be attributable to (1) the high salinity of produced water, which causes salinity shock to the organisms, or (2) an ionic imbalance caused by excesses or deficiencies of one or more of seawater`s essential ions in the test chambers. Both of these effects are likely to be mitigated in actual offshore discharge settings, where the receiving water will be seawater and substantial dilution will be probable. Thus, the additional salinity of produced water will be rapidly assimilated, and the proper marine ionic balance will be quickly restored. Regulatory authorities should be aware of these factors when interpreting WET test results.

  14. Fluorescent cell-based sensing approaches for toxicity testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Fritzsche; Carl-Fredrik Mandenius

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric cell-based sensing methods have attracted increasing interest in toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals, pathogens,\\u000a environmental pollutants, and other chemicals. The objective of this review is to summarise the variety of approaches reported\\u000a up to now and to present recent developments in this area. The different approaches are described in relation to their underlying\\u000a mechanism and, especially, to the role of

  15. A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests....

  16. FISH SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY PREDICTION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS THAT PRODUCE NARCOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model based on partition coefficient was developed for predicting subchronic toxicities of selected chemicals to fish. Early life stage tests were conducted under flow-through conditions using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test organisms. Embryos, larvae and juvenile...

  17. The REACH perspective: toward a new concept of toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Schoeters, Greet

    2010-02-01

    A sustainable society and a healthy society are major goals for European policymakers. Although most Europeans live a longer healthy life than ever, there is growing concern and anxiety about unknown health risks and threats of chemicals and a strong demand for more knowledge and more control. European legislation is responding to these demands. An example is the program on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), which came into force in 2007. It is a gigantic task for industry and for administrators to evaluate safety files of thousands of chemicals in a period of 12 years and to collect new data for chemicals not yet evaluated. Costs, number of toxicity tests, and number of animals that are needed are already well documented. REACH uses strict guidelines and focuses on apical endpoints that have been covered in the past by animal tests. Animal tests are slow, use unrealistic high doses, and have been shown to not always predict human toxicity correctly. The REACH program has made a clear opening for reduction of in vivo animal tests. Sharing toxicity data is a major improvement. For low tonnage levels, no further in vivo testing is allowed. The combination of scientifically valid information from alternative tests with available animal and human data into a weight-of-evidence approach is part of the integrated test strategy under REACH. Interpretation of this integrated information requires a high degree of expertise, flexibility, and openness toward scientific advances. This will be crucial for the success of the REACH program. It means a shift of attitude and will put a heavy responsibility on scientific experts and regulators, but it is also an opportunity for meeting the safety expectations of our modern society. PMID:20574899

  18. Sperm DNA integrity testing: big halo is a good predictor of embryo quality and pregnancy after conventional IVF.

    PubMed

    Tandara, M; Baji?, A; Tandara, L; Bili?-Zulle, L; Šunj, M; Kozina, V; Goluža, T; Juki?, M

    2014-09-01

    Sperm DNA integrity is a sperm functional parameter of male fertility evaluation. Two parameters of sperm DNA integrity were observed: DNA damage expressed as DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and percentage of the DNA undamaged spermatozoa expressed as big halo. Halosperm test was used for sperm DNA integrity determination. The aim of this study was to evaluate which DNA integrity parameter is better as an embryo quality and pregnancy prognostic parameter after the conventional IVF. We evaluated two embryo groups (positive and negative group) according to the 3rd day cumulative embryo score. Big halo and DFI, as we expected, showed good correlation (r = -0.69; p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses show that DFI and big halo are significant (p < 0.001) as prognostic parameters of embryo quality. ROC curves comparison of DFI and big halo revealed the AUC value for big halo to be significantly higher (DFI AUC = 0.71 vs. big halo AUC = 0.83; p = 0.025) than for DFI. Big halo was found to be the only independent predictor of embryo quality. Sperm DNA integrity both parameters are good prognostic parameters of embryo quality after the conventional IVF where big halo seems to be better. ROC analyses show DFI and big halo as significant prognostic parameters for achieved pregnancy (AUC ± SE for DFI was 0.67 ± 0.06 and 0.75 ± 0.06 for big halo). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the correlation between sperm DNA undamaged rate expressed as big halo parameter and semen characteristics as well as the influence on fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy in conventional IVF. PMID:24947544

  19. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Caporale, Marta; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Berenato, Rosa; Maggi, Claudia; Niger, Monica; Ricchini, Francesca; Bossi, Ilaria; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesca Futura; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer. PMID:25906475

  20. Undetected toxicity risk in pharmacogenetic testing for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Caporale, Marta; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Berenato, Rosa; Maggi, Claudia; Niger, Monica; Ricchini, Francesca; Bossi, Ilaria; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesca Futura; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%-30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients' homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies' results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer. PMID:25906475

  1. 60 FR 53528 - Whole Effluent Toxicity: Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-10-16

    ...Methods for measuring mutagenicity (changes in genes or chromosomes)or for monitoring viruses in wastewaters and sludges that...reference toxicant tests. Response: EPA believes that the probability that an effluent toxicity test could be valid when the...

  2. Field assessments in conjunction with whole effluent toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    La Point, T.W.; Waller, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are widely used to assess potential effects of wastewater discharges on aquatic life. This paper represents a summary of chapters in a 1996 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry-sponsored workshop and a literature review concerning linkages between WET testing and associated field biomonitoring. Most published studies thus far focus primarily on benthic macroinvertebrates and on effluent-dominated stream systems in which effluents demonstrate little or no significant acute toxicity. Fewer studies examine WET test predictability in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetlands, estuaries, large rivers) or deal with instream biota such as fish and primary producers. Published results indicate that standards for the usual WET freshwater test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, may not always protect most of the species inhabiting a receiving stream. Although WET tests are useful in predicting aquatic individual responses, they are not meant to directly measure natural population or community responses. Further, they do not address bioconcentration or bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds; do not assess eutrophication effects in receiving systems; and lastly, do not reflect genotoxic effects or function to test for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Consequently, a more direct evaluation of ecosystem health, using bioassessment techniques, may be needed to properly evaluate aquatic systems affected by wastewater discharges.

  3. Bioavailability of fluoranthene in freshwater sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Suedel, B.C.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr. (Univ. of Mississippi, University (United States)); Clifford, P.A. (EA Engineering Science and Technology, Inc., Sparks, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To examine equilibrium-partitioning model predictions of interstitial water concentrations of fluoranthene as part of the equilibrium-partitioning (EqP) approach to sediment quality criteria development, the bioavailability (toxicity) of fluoranthene-amended sediment to Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, and Chironomus tentans was determined. Fluoranthene was added to three freshwater sediments with similar organic carbon content. Predicted interstitial water concentrations from the equilibrium-partitioning model were similar to measured interstitial water concentrations for WRFS and TR sediment, but the model underpredicted measured values for LF sediment by a factor of two. EC50s for Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, and Chironomus tentans in interstitial water were a factor of two to five greater for LF than for WRFS and TR sediments. Factors other than organic carbon content of sediments probably contributed to the variability in bioavailability of fluoranthene. Based on 10-d sediment toxicity tests with Hylella azteca, Daphnia magna, and Chironomus tentans, organic carbon-normalized sediment concentrations were better predictors of toxicity than interstitial water and bulk sediment fluoranthene concentrations. In 10-d aqueous-phase tests with fluoranthene, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca were twice as sensitive as Daphnia magna.

  4. A SURROGATE SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY TEST METHOD FOR WATERS WITH HIGH TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) are often identified as a toxicant in whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing. The primary test organism used in WET testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is very sensitive to TDS ions, which can be problematic when differentiating the toxicity of TDS from those...

  5. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2014-11-13

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage. PMID:25391229

  6. Toxicity of naphthenic acid fraction components extracted from fresh and aged oil sands process-affected waters, and commercial naphthenic acid mixtures, to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Frank, Richard A; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Gillis, Patricia L; Hewitt, L Mark; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; Parrott, Joanne L

    2015-07-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). These compounds can be both toxic and persistent and thus are a primary concern for the ultimate remediation of tailings ponds in northern Alberta's oil sands regions. Recent research has focused on the toxicity of NAs to the highly vulnerable early life-stages of fish. Here we examined fathead minnow embryonic survival, growth and deformities after exposure to extracted NA fraction components (NAFCs), from fresh and aged oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), as well as commercially available NA mixtures. Commercial NA mixtures were dominated by acyclic O2 species, while NAFCs from OSPW were dominated by bi- and tricyclic O2 species. Fathead minnow embryos less than 24h old were reared in tissue culture plates terminating at hatch. Both NAFC and commercial NA mixtures reduced hatch success, although NAFCs from OSPW were less toxic (EC50=5-12mg/L, nominal concentrations) than commercial NAs (2mg/L, nominal concentrations). The toxicities of NAFCs from aged and fresh OSPW were similar. Embryonic heart rates at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) declined with increasing NAFC exposure, paralleling patterns of hatch success and rates of cardiovascular abnormalities (e.g., pericardial edemas) at hatch. Finfold deformities increased in exposures to commercial NA mixtures, not NAFCs. Thus, commercial NA mixtures are not appropriate surrogates for NAFC toxicity. Further work clarifying the mechanisms of action of NAFCs in OSPW, as well as comparisons with additional aged sources of OSPW, is merited. PMID:25957715

  7. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation...for detection of extraneous pathogens provided in this...

  8. CELLULAR TOXICITY IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL CULTURES. 2. A STATISTICAL APPRAISAL OF SENSITIVITY WITH THE RABBIT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE, SYRIAN HAMSTER EMBRYO, BALB 3T3 MOUSE, AND HUMAN NEONATAL FIBROBLAST CELL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chinese hamster ovary, rabbit alveolar macrophage, Syrian Hamster embryo, mouse, and human neonatal fibroblast cells were employed in a statistical evaluation of the relative sensitivity of the cells to toxic substances. The cells were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 2,4-dimet...

  9. Sediment toxicity testing of Lake Orta after liming

    SciTech Connect

    Baudo, R.; Beltrami, M.; Rossi, D. [CNR, Verbania-Pallanza (Italy). Ist. Italiano Idrobiologia; Gronda, A. [Ecotox LSD, Prenana Milanese (Italy); Abdel-Monem, A.M. [National Institutes of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo (Egypt); Burton, G.A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Lake Orta has been severely polluted by industrial effluents containing Cu, NH{sub 3}, Cr., Ni, and Zn. Ammonia oxidation caused a pH drop below 4. More than 60 papers have described the adverse chemical and biological changes which occurred in Lake Orta in the past several decades. In 1989, CaCO{sub 3} (10,900 tons) was added to the lake as a remedial action. The treatment was effective, improving water quality and allowing some original plankton, benthic, and fish populations to return. However, Cu and Cr are still present in the top 10 cm of sediment. The toxicity of the sediment was evaluated using multiple assays: Microtox (solid phase and pore water), Brachionus calyciflorus and Thamnocephalus platyurus Toxkits (pore water), seed germination and root elongation (solid phase and pore water). In addition, in situ and laboratory tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca and an indigenous species of Daphnia. Assays responses varied yet showed surficial sediments to be toxic. Toxicity increased with sediment in pre-liming deposition zones. Recovery of the ecosystem is evident, however the contaminated sediments may impede further improvement.

  10. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M. [Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States); Aurand, D.V. [Ecosystem Management and Associates, Purcellville, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea.

  11. Validation and sensitivity comparisons of micro-scale toxicity tests for the evaluation of freshwater sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Riebel, P.; Bureau, J. [BEAK Consultants Ltd., Dorval, Quebec (Canada); Blaise, C.; Michaud, J.R. [Environment Canada, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A three-year study is currently underway to develop a representative and cost-effective battery of toxicity tests for evaluating freshwater sediment and porewater toxicity. Among the tests currently being evaluated are the following: Microtox{trademark} chronic test, Microtox{trademark} solid-phase test, Microtox{trademark} liquid phase test, Thamnotoxkit F{trademark}, Rotoxkit F{trademark}, Daphnia magna IQ test{trademark}, Sediment Toxkit, SOS Chromotest, a Selenastrum capricornutum short exposure assay, and trout hepatocyte assays. Conventional sediment tests with Chironomus tentans, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus, as well as benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and sediment chemical characterizations are being conducted at two contaminated sites. Toxicity test reproducibility, sensitivity, practicality, cost and ecological relevance are discussed.

  12. Tritium toxicity: age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse testes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, A.L.

    1985-06-01

    As a radiation hazard of biological significance tritium has largely been ignored because of its rapid turnover from the body, its low average beta energy, and short range in the tissue. In all the available reports of the investigations, little research effort has been noticed on the age-specific consequences of HTO-irradiation of mammals in the perinatal to pubertal stages of life as compared to the adult stages. The present study is an attempt to evaluate qualitative and quantitatively the age dependent radio-sensitivity of mice testes to tritium toxicity.

  13. Microtox ® solid phase test: Effect of diluent used in toxicity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annamaria Volpi Ghirardini; Marco Girardini; Davide Marchetto; Claudio Pantani

    2009-01-01

    Microtox® solid phase test is an acute toxicity test for solid matrices based on inhibition of natural bioluminescence of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Protocols developed to overcome the effects of confounding factors are proposed in the literature that differs by important practical and methodological issues. This work focused on diluents used for sediment resuspension and dilution. Two artificial seawaters,

  14. PHOTOACTIVATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXICITY IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) EMBRYOS: RELEVANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hazard for photoactivated toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been clearly demonstrated; however, to our knowledge, the risk in contaminated systems has not been characterized. To address this question, a median lethal dose (LD50) for fluoranthene photoa...

  15. KEPONE (TRADEMARK): CHRONIC EFFECTS ON EMBRYO, FRY, JUVENILE, AND ADULT SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS ('CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the toxicity of Kepone to, and uptake by embryo, fry, juvenile, and adult sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) using intermittent-flow toxicity tests. Concentrations of Kepone and percentage of adult fish surviving in a 28-day exposure were--Control, 95...

  16. Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Rippon; S. J. Riley

    1996-01-01

    Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the

  17. Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2014-10-01

    A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17?-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative of anti-androgenic activity. In contrast, for medaka clear anti-androgenic response, e.g. transcriptional downregulation of 11?-hydroxylase, 3?-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, was already observed at the pre-hatch stage. Together, this data suggests that medaka and zebrafish embryos would provide a beneficial alternative testing platform for endocrine disruption that involves additive information on interspecies and exposure time variability when using both species. PMID:24992288

  18. Fluidized bed incineration tests of toxic liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grubor, B.; Dakic, D.; Ilic, M.; Vusanovic, A.

    1999-07-01

    During the TNT production process, a toxic and dangerous waste solution is generated. Soluble compounds contain both toxic organic matter and non organic alkali salts. The concentration of organic and non organic matters in water is about 7%, with approximately equal parts. The best way for neutralization of this type of matter is disintegration at adequately high temperatures. Thermochemical pre-calculations showed that a temperature of 700 C is sufficient for these purposes. On the other hand, thermal disintegration of this waste solution can be very difficult because the ash (solid product of disintegration) has a low melting point (less than 750 C). The existing industrial unit at a TNT production complex does not work satisfactorily, and that was the reason for investigation of disintegration of this waste solution in a fluidized bed with direct burning of liquid and/or gaseous fuel. The fluidized bed, due to its basic characteristics (large heat capacity of inert material, intensive mixing, enhanced heat and mass processes) enables efficient combustion even at low temperatures (around 700 C), at which ash sintering is minimal. The experiments were performed on a FB reactor with an internal diameter of 250 mm and a height of 2 m. The results of the combustion tests have shown that the disintegration of this toxic and dangerous liquid waste can be done successfully in a fluidized bed with no harmful gaseous emissions. Also, sintering and fouling problems can be overcome by strictly insuring that the temperatures of both the bed and the freeboard can be lower than 710 C. The obtained test results were used for a preliminary design of an industrial plant for incinerating 500 kg/h of this liquid waste, which is also presented in the paper.

  19. An interlaboratory comparison of sediment elutriate preparation and toxicity test methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elutriate bioassays are among numerous methods that exist for assessing the potential toxicity of sediments in aquatic systems. In this study, interlaboratory results were compared from 96-hour Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas static-renewal acute toxicity tests conduct...

  20. Evaluation of municipal waste incinerator fly ash toxicity and the role of cadmium by two aquatic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Hidehiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Japan is regulated under the hazardous waste regulation Waste under Special Control, according to the Amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, because it contains high concentrations of heavy metals which are available for leaching. To evaluate the toxicity of fly ash, a fly ash leachate was prepared according to the Japanese standard leaching procedure. The chemical analysis of the leachate showed that possibly one of the most toxic substances was cadmium. The toxicity of the leachate and the cadmium was determined by algal assay and a Daphnia acute toxicity test. The results showed that the leachate was about seven times more toxic to the growth of algae and 20 to 30 times more toxic to the survival of Daphnia than expected from its cadmium concentration. The toxicity interaction between cadmium and the other constituents in the leachate was also examined. The toxicity of cadmium showed an additive effect with the other constituents in the leachate in algal assay. In the Daphnia test, however, cadmium showed an antagonistic effect.

  1. VALIDATION OF EMBRYO TESTS FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF FUNGAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS ON NONTARGET AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to conidiospores of the fungal weed control agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, f. sp. aeschynomene, and the entomopathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. nly Metarhiz...

  2. Comparison of mathematically-predicted toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioassay-derived dioxin-equivalents (TCDD-EQs) in heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.; Hatfield, J.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Tillitt, D. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States); [Upper Mississippi Science Center, LaCrosse, WI (United States); [Midwest Science Center, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from an uncontaminated site (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, and was associated with concentrations of total PCBs and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the Ah receptor. TEQs [mathematically predicted; summed product of PCB congener concentrations using 5 different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)] were compared to TCDD-EQS [derived by bioassay; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells]. Although TEQs were up to 15-fold greater than TCDD-EQs, the pattern among sites was consistent and TEQs were highly correlated with TCDD-EQS. TEFs based on single congener mammalian studies yielded TEQs that greatly exceeded values from the H4IIE bioassay of field sample. TEFs generated from avian egg injection studies yielded TEQs that most closely approximated bioassay-derived TCDD-EQS. Cytochrome P450 parameters were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQS; adjusted r{sup 2} often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data document the general predictive value of TEQs and TCDD-EQs for P450 induction in field collected samples, but also indicate the need for development of TEFs for the species and biological end point of concern.

  3. Characterization of toxicants in urban road dust by Toxicity Identification Evaluation using ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Rajendra; Furumai, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Fumiyuki

    2015-10-15

    The current study involves characterization of organic compounds, heavy metals, and ammonia as potential toxicants in one arterial road (St. 3) and two highway (St. 7 and 8) urban road dust (URD) collected in Tokyo, Japan. URD toxicity was evaluated by Toxicity Identification Evaluation using the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test. URDs were treated with resins (10% XAD-4, 20% SIR-300 and 20% SIR-600) to determine the reduction in mortality after treatment. The mortality of ostracods exposed to St. 3 URD (baseline 80%) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 0% and 47% after XAD-4 and SIR-300 treatment respectively. This reduction led us to suspect hydrophobic organic compounds and heavy metals as potential toxicants. Subsequent elution of the recovered XAD-4 with polar (methanol, acetone) and non-polar (dichloromethane) solvents confirmed the dominance of relatively polar hydrophobic organic toxicants. The dissolved concentration of Cu and Zn after SIR-300 treatment exceeded the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for ostracods, which led us to suspect Cu and Zn as other probable toxicants. The concentration of Zn in a SIR-300 acidic elutriate, recovered after the termination of toxicity test, confirmed Zn as one of the toxicants in St. 3. The baseline mortality (100%) of St. 7 was significantly reduced (23%) by SIR-300 treatment. This indicated the presence of heavy metals as the probable toxicant. However, the concentration of dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the overlying water was below previously reported LC50 values for each metal in St. 7. Recovery of Zn concentrations exceeding the LC50 in the St. 7 SIR-300 elutriate led us to suspect a dietary exposure route of Zn to the ostracod during the direct contact test. The overall results indicate that the toxicant types can vary widely depending on the road sampled. PMID:26026413

  4. Quantification and in situ localisation of abcb1 and abcc9genes in toxicant-exposed sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Plei?, Ivana Lepen; Borra, Marco; Mladineo, Ivona

    2013-12-01

    A multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism mediated by ABC binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is an efficient chemical defence mechanism in sea urchin embryos. The aim of our work was to evidence whether exposure to sub-lethal doses of specific contaminants (oxybenzone (OXI), mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and trybutiltin (TBT)) would induce MXR transporter activity during embryonic development (from zygote to blastula stage) in purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos. Further, we present data on molecular identification, transport function, expression levels and gene localisation of two ABC efflux transporters-P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/P-gp) and sulfonylurea-receptor-like protein (ABCC9/SUR-like). Partial cDNA sequences of abcb1 and abcc9 were identified and quantitative PCR (qPCR) evidenced an increase in mRNA transcript levels of both ABC transporters during the two-cell, as well as an overall decrease during the blastulae stage. Calcein-AM efflux activity assay indicated the activation of multidrug resistance-associated protein/ABCC-like transport in the presence of HgCl2 and TBT in exposed blastulae. The in situ hybridisation of the two-cell and blastula stages showed ubiquitous localisation of both transcripts within cells, supporting qPCR data. In conclusion, ABCB1 and ABCC9 are constitutive, as are HgCl2, TBT and OXI-inducible ABC membrane transporters, coexpressed in the zygote, two-cell and blastula stages of the P. lividus. Their ubiquitous cell localisation further fortifies their protective role in early embryonic development. PMID:23690080

  5. Tissue Morphology and Cell Impedance Based Biosensors for Toxicity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?a?o, S.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro neurotoxicity testing and toxicity effect quantification plays an important role in many disciplines of biomedicine as an alternative to in vivo methods. The principle of the majority of in vitro methods corresponds to the basic concept of biosensors, i.e. measured quantity is by means of biological sensing element transformed to physical quantity easily measurable by electrical methods of measurement. Two types of biosensors suitable for neurotoxicity measurements are described in the paper. A common feature for both types is application of a living organism as biological sensing element. In the first type of biosensor the morphology of cell is evaluated using image processing methods known as videometry. In the second type of biosensors the electrical impedance of cells using an improved version of the ECIS (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing) method is a measure of toxicity effects. The results of experiments with biosensors using videometry and a proposal for improvements of ECIS based biosensors are included in the paper.

  6. Formulated sediment for use in whole-sediment toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kemble, N.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    A formulated control sediment was developed to provide consistent and acceptable biological endpoints for a variety of species used in whole sediment toxicity testing. In an attempt to develop such a sediment the authors conducted multiple tests to evaluate: (1) {alpha}-cellulose as an organic carbon source, (2) various TOC concentrations, (3) various grain sizes, (4) different food types, and (5) overlying waters. Studies were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca the midges Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus in 10 d exposures and H. azteca in 28 d exposures. Sediment from West Bearskin Lake Minnesota was used as a control sediment with each species in each test. Survival of test organisms in all of the 10-d experiments, with the exception of C. riparius, was above the acceptable levels for a control sediment. Survival in the formulated sediments also was not significantly different when compared to the control sediment. Amphipod survival in the 28-d exposures was low; however, the use of reconstituted water in combination with the formulated sediment may have been a problem. The authors are currently evaluating various types of overlying water with formulated sediments and sublethal endpoints in each of the exposures (i.e., growth, sexual maturation or head capsule width).

  7. 76 FR 38170 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...of organic reactions, used (C.I. Pigment Blue 61) (CASRN existing data for...Toxicity in Daphnia Magna with C.I. Pigment Blue 61. 2. Fresh Water Algae Growth Inhibition Test with C.I. Pigment Blue 61. 3. Combined 28-Day...

  8. INTRA- AND INTERLABORATORY VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TOXICITY TESTS WITH GLOCHIDIA AND JUVENILES OF FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Wang; Tom Augspurger; M. Chris Barnhart; Joseph R. Bidwell; W. Gregory Cope; F. James Dwyer; Steve Geis; I. Eugene Greer; Chris G. Ingersoll; Cynthia M. Kane; Thomas W. May; Richard J. Neves; Teresa J. Newton; Andy D. Roberts; David W. Whites

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—The present study evaluated,the performance,and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods,outlined in American,Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels,were,conducted,within a single laboratory and among,five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., 90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were

  9. Toxicity testing with the marine algae, Symbiodinium kawagutii (Dinophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrie, J.R.; Bidwell, J.R.; Rippingale, R.J. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Bentley (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium kawagutii, is among the algal taxa which exist in symbiosis with a range of marine invertebrates. S. kawagutii is commonly found in association with the Hawaiian stony coral, Montipora verrucosa. The algae has been successfully cultured in the laboratory using a common marine algal growth media (Guillard f/2), and sufficient cell densities were achieved in a 96-hr bioassay to allow statistical evaluation of toxicity data. A 96-hr EC{sub 50} of 6.47 mg/L (95% C.I.: 3.54--9.88 mg/L) was calculated after exposure to potassium dichromate. Wide distribution of the coral host and ecological importance of the symbiosis make S. kawagutii an excellent candidate species for hazard evaluation in tropical marine ecosystems. Continuing research will seek to further refine the bioassay, including the use of a microplate technique for more rapid testing.

  10. Toxicity testing of wastewater and sewage sludge by biosensors, bioassays and chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinella Farré; Damiŕ Barceló

    2003-01-01

    Toxicity testing has grown steadily in recent years, being a useful tool in environmental risk assessment. This review highlights different bioassays and recently developed biosensors based on acute toxicity measurements. Emphasis is placed on the use of combined approaches involving chemical analysis for the characterization and identification of complex toxic wastewater effluents and sewage sludge. Fractionation schemes that combine sample

  11. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a ?Toxicity Identification Evaluation? (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  12. Hepatotoxicity and subchronic toxicity tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Su, Chen X; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2009-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been approved as a safe food in many nations. A few cases of hepatitis in people who had been drinking noni juice have been reported, even though no causal link could be established between the liver injury and ingestion of the juice. To more fully evaluate the hepatotoxic potential of noni fruit juice, in vitro hepatotoxicity tests were conducted in human liver cells, HepG2 cell line. A subchronic oral toxicity test of noni fruit was also performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to provide benchmark data for understanding the safety of noni juice, without the potential confounding variables associated with many commercial noni juice products. Freeze-dried filtered noni fruit puree did not decrease HepG2 cell viability or induce neutral lipid accumulation and phospholipidosis. There were no histopathological changes or evidence of dose-responses in hematological and clinical chemistry measurements, including liver function tests. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for freeze-dried noni fruit puree is greater than 6.86 g/kg body weight, equivalent to approximately 90 ml of noni fruit juice/kg. These findings corroborate previous conclusions that consumption of noni fruit juice is unlikely to induce adverse liver effects. PMID:19797868

  13. UTILITY OF TOXICITY TESTS TO MEASURE EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCES ON MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using single species, microcosms, and communities of test species are described for laboratory evaluations of marine (estuarine and oceanic) pollution effects. The design of acute, early life-stage, life-cycle, and community toxicity tests is discussed. Uses of tes...

  14. Large-Scale Assessment of the Zebrafish Embryo as a Possible Predictive Model in Toxicity Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaukat Ali; Harald G. J. Van Mil; Michael K. Richardson; Ferenc Mueller

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn the drug discovery pipeline, safety pharmacology is a major issue. The zebrafish has been proposed as a model that can bridge the gap in this field between cell assays (which are cost-effective, but low in data content) and rodent assays (which are high in data content, but less cost-efficient). However, zebrafish assays are only likely to be useful if

  15. Field validation of 10-day freshwater sediment toxicity tests using Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.S.; Bigham, G.N. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two of the toxicity tests commonly used to evaluate freshwater sediments are the 10-day amphipod (Hyalella azteca) and chironomid (Chironomus tentans) tests. EPA and ASTM have recently developed standardized protocols for these tests. Although both tests are considered sensitive indicators of sediment toxicity, little information exists on how well test results correspond to adverse biological effects in the field. In this study, the lethal and sublethal (i.e., biomass) responses of the two toxicity tests were compared with alterations of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages (i.e., benthic effects) at 56 stations in Onondaga Lake, New York. The lake has received municipal and industrial discharges for more than 100 years, and sediment chemical concentrations range widely throughout the lake. Toxicity results for Onondaga Lake were compared with reference conditions using the t-test, and benthic effects were determined using classification analysis of log-transformed taxa abundances. In general, a relatively high level of agreement was found between results of the toxicity tests and alterations of benthic assemblages. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found between all toxicity test endpoints and taxa richness of benthic assemblages. In addition, significant concordance (P {le} 0.01, binomial test) was found between toxicity designations for the 56 stations based on toxicity tests and toxicity designations based on benthic effects. Despite the general level of agreement among the various biological indicators, chironomid biomass and benthic effects were found to be the most sensitive indicators of toxicity, whereas amphipod survival and biomass were the least sensitive indicators. This study suggests that results of the 10-day amphipod and chironomid toxicity tests are highly predictive of adverse biological effects in the field.

  16. Comparison of mathematically-predicted toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioassay-derived dioxin-equivalents (TCDD-EQs) in heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.; Hatfield, J.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from an uncontaminated site (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge,VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, and was associated with concentrations of total PCBs and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to concern.to express toxicity through the Ah receptor. TEQs [mathematically predicted; summed product of PCB congener concentrations using 5 different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)] were compared to TCDD-EQs [derived by bioassay; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H411E rat hepatoma cells]. Although TEQs were up to 15-fold greater than TCDD-EQs, the pattern among sites was consistent and TEQs were highly correlated with TCDD-EQs. TEFs based on single congener mammalian studies yielded TEQs that greatly exceeded values from the H411E bioassay of field sample. TEFs generated from avian egg injection studies yielded TEQs that most closely approximated bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs. Cytochrome P450 parameters were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data document the general predictive value of TEQs and TCDD-EQs for P450 induction in field collected samples, but also indicate the need for development of TEFs for the species and biological end point of concern.

  17. Quality testing of three species of Tephritid fruit flies after embryo cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies obtained from cryopreserved embryos. The Mexican, Anastrepah ludens, Caribbean, A. suspense, and Mediterranean, Certatitis capitata, fruit flies were...

  18. Quality Testing of Three Species of Tephritid Fruit Flies After Embryo Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies obtained from cryopreserved embryos. The Mexican, Anastrepah ludens, Caribbean, A. suspense, and Mediterranean, Certatitis capitata, fruit flies were...

  19. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depends on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water-quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more. importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants, and their sensitivities vary as conditions change. Therefore, each test method has particular uses and limitations, and no single test has universal applicability. One of the most informative approaches to toxicity testing is to combine biochemical tests with other test methods in a 'battery of tests' that is diversified enough to characterize different types of toxicants and different trophic levels. However, such an approach can be costly, and if not carefully designed, it may not yield enough additional information to warrant the additional cost. The application of toxicity tests to large-scale water-quality assessments is hampered by a number of difficulties. Toxicity tests often are not sensitive enough to enable detection of most contaminant problems in the natural environment. Furthermore, because sensitivities among different species and test conditions can be highly variable, conclusions about the toxicant problems of an ecosystem are strongly dependent on the test procedure used. In addition, the experimental systems used in toxicity tests cannot replicate the complexity or variability of natural conditions, and positive test results cannot identify the source or nature of

  20. Computational Systems Biology and Dose-Response Modeling in Relation to New Directions in Toxicity Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Zhang; Sudin Bhattacharya; Melvin E. Andersen; Rory B. Conolly

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are

  1. Triazole-induced gene expression changes in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Sanne A B; Pronk, Tessa E; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2012-09-01

    The zebrafish embryo is considered to provide a promising alternative test model for developmental toxicity testing. Most systems use morphological assessment of the embryos, however, microarray analyses may increase sensitivity and predictability of the test by detecting more subtle and detailed responses. In this study, we investigated the possibility of relating gene expression profiles of structurally similar chemicals tested in a single concentration, to a complete transcriptomic concentration-response of flusilazole (FLU). We tested five other triazoles, hexaconazole (HEX), cyproconazole (CYP), triadimefon (TDF), myclobutanil (MYC), and triticonazole (TTC) at equipotent concentrations based on morphological evaluation. Results showed that every compound had a different degree of regulation within their anti-fungal and developmental toxicity pathways, steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism, respectively. Assuming that the ratio between these pathways is relevant for efficacy compared to developmental toxicity, we found TTC was more efficient and CYP was more toxic compared to the other triazoles. With the approach used in this study we demonstrated that gene expression data allow more comprehensive assessment of compound effects by discriminating relative potencies using these specific gene sets. The zebrafish embryo model can therefore be considered a useful vertebrate model providing information of relevant pathways related to anti-fungal mechanism of action and toxicological activity. PMID:22664267

  2. SEDIMENT TESTING INTERMITTENT RENEWAL SYSTEM FOR THE AUTOMATED RENEWAL OF OVERLYING WATER IN TOXICITY TESTS WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment testing intermittent renewal (STIR) system (stationary or portable) for invertebrate toxicity with contaminated sediments has been successfully developed and thoroughly tested at ERL-Duluth. oth the stationary and portable systems enable the maintenance of acceptable w...

  3. USER'S GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING LIFE-CYCLE CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS WITH FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper represents the latest 'state-of-the-art' procedural guide for conducting life-cycle chronic toxicity tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). These new procedures are based on recent evaluations of published toxicity tests and methods used by aquatic toxicologi...

  4. INTER-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF A SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST USING THE MARINE AMPHIPOD, 'RHEPOXYNIUS ABRONIUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inter-laboratory comparison of the Swartz et al. (1985) amphipod sediment toxicity test was performed for seven marine sediments of varying toxicity. Five laboratories participated. Four a priori and one a posteriori hypotheses or criteria were tested for three end points (sur...

  5. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  6. Toxicity assessment of sequential leachates of tire powder using a battery of toxicity tests and toxicity identification evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Wik; Eva Nilsson; Torsten Källqvist; Göran Dave

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 460000ton of rubber are dispersed annually along the European roads due to tire wear. Tire rubber is known to leach compounds that are toxic to aquatic organisms. However, the potential effects of tire wear material on aquatic organisms at environmental relevant concentrations, and over time have so far not been extensively studied. In this study, rubber from three different

  7. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  8. The Syrian hamster embryo cells transformation assay identifies efficiently nongenotoxic carcinogens, and can contribute to alternative, integrated testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The long-term carcinogenesis bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health, but for ethical and practical reasons their use is dramatically diminishing and the genotoxicity short-term tests have taken the pivotal role in the pre-screening of chemical carcinogenicity. However, this strategy cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. Since up to 25% of IARC human carcinogens are recognized to have nongenotoxic mechanisms of action, the risk they pose to human health cannot be disregarded, and it is urgent to fill the gap in the tools for alternative testing. In this paper, we analyze from different perspectives the ability of Cell Transformation Assays to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens, and we conclude that the Syrian hamster embryo cells test is able to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens with 80-90% efficiency, and thus, can play an important role in integrated, alternative testing strategies. PMID:25813724

  9. TERATOGENICITY OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE IN A COUPLED MICROSOMAL ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the coupled microsomal activating/embryo culture system, in vitro experiments were performed to establish the role of metabolism in the embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide in the coupled microsomal activating/embryo culture system produc...

  10. Original article Combining use of embryo sexing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Combining use of embryo sexing and cloning within mixed MOETs for selection) Summary - Given the same overall number of transferred embryos, a comparison was carried out between adult mixed (ie with bull progeny-testing) MOET (multiple ovulation and embryo-transfer) schemes with embryo

  11. TWO SHORT-TERM TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE CALANOID COPEPOD 'EURYTEMORA HERDMANI' USING A COMPLEX EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test designs and methodologies for two short-term static renewal tests, a 96-hr lethality test and a 5-day reproductive test, are described and statistically evaluated. The tests were developed specifically for use in the assessment of the toxicity of mixed effluents to copepods....

  12. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  13. A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n=84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information. PMID:25773894

  14. Cytogenetic Alterations in Preimplantation Mice Embryos Following Male Mouse Gonadal Gamma-irradiation: Comparison of Two Methods for Reproductive Toxicity Screening

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Mahdieh; Mozdarani, Hossein; Nazari, Elmina

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome instability is a main cause of chromosomal alterations in both somatic and germ cells when exposed to environmental, physical and chemical genotoxicants. Germ cells especially spermatozoa are more vulnerable to suffering from DNA damaging agents during spermatogenesis and also more potent in transmitting genome instability to next generation. Methods To investigate the effects of ?-rays on inducing abnormalities manifested as numerical Chromosome Aberrations (CA) and Micronucleus (MN) in preimplantation embryos, adult male NMRI mice were irradiated with 4 Gy of ?-rays. They were then mated at weekly intervals with superovulated, non-irradiated female mice in 6 successive weeks. About 68 hr post coitous, four to eight cell embryos were retrieved and fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for CA and MN. Results In embryos generated from irradiated mice, the frequency of aneuploidy and MN increased dramatically at all post-irradiation sampling times as compared to the control (p<0.01). The frequency of embryos expressed MN was much higher than chromosomally abnormal embryos, although the trend of MN formation was similar to chromosomal abnormalities seen in corresponding sampling times. Conclusion Irradiation of sperms at any stages of spermatogenesis may lead to stable chromosomal abnormalities affecting pairing and disjunction of chromosomes in successive preimplantation embryos that are expressed as MN. Although chromosome analysis of embryos showed various types of chromosomal abnormalities, MN assay provide a simpler and faster technique for investigating the genotoxicity of agents affecting embryos at preimplantation stages. PMID:25215176

  15. Interlaboratory Evaluation of Hyalella Azteca and Chironomus Tentans Short-term and Long-term Sediment Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results of interlaboratory toxicity tests on sediment toxicity methods for use in routine testing and this data has been presented in an EPA report and this is a summary of that data....

  16. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context.

    PubMed

    Kroese, E Dinant; Bosgra, Sieto; Buist, Harrie E; Lewin, Geertje; van der Linden, Sander C; Man, Hai-Yen; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Schulpen, Sjors H W; Schwarz, Michael; Uibel, Frederik; van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M A; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; van der Burg, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false negative [7]. Here we report on applying this battery within the context of grouping and read across, put forward as a potential tool to fill data gaps and avoid animal testing, to distinguish in vivo non- or weak developmental toxicants from potent developmental toxicants within groups of structural analogs. The battery correctly distinguished 2-methylhexanoic acid, monomethyl phthalate, and monobutyltin trichloride as non- or weak developmental toxicants from structurally related developmental toxicants valproic acid, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, and tributyltin chloride, respectively, and, therefore, holds promise as a biological verification model in grouping and read across approaches. The relevance of toxicokinetic information is indicated. PMID:25461900

  17. Abcb4 acts as multixenobiotic transporter and active barrier against chemical uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mammals, ABCB1 constitutes a cellular “first line of defense” against a wide array of chemicals and drugs conferring cellular multidrug or multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR). We tested the hypothesis that an ABCB1 ortholog serves as protection for the sensitive developmental processes in zebrafish embryos against adverse compounds dissolved in the water. Results Indication for ABCB1-type efflux counteracting the accumulation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos comes from experiments with fluorescent and toxic transporter substrates and inhibitors. With inhibitors present, levels of fluorescent dyes in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos to toxic substrates were generally elevated. We verified two predicted sequences from zebrafish, previously annotated as abcb1, by cloning; our synteny analyses, however, identified them as abcb4 and abcb5, respectively. The abcb1 gene is absent in the zebrafish genome and we explored whether instead Abcb4 and/or Abcb5 show toxicant defense properties. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed the presence of transcripts of both genes throughout the first 48 hours of zebrafish development. Similar to transporter inhibitors, morpholino knock-down of Abcb4 increased accumulation of fluorescent substrates in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos toward toxic compounds. In contrast, morpholino knock-down of Abcb5 did not exert this effect. ATPase assays with recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system confirmed that dye and toxic compounds act as substrates of zebrafish Abcb4 and inhibitors block its function. The compounds tested comprised model substrates of human ABCB1, namely the fluorescent dyes rhodamine B and calcein-am and the toxic compounds vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicin; cyclosporin A, PSC833, MK571 and verapamil were applied as inhibitors. Additionally, tests were performed with ecotoxicologically relevant compounds: phenanthrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and galaxolide and tonalide (two polycyclic musks). Conclusions We show that zebrafish Abcb4 is a cellular toxicant transporter and provides protection of embryos against toxic chemicals dissolved in the water. Zebrafish Abcb4 thus is functionally similar to mammalian ABCB1, but differs from mammalian ABCB4, which is not involved in cellular resistance to chemicals but specifically transports phospholipids in the liver. Our data have important implications: Abcb4 could affect bioavailability - and thus toxicologic and pharmacologic potency - of chemicals to zebrafish embryos and inhibition of Abcb4 therefore causes chemosensitization, that is, enhanced sensitivity of embryos to toxicants. These aspects should be considered in (eco)toxicologic and pharmacologic chemical screens with the zebrafish embryo, a major vertebrate model. PMID:23773777

  18. Abamectin induces rapid and reversible hypoactivity within early zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Tara D; Volz, David C

    2015-01-01

    During early zebrafish embryogenesis, spontaneous tail contractions represent the first sign of locomotion and result from innervation of primary motoneuron axons to target axial muscles. Based on a high-content screen, we previously demonstrated that exposure of zebrafish embryos to abamectin - an avermectin insecticide - from 5-25hours post-fertilization (hpf) abolished spontaneous activity in the absence of effects on survival and gross morphology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to begin investigating the mechanism of abamectin-induced hypoactivity in zebrafish. Similar to 384-well plates, static exposure of embryos to abamectin from 5-25hpf in glass beakers resulted in elimination of activity at low micromolar concentrations. However, abamectin did not affect neurite outgrowth from spinal motoneurons and, compared with exposure from 5-25hpf, embryos were equally susceptible to abamectin-induced hypoactivity when exposures were initiated at 10 and 23hpf. Moreover, immersion of abamectin-exposed embryos in clean water resulted in complete recovery of spontaneous activity relative to vehicle controls, suggesting that abamectin reversibly activated ligand-gated chloride channels and inhibited neurotransmission. To test this hypothesis, we pretreated embryos to vehicle or non-toxic concentrations of fipronil or endosulfan - two insecticides that antagonize the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor - from 5-23hpf, and then exposed embryos to vehicle or abamectin from 23-25hpf. Interestingly, activity levels within abamectin-exposed embryos pretreated with either antagonist were similar to embryos exposed to vehicle alone. Using quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analyses, we then confirmed the presence of GABA receptor ?1 and ?2 subunits at 5, 10, and 23hpf, and demonstrated that zebrafish GABA receptor subunits are homologous to mammalian GABA receptor subunits. Overall, our data collectively suggest that abamectin induces rapid and reversible hypoactivity within early zebrafish embryos, an effect that may be mediated through the GABA receptor. PMID:25733401

  19. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  20. The SWIFT periphyton test for high-capacity assessments of toxicant effects on microalgal community development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Porsbring; Ĺsa Arrhenius; Thomas Backhaus; Mats Kuylenstierna; Martin Scholze; Hans Blanck

    2007-01-01

    The SWIFT periphyton test was developed as a simple and high-capacity approach for assessing toxicant effects on the succession of natural communities. Attached microbial communities (periphyton) were developed over a 7 to 9 day period on artificial glass substratum submerged at sea and then transferred to a controlled indoor environment for 4 day incubation with toxicants. Added nutrients and continuous light over

  1. Periphyton photosynthesis as an indicator of effluent toxicity: Relationship to effects on animal test species

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of freshwater and marine plants in effluent toxicity evaluations is uncommon despite the presence of test methods and recommendations for their use. It has been assumed that aquatic plants are less sensitive than animal test species and consequently, results from toxicity tests with invertebrates and fish have been used often as a surrogate data base. The study evaluated the ability of these animal toxicity tests to provide safe concentrations for in-stream periphyton. The toxicity of several samples of a treated municipal effluent were determined during a five-month period by monitoring short-term changes in periphyton photosynthesis (carbon-14 uptake) and by observing the effects on young production and survival of cultured daphnids and the fathead minnow. The effect levels from the various tests were compared. The effluent was seldom acutely toxic to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) but it was consistently acutely and chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic effect levels ranged between 17 and 71% effluent. Significant inhibition and stimulation of periphyton photosynthesis occurred at concentrations of 6 to 39% effluent. Periphyton photosynthesis was a more sensitive effect parameter than animal survival and in some cases than Ceriodaphnia reproductive performance. The results indicate that effluent toxicity tests conducted routinely with daphnids and fish may not be sufficient to predict effects on indigenous flora in receiving waters.

  2. Evaluation of alternative and standard toxicity assays for screening of environmental samples: Selection of an optimal test battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata Rojí?ková-Padrtová; Blahoslav Maršálek; Ivan Holoubek

    1998-01-01

    Six muniaturized alternative assays (called microbiotests) and three standard toxicity tests were used for a comparative study based on the evaluation of acute toxicity of fifty environmental samples. The test species used in the alternative assays were microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Ceriodaphnia dubia, rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus,protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum and bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The standard toxicity tests utilized

  3. ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is completing the Phase I pilot for a chemical prioritization research program, called ToxCastTM. Here EPA is developing methods for using computational chemistry, high-throughput screening, and toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize l...

  4. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Bitton; Ben Koopman; Hsien-Deng Wang

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and

  5. Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Rippon, G.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Canberra (Australia); Riley, S.J. [Univ. of Western Sydney-Nepean, Kingswood (Australia)

    1996-12-01

    Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the tailings is low. The environmental risk of a tailings release is more likely to be related to the physical impacts of the tailings, including infilling of billabongs and changes in the sedimentology of riparian ecosystems rather than their biogeochemical impact. Two major results were: (1) water from treatment with washed tailing fines was not toxic to Hydra viridissima, and (2) mixtures of washed tailings fines and natural floodplain sediment (overlying water or elutriates) were not toxic to Hydra viridissima or Moinodaphnia macleayi. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Assessment of four different test designs for Hyalella azteca 10 days sediment toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Romero, P. [Autonomous Metropolitan Univ., Mexico City (Mexico). Hydrobiology Dept.; [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Zoology Dept.; Oris, J.T.; Bailer, J.; DePoy, M. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of four experimental designs of the Hyalella azteca 10 days sediment toxicity test. The authors conducted a series of sediment toxicity tests using an EPA recommended experimental design (8 chambers with 10 organisms per treatment) and three other designs. These had the same total number of organisms (80) per treatment and the same sediment:water ratio (1:1.5) but different number of chambers (4,2,1). The number of organisms recovered, the time to sort and count the animals, as well as the time to make a water change were compared for these four designs. Logistic regression was used to analyze the recovery data while one-way analysis of variance methods were used to analyze the time responses. The results showed that the four treatments were comparable in terms of proportion of organisms recovered. However, the sorting time and the water change time decreased as the number of chambers decreased, making those designs with less chambers more desirable.

  7. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  8. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Piersma, A H; Bosgra, S; van Duursen, M B M; Hermsen, S A B; Jonker, L R A; Kroese, E D; van der Linden, S C; Man, H; Roelofs, M J E; Schulpen, S H W; Schwarz, M; Uibel, F; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Westerhout, J; Wolterbeek, A P M; van der Burg, B

    2013-07-01

    The application of alternative methods in developmental and reproductive toxicology is challenging in view of the complexity of mechanisms involved. A battery of complementary test systems may provide a better prediction of developmental and reproductive toxicity than single assays. We tested twelve compounds with varying mechanisms of toxic action in an assay battery including 24 CALUX transcriptional activation assays, mouse cardiac embryonic stem cell test, ReProGlo assay, zebrafish embryotoxicity assay, and two CYP17 and two CYP19 activity assays. The battery correctly detected 11/12 compounds tested, with one false negative occurring, which could be explained by the absence of the specific mechanism of action of this compound in the battery. Toxicokinetic modeling revealed that toxic concentrations were in the range expected from in vivo reproductive toxicity data. This study illustrates added value of combining assays that contain complementary biological processes and mechanisms, increasing predictive value of the battery over individual assays. PMID:23511061

  9. EPA'S TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING HAZARD AND PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals that likely represent the greatest hazard to human ...

  10. EPA's Toxcast ? Program for Predicting Hazard and Priortizing Toxicity Testing of Environemntal Chemicals (T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals that likely represent the greatest hazard to human ...

  11. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF EPA'S TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING THE TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS)and genomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize the use of limited testing resources....

  13. MOTOR ACTIVITY: A SURVEY OF METHODS WITH POTENTIAL USE IN TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity measurements are expected to have widespread use in toxicity testing. The multifaceted nature of motor activity will directly influence the selection of a measurement technique since the relative contribution of various motor acts to any particular measurement will depen...

  14. Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

  15. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M Chris; Bidwell, Joseph R; Cope, W Gregory; Dwyer, F James; Geis, Steve; Greer, I Eugene; Ingersoll, Chris G; Kane, Cynthia M; May, Thomas W; Neves, Richard J; Newton, Teresa J; Roberts, Andy D; Whites, David W

    2007-10-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., >or=90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. PMID:17867871

  16. Whole sediment toxicity tests for metal risk assessments: on the importance of equilibration and test design to increase ecological relevance.

    PubMed

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Nguyen, Lien T H; De Laender, Frederik; Muyssen, Brita T A; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-04-01

    Current laboratory-based approaches for predicting metal toxicity in sediments exhibit a number of limitations. The most important are (1) a lack of sufficient equilibration resulting in unrealistically low pH values or unnaturally high porewater metal concentrations and (2) an inadequate test design regarding the metal concentrations selected for spiking. The present study illustrates that by explicitly accounting for these limitations, one obtains reliable and environmentally realistic toxicity data, thus advancing the metal risk assessments of sediments. To this end, a toxicity test design with natural sediments was developed in which the administered metal concentrations were selected to comprise a range of the difference between the molar concentration of simultaneously extracted metals and acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS) closely surrounding zero. In addition, the test design presented includes a 35- or 40-d equilibration period with overlying water renewal during which conductivity, pH, and metal concentrations in the overlying water are monitored. This allows toxicity testing to start after equilibrium for these parameters has been reached. This test design was applied to Ephoron virgo (Olivier, 1791), Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758), and Lumbriculus variegatus (Mueller, 1774) exposed to Zn and Pb. These tests indicated that the general concept of absence of toxicity when SEM-AVS<0 could not be rejected. However, the onset of Zn toxicity occurred at lower concentrations than generally assumed. PMID:23401179

  17. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water quality assessments. These purposes may include identification that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. A wide variety of toxicity test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the full selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoints (acute or chronic), (3) test enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity test approachs vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing is more likely to meet these needs than are the procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depend on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because of the fact that most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments, and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants and their sensitivities vary as conditions change. One of the most informative approaches for toxicity testing is to combine biochemical tests with other test methods in a ' battery or tests ' that is diversified enough to characterize different types of toxicants and different trophic levels. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  19. Concentration-time data in toxicity tests and resulting relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brauer, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Periodic analyses for carbon monoxide and methane in the animal exposure chamber during pyrolysis of polyethylene at 800 C without forced air flow showed that the concentrations of these compounds increased with exposure time. These observations, and similar observations for polyurethane flexible foam, permitted the calculation of carbon monoxide toxicity in terms of a DP (Death Product Concentration) value, in addition to flammability in terms of HC (Hydro Carbon) value. Observed DP values exceeding the critical DP(CO) value of 47,200 ppm-min for carbon monoxide may indicate that lethal exposures were reached earlier but not immediately manifested because of the time delay involved in physiological processes. On the basis of this DP(CO) value, carbon monoxide could have been the sole toxicant in the case of polyethylene, polypropylene, polyoxymethylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, ethylene propylene diene rubber, and wood.

  20. Toxic actions of dinoseb in medaka ( Oryzias latipes) embryos as determined by in vivo 31P NMR, HPLC-UV and 1H NMR metabolomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Viant; Christopher A. Pincetich; David E. Hinton; Ronald S. Tjeerdema

    2006-01-01

    Changes in metabolism of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol), a substituted dinitrophenol herbicide, were determined by in vivo 31P NMR, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV, and 1H NMR metabolomics. ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) metabolism were characterized within intact embryos by in vivo 31P NMR; concentrations of ATP, GTP, ADP, GDP, AMP and PCr were determined by HPLC-UV;

  1. Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kouris, D. [Agricultural Research Inst., Nicosia (Cyprus); Guden, H. [Department of the Environment, Lefkosa (Cyprus); Gokcekus, H. [Near East Univ., Lefkosa (Cyprus)

    1995-12-31

    The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

  2. Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Weber, D.E.; Simon, T.L.; Brashers, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with two varieties of the freshwater marsh plant Echinochloa crusgalli (Linneaus) Palisot de Beauvois (Poaceae), and complex effluents. Two tests are described: a seed germination and early seedling growth test in water, and a survival and seedling growth test in natural and synthetic sediments. Effects of effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, coking plant and sewage treatment plant included inhibition of germination, chlorophyll synthesis and growth. The tests with rooted marsh plants were sensitive to pollutants and detected toxicity of a range of pollutants in water and sediment. Synthetic sediments similar to natural sediments allowed toxicity tests to be done under carefully controlled conditions of particle size distribution, organic content, pH, electrode potential (Eh) and cation exchange capacity (CEC).

  3. USE OF THE AMPHIPOD CRUSTACEAN HYALELLA AZTECA IN FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hyalella azteca (Saussure), which are currently used in toxicity tests with freshwater sediments, were tested to determine their suitability for tests with estuarine sediments. eproduction was good after 24 d at and below 12.5 g/L (ppt) salinity in water only. C50 values (50% red...

  4. VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, BACK RIVER, BALTIMORE HARBOR, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose for the study was to measure the toxicity of effluents discharged to an estuary using freshwater test species and compare the predictions with the receiving water biological impact. In addition, ambient tests were done in conjunction with salinity tolerance tests to c...

  5. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  6. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

  7. EFFECTS OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA TO EMBRYOS OF THE INLAND SILVERSIDE (MENIDIA BERYLLINA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A chemical toxicity/teratogenicity test was adapted to assess potential adverse affect of a microbial pest control agent on a nontarget fish. eveloping embryos of inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, were exposed to conidiospores or the insect-pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassia...

  8. Movement disorder and neuromuscular change in zebrafish embryos after exposure to caffeine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yau-Hung Chen; Yi-Hui Huang; Chi-Chung Wen; Yun-Hsin Wang; Wei-Li Chen; Li-Chao Chen; Huey-Jen Tsay

    2008-01-01

    Though caffeine is broadly distributed in many plants and foods, little is known about the teratogenic effects of caffeine during early embryonic development. Here, we used zebrafish as a model to test toxicity and teratogenicity since they have transparent eggs, making the organogenesis of zebrafish embryos easier to observe. When the exposure doses of caffeine were less than 150 ppm (17.5,

  9. Sediment toxicity evaluation for hexachlorobenzene: spiked sediment tests with Leptocheirus plumulosus, Hyalella azteca, and Chironomus tentans.

    PubMed

    Fuchsman, P C; Barber, T R; Sheehan, P J

    1998-11-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a hydrophobic organic chemical that has shown a lack of toxicity in aquatic tests at concentrations up to and exceeding the solubility limit. The equilibrium partitioning approach to deriving sediment quality benchmarks, which assumes that toxicity can be predicted based on contaminant concentrations in interstitial water, predicts that HCB will not produce direct toxicity to benthic invertebrates as a sediment contaminant. However, the potential for toxicity due to direct exposure to sediment-adsorbed HCB has not been thoroughly established. This study evaluated the survival and growth of the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus, the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the midge Chironomus tentans (freshwater) following 10-day exposure to sediment spiked with a range of HCB concentrations. H. azteca was tested under both freshwater and estuarine (10 ppt salinity) conditions. No significant toxicity was observed for any test species at the highest test concentration (60 mg/kg normalized to 1% organic carbon). Minimum detectable differences were less than or equal to 20% for three of eight test endpoints. The observed results add to the available weight of evidence indicating a limited potential for HCB-related sediment toxicity to benthic invertebrates. PMID:9776774

  10. SEVEN-DAY LIFE-CYCLE CLADOCERAN TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-brood life cycle test for Ceriodaphnia reticulata, using renewal techniques, that can be completed in 7 d is described. The test is convenient when samples to be tested are limited in volume or when time is especially important, such as in on-site effluent testing. The cl...

  11. EPA?s ToxCast Program for Predicting Toxicity and Prioritizing Chemicals for Further Screening and Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing of environmental and industrial chemicals for toxicity potential is a daunting task because of the wide range of possible toxicity mechanisms. Although animal testing is one means of achieving broad toxicity coverage, evaluation of large numbers of chemicals is challengin...

  12. An evaluation of nickel toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna in a contaminated stream and in laboratory tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Adams Kszos; Arthur J. Stewart; Paul A. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to document ambient toxicity in two industrially contaminated streams in southeastern Tennessee. Low survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia was linked to concentrations of Ni below EPA water quality criteria. A toxicity identification evaluation consisting of Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas toxicity tests with Ni, chemical analyses, and experiments with a Ni-selective resin

  13. Developmental abnormalities in chicken embryos exposed to N-nitrosoatrazine.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nikita; Rhoades, Martha G; Bennett, Gregory D; Wells, Sandra M; Mirvish, Sidney S; Breitbach, Michael J; Shea, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and atrazine (ATR) occur in combination in some drinking-water supplies and might react to form N-nitrosoatrazine (NNAT), which is reportedly more toxic than nitrate, nitrite, or ATR. Current evidence from population-based studies indicates that exposure to nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosatable compounds increases the risk of congenital defects and/or rate of embryo lethality. To test the hypothesis that NNAT induces malformations during embryogenesis, chicken embryos were examined for lethality and developmental abnormalities after treating fertilized eggs with 0.06-3.63 ?g NNAT. After 5 d of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 27), 90% of embryos in NNAT-treated eggs were alive, of which 23% were malformed. Malformations included heart and neural-tube defects, caudal regression, gastroschisis, microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and craniofacial hypoplasia. The findings from this investigation suggest further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying NNAT-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:24168037

  14. Sporadic mortality in chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque): Cases of characterization and control

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, P.J.; Fleming, K.; Guinn, R.; Chapman, N.; Varner, P.; Cooney, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    In whole effluent toxicity tests, organisms are exposed to various effluent concentrations for a specific time period to estimate the potential effects of an effluent on a receiving stream. Laboratories typically have good success performing valid chronic toxicity tests. However, some difficulty in conducting valid chronic whole effluent toxicity tests with Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) has been encountered as a result of sporadic control mortality. Some investigators report an interference that causes anomalous patterns of survival in chronic fathead minnow tests. This interference has been termed sporadic mortality phenomenon. Characteristics of sporadic mortality phenomenon include high variability among replicates, nonmonotonic dose responses, mortality beginning on or about day 4 of the test, and fungal growths often observed on the larvae. Histopathologic examinations often indicate bacterial and/or fungal infections on fish exhibiting symptoms of sporadic mortality phenomenon. The most plausible explanation of sporadic mortality phenomenon is a naturally occurring pathogen or pathogens that interfere with the test method. This interference may invalidate tests or falsely indicate toxicity. Sporadic mortality phenomenon can be reduced or eliminated by sample treatments intended to inactivate (heating, antibiotics, or ultraviolet light) or remove (filtration) pathogenic microorganisms. These methods must be used with forethought because of their potential to alter the toxicity of a sample.

  15. Establishment of quality assurance procedures for aquatic toxicity testing with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.N.; Marse, T.J.; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Health Science Program

    1998-12-31

    In this study initial data were generated to develop laboratory control charts for aquatic toxicity testing using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tests were performed using two reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2} and CuCl{sub 2}. All tests were performed for 24 h without a food source and of 48 h with a food source in a commonly used nematode aquatic medium. Each test was replicated 6 times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration with 10 {+-} 1 worms per well. Probit analysis was used to estimate LC{sub 50} values for each test. The data were used to construct a mean ({bar x}) laboratory control chart for each reference toxicant. The coefficient of variation (CV) for three of the four reference toxicant tests was less than 20%, which demonstrates an excellent degree of reproducibility. These CV values are well within suggested standards for determination of organism sensitivity and overall test system credibility. A standardized procedure for performing 24 h and 48 h aquatic toxicity studies with C. elegans is proposed.

  16. Testing the use of the water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) in laboratory toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, David; Graça, Manuel A S; Canhoto, Jorge

    2007-06-01

    Tests aiming to determine the toxic properties of compounds discharged into aquatic systems have relied more on fish or invertebrates than on primary producers and among a number of producers; algae are the most popular test organisms. Macrophytes are important ecological elements in freshwaters and are therefore potentially key organisms for use in toxicity testing of compounds suspected of acting in primary producers. The most common macrophyte used in toxicity testing is Lemna sp., but as a floating plant, it has the limitation of being exposed to toxic compounds only through its lower leaf surface, including roots and rhizoids. Therefore, it is questionable whether tests with Lemna may accurately predict potential effects on submersed and exposed plant species, which have different routes of exposure and morphology. Few other submersed macrophytes have been tested, notably Myriophyllum. In the Iberian peninsula M. spicatum is the most common species within its genus and has been presented as a good bioaccumulator of heavy metals (Wang et al. 1996) and as being sensitive to several toxicants (e.g. Hanson et al. 2003). The aim of this study was to assess the potential of M. spicatum as a testing organism in laboratory assays, by obtaining axenic cultures of this plant and exposing them to several reference compounds to determine the sensitive endpoints. PMID:17492386

  17. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Bosgra, Sieto; Westerhout, Joost

    2015-08-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and observations of developmental toxicity in vivo. This modeling strategy is based on (1) the definition of relevant observations of toxicity in vivo, (2) simulation of the corresponding systemic concentrations in vivo by toxicokinetic modeling, and (3) correction for differences in protein binding and lipid partitioning between plasma and in vitro test media. The test results of a feasibility study with a number of known reproductive toxicants has been described previously (Piersma et al. [15]). In the present paper, we take a more detailed look at the toxicokinetics of these compounds, and add the analysis of some compounds from subsequent studies. We discuss how the consideration of toxicokinetics allowed comparison between test systems with differing test medium composition, has helped to interpret the in vitro findings in light of in vivo observations, and to gain confidence in the predictive value of the test battery outcomes. The same toxicokinetic modeling strategy, in reverse order, can now be used for risk assessment purposes to predict toxic doses in vivo from effective concentrations in vitro. PMID:25462785

  18. Partial attenuation of hydroxyurea-induced embryotoxicity by deoxyribonucleotides in mouse and rat embryos treated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Cross, D R; James, S J

    1995-02-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is a well known developmental toxicant in all animal species tested. It inhibits DNA synthesis, and addition of deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) has been shown previously to attenuate the developmental toxicant effects of HU in vivo. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether addition of deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) or dCMP would attenuate HU-induced embryotoxicity using a rodent whole embryo culture system. Rat embryos were removed on the morning of day 10 of gestation, and mouse embryos were removed on day 8 of gestation (day 0 = the day a vaginal plug was found). Embryos were treated with various concentrations of HU (up to 500 mug/ml) for 1 hr at 37 degrees C before being washed and cultured for 43 hr in rat serum containing dAMP or dCMP. At the end of the culture period, six endpoints were evaluated for each viable embryo: morphological score; number of somite pairs; crown-rump and head lengths, DNA and protein contents. HU (300 mug/ml) significantly decreased values for all endpoints in embryos from both mice and rats; however, mouse embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of the drug. dAMP and dCMP alone produced some embryotoxicity at high concentrations. The combination of HU + dAMP had no consistent beneficial effect in rat embryos and no effect on mouse embryos. The combination of HU + dCMP improved growth and development slightly. As determined by HPLC analysis, HU treatment (300 mug/ml for 1 hr) decreased all nucleotide pools. Subsequent treatment with dAMP increased all pool levels, although these levels remained below those of control embryos. These results suggest that the developmental toxicant effects of HU are not due solely to alterations in deoxyribonucleotide pool levels. PMID:20650058

  19. Individual and combined developmental toxicity assessment of bisphenol A and genistein using the embryonic stem cell test in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dan; Xing, Lina; Liu, Ran; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Wanyi; Shang, Lanqin; Wei, Xuetao; Hao, Weidong

    2013-10-01

    The potential developmental toxicity of environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors have become a great concern in recent years. In this study, two typical environmental oestrogen, namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) were investigated for potential embryotoxicity using the embryonic stem cell test model. Afterwards, a 4×4 full factorial design and the estimated marginal means plot were performed to assess the combined effects of these two compounds. According to the linear discriminant functions and classification criteria, bisphenol A and genistein were classified as weakly embryotoxic and strongly embryotoxic respectively. As for combined effects, the overall interaction between BPA and GEN on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation was synergistic at low dosages, however, on ESCs and 3T3 cell proliferation, the predominate action was additive. Considering the actual daily intake of these chemicals, it is concluded that BPA alone might not have adverse reproductive or developmental effects on human being. However, given that BPA and GEN do have synergistic effect at low concentration, they may disturb normal embryo development together, which could result in birth defect and behavioral alterations later in life. PMID:23948354

  20. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  1. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, age, source...95-percent confidence limits and the methods used to calculate the values...the test substance. (8) Methods and data records of all...

  2. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, age, source...95-percent confidence limits and the methods used to calculate the values...the test substance. (8) Methods and data records of all...

  3. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, average length...the test substance. (11) Methods and data records of all chemical...substance concentrations, including method validations and reagent...

  4. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, average length...the test substance. (11) Methods and data records of all chemical...substance concentrations, including method validations and reagent...

  5. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, age, source...95-percent confidence limits and the methods used to calculate the values...the test substance. (8) Methods and data records of all...

  6. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, average length...the test substance. (11) Methods and data records of all chemical...substance concentrations, including method validations and reagent...

  7. [Does embryo morphology constitute a reliable criterion for embryo selection?].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Gala, A; Ferričres, A; Vincens, C; Hamamah, S

    2014-09-01

    Embryo selection based exclusively on embryo morphological criteria does not allow currently to obtain satisfactory implantation rates. So, new time-lapse systems have been proposed to improve the rates of in vitro fertilization success. However, the profit/investment ratio of time-lapse systems and the interest of embryo morphokinetics evaluation remain clearly to be established by clinical, robust, prospective, and randomized trials. Consequently, morphological and morphokinetic approaches showed their limitations and justify the development of new non-invasive "omics" approaches. These approaches are very promising and have for main aim to identify new non-invasive biomarkers, in oocyte microenvironment and/or in embryo culture medium, predictive of oocyte and/or embryo quality as well as pregnancy rates. These approaches thus open the way to develop new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests for embryo viability based on the expression and/or the quantification of biomarkers of interest in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:25153441

  8. SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE SPECIES TESTING: ACUTE TOXICITY OF 13 CHEMICALS TO 12 DIVERSE FRESHWATER AMPHIBIAN, FISH, AND INVERTEBRATE FAMILIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, rainbow trout Salmo gairdner...

  9. Validation of plant based bioassays for the toxicity testing of Indian waters.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Athar Habib; Tabrez, Shams; Ahmad, Masood

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based bioassays have recently gained remarkable popularity among the toxicological/eco-toxicological assessment procedures. The reasons for their wide use are comparative simplicity, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness as well as a good correlation with other toxicity tests. The present study describes the use of two plant bioassays, Allium cepa test and seed germination test in the evaluation of the toxicity/genotoxicity of industrial waste water and river water and standardization with the commonly occurring pollutants in Indian waters namely heavy metals and phenolics. Both tests were standardized to suit the Indian conditions, and the local varieties were used. Both bioassays responded significantly with the test range of heavy metals and phenolics. The toxicity of heavy metals was in the order of Cu > Ni > Cd in both the tests whereas 2,4-dinitrophenol was the most toxic among the phenolic compounds. Cabbage, millet, and cucumber, respectively, were found to be the most sensitive in the seed germination test for the test heavy metals and phenols. Significant amounts of chromosomal abnormalities including bridges, stickiness, and fragmentations were recorded with both the industrial waste water and the XAD concentrated river water samples by A. cepa test. PMID:21042847

  10. DIETARY TOXICITY TEST FOR 2% DRC1339TREATED BROWN RICE ON NONTARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN L. CUMMINGS; DARRYL L. YORK; KIRK J. SHIVELY; PATRICIA A. PIPAS; RANDAL S. STAHL; JAMES E. DAVIS

    In Louisiana and Texas DRC-1339-treated brown rice is used to manage blackbird populations that cause severe damage to newly planted rice. Nontarget bird species have been observed on some DRC-1339 bait sites. We conducted dietary toxicity tests to provide additional data on the toxicity of DRC-1339 to the following nontarget species observed on DRC-1339 bait sites: savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis),

  11. Metal toxicity evaluation of Savannah River Plant saltstone comparison of EP and TCLP test results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Langton

    1988-01-01

    Saltstone is the waste treatment and disposal concept for low-level defense waste at the Savannah River Plant. The waste is a sodium salt solution which has about 230 ..mu..CiL in addition to the hazardous characteristics of corrosivity and metal toxicity (Cr\\/sup +6\\/ > 100 ppM). Two EPA test procedures are routinely used at SRP to evaluate metal toxicity of wastes

  12. Correlation of the five test methods to assess chemical toxicity and relation to physical properties.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Y; Ose, Y; Sato, T

    1986-08-01

    Biological tests using Orizias latipes (LC50 and oxygen uptake test), Moina macrocopa (LC50), and Dugesia japonica (head regeneration test and LC50) were carried out in order to clarify the mutual relationship of these test methods. The oxygen uptake rate of O. latipes was not effective to assess chemical toxicity. Adding the results of the growth inhibition test of Tetrahymena pyriformis (Yoshioka, Y., Ose, Y., and Sato, T. (1985). Sci. Total Environ. 43, 149-157), the correlation coefficients between each two test methods were calculated. The test results except EC50 and LC50 of D. japonica showed a good relation to each other. We determined the solubility and the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (P) of some chemicals used in the test. Log P interpreted the toxicity in mol/liter unit but not in mg/liter. Solubility was not a useful descripter neither in mol/liter nor in mg/liter unit. PMID:3093184

  13. Aquatic toxicity of forty industrial chemicals: Testing in support of hazardous substance spill prevention regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, M. W.; Ward, C. H.

    1981-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is presently developing hazardous substance spill regulations to help prevent water pollution. Aquatic animal toxicity data are used as criteria for the designation and categorization of substances as hazardous, even though this type of data is not available for many industrial chemicals. Static 96-hr. toxicity tests were conducted with 40 such chemicals to provide basic toxicity data for regulatory decision making. Thirty-two of the 40 chemicals tested were hazardous to aquatic life as determined by 96-hr. LC 50's less than or equal to 500 mg/l. All 40 chemicals were tested with the fresh-water fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and ten chemicals were also tested with the salt-water grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

  14. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF A REDUCED VOLUME MARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST METHOD USING AMPHIPOD AMPELISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has standardized methods for performing acute marine amphipod sediment toxicity tests. A test design reducing sediment volume from 200 to 50 ml and overlying water from 600 to 150 ml was recently proposed. An interlaboratory comparison wa...

  15. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part III. Effluent Toxicity Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Dwyer; D. K. Hardesty; C. E. Henke; C. G. Ingersoll; D. W. Whites; T. Augspurger; T. J. Canfield; D. R. Mount; F. L. Mayer

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus

  16. DREDGED MATERIAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT: SINGLE-SPECIES TOXICITY/BIOACCUMULATION AND MACROBENTHOS COLONIZATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 have been used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. ur objective was to compar...

  17. Evaluation of reproduction as an endpoint in chronic toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, USEPA published ``Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Sediment-associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates`` (EPA/600/R-94/024). Within that document a Hyalella azteca 10-d survival test for sediments is described. The 10-d survival test provides a measure of acute toxicity from moderately to highly contaminated sediments. In addition to survival, growth during the 10-d test can be measured and could be a more sensitive endpoint. However, the ecological significance of reduced growth is questionable. Reproduction may be a more sensitive endpoint than growth or survival and its ecological importance is not questionable. The objective of this research is to develop a Hyalella azteca sediment toxicity test with a reproductive endpoint. The reproductive test will closely resemble the 10-d test but will be longer in duration and may require isolation of amphipods from the sediment for reproduction. Presently, reproductive effects of different diets and water types have been evaluated. A preliminary test protocol has been developed and is being tested and refined. This presentation will provide the most current results of this ongoing research. This study will be used to develop standard methods for measuring chronic toxicity in sediments using Hyalella azteca.

  18. Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on Organisms Used in Freshwater Sediment Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes the results of tests to determine the tolerance of three benthic organisms to reduced dissolved oxygen (DO). These three organisms are those recommended by EPA for use in toxicity testing of contaminated sediments. The results of the exposures indicate ...

  19. Perspectives on Validation of High-Throughput Assays Supporting 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are seeing increasing use in toxicity testing. HTS assays can simultaneously test many chemicals but have seen limited use in the regulatory arena, in part because of the need to undergo rigorous, time-consuming formal validation. ...

  20. Xenopus tropicalis as a Test System for Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Berg; Irina Gyllenhammar; Moa Kvarnryd

    2009-01-01

    The usefulness of Xenopus tropicalis as a model species to investigate endocrine disruption and developmental reproductive toxicity was assessed. In our test system tadpoles were exposed to test substances from shortly after hatching until metamorphosis, including the period of gonadal differentiation. Effects on the sex hormone and thyroid hormone axes were evidenced as skewed sex ratios, malformations of reproductive organs,

  1. APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT USING AVIAN TOXICITY TESTS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests results are often condensed into a single endpoint (LC50) to facilitate their use in environmental management. The single number cannot distinguish between two tests with equal LC50s but dissimilar slopes at LC50 and it cannot describe the response at low and high ...

  2. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates. The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies. Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a). The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data from the Columbia Laboratory and its field laboratories. It presents definitive acute toxicity data on 271 chemicals tested against a variety of freshwater invertebrates and fishes. The chemicals represent all major groups of pesticides, as well as numerous industrial chemicals. This compilation should serve as a useful database for the many agencies and organizations dealing with research and management programs concerned with the impact of chemicals on aquatic resources. The Columbia Laboratory has played a major role in developing currently used standard methodology for static acute toxicity testing. The use of standardized methodology greatly reduces variation in results. The data presented here have been carefully scrutinized to eliminate tests that failed to follow acceptable procedures. Handling of test organisms and procedures for static toxicity tests followed those described by Lennon and Walker (1964) and Macek and McAllister (1970), and conform well with those recommended by Brauhn and Schoettger (1975) and the Committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic Organisms (1975). The species of fish and invertebrates that were tested are listed in phylogenetic order in Tables 1 and 2. Fish were obtained from Federal and State hatcheries as either eggs or fry. Original stocks of invertebrates were collected and cultured from wild populations with no known source of contamination; these populations were replenished regularly. The invertebrates were cultured in the Laboratory by methods similar to those described by Sanders and Cope (1966). Test chemicals usually consisted of technical or analytical grade samples of known purity. Formulations of the chemicals were also tested when available. When purity of test chemicals was known, all calculated concentrations were based on percent active ingredients. Stock solutions were prepared immediately before each test, with commercial grade acetone as the carrier solvent. Occasionally, ethanol or dimethyl-formamide was substituted. Solvent concentrations did not exceed 0.5 mL/L in final dilution water. Test

  3. Current developments in reproductive toxicity testing of pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph L. Cooper

    2009-01-01

    A protocol to evaluate the potential developmental and reproductive effects of test chemicals has been developed by the Life Stages Task Force of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI)\\/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee. Since the original publication, several international groups have provided public comment on conducting the test. The extended one-generation reproductive

  4. Toxics testing performance evaluation for GB and GD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Schneider; K. L. Brubaker; T. A. Kimmell; A. W. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    Residues resulting from demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah, are currently listed as hazardous wastes by the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command believes that certain categories of waste generated at DPG are not hazardous. To demonstrate this, analytical methods capable of quantitatively

  5. 62 FR 43820 - Toxic Substances Control Act Test Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-15

    ...substance to be used are cytotoxicity and solubility in the final treatment mixture. It...choice of solvent/vehicle. (B) Solubility and stability of the test substance...highest concentration are cytotoxicity and solubility in the test system and changes in...

  6. Sensitivity analysis of standard toxicity tests, rapid bioassays and in-situ techniques to indicate effluent toxicity in Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The toxicities of eight industrial and municipal effluents discharged into the Pensacola Bay System (Florida) were evaluated for two years. Standard chronic toxicity tests with algae, invertebrates and fish were determined, as were effects monitored by Mutatox{reg_sign} and Microtox{reg_sign}. Sediment toxicity in the receiving water to four test species, in-situ effects on colonized periphyton and oyster tissue analysis were determined to assess environmental relevance of single-species toxicity tests. Overall, chronic toxicity to fish and Microtox effects were rarely observed; whereas, Mutatox effects and chronic toxicity to invertebrates were more common. Phytotoxicity (inhibition) of the effluents and sediment in the receiving water was not usually observed; however, significant stimulation of plant growth was common. Biomass and chlorophyll content of periphyton in the receiving water were greater than those in control areas, reflecting the stimulatory effect on growth observed in the laboratory phytotoxicity tests. Overall, toxicity was observed for all effluents by at least one diagnostic technique. There was no most sensitive test since effects were effluent-specific. Consequently, since there was no single effective test, the scientific and regulatory communities need to decide the significance of the various effluent assessment techniques and the ramifications of this issue on the NPDES permitting process.

  7. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing – A matter of timing

    PubMed Central

    Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is complicated by unstable exposure conditions resulting from various transformation processes of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions. In this study, we investigated the influence of exposure timing on the algal test response to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), by reducing the incubation time and by aging the AgNPs in algal medium prior to testing. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to AgNO3, NM-300?K (a representative AgNP) and citrate stabilized AgNPs from two different manufacturers (AgNP1 and AgNP2) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48?h and a short-term (2?h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24?h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48?h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48?h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment AgNPs are added to the test medium. This time-dependency should be considered when nanomaterial dispersion protocols for ecotoxicity testing are developed. PMID:24842597

  8. Visible Embryo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

    2006-01-30

    a comprehensive resource of information on human development from conception to birth, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development.

  9. U-937 Toxicity Testing of Lunar Dust Stimulant (JSC-1A-vf)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Kristyn; Hammond, Dianne; Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2007-01-01

    With NASA planning to extend the human presence to the moon by 2020, the dangers of the lunar environment must be assessed and appropriate countermeasures must be developed. Possible toxic effects of the lunar dust are of particular importance to human health because of the dust's chemical composition, reactivity, and small size. This project focuses on the toxicity of lunar dust stimulant (JSC-1A-vf), in both its active and passive forms, using U-937 human monocyte cells. Simulant was mechanically activated from its passive form by grinding, and its ability to produce hydroxyl radicals was determined. To test for toxicity, active and passivated simulant was diluted in media and applied to the cells for various time periods. Toxicity was then estimated using flow cytometry on the Guava Personal Cell Analysis system. Preliminary results suggest that passivated stimulant is slightly toxic, with an increase in toxicity for activated stimulant. Toxicity results may be affected by cell lysing behavior and quenching of hydroxyl radical production by the cell media.

  10. Background variability in whole effluent chronic toxicity test statistics for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, S.P. [Chadwick and Associates, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Past studies have shown considerable variability in whole effluent toxicity tests in terms of LC{sub 50}`s and NOEC`s from reference toxicant tests. However, this approach cannot differentiate between variability in test organisms themselves from the variable response to a toxicant. A data base of control treatments in chronic WET tests was constructed allowing evaluation of mean performance of WET test organisms Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas not subjected to chemical stress. Surrogate test series were then constructed by randomly selecting replicates from this control data base. These surrogate test series were analyzed using standard EPA statistical procedures to determine NOEC`s for survival and both NOEC`s and IC{sub 25} for reproduction and growth. Since NOEC`s have a significance level (p) of 0.05, it follows that approximately 5% of the tests could ``fail`` simply due to chance and this was, in fact, the case for these surrogate tests. The IC{sub 25} statistic is a linear interpolation technique, with 95% confidence intervals calculated through a bootstrap method. It does not have a statistical check for significance. With the IC{sub 25} statistic, 10.5% of the Ceriodaphnia tests indicated toxicity (i.e. an IC{sub 25} of less than 1 00% ``effluent``), while this increased to 37% for fathead minnows. There appear to be fundamental flaws in the calculation of the IC{sub 25} statistic and its confidence intervals, as currently provided in EPA documentation. Until these flaws are addressed, it is recommended that this method not be used in the analysis of chronic toxicity data.

  11. A discussion of the impact of US chemical regulation legislation on the field of toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristie; Beck, Nancy; Sandusky, Chad; Willett, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Proposals for revising the principal United States law governing industrial chemicals, the Toxic Substances Control Act, have been under consideration in the US Congress for the past several years, and some version of such legislation may be passed in the near future. Concurrently, a desire to move away from current testing methods for ethical, scientific, and practical reasons has led to multi-million dollar investments in in vitro and computational toxicology methods and programs. Legislative language has the potential to endorse this transition and facilitate its fruition, or conversely enshrine in vivo testing methods for the foreseeable future. New legislation also has the potential to substantially increase the numbers of animals used in toxicity tests in the near term. However, there are a number of policies that, used effectively, can reduce the overall number of animals used in new toxicity tests. We present recent legislative proposals in the context of current testing programs and discuss their potential impacts on animal use, test method innovation, and achievement of desired legislative objectives. Discussions like these are essential to judiciously select policies that reduce the use of animals in toxicity testing and protect human health and the environment. PMID:21624455

  12. NEXT GENERATION SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTING VIA DNA MICROARRAYS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current SBIR solicitation states that the EPA is seeking ?better sampling, analysis, and monitoring technologies? to improve hazardous waste management.  Development of new methods for testing contaminated sediments is an area of particular concern because many industri...

  13. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...during testing. Any food utilized should support survival, growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. (48-hour-old nauplii). (2) Facilities —(i) Apparatus. (A) Facilities which may be needed to...

  14. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...during testing. Any food utilized should support survival, growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. (48-hour-old nauplii). (2) Facilities —(i) Apparatus. (A) Facilities which may be needed to...

  15. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...during testing. Any food utilized should support survival, growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. nauplii (approximately 48 hours old). (2) Facilities —(i) Apparatus. (A) Facilities which may be...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...during testing. Any food utilized should support survival, growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. nauplii (approximately 48 hours old). (2) Facilities —(i) Apparatus. (A) Facilities which may be...

  17. Current Development in Reproductive Toxicity Testing of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol to evaluate the potential developmental and reproductive effects of test chemicals has been developed by the Life Stages Task Force of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI)/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Agricultural Chemical Safety Asses...

  18. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    SciTech Connect

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L. [Lumitox Gulf L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus.

  19. Boar spermatozoa successfully predict mitochondrial modes of toxicity: implications for drug toxicity testing and the 3R principles.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Carrillo, A; Edebert, I; Garside, H; Cotgreave, I; Rigler, R; Loitto, V; Magnusson, K E; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2015-04-01

    Replacement of animal testing by in vitro methods (3-R principles) requires validation of suitable cell models, preferably obtained non-invasively, defying traditional use of explants. Ejaculated spermatozoa are highly dependent on mitochondrial production and consumption of ATP for their metabolism, including motility display, thus becoming a suitable model for capturing multiple modes of action of drugs and other chemicals acting via mitochondrial disturbance. In this study, a hypothesis was tested that the boar spermatozoon is a suitable cell type for toxicity assessment, providing a protocol for 3R-replacement of animals for research and drug-testing. Boar sperm kinetics was challenged with a wide variety of known frank mito-toxic chemicals with previously shown mitochondrial effects, using a semi-automated motility analyser allied with real-time fluorescent probing of mitochondrial potential (MitoTracker & JC-1). Output of this sperm assay (obtained after 30 min) was compared to cell viability (ATP-content, data obtained after 24-48 h) of a hepatome-cell line (HepG2). Results of compound effects significantly correlated (P<0.01) for all sperm variables and for most variables in (HepG2). Dose-dependent decreases of relative ATP content in HepG2 cells correlated to sperm speed (r=0.559) and proportions of motile (r=0.55) or progressively motile (r=0.53) spermatozoa. The significance of the study relies on the objectivity of computerized testing of sperm motility inhibition which is comparable albeit of faster output than somatic cell culture models. Sperm suspensions, easily and painlessly obtained from breeding boars, are confirmed as suitable biosensors for preclinical toxicology screening and ranking of lead compounds in the drug development processes. PMID:25624015

  20. Development of a biopolymer nanoparticle-based method of oral toxicity testing in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gott, Ryan C; Luo, Yangchao; Wang, Qin; Lamp, William O

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic toxicity testing generally focuses on the water absorption/dermal route of exposure to potential toxic chemicals, while much less work has been done on the oral route of exposure. This is due in part to the difficulties of applying traditional oral toxicity testing to aquatic environments, including the tendency for test chemicals to dissolve into water. The use of biopolymer nanoparticles to encapsulate test chemicals onto food to prevent dissolution is one solution presented herein. The biopolymers zein and chitosan were explored for their previously known nanoparticle-forming abilities. Nanoparticles containing the test chemical rhodamine B were formed, applied as films to coat food, and then fed to the test organism, the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In feeding trials both zein and chitosan nanoparticles showed a significantly lower release rate of rhodamine B into water than food dyed with rhodamine B without biopolymer nanoparticles. Zein nanoparticles also showed better retention ability than chitosan nanoparticles. Both kinds of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on the survival, growth, or feeding behavior of H. azteca. Thus these biopolymers may be an effective system to encapsulate and deliver chemicals to aquatic invertebrates without interfering with common toxicity assessment endpoints like survival and growth. PMID:24726933

  1. AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTS TO CHARACTERIZE THE HAZARD OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN WATER: A TOXICITY DATA SUMMARY. PARTS 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary presents acute and chronic toxicity test data and bioconcentration factors compiled over a 2-year period on fish and invertebrates exposed to several representative chemicals from 5 chemical classes (chlorinated ethanes, chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethylenes, c...

  2. Development of miniaturized acute toxicity tests for Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.; McKee, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard EPA methods for conducting static, 48-hour, acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) can be miniaturized to successfully yield accurate LC50/EC50 values. The screening procedure involves exposing the test organisms to 1 mL of test solution, in test chambers which consist of the wells on 48-well microliter plates. Toxicity of the microliter plates and solvent, DO concentration, organism biomass to test solution ratio, partitioning of the chemicals and dilution of the test solution during transfer of the test organisms were examined. Survival and exposure were not significantly altered using non-standard test chambers. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), kepone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was determined using D. magna and fathead minnows. Serial dilutions were made and 1 mL aliquots pipetted into the wells. Daphnia magna, < 24 hours old, and newly hatched fathead minnows, were transferred into the wells, twenty individuals per concentration, one per well. Dose-response curves were established for all test compounds. LC50/EC50`s values obtained using miniaturized methods strongly correlated with those obtained using standard EPA procedures. The tests were repeated a number of times with coefficient of variances for D. magna ranging from 10% with kepone to 64% with SLS. For fathead minnows CVs ranged from 0% with PCP to 23% with kepone. It was concluded that current methods can be miniaturized, yet still provide accurate information regarding toxicity for compounds in limited supply. This method may also be amenable to effluent testing i.e. TIE fractions. Other benefits include reducing the amount of equipment and space needed to conduct a test and the time involved.

  3. Harmonization of Animal Clinical Pathology Testing in Toxicity and Safety Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Weingand; Geoff Brown; Robert Hall; Dai Davies; Kent Gossett; Doug Neptun; Trevor Waner; Toshiaki Matsuzawa; Paul Salemink; Wilhelm Froelke; Jean-Pierre Provost; Gianni Dal Negro; John Batchelor; Mamoru Nomura; Horst Groetsch; Alphons Boink; Jon Kimball; David Woodman; Malcolm York; Eva Fabianson-Johnson; Michel Lupart; Elsa Melloni

    1996-01-01

    Ten scientific organizations formed a joint international committee to provide expert recommendations for clinical pathology testing of laboratory animal species used in regulated toxicity and safety studies. For repeated-dose studies in rodent species, clinical pathology testing is necessary at study termination. Interim study testing may not be necessary in long-duration studies provided that it has been done in short-duration studies

  4. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...sleeves and the approximate body surface exposed to the test...Average percentage of total body surface 7.0 12.5 2,500-3...the skin of the trunk free of hair. Approximately one-half...is measured, and the skin reactions are noted. The subjects...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...sleeves and the approximate body surface exposed to the test...Average percentage of total body surface 7.0 12.5 2,500-3...the skin of the trunk free of hair. Approximately one-half...is measured, and the skin reactions are noted. The subjects...

  6. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...sleeves and the approximate body surface exposed to the test...Average percentage of total body surface 7.0 12.5 2,500-3...the skin of the trunk free of hair. Approximately one-half...is measured, and the skin reactions are noted. The subjects...

  7. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of test substance in dilution water that is calculated to affect...on the flow rate of dilution water. Loading shall not cause the...The source of the dilution water, its chemical characteristics (e.g., conductivity, hardness, pH, etc.) and a...

  8. 40 CFR 797.1330 - Daphnid chronic toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...concentration of a substance in water that produces an adverse effect...of test substance in dilution water that is calculated to affect...The source of the dilution water, its chemical characteristics (e.g., conductivity, hardness, pH), and a description...

  9. Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

  10. Use of an exposure chamber to maintain aqueous phase nanoparticle dispersions for improved toxicity testing in fish.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Boran, Halis; Atfield, Andrew J; Henry, Theodore B

    2015-03-01

    A novel chamber for maintaining aqueous phase dispersions of nanoparticles (NPs) to enable improved toxicity testing in larval zebrafish was developed. Aqueous concentrations were within 80% of initial NP concentrations, and the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <0.16, n?=?3 tests). Significantly lower toxicity for each NP tested (Ag, Cu, and TiO2 NPs) in static beakers suggested that traditional acute toxicity tests may underestimate aqueous phase toxicity of NPs. PMID:25545389

  11. Assessment of Landfill Leachate Toxicity Reduction After Biological Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Jemec; Tatjana Tišler; Andreja Žgajnar-Gotvajn

    In the present article, the efficiency of biological treatment of landfill leachates was evaluated by implementation of physicochemical\\u000a characterisation and a complex toxicity assessment. An array of toxicity tests using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, alga Desmodesmus subspicatus, crustacean Daphnia magna, and embryo of fish Danio rerio, as well as unconventional methods using biochemical biomarkers (protein content, enzymes cholinesterase, and glutathione-S-transferase),\\u000a were

  12. Effects of temperature on in situ toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, C.D.; Burton, G.A. Jr. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With increasing concern over the impacts and perturbations to receiving waters as a result of storm water runoff and contaminated sediments, many investigators have turned towards in situ testing for direct response data. In situ testing has been shown to be an effective assessment tool. In order to further evaluate the limitations of this method, temperature effects were evaluated. There is concern that laboratory to stream transfer of test organisms may induce significant stress if water temperatures are too cool. This study was designed to specifically address the issue of temperature tolerance and attenuation of Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas in in situ conditions. Temperature tolerance is of importance in areas where receiving waters are subject to low or fluctuating temperatures as well as areas of more temperate climates. In this study, the organisms where exposed to temperatures as low as 2 C for variable lengths of time, removed and allowed to come to ambient laboratory temperatures then monitored for acute or chronic responses. No effects on survival were observed after 48 h. at 5 C; however lower temperatures increased mortality.

  13. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  14. A model system for testing gene vectors using murine tumor cells on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio U; Espindola, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    We developed a model system for testing gene vectors, based on the growth of murine tumors on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonic chickens. The ability of selected murine cells to grow on the CAM was rated according to the following criteria: i) formation of tumor masses; ii) metastasis formation; iii) reproducibility; iv) yield, indicated as the number of embryos surviving to assessment time with visible tumors on the CAM; v) maintainability of the cell, both in the original host and the embryonic chick, or 'shuttle maintainability'; vi) detection by the naked eye, and vii) cost/benefit relation. The murine melanoma cell lineage, B16F10, which efficiently forms distinct, pigmented tumor masses and metastases on the CAM, performed better in this model than the murine B61 cell line. In vitro transduction of B16F10 cells with a recombinant adenovirus carrying a construct of the E. coli LacZ gene followed by inoculation onto the CAM resulted in beta-galactosidase expression in the tumor mass growing on the CAM. This model is potentially applicable to preclinical evaluation of gene vectors, especially for gene therapy of cancer. PMID:14963844

  15. Effect of test conditions on the toxicity of copper to juvenile unionid mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.E.; Ruessler, D.S.; Kernaghan, N.J.

    1999-07-01

    During the past twenty years, unionid mussels have declined in both abundance and diversity throughout the eastern United States. As a result, there has been an increased call to evaluate the toxicity of various pollutants to unionids in an attempt to separate habitat-caused losses from those precipitated by aquatic contaminants. Few toxicity data for unionids were available until recently because unionids are not easily cultured and no test method had been developed for these animals. Therefore, water quality criteria developed by the USEPA in the 1970s and 1980s were derived from data lacking any information on unionid mussel sensitivities. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has advocated the use of a 9-day toxicity test method its scientists developed in the late 1980s. This method, which requires the use of silt, an algal mixture for food and daily changes of water, is not only more labor intensive, it also introduces sources of variation with the use of silt and algae, as well as being substantially different from the standard 96-h fathead minnow or zooplankton tests. The evaluation of TVA's suggested test conditions indicate that the use of a 16L:8D light regime, with or without silt or algae did not result in a change in the toxicity of dissolved copper to juvenile Utterbackia imbecillis mussels compared to that recorded using TVA's test conditions.

  16. Genes, embryos, and future people.

    PubMed

    Glannon, Walter

    1998-07-01

    Testing embryonic cells for genetic abnormalities gives us the capacity to predict whether and to what extent people will exist with disease and disability. Moreover, the freezing of embryos for long periods of time enables us to alter the length of a normal human lifespan. After highlighting the shortcomings of somatic-cell gene therapy and germ-line genetic alteration, I argue that the testing and selective termination of genetically defective embryos is the only medically and morally defensible way to prevent the existence of people with severe disability, pain and suffering that make their lives not worth living for them on the whole. In addition, I consider the possible harmful effects on children born from frozen embryos after the deaths of their biological parents, or when their parents are at an advanced age. I also explore whether embryos have moral status and whether the prospects for disease-preventing genetic alteration can justify long-term cryopreservation of embryos. PMID:11656689

  17. Application of multiple toxicity tests in monitoring of landfill leachate treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kal?íková, Gabriela; Zupan?i?, Marija; Levei, Erika Andrea; Miclean, Mirela; Englande, Andrew J; Žgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja

    2015-08-01

    Leachate from a closed landfill used for co-disposal of municipal and tannery waste was submitted to coagulation treatment, air stripping, adsorption on granular activated carbon, and Fenton oxidation with the aim to reduce toxicity of the leachate. Optimal operational conditions for each process were identified. The performance of the treatment was monitored by determination of organic matter (COD, DOC, BOD5), inorganic components (N-NH4 (+), Cl(-), alkalinity, metals), organic compounds (BTEX, PAHs, PCBs, OCPs) while changes in toxicity were followed by multiple toxicity tests. Among the applied treatment techniques, adsorption on granular activated carbon was the most efficient method for removal of organic matter and metals while air stripping was the most efficient for removal of N-NH4 (+) and reduction of toxicity. Lower reduction of organic matter content and toxicity was obtained during coagulation treatment. Fenton oxidation was effective for removal of COD; however, it negatively affected toxicity reduction. The combination of adsorption on granular activated carbon and air stripping led to an appreciable reduction of organic and inorganic pollutants and to leachate detoxification. Application of bioassays was helpful for assessing suitability of treatment methods and demonstrated that they are, together with physicochemical parameters, an indispensable part for monitoring of treatment efficiency. PMID:26148689

  18. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed. PMID:25476491

  19. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, E.W.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Rabeni, C.F. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Environmental Research Center

    1999-03-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition, at the start of a test. The authors evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl{sub 2}, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl{sub 2} (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods, such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  20. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  1. Selection of methods for assessing sediment toxicity in California bays and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Darrin J; Bay, Steven M

    2012-10-01

    Toxicity tests are often used in sediment assessment programs. However, the choice of methods has been largely limited to acute tests. Where sublethal methods have been used, there has been little consistency among programs in the types of the sublethal tests used. The goal of this study was to develop a method for choosing a suite of acute and sublethal tests for use in a California statewide assessment program, and to develop a set of method-specific thresholds for classifying the degree of toxicity within a multiple line of evidence framework consisting of sediment chemistry, benthic community structure, and sediment toxicity. A group of candidate methods was evaluated using feasibility and performance criteria. Toxicity thresholds were calculated based on test variability and sensitivity. As a result of the evaluation, 3 acute toxicity methods using amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius, Rhepoxynius abronius, and Leptocheirus plumulosus), and 2 sublethal methods using a polychaete and mussel embryos (Neanthes arenaceodentata growth and Mytilus galloprovincialis embryo development at the sediment-water interface) were selected for recommendation. Thresholds for toxicity categories corresponding to Nontoxic, Low Toxicity, Moderate Toxicity, and High Toxicity were developed for each test method. Although these toxicity categories and thresholds provide a consistent framework for the interpretation of test results among different methods, additional research is needed to determine their effectiveness for predicting impacts to benthic communities. PMID:21674769

  2. A Battery of Toxicity Tests as Indicators of Decontamination in Composting Oily Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risto Juvonen; Esko Martikainen; Eija Schultz; Anneli Joutti; Jukka Ahtiainen; Markku Lehtokari

    2000-01-01

    Heterogenous oily waste from an old dumping site was composted in three windrows constructed from different proportions of waste, sewage sludge, and bark. The objectives of this pilot study were to examine the usefulness of composting as a treatment method for this particular waste and to study decontamination in the composting process by using a battery of toxicity tests. Five

  3. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry D Lynd; Kathryn J Richardson; Roy A Purssell; Riyad B Abu-Laban; Jeffery R Brubacher; Katherine J Lepik; Marco LA Sivilotti

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1) to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening

  4. Modeling Reproductive Toxicity for Chemical Prioritization into an Integrated Testing Strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I tested 309 well-characterized chemicals in over 500 assays of different molecular targets, cellular responses and cell-states. Of th...

  5. High Throughput Prioritization for Integrated Toxicity Testing Based on ToxCast Chemical Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rational prioritization of chemicals for integrated toxicity testing is a central goal of the U.S. EPA?s ToxCast? program (http://epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/). ToxCast includes a wide-ranging battery of over 500 in vitro high-throughput screening assays which in Phase I was used to...

  6. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher G. Ingersoll; Eric L. Brunson; F. James Dwyer; Doug K. Hardesty; Nile E. Kemble

    1998-01-01

    Short-term sediment toxicity tests that only measure effects on survival can be used to identify high levels of contamination but may not be able to identify marginally contaminated sediments. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for determining the potential sublethal effects of contaminants associated with sediment on the amphipod Hyalella azteca (e.g., reproduction). This method

  7. Tox21: Putting a Lens on the Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the release of the NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, a Vision and Strategy" (NRC, 2007), two NIH institutes and EPA formed a collaboration (Tox21) to 1) identify mechanisms of chemically induced biological activity, 2) prioritize chemicals for mo...

  8. Development of a Complete Life Cycle Sediment Toxicity Test for the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing sediment toxicity test methods are limited to acute and chronic exposure of invertebrates and acute exposure of vertebrates, with limited guidance on the chronic exposure of vertebrates, specifically fishes. A series of life stage-specific studies were conducted to dete...

  9. Uranium effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Shor; W. D. Bostick; D. P. Hoffmann; L. V. Jr. Gibson; T. C. Ho

    1993-01-01

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator has been undergoing a series of routine tests to determine uranium partitioning to the stack, scrubber waters, and bottom ash. This paper discusses the results of the most recent experiment in which relatively high rates of uranium stack gas emissions were identified: 6.11 g\\/h or 8 wt % based

  10. Application of Generalized Linear Models to the Analysis of Toxicity Test Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maul, A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies binomial, negative binomial, and gamma regression models and gives a detailed description of inference procedures based on them. The process of model fitting and evaluation is illustrated by examples referring to the determination of endpoints in acute and chronic toxicity tests. (17 references) (Author/MDH)

  11. PREDICTION OF POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE FROM MYSID TOXICITY TEST DATA USING POPULATION MODEL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and the risks of chemical stressors to mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). These include LC50 values from acute tests, chronic values (the geometric mean of the no-obsderved-effect co...

  12. Optimal conditions for three brood chronic toxicity test method using a freshwater macroinvertebrate Moina macrocopa.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-06-01

    Freshwater cladocera such as Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia have been used extensively for freshwater toxicity test worldwide. However, these species may not be indigenous in certain geographical regions, which restrict the utility of these organisms as test species. In the present study, we investigated optimal culture and test conditions for an indigenous freshwater macroinvertebrate of Korea, Moina macrocopa. The culture conditions that were evaluated included water temperature (20°C and 25°C), rearing media (moderately hard water or MHW, with or without selenium supplementation, or Elendt M4), and food density (2.5?×?10(7) and 5?×?10(7) cells/mL of Selenastrum capricornutum), and their effects on the life history characteristics of M. macrocopa were determined. Population growth rate of M. macrocopa was maximized at 25°C with 5?×?10(7) cells/mL of algal food density in MHW. A series of chronic three brood reference toxicant tests were conducted under the ideal culture conditions that were identified here, and the results of the tests indicated reliable reproducibility of the test protocol. Optimal culture and test conditions that were identified for M. macrocopa in the present study are suggested for evaluation of chronic toxicity of chemicals and industrial or municipal discharge. PMID:21769559

  13. Evaluation of results from the on-site audits of laboratories performing freshwater aquatic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO (United States). Region 8

    1995-12-31

    Over the last few years (1992--1995), several laboratories were evaluated based on USEPA`s Manual for the Evaluation of Laboratories Performing Aquatic Toxicity Tests. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) tests were required under NPDES permits primarily issued by the States in Region 8. The required test organisms were Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Prior to the on-site visit, a presurvey was completed by the laboratories. This visit typically lasts two days and evaluates laboratory staff, facilities, equipment, instruments, supplies, test methodologies, sample handling, QA/QC, data handling and report preparation. Audit reports were prepared listing observed deviations and recommended corrective actions. Opportunities to correct the deviations were given to the laboratories. Compilation of the observed deviations will be presented, along with a discussion of some commonly held reasons for the deviations.

  14. Toxicity test of landfill leachate using Sarotherodon mossambicus (freshwater fish)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.

    1989-04-01

    Landfill leachate was collected in March and July, 1984, at the Gin Drinkers' Bay Landfill Site, and the properties of the two leachates were examined. The leachate collected in March contained higher contents of total solids, ammonia, and metals than that collected in July. The leachates were treated with EDTA (10(-3) M) and Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (2 and 4 g/liter), alone and in combination. Addition of alum (2 g/liter) removed more than 60% of the phosphate content of the two leachates, and about 20 and 68% of total solids from leachates collected in March and July, respectively. Different concentrations of the leachates (untreated and alum-treated) were used to test the survival of tilapia, Sarotherodon mossambicus. The 96-hr LC50 for untreated leachates of March and July were 1.4 and 12%, respectively. The alum-treated leachates raised the 96-hr LC50 to 2.2 and 31.4%, accordingly.

  15. The precision of daphnid ( Daphnia magna Straus, 1820) static acute toxicity tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Gersich; F. A. Blanchard; S. L. Applegath; C. N. Park

    1986-01-01

    Three repiicate 48-hr static acute toxicity tests were conducted withDaphnia magna Straus 1820 for each of seven test chemicals (chlorobenzene, chloroform,p-dichlorobenzene, diethanol-amine, epichlorohydrin, ethylene glycol and phenol). The ratios of the highest to lowest LC50 values for a particular chemical ranged from 1.05 to 1.44 with a mean ratio for all seven chemicals of 1.27±0.13 (coefficients of variation averaged approximately

  16. Preclinical toxicology studies with acyclovir: genetic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Clive, D; Turner, N T; Hozier, J; Batson, A G; Tucker, W E

    1983-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), an antiviral drug active in the treatment of oral and genital Herpes infections, has been evaluated for mutagenic and carcinogenic potential in a battery of in vitro and in vivo short-term assays. Negative results were obtained in the following in vitro tests: Ames Salmonella, plate incorporation and preincubation modification assays; E. coli polA+/polA- DNA repair; yeast (S. cerevisiae D4) gene conversion; Chinese hamster ovary cells (HGPRT, APRT loci and ouabain-resistance marker); L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells (HGPRT locus and ouabain-resistance marker); and C3H/10T1/2 mouse fibroblast neoplastic transformation assay. All except the last assay were performed in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system. ACV was positive at high concentrations X exposure times in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation in the following in vitro systems and at the indicated concentrations: BALB/c-3T3 neoplastic transformation (50 micrograms/mL, 72 h exposure); human lymphocyte cytogenetics (250-500 micrograms/mL, 48 h exposure); and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells (TK locus, 400-2400 micrograms/mL, 4 h exposure; predominantly small colony mutants of chromosomal origin produced). No effects were seen in vivo (mouse dominant lethal assay; rat and Chinese hamster bone marrow cytogenetics) at up to maximum tolerated doses (MTD). An unusual clastogenic effect was seen in Chinese hamsters at 5 times the MTD. Overall, positive effects were seen only at either high concentrations (greater than or equal to 250 micrograms/mL in vitro or plasma levels) or prolonged exposure (72 hr in the BALB/c-3T3 neoplastic transformation assay). These studies support the view that ACV is a chromosomal mutagen, i.e., one which causes multi-locus damage but not single gene effects. The significance of these results for the genetic risk of ACV to man is discussed. PMID:6662301

  17. Toxicity of the cryoprotectants glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, methanol, sucrose, trehalose and hypersaline solutions to the embryos and nauplii of some penaeid shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Stephen Michael

    1986-01-01

    more resistant, v"ith maximum tolerated concentrations determined to be 0. 25 M g!ycerok 0. 5 M DMSO, 0. 5 M ethylene glycol, 2 M methanol, 0. 25 M sucrose, 0. 25 M trehaiose and 65 ppt ASW. Serial procedures had no beneficial elfect, except... shock or ionic imbalance rather than a direct consequence of toxicity. To avoid toxicity problems and yet afford adequate cryoprotection, it may be necessary to use alternate extenders, different or dual cryoprotectants, !ow temperature equilibrations...

  18. Optimizing the performance of Hyalella azteca in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing in the United States and elsewhere. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. Under the methods in the man...

  19. 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA': AN ESTUARINE SPECIES SUITABLE FOR LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TESTS TO DETERMINE EFFECTS OF A POLLUTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study documents the successful use of a mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, for life-cycle toxicity tests. These tests were conducted to determine acute and chronic toxicities of metal (cadmium) and pesticide (Kepone). Delay in the formation of mysid brood pouches and release of young ...

  20. Suitability of Daphnia similis as an alternative organism in ecotoxicological tests: implications for metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodgher, Suzelei; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta; Lombardi, Ana Teresa

    2010-08-01

    The acute toxicity of metals to Daphnia similis was determined and compared to other daphnid species to evaluate the suitability of this organism in ecotoxicology bioassays. To verify the performance D. similis in toxicity tests, we also investigated the effect of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at 1 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) on Cd and Cr acute toxicity to the cladoceran. Daphnid neonates were exposed to a range of chromium and cadmium concentrations in the absence and presence of the algal cells. Metal speciation calculations using MINEQL(+) showed that total dissolved metal concentrations in zooplankton culture corresponded to 96.2% free Cd and 100% free Cr concentrations. Initial total dissolved metal concentrations were used for 48 h-LC(50) determination. LC(50) for D. similis was 5.15 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) dissolved Cd without algal cells, whereas with 1 x 10(5) cells ml(-1), it was significantly higher (7.15 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) dissolved Cd). For Cr, the 48 h-LC(50) value of 9.17 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) obtained for the cladoceran in tests with 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) of P. subcapitata was also significantly higher than that obtained in tests without algal cells (5.28 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) dissolved Cr). The presence of algal cells reduced the toxicity of metals to D. similis, as observed in other studies that investigated the effects of food on metal toxicity to standard cladocerans. Comparing our results to those of literature, we observed that D. similis is as sensitive to metals as other standardized Daphnia species and may serve as a potential test species in ecotoxicological evaluations. PMID:20306222

  1. Toxicity of four potentially ichthyotoxic marine phytoflagellates determined by four different test methods.

    PubMed

    Meldahl, A S; Edvardsen, B; Fonnum, F

    1994-07-01

    The toxicity of the marine phytoflagellates Prymnesium parvum. Prymnesium patelliferum, Chrysochromulina polylepis, and Chrysochromulina leadbeateri isolated from ichthyotoxic blooms in Norwegian coastal waters was compared using four different test methods developed for the detection of toxins produced by these species. The test methods were (1) lethality to the crustacean Artemia salina exposed to living algae, (2) hemolytic activity (lysis of human erythrocytes) by crude algal lipid extracts, and inhibition of the uptake of the neurotransmitters L-glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into (3) synaptosomes and (4) synaptic vesicles of rat brain by crude algal lipid extracts. All test methods indicated different levels of toxicity among the algal species. Prymnesium parvum, P. patelliferum, and C. polylepis were toxic as determined by all four test methods. The cultured strain of C. leadbeateri, although isolated from a toxic algal bloom, appeared nontoxic by the methods used here, and served as a negative control. The hemolytic activity of P. parvum extract was about nine times higher than that of P. patelliferum extract, whereas the activity was only two to three times higher using the other three methods. Chrysochromulina polylepis had higher toxic activity than P. patelliferum except for less inhibitory effect on synaptosomes. The inhibition of synaptosomal and vesicular neurotransmitter uptake systems by extracts of P. parvum, P. patelliferum, and C. polylepis appeared to be due to similar mechanisms of action, since similar inhibition ratios between the uptake of L-glutamate and GABA were obtained in both synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. We suggest that P. parvum, P. patelliferum, and C. polylepis produce a set of similar toxins and that the relative amounts of each toxin vary among the three species. PMID:7912738

  2. Implementing the National Academy's Vision and Strategy for Toxicity Testing: Opportunities and Challenges Under the U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Locke; D. Bruce Myers Jr

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council (NRC), issued the report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. This report, which was commissioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), called for the U.S. EPA to develop a new approach for how this agency evaluates the toxicity of compounds. The report recommended

  3. Long-term chronic toxicity testing using human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Gustav; Sjögren, Anna-Karin; Barragan, Isabel; Sabirsh, Alan; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane; Björquist, Petter; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Andersson, Tommy B; Edsbagge, Josefina

    2014-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to become important tools for the establishment of new models for in vitro drug testing of, for example, toxicity and pharmacological effects. Late-stage attrition in the pharmaceutical industry is to a large extent caused by selection of drug candidates using nonpredictive preclinical models that are not clinically relevant. The current hepatic in vivo and in vitro models show clear limitations, especially for studies of chronic hepatotoxicity. For these reasons, we evaluated the potential of using hPSC-derived hepatocytes for long-term exposure to toxic drugs. The differentiated hepatocytes were incubated with hepatotoxic compounds for up to 14 days, using a repeated-dose approach. The hPSC-derived hepatocytes became more sensitive to the toxic compounds after extended exposures and, in addition to conventional cytotoxicity, evidence of phospholipidosis and steatosis was also observed in the cells. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a long-term toxicity study using hPSC-derived hepatocytes, and the observations support further development and validation of hPSC-based toxicity models for evaluating novel drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics. PMID:24980256

  4. Acute toxicity assessment of ANAMMOX substrates and antibiotics by luminescent bacteria test.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. PMID:25912634

  5. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Figueroa, L.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  6. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)); Figueroa, L.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  7. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry – hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO – uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques – precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially ‘weak-embryotoxic’ and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as ‘non-embryotoxic’. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2 displayed higher toxicity compared with ZnO and SiO2. Importantly, the in vitro methodology applied could identify cell- and NM-specific responses, with a low variability observed between different test assays. Overall, this testing approach, based on a battery of cellular systems and test assays, complemented by an exhaustive physico-chemical characterization of NMs, could be deployed for the development of an ITS suitable for risk assessment of NMs. This study also provides a rich source of data for modeling of NM effects. PMID:25996496

  8. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  9. Relative toxicity of products of pyrolysis and combustion of polymeric materials using various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Relative toxicity data for a large number of natural and synthetic polymeric materials are presented which were obtained by 11 pyrolysis and three flaming-combustion test methods. The materials tested include flexible and rigid polyurethane foams, different kinds of fabrics and woods, and a variety of commodity polymers such as polyethylene. Animal exposure chambers of different volumes containing mice, rats, or rabbits were used in the tests, which were performed over the temperature range from ambient to 800 C with and without air flow or recirculation. The test results are found to be sensitive to such variables as exposure mode, temperature, air flow and dilution, material concentration, and animal species, but relative toxicity rankings appear to be similar for many methods and materials. It is concluded that times to incapacitance and to death provide a more suitable basis for relative toxicity rankings than percent mortality alone, that temperature is the most important variable in the tests reported, and that variables such as chamber volume and animal species may not significantly affect the rankings.

  10. Comparison of the 10-day freshwater sediment toxicity tests using Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.S.; Bigham, G.N. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States); Rose, C.D. [CDR Environmental Specialists, Naples, FL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Comparisons were made of the performance of the 10-d freshwater sediment toxicity tests using the amphipod Hyalella azteca and midge Chironomus tentans. Sediments were collected from eight stations in Onondaga Lake, New York, and represented a wide range of toxicity. The biological end points were survival, biomass, and body length. The two tests were compared on the basis of correspondence among relative values of the end points and ability to statistically discriminate adverse effects relative to control responses (i.e., discriminatory ability). Minimum detectable differences (MDDs) and adverse response ranges of the end points were used to further evaluate the discriminatory ability of the end points. Relative responses and discriminatory abilities of the end points of both tests were similar, despite numerous differences that exist among characteristics of the test species and end points. Significant concordance was found among all end points with respect to relative toxicity of sediments from the eight stations. Although MDDs and adverse response ranges of the various end points differed substantially, the observed positive correlation between those two variables resulted in all end points having similar discriminatory ability. Although amphipod biomass and body length have rarely been used as end points in 10-d tests, both end points provided results comparable to those of the other end points evaluated in the present study.

  11. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center

    1998-08-01

    Short-term sediment toxicity tests that only measure effects on survival can be used to identify high levels of contamination but may not be able to identify marginally contaminated sediments. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for determining the potential sublethal effects of contaminants associated with sediment on the amphipod Hyalella azteca (e.g., reproduction). This method was used to evaluate a formulated sediment and field-collected sediments with low to moderate concentrations of contaminants. Survival of amphipods in these sediments was typically >85% after the 28-d sediment exposures are the 14-d holding period in water to measure reproduction. Reproduction was more variable than growth; hence, more replicates in sediment tests often provides unique information that can be used to discriminate toxic effects of exposure to contaminants. Either length or weight can be measured in sediment tests with H. azteca. However, additional statistical options are available if length is measured on individual amphipods, such as nested analysis of variance that can account for variance in length within replicates. Ongoing water-only studies testing select contaminants will provide additional data on the relative sensitivity and variability of sublethal endpoints in toxicity tests with H. azteca.

  12. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Nipper, M

    2006-11-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. PMID:16988866

  13. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Shedd; M. W. Widder; M. W. Toussaint; M. C. Sunkel; E. Hull

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests

  14. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Ford; H. A. Wolaver; L. A. Figueroa

    1992-01-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in

  15. Toxicity Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Willey, Babe

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will help students understand the impacts of pollution in an ecosystem and the effects those substances can have on those who live there. The class will define basic routes of entry as well as the toxicological effects of chemicals on the body. The activity should take about 50 minutes to set up, and is designed to be done in two 15 minute sessions. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  16. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  17. Current status of human pluripotent stem cell based in vitro toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Klaric, Martina; Winkler, Johannes; Vojnits, Kinga; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Ensenat-Waser, Roberto; Hescheler, Juergen; Sachinidis, Agapios; Bremer-Hoffmann, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The present review assesses the current status of in vitro tests based on human pluripotent stem cell-derived toxicologically relevant target cells. The majority of the evaluated test systems are in the phase of test development. In particular the success rates of differentiation protocols and their reproducibility are varying depending on different culture conditions but also on the assessed marker panel and the functional evaluation of the cells. However, the amount of differentiated cells decreases in relation to their maturation status. No harmonization has been achieved yet about the required maturation status of the cellular models to be used for toxicological applications. Even with an established cellular model, the selection of appropriate readouts is challenging. Some areas of toxicity, such as developmental toxicity, suffer from insufficient knowledge on predictive biomarkers which leads to difficulties in the selection of the most appropriate endpoints. In this heterogeneous context the rapidly increasing knowledge about 'omics' technologies, might lead to an improvement of the current situation and allow the establishment of more predictive human in vitro toxicity tests. PMID:23277040

  18. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  19. Sediment toxicity tests using benthic marine microalgae Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehremberg) Lewin and Reimann (Bacillariophyceae).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garrido, I; Hampel, M; Lubián, L M; Blasco, J

    2003-03-01

    A new method for sediment toxicity testing using marine benthic pennate noncolonial diatom (Cylindrotheca closterium, formerly Nitzschia closterium) has been developed. This microalgae showed a good growth rate during the experimental period, even when low enriched media were used. Sediment spiked with heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb)] was employed to determine the EC(50) values, using microalgal growth inhibition as the endpoint. The obtained results were as follows: Three heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Pb), previously spiked on experimental sediment, were separately assayed in toxicity tests. The EC(50) values for these heavy metals in microalgal growth inhibition tests resulted to be 79 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 26 mg kg(-1) for Cu, and 29 mg kg(-1) for Pb (in experimental sediment). The influence of sediment granulometry on the growth of microalgal population was also studied, finding that the growth of the microalgal population on media containing sediment with a relation sand-size:silt size of 9:1 was not different from optimal growth (occurring in media containing 100% sand-sized sediment). The diatom C. closterium proved to be a suitable organism for sediment toxicity tests, due to its sensitivity and fast growth even in poorly enriched media. PMID:12651184

  20. Sediment testing intermittent renewal system for the automated renewal of overlying water in toxicity tests with contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, D.A.; Phipps, G.L.; Ankley, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    A sediment testing intermittent renewal (STIR) system (stationary or portable) for invertebrate toxicity testing with contaminated sediments has been successfully developed and thoroughly tested at ERL-Duluth. Both the stationary and portable systems enable the maintenance of acceptable water quality (e.g. DO) through the capability of automatically renewing overlying water in sediment tests at rates ranging from 1 to 21 volume renewals/day. The STIR system not only significantly reduces the labor associated with renewal of overlying water but also affords a gentle exchange of water that results in virtually no sediment resuspension. Both systems can also be installed in a compact vented enclosure to permit safe testing of hazardous contaminated sediments. To date the STIR system has been used extensively for conducting 10-day bulk sediment tests with Chironomus tentans, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of new antifouling compounds using suspension-cultured fish cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Okamura; T. Watanabe; I. Aoyama; M. Hasobe

    2002-01-01

    A simple, rapid toxicity test was developed using the suspension-cultured fish cell line CHSE-sp derived from chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryos in order to assess the toxicity of new marine antifouling compounds. The compounds tested were copper pyrithione, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, KH101, Sea-Nine 211, and zinc pyrithione, all of which have been nominated in Japan as possible replacements for organotin

  2. Relative embryotoxicity of two classes of chemicals in a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test and comparison with their in vivo potencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanne A. B. Hermsen; Evert-Jan van den Brandhof; Aldert H. Piersma

    2011-01-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) is a fast and simple method to study chemical toxicity after exposure of the complete vertebrate embryo during embryogenesis in ovo. We developed a novel quantitative evaluation method to assess the development of the zebrafish embryo based on specific endpoints in time, the general morphology score (GMS) system. For teratogenic effects a separate scoring list

  3. Optimizing the aquatic toxicity assessment under REACH through an integrated testing strategy (ITS).

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfenati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Jeram, Sonja; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-11-01

    To satisfy REACH requirements a high number of data on chemical of interest should be supplied to the European Chemicals Agency. To organize the various kinds of information and help the registrants to choose the best strategy to obtain the needed information limiting at the minimum the use of animal testing, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) schemes can be used. The present work deals with regulatory data requirements for assessing the hazards of chemicals to the aquatic pelagic environment. We present an ITS scheme for organizing and using the complex existing data available for aquatic toxicity assessment. An ITS to optimize the choice of the correct prediction strategy for aquatic pelagic toxicity is described. All existing information (like physico-chemical information), and all the alternative methods (like in silico, in vitro or the acute-to-chronic ratio) are considered. Moreover the weight of evidence approach to combine the available data is included. PMID:25262089

  4. The SOS-LUX-TOXICITY-Test on the International Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Rabbow; Nevena Stojicic; David Walrafen; Christa Baumstark-Khan; Petra Rettberg; Dirk Schulze-Varnholt; Markus Franz; Günther Reitz

    2006-01-01

    For the safety of astronauts and to ensure the stability and integrity of the genome of microorganisms and plants used in bioregenerative life support systems, it is important to improve our knowledge of the combined action of (space) radiation and microgravity. The SOS-LUX-TOXICITY test, as part of the TRIPLE-LUX project (accepted for flight at Biolab in Columbus on the International

  5. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  6. Evaluation of the hazardous impact of landfill leachates by toxicity and biodegradability tests.

    PubMed

    Kalcíková, G; Vávrová, M; Zagorc-Koncan, J; Gotvajn, A Zgajnar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our research was to assess the ecotoxicity and biodegradability of leachates originating from two parts of a municipal landfill before and after biological treatment in the existing treatment plant. Biotests represent important tools for adequate environmental characterization of landfill leachates and could be helpful in reliable assessment and monitoring of the treatment plant efficiency. For ecotoxicity testing of landfill leachate before and after biological treatment, different organisms were chosen: the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, a mixed culture of activated sludge, duckweed Lemna minor, white mustard Sinapis alba, brine shrimp Artemia salina, and water flea Daphnia magna. For assessment of biodegradability, the method for determination of oxygen demand in a closed respirometer was used. The investigated leachates were heavily polluted, and in some cases, effluent limits were exceeded even after treatment. Results indicated that toxicity tests and physico-chemical parameters determined before and after treatment equivalently assess the efficiency of the existing treatment plant. However, the investigated leachates showed higher toxicity to Daphnia magna and especially to Lemna minor in contrast to Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina (neither was sensitive to any of the leachates). No leachates were readily biodegradable. Experiments confirmed that the battery of toxicity tests should be applied for more comprehensive assessment of landfill leachate treatment and for reliable assessment of the treated leachate's subsequent environmental impact. It was confirmed that treated leachate, in spite of its better physico-chemical characteristics, still represents a potential environmental risk and thus should not be released into the environment. PMID:21970176

  7. Developmental toxicity of low generation PAMAM dendrimers in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    King Heiden, Tisha C.; Dengler, Emelyne [Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Kao, Weiyuan John [Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Heideman, Warren [Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Peterson, Richard E. [Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)], E-mail: repeterson@pharmacy.wisc.edu

    2007-11-15

    Biological molecules and intracellular structures operate at the nanoscale; therefore, development of nanomedicines shows great promise for the treatment of disease by using targeted drug delivery and gene therapies. PAMAM dendrimers, which are highly branched polymers with low polydispersity and high functionality, provide an ideal architecture for construction of effective drug carriers, gene transfer devices and imaging of biological systems. For example, dendrimers bioconjugated with selective ligands such as Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) would theoretically target cells that contain integrin receptors and show potential for use as drug delivery devices. While RGD-conjugated dendrimers are generally considered not to be cytotoxic, there currently exists little information on the risks that such materials pose to human health. In an effort to compliment and extend the knowledge gleaned from cell culture assays, we have used the zebrafish embryo as a rapid, medium throughput, cost-effective whole-animal model to provide a more comprehensive and predictive developmental toxicity screen for nanomaterials such as PAMAM dendrimers. Using the zebrafish embryo, we have assessed the developmental toxicity of low generation (G3.5 and G4) PAMAM dendrimers, as well as RGD-conjugated forms for comparison. Our results demonstrate that G4 dendrimers, which have amino functional groups, are toxic and attenuate growth and development of zebrafish embryos at sublethal concentrations; however, G3.5 dendrimers, with carboxylic acid terminal functional groups, are not toxic to zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, RGD-conjugated G4 dendrimers are less potent in causing embryo toxicity than G4 dendrimers. RGD-conjugated G3.5 dendrimers do not elicit toxicity at the highest concentrations tested and warrant further study for use as a drug delivery device.

  8. EFFECTS OF KEPONE (TRADE NAME) ON THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW IN AN ENTIRE LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entire life-cycle toxicity test with the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and the organochlorine insecticide Kepone in seawater showed that the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) lies between 0.074 and 0.12 micrograms Kepone/l, based on reduced...

  9. Toxicity test with algae--a discussion on the batch method

    SciTech Connect

    Hoernstroem E3 (National Environmental Protection Board, Solna, (Sweden))

    1990-12-01

    Toxicity tests with phytoplankton have been used for only a couple of decades. Proposals for international standards with their wide acceptance have been prepared by OECD, EPA, and ISO. The different procedures show relatively good agreement but, simultaneously, there are also common features which do not appear appropriate and which should be subjected to a critical examination. The present paper consists of a survey of different aspects of the so-called batch method--ranging from the test organism to the reporting of results, together with recommendations for improved technology.

  10. Effects of multi-well plate incubation on embryo-larval development in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Sullivan, Cheryl A; Lavalle, Christine; Shires, Kallie; Parrott, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    Fathead minnow embryos and larvae are frequently used in toxicology, including short-term embryo-only tests which often use small volumes of test solution. The effect that such conditions may have on fathead minnow development has yet to be explicitly described. Here we compared rates of embryonic development in fathead minnow embryos reared under standard light and temperature conditions with a range of possible methods. All methods yielded excellent control survival. We demonstrated that fathead minnow embryos incubated in a range of small volumes in multi-well plates (500 ?L to 2 mL per embryo) did not substantially vary in developmental rate, but flexed less frequently as embryos, hatched smaller, later and with larger yolk-sacs, and initiated feeding later than embryos reared in an excess of solution (20 mL per embryo) with or without supplemental aeration. Faster hatch and growth were promoted with an orbital shaker, but growth benefits were not sustained into the larval stage. Developmental differences persisted in larvae reared to 20 days post-fertilization when monitoring ceased, but growth differences did not magnify and in some measurements partially resolved. To our knowledge we are the first to report effects of incubation in multi-well plates in any fish taxa. As our data revealed that the eleutheroembryonic stage for fathead minnow may be prolonged in multi-well plates, this may allow the use of longer toxicity tests using fathead minnow embryos without conflicting with existing animal welfare legislation in many countries. PMID:25315211

  11. Use of the Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay for carcinogenicity prediction of chemicals currently being tested by the National Toxicology Program in rodent bioassays.

    PubMed Central

    Kerckaert, G A; Brauninger, R; LeBoeuf, R A; Isfort, R J

    1996-01-01

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay was used to predict the carcinogenicity of 26 chemicals currently being tested in the rodent bioassay by the National Toxicology Program as part of its program titled "Strategies for Predicting Chemical Carcinogenesis in Rodents." Of these 26 chemicals, 17 were found to be positive in the SHE cell transformation assay while 9 were negative. Carcinogenicity predictions were made for these chemicals, based upon the SHE cell transformation assay results. Our predictions will be compared with the rodent bioassay results as they become available. PMID:8933057

  12. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.T.; Long, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Microtox?? and Mutatox?? were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km2, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texar in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity (p < 0.05). Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid (<24 h) screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Potent Phototoxicity of Marine Bunker Oil to Translucent Herring Embryos after Prolonged Weathering

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Vines, Carol A.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Myers, Mark S.; Sloan, Catherine A.; Anulacion, Bernadita F.; Boyd, Daryle; Collier, Tracy K.; Morgan, Steven; Cherr, Gary N.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi) spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes) before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity) with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network. PMID:22312421

  14. Development of a standardized sediment reference toxicant test using formulated sediment and copper sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Suedel, B.C.; Hartzell, R.S.; Williams, C.W.; Connelly, R.A. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lack of suitable reference toxicant tests to assess the condition or health of populations of benthic test organisms is problematic because the precision and accuracy of definitive whole sediment tests cannot be assessed without this reference. To address this need, formulated sediment was prepared to provide a consistent substrate with respect to percent solids, particle size distribution, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, organic matter, redox potential, and pH. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed for 96-h to formulated sediment amended with serial dilutions of copper sulfate. Results indicate that (1) formulated sediments can be prepared consistently between batches with minimal variability with respect to sediment characteristics, providing a consistent test substrate; (2) when combined with formulated sediment, copper sulfate is a suitable sediment reference toxicant for assessing the condition and health of H. azteca and C tentans populations; and (3) formulated sediment provides a suitable substrate for H. azteca and C tentans (control survival > 80%). This method provides a means by which the health and sensitivity of benthic test organisms can be assessed and provides a measure of precision within and among laboratories through time.

  15. Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb).

    PubMed

    Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function (WHAM-FTOX ) describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of 1) accumulation by the organism of metabolically active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and 2) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (?i , in mol g(-1) ) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (?i ) are combined with ?i to obtain the variable FTOX (= ? ?i ?i ) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT , FTOX,UT ), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of ?i , FTOX,LT , and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for 4 large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag), and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong nonadditive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H?toxicity relative to that of Zn as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish). PMID:25318827

  16. Structure-activity relationships for chloro- and nitrophenol toxicity in the pollen tube growth test

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann, G. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology; Somashekar, R.K. [Bangalore Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kristen, U. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

    1996-10-01

    Acute toxicity of 10 chlorophenols and 10 nitrophenols with identical substitution patterns is analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. Concentration values of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) between 0.1 and 300 mg/L indicate that the absolute sensitivity of this alternative biotest is comparable to conventional aquatic test systems. Analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships using lipophilicity (log K{sub ow}), acidity (pK{sub a}), and quantum chemical parameters to model intrinsic acidity, solvation interactions, and nucleophilicity reveals substantial differences between the intraseries trends of log IC50. With chlorophenols, a narcotic-type relationship is derived, which, however, shows marked differences in slope and intercept when compared to reference regression equations for polar narcosis. Regression analysis of nitrophenol toxicity suggests interpretation in terms of two modes of action: oxidative uncoupling activity is associated with a pK{sub a} window from 3.8 to 8.5, and more acidic congeners with diortho-substitution show a transition from uncoupling to a narcotic mode of action with decreasing pK{sub a} and log K{sub ow}. Model calculations for phenol nucleophilicity suggest that differences in the phenol readiness for glucuronic acid conjugation as a major phase-II detoxication pathway have no direct influence on acute PTG toxicity of the compounds.

  17. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  18. Application of two real-time toxicity tests to monitor Rocky Flats Plant water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolaver, H.; Spence, S.; Paton, I.

    1993-05-01

    Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex and fabricated weapon components for the DOE from 1952 to 1989. Like other industrial facilities, RFP is subject to Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations that require surface water discharge monitoring. Unlike most industrial facilities, RFP is also regulated under a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) that requires development of water quality monitoring on a real-time basis. A surface water toxicity monitoring program was initiated in May 1991 to address requirements concerning prevention of toxic effluent discharges. The goal of the program is to determine which methods will provide real-time monitoring, thereby enhancing water management and protection of the aquatic environment downstream. In addition to the traditional whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing required by the FFCA, two other biological instrumentation techniques that may be applicable to real-time monitoring are being implemented. These are the Microtox{trademark} (Microtox{trademark} is a registered trademark of Microbics Corporation, hereinafter referred to as ``Microtox``) and automated respirometry. Both methods provide frequent sampling compared to WET testing and allow for more timely and frequent water quality measurement.

  19. Application of two real-time toxicity tests to monitor Rocky Flats Plant water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolaver, H.; Spence, S.; Paton, I.

    1993-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex and fabricated weapon components for the DOE from 1952 to 1989. Like other industrial facilities, RFP is subject to Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations that require surface water discharge monitoring. Unlike most industrial facilities, RFP is also regulated under a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) that requires development of water quality monitoring on a real-time basis. A surface water toxicity monitoring program was initiated in May 1991 to address requirements concerning prevention of toxic effluent discharges. The goal of the program is to determine which methods will provide real-time monitoring, thereby enhancing water management and protection of the aquatic environment downstream. In addition to the traditional whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing required by the FFCA, two other biological instrumentation techniques that may be applicable to real-time monitoring are being implemented. These are the Microtox[trademark] (Microtox[trademark] is a registered trademark of Microbics Corporation, hereinafter referred to as Microtox'') and automated respirometry. Both methods provide frequent sampling compared to WET testing and allow for more timely and frequent water quality measurement.

  20. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term sediment toxicity tests that only measure effects on survival can be used to identify high levels of contamination but may not be able to identify marginally contaminated sediments. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for determining the potential sublethal effects of contaminants associated with sediment on the amphipod Hyalella azteca (e.g., reproduction). Exposures to sediment were started with 7- to 8-d-old amphipods. On day 28, amphipods were isolated from the sediment and placed in water-only chambers where reproduction was measured on day 35 and 42. Typically, amphipods were first in amplexus at about day 21 to 28 with release of the first brood between day 28 to 42. Endpoints measured included survival (day 28, 35, and 42), growth (as length and weight on day 28 and 42), and reproduction (number of young/female produced from day 28 to 42). This method was used to evaluate a formulated sediment and field-collected sediments with low to moderate concentrations of contaminants. Survival of amphipods in these sediments was typically >85% after the 28-d sediment exposures and the 14-d holding period in water to measure reproduction. Reproduction was more variable than growth; hence, more replicates might be needed to establish statistical differences among treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that growth of H. azteca in sediment tests often provides unique information that can be used to discriminate toxic effects of exposure to contaminants. Either length or weight can be measured in sediment tests with H. azteca. However, additional statistical options are available if length is measured on individual amphipods, such as nested analysis of variance that can account for variance in length within replicates. Ongoing water-only studies testing select contaminants will provide additional data on the relative sensitivity and variability of sublethal endpoints in toxicity tests with H. azteca.

  1. Characterization of sewage sludge and the use of brine shrimp for toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.C.; Cheung, R.Y.H. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) of digested sludges, collected from 4 sewage treatment works in Hong Kong were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, after sequentially extracted by 1 M KNO{sub 3}, 0.5 M KF, 0.1 M Na{sub 4}, P{sub 2}, O{sub 7} 0.1 M EDTA and 6 M HNO{sub 3} It was found that the major forms of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were in the sulfide phase, organically bound phase, adsorbed phase and carbonate phase respectively. Nauplii larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was then used as bioindicator to test the toxicity, of the digested sludges. 20 individuals were placed into 1 liter seawater containing whole sample of the types of digested sludges at different concentrations, The toxicity of the 4 sludges, according to 48h-LC 50, were ranked as follows YL > TP > ST > SWH.

  2. A system for conducting flow-through toxicity tests with larval fish

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Zoology

    1995-08-01

    Assessment of toxicological effects in aquatic systems commonly include larval fish 96-h LC50 determinations. The LC50 tests are conducted using static renewal as well as flow-through methods. However, in the case of chemicals with high vapor pressures or fugacity, static renewal methods may produce inconsistent results arising from the pulsed nature of exposure. In addition, in exposures involving these types of compounds, the fluctuation in concentration that can occur between renewals is unlike most exposure scenarios in nature. For these reasons, flow-through systems are often preferable. The authors report here on an inexpensive, easily constructed, flow-through system for toxicant exposure of small organisms. Data are presented to illustrate the capacity of the system to maintain uniform toxicant concentrations relative to static renewal methods.

  3. Relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols with the amphipods Eohaustorius estuarius and Ampelisca abdita.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian S; Lowe, Sarah; Phillips, Bryn M; Hunt, John W; Vorhees, Jennifer; Clark, Sara; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    A series of dose-response experiments was conducted to compare the relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols using the amphipods Ampelisca abdita and Eohaustorius estuarius. A. abdita is one of the dominant infaunal species in the San Francisco Estuary, and E. estuarius is the primary sediment toxicity species used in the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program. Experiments were conducted with a formulated sediment spiked with copper, fluoranthene, chlorpyrifos, and the three pyrethroid pesticides permethrin, bifenthrin, and cypermethrin, all chemicals of concern in this Estuary. The results showed that the protocol with A. abdita was more sensitive to fluoranthene and much more sensitive to copper, while E. estuarius was more sensitive to chlorpyrifos, and much more sensitive to the pyrethroid pesticides. These results, considered in conjunction with those from previous spiking studies [Weston, D.P., 1995. Further development of a chronic Ampelisca abdita bioassay as an indicator of sediment toxicity: summary and conclusions. In: Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances Annual Report. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA, pp 108-115; DeWitt, T.E., Swartz, R.C., Lamberson, J.O., 1989. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8: 1035-1048; DeWitt, T.H.E., Pinza, M.R., Niewolny, L.A., Cullinan, V.I., Gruendell, B.D., 1997. Development and evaluation of a standard marine/estuarine chronic sediment toxicity method using Leptocheirus plumulosus. Draft report prepared for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington DC, under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830 by Batelle Marine Science Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, Richland, WA], suggest that, in general, A. abdita is more sensitive to metals, E. estuarius is more sensitive to pesticides, and both protocols have roughly comparable sensitivities to hydrocarbons. The preponderance of evidence from previous field studies indicate that E. estuarius is considerably more responsive to ambient sediment samples [Bay, S.M., Gries, T.H., Anderson, B.S., Phillips, B.M., Field, J.L., Moore, D.W., Greenstein, D.J., 2005. Comparison of marine amphipod test species responsiveness to contaminated sediments. In: Conference Proceeding: Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. SETAC, Baltimore, Maryland; Anderson, B.S., Hunt, B.M., Thompson, B., Lowe, S., Taberski, K., Carr, R.S., in press. Patterns and trends in sediment toxicity in the San Francisco estuary. Environ. Res.]. One reason for this may be that tube building behavior of A. abdita isolates this species from contaminants in pore water, and results from the current experiments partially support this hypothesis. PMID:17572492

  4. Historical data analyses and scientific knowledge suggest complete removal of the abnormal toxicity test as a quality control test.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, Olga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-11-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements. PMID:25209378

  5. Historical Data Analyses and Scientific Knowledge Suggest Complete Removal of the Abnormal Toxicity Test as a Quality Control Test

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, OLga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements. PMID:25209378

  6. Multimodal label-free in vitro toxicity testing with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommel, Christina E.; Dierker, Christian; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Common in vitro toxicity tests of drugs, chemicals or nanomaterials involves the measurement of cellular endpoints like stress response, cell viability, proliferation or cell death. The assay systems determine enzyme activity or protein expression by optical read out of enzyme substrates or marker protein labeling. These standard procedures have several disadvantages. Cellular processes have to be stopped at a distinct time point for the read out, where usually only parts of the cells were affected by the treatment with substances. Typically, only one parameter is analyzed and detection of cellular processes requires several time consuming incubations and washing steps. Here we have applied digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for a multimodal label-free analysis of drug toxicity. NIH 3T3 cells were incubated with 1 ?M Taxol for 24 h. The recorded quantitative phase images were analyzed for cell thickness, cell volume, dry mass and cell migration. Taxol treated cells showed rapidly decreasing cell motility as measure of cell viability. A short increase in cell thickness and dry mass indicated cell division and growth in control cells, whereas Taxol treatment resulted in a continuous increase in cell height followed by a rapid decrease and a decrease of dry mass as indicators of cell death. Multimodal DHM analysis of drug treatment by multiple parameters allows direct and label-free detection of several toxicity parameters in parallel. DHM can quantify cellular reactions minimally invasive over a long time period and analyze kinetics of delayed cellular responses. Our results demonstrate digital holographic microscopy as a valuable tool for multimodal toxicity testing.

  7. Freshwater in situ toxicity testing: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.A. Jr. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The use of traditional laboratory toxicity test species in field exposures have proven to be a valuable assessment tool for monitoring effluent, water, sediment and storm water quality. Mimicking fluctuating exposures of stressors with associated interactions with differing physico-chemical variables is difficult. In situ exposures are conducted for similar time periods measuring similar response endpoints as in more traditional laboratory tests. However, organisms are transferred to the field and exposed in various types of test chambers. The author has observed responses which are similar and which are significantly different from simultaneous laboratory exposures. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, natural light, flow, and predation may affect in situ responses, but are often removed from laboratory exposures. The strengths and weaknesses observed with these test systems over the past few years will be reviewed.

  8. The integrated acute systemic toxicity project (ACuteTox) for the optimisation and validation of alternative in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Clemedson, Cecilia; Kolman, Ada; Forsby, Anna

    2007-03-01

    The ACuteTox project is designed to replace animal testing for acute systemic toxicity, as is widely used today for regulatory purposes, by using in vitro and in silico alternatives. In spite of the fact that earlier studies on acute systemic toxicity demonstrated a good correlation between in vitro basal cytotoxicity data (the 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) in human cell lines and rodent LD50 values, and an even better correlation between IC50 values and human lethal blood concentrations, very few non-animal tests have been accepted for general use. Therefore, the aim of the ACuteTox project is to adapt new testing strategies, for example, the implementation of new endpoints and new cell systems for toxicity screening, organ-specific models, metabolism-dependent toxicity, tissue absorption, distribution and excretion, and computer-based prediction models. A new database, AcuBase, containing descriptions and results of in vitro tests of the 97 reference chemicals, as well as the results of animal experimentation, and human acute toxicity data, will be generated within the framework of ACuteTox. Scientists from 13 European countries are working together and making efforts to find the most appropriate testing strategies for the prediction of human acute systemic toxicity, and also to select a robust in vitro test battery for cytotoxicity testing of chemicals. PMID:17411349

  9. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively. PMID:15883100

  10. TOXICITY OF FLUORANTHENE IN SEDIMENT TO MARINE AMPHIPODS: A TEST OF THE EQUILIBRIUM PARTIONING APPROACH TO SEDIMENT QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of fluoranthene in sediment to the marine benthic amphipods, Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard) and Corophium spinicorne (Stimpson) was determined in relation to the equilibrium partitioning approach to the development of sediment quality criteria. oxicity tests were con...

  11. Tolerance of freshwater test organisms to formulated sediments for use as control materials in whole-sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kemble, N.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center; Dawson, T.D. [Integrated Laboratory Systems, Duluth, MN (United States); Norberg-King, T.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecological Div.

    1999-02-01

    A method is described for preparing formulated sediments for use in toxicity testing. Ingredients used to prepare formulated sediments included commercially available silt, clay, sand, humic acid, dolomite, and {alpha}-cellulose (as a source of organic carbon). {alpha}-Cellulose was selected as the source of organic carbon because it is commercially available, consistent from batch to batch, and low in contaminant concentrations. The tolerance of freshwater test organisms to formulated sediments for use as control materials in whole-sediment toxicity testing was evaluated. Sediment exposures were conducted for 10 d with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midges Chironomus riparius and C. tentans, and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and for 28 d with H. azteca. Responses of organisms in formulated sediments was compared with a field-collected control sediment that has routinely been used to determine test acceptability. Tolerance of organisms to formulated sediments was evaluated by determining responses to varying levels of {alpha}-cellulose, to varying levels of grain size, to evaluation of different food types, or to evaluation of different sources of overlying water. In the 10-d exposures, survival of organisms exposed to the formulated sediments routinely met or exceeded the responses of test organisms exposed to the control sediment and routinely met test acceptability criteria required in standard methods. Growth of amphipods and oligochaetes in 10-d exposures with formulated sediment was often less than growth of organisms in the field-collected control sediment. Additional research is needed, using the method employed to prepare formulated sediment, to determine if conditioning formulated sediments before starting 10-d tests would improve the growth of amphipods. In the 28-d exposures, survival of H. azteca was low when reconstituted water was used as the source of overlying water. However, when well water was used as the source of overlying water in 28-d exposures, consistent responses of amphipods were observed in both formulated and control sediments.

  12. Acute and sublethal toxicity tests to monitor the impact of leachate on an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M C; Banks, C J; Krivtsov, V

    2005-02-01

    In this study, a specific landfill leachate (1200 mg l(-1) COD and 600 mg l(-1) BOD(5)) was used to develop a standardised short-term acute and longer-term sublethal ex-situ toxicity testing programme, in order to determine the potential ecological implications of leaching contaminants reaching the water table. Bioassays were undertaken with juvenile Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus macro-invertebrates. Preliminary acute test variables included static and static renewed flow rates for 96-h, starved and fed specimens, and aerobic and oxygen depleting conditions. However, regardless of any test variable, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for A. aquaticus remained at 12.3% v/v leachate in deionized water, whilst that for G. pulex was only 1%. Sublethal toxicity was judged on the basis of frequency of births and the growth rate of newly born individuals. Tests showed that even a dilution as high as 1:66- would influence the fecundity of a Gammarus population, whilst a dilution of 1:20 would affect the size of an Asellus breeding colony. PMID:15661294

  13. Comparison of Artemia feeding regimens on larval growth in a short-term fathead minnow toxicity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M. Silberhorn; William A. Robison; Terry M. Short; Jeffrey A. Black; Wesley J. Birge

    1993-01-01

    The Fathead Minnow Larval Survival and Growth Test, as described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA Method 1000.0), uses newly hatched larvae of Pimephales promelas to estimate the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters (Weber et al. 1989). This short-term test is one of several used widely throughout the United States to monitor effluent toxicity and compliance

  14. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 2. Variability of measurement parameters under toxicant-induced stress

    SciTech Connect

    Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.

  15. Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biedenbach, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in conjunction with each test. * Determine which samples caused a significant decrease in percent fertilization success relative to the negative control.

  16. Metal toxicity evaluation of Savannah River Plant saltstone comparison of EP and TCLP test results

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C A

    1988-01-01

    Saltstone is the waste treatment and disposal concept for low-level defense waste at the Savannah River Plant. The waste is a sodium salt solution which has about 230 ..mu..CiL in addition to the hazardous characteristics of corrosivity and metal toxicity (Cr/sup +6/ > 100 ppM). Two EPA test procedures are routinely used at SRP to evaluate metal toxicity of wastes and wasteforms. 1) the Extraction Procedure (EP); and 2) the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The EP test is required by SCDHEC and EPA. The TCLP is used to evaluate the effect of increased surface area on metal leaching from the various SRP wasteforms. EP and TCLP test results are presented for two types of wasteforms, a cement-based saltstone and for a slag-based saltstone. The slag saltstone chemically stabilizes and also physically entraps the chromium. For waste solutions with low to intermediate metal concentrations (up to 5000 ppM), the TCLP extracts typically have lower metal values than the EP extracts. This is attributed to the faster neutralization of the acetic acid by the crushed TCLP sample. Crushing increases surface area and consequently releases more alkalinity from the wasteform matrix and the wasteform pore solution. Metal concentrations in the EP and TCLP extracts are proportional to the concentrations of metals in the pore solution for both the cement or slag-based wasteforms. The pore solution concentrations for cement wasteforms are directly related to the soluble metal concentration in the waste. The metal concentration in the slag wasteform pore solutions are significantly lower than the waste because these metals are reduced lower valences and precipitated as insoluble solid phases. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of recycled fibre-based paper for food contact.

    PubMed

    Binderup, M L; Pedersen, G A; Vinggaard, A M; Rasmussen, E S; Rosenquist, H; Cederberg, T

    2002-01-01

    Food-contact materials, including paper, have to comply with a basic set of criteria concerning safety. This means that paper for food contact should not give rise to migration of components, which can endanger human health. The objectives of this pilot study were, first, to compare paper of different qualities as food-contact materials and to perform a preliminary evaluation of their suitability, from a safety point of view, and, second, to evaluate the use of different in vitro toxicity tests for screening of paper and board. Paper produced from three different categories of recycled fibres (B-D) and a raw material produced from virgin fibres (A) were obtained from industry, and extracts were examined by chemical analyses and diverse in vitro toxicity test systems. The products tested were either based on different raw materials or different treatments were applied. Paper category B was made from 40% virgin fibres, 40% unprinted cuttings from newspapers, and 20% de-inked newspapers and magazines. Paper categories C and D were based on newspapers and magazines. However, paper D was de-inked, whereas C was not. To identify constituents of the papers with a potential to migrate into foodstuff, samples of the paper products were extracted with either 99% ethanol or water. Potential migrants in the extracts were identified and semiquantified by GC-IR-MS or GC-HRMS. In parallel to the chemical analyses, a battery of four different in vitro toxicity tests with different endpoints were applied to the same extracts. (1) a cytotoxicity test using normal human skin fibroblasts. The test was based on measurements of the reduction of resazurin to resorufin by cellular redox processes and used as a screening test for acute or general toxicity; (2) a Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test) as a screening test for mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds; (3) a recombinant yeast cell bioassay as a screening test for compounds with oestrogenic activity; (4) an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-receptor assay (CALUX assay) as a screening test for compounds with dioxin-like activity. In addition, the papers were testedfor microbial content and, in general, the microbiological load was quite low. The following microorganisms were counted and identified on both surface and homogenized pulp samples: the total number of aerobic bacteria, the number of aerobic and anaerobic spore formers, the number of Bacillus cereus/thuringiensis, and the number of yeast and moulds. The chemical analyses showed a significantly higher amount and different composition pattern of chemicals extracted with ethanol compared with water. Analyses of the ethanol extracts showed a distinctly smaller number and lower concentrations of chemicals in extracts prepared from sample A compared with extracts of samples B-D. The compounds identified in B-D were similar, but the amounts were lower in B compared with C and D. In accordance with the chemical analyses, the water extracts were less cytotoxic than the ethanol extracts. The extract prepared from virgin fibres was less cytotoxic than the extracts prepared from paper made from recycled fibres, and extracts prepared from C was the most cytotoxic. None of the extracts showed mutagenic activity. No conclusion about the oestrogenic activity could be made, because all extracts were cytotoxic to the test organism (yeast cells). Ethanol extracts of A and B showed a negligible positive response in the Ah-receptor assay at the highest nontoxic concentration, whereas C and D showed a more pronounced effect with C being the most potent. A comparable weak effect of water extracts of samples B-D was observed, too. However, the active compound(s) was not identified by chemical analyses. PMID:11962701

  18. Toxicological assessment of refined naphthenic acids in a repeated dose/developmental toxicity screening test.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; North, Colin M; Podhasky, Paula; Charlap, Jeffrey H; Kuhl, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are primarily cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids with 10 to 16 carbons. To characterize the potential of refined NAs (>70% purity) to cause reproductive and/or developmental effects, Sprague-Dawley rats (12/group) were given oral doses of 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/d, beginning 14 days prior to mating, then an additional 14 days for males or through lactation day 3 for females (up to 53 days) in a repeated dose/reproductive toxicity test (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] 422). Potential mutagenic effects were assessed using Salmonella (OECD 471) and in in vivo micronucleus tests (OECD 474) using bone marrow taken from treated animals in the screening study described previously. Systemic effects included reduced terminal body weights, increased liver weights, and changes in a number of blood cell parameters. The overall no effect level for all target organ effects was 100 mg/kg/d. In the reproductive/developmental toxicity assessment, there were significant reductions in numbers of live born offspring in groups exposed to 300 and 900 mg/kg/d. The overall no effect level for developmental effects was 100 mg/kg/d. The data from the Salmonella and micronucleus tests provide evidence that refined NAs are not genotoxic. PMID:24179025

  19. Effects of uranium poisoning on cultured preimplantation embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kundt; A. M. Ubios; R. L. Cabrini

    2000-01-01

    The toxic effect of uranium in cultured preimplantation embryos of the mouse is presented. Embryos were obtained from hybrid\\u000a females CBA×C57 BL following induction of superovulation and were incubated in M16 cultured medium. Two different experiments\\u000a were performed. In one, embryos in a one-cell stage were placed in culture media with final concentrations of uranyl nitrate\\u000a of 104 and 208

  20. A FATHEAD MINNOW 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS' EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHOD EVALUATION AND EXPOSURE TO FOUR ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 32-day test was developed at the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth for conducting early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with fathead minnows Pimephales promelas. These test procedures were evaluated by using the prescribed methods to establish estimated maximum acceptabl...

  1. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination--determination of toxicity thresholds.

    PubMed

    Höss, S; Ahlf, W; Fahnenstich, C; Gilberg, D; Hollert, H; Melbye, K; Meller, M; Hammers-Wirtz, M; Heininger, P; Neumann-Hensel, H; Ottermanns, R; Ratte, H-T; Seiler, T-B; Spira, D; Weber, J; Feiler, U

    2010-09-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. PMID:20594629

  2. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. (E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Newark, DE (United States). Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  3. Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-07-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  4. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  5. Embryos as targets of endocrine disrupting contaminants in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-03-01

    Environmental contaminants are now a ubiquitous part of the ecological landscape, and a growing literature describes the ability of many of these chemicals to alter the developmental trajectory of the embryo. Because many environmental pollutants readily bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues, wildlife can attain considerable body burdens. Embryos are often exposed to these pollutants through maternal transfer, and a growing number of studies report long-term or permanent developmental consequences. Many biological mechanisms are reportedly affected by environmental contaminants in the developing embryo and fetus, including neurodevelopment, steroidogenesis, gonadal differentiation, and liver function. Embryos are not exposed to one chemical at a time, but are chronically exposed to many chemicals simultaneously. Mixture studies show that for some developmental disorders, mixtures of chemicals cause a more deleterious response than would be predicted from their individual toxicities. Synergistic responses to low dose mixtures make it difficult to estimate developmental outcomes, and as such, traditional toxicity testing often results in an underestimate of exposure risks. In addition, the knowledge that biological systems do not necessarily respond in a dose-dependent fashion, and that very low doses of a chemical can prove more harmful than higher doses, has created a paradigm shift in studies of environmental contaminant-induced dysfunction. Although laboratory studies are critical for providing dose-response relationships and determining specific mechanisms involved in disease etiology, wildlife sentinels more accurately reflect the genetic diversity of real world exposure conditions, and continue to alert scientists and health professionals alike of the consequences of developmental exposures to environmental pollutants. PMID:21425439

  6. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  7. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  8. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  9. Relationships among sediment chemistry, toxicity testing, and biology: What can large-scale monitoring teach us?

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Engle, V.D.; Malaeb, Z. [National Biological Service, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuarine Resources has collected sediments from over 1,000 varying locations in the estuaries of the United States. At each of these sites, sediments are analyzed for bulk chemistry, tested for toxicity to Ampelisca abdita, and enumerated regarding benthic community structure and abundance. In addition, tissue residues have been examined for selected fish and shellfish species and toxicity testing has been completed at selected sites for alternative species. The statistical and ecological relationships among these indicators have been examined with regard to how they can used to identify the overall ecological condition of a site, an estuary, or populations of estuaries. Comparisons of these relationships among different regions of the country show major differences in the modes of exposure and response being prevalent in the Southeast and Gulf Coasts as compared to the Mid-Atlantic and West Coasts. While the extent of sediment contamination in the Southeast and Gulf estuaries appears to be similar to that of the Mid-Atlantic and California Coasts, the degree of contamination at contaminated sites is much greater in Mid-Atlantic estuaries. An examination of the primary contaminants suggests that the primary sources of contamination in the Mid-Atlantic are industrial and urban while the Southeast and Gulf estuaries are dominated by agricultural contaminants.

  10. Acute toxicity of 31 different nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) tested in adulthood and in early life stages – comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, So?a

    2013-01-01

    At present, nanoparticles are beginning to influence our lives in many ways and understanding the environmental health and safety aspect of nanomaterials has become a crucial issue. The aim of the work was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of 31 different nanomaterials to fish mature individuals Danio rerio with that to fish early life stages on using evaluation of the 48- and 96- hour LC50 values. A further aim was to evaluate teratogenicity of the nanoparticles tested to fish eggs. The nanoparticles tested were: 8 pure metals, 10 metal oxides, 5 other metal compounds and their mixtures, 2 silicon compounds, 3 calcium compounds, and 3 carbon compounds. Using 48-h and 96-h tests of acute toxicity (according to OECD 203), we evaluated mortality data, LC50 values, occurrence of malformations, as well as hatching time. In our study, 6 kinds of nanoparticles – calcium oxide, copper, copper in the form of oxide and CuZnFe4O4, magnesium oxide, and nickel – caused cumulative mortality. Two kinds of nanoparticles – copper and silver – were toxic for fish with LC50 values of approximately 3 mg/L. We did not observe marked differences between the 48-hour and 96-hour acute toxicity LC50 values, yet the possibility to evaluate hatching time in the 96-h acute fish toxicity test seems to be an advantage against that of the 48-hour toxicity. PMID:24179431

  11. An evaluation of nickel toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna in a contaminated stream and in laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Taylor, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to document ambient toxicity in two industrially contaminated streams in southeastern Tennessee. Low survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia was linked to concentrations of Ni below EPA water quality criteria. A toxicity identification evaluation consisting of Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas toxicity tests with Ni, chemical analyses, and experiments with a Ni-selective resin were used to show that Ni was the primary toxicant in one of the streams. Nickel nitrate and Ni chloride were both extremely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia but were not very toxic to Pimephales promelas: Ni at a concentration of 7.5 [mu]g/l was lethal to Ceriodaphnia dubia within 7 d, but 16 mg/L Ni did not reduce survival or growth of Pimephales promelas. When dilution water with a hardness of 177 mg/L was used, 15.0 [mu]g/L killed all the Ceriodaphnia dubia in 7 d. Daphnia magna was less sensitive than Ceriodaphnia dubia to Ni: a concentration of 40 [mu]g/L significantly reduced fecundity but not survival in 21 d. In stream water containing 49 [mu]g/L Ni, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia dubia occurred in 7 d, but 70% of the Daphnia magna survived for 14 d. When the Ni in the stream water was reduced to 10 [mu]g/L with the resin, 60% of the Ceriodaphnia dubia lived for 7 d and all the animals reproduced; survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna remained high for all 14 d. Experiments with [sup 63]Ni showed that both species accumulated similar amounts of Ni, so the difference in toxicity was not a result of Ni uptake. The high sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Ni and the lower than expected reduction in Ni toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia with increasing hardness have important implications for effluent and ambient testing and toxicity reduction efforts.

  12. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  13. Design, construction and testing of a system for detection of toxic gases based on piezoelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Leyva, J A; de Cisneros, J L; de Barreda, D G; Becerra, A J

    1994-01-01

    A system for static operation of toxic gas sensors based on piezoelectric crystals was constructed as a preliminary step in the development of this type of sensor. The sensing part of the setup consists of a twin oscillating circuit assembled from commercially available electronic parts mounted on a motherboard. The oscillating circuits can accommodate two piezoelectric crystals, of which one or both can be coated with different materials, or a single one, as required. The sensing assembly (crystals plus oscillating circuits) is placed in a customized test chamber that allows one to control and reproduce its internal environment. Once assembled and fine-tuned, the proposed setup was used to test a commercially available piezoelectric crystal for sensing formaldehyde in order to expand available information on this type of sensor. PMID:18965902

  14. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

  15. Development of a formulated control sediment for use in whole-sediment toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kemble, N.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G. [National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center

    1994-12-31

    Because natural bottom sediments may be contaminated with toxicants, it is difficult to obtain a sediment that permits consistent, acceptable biological endpoints (i.e., survival, growth and reproduction) for a variety of species and allows the study of the effects of a single substance to aquatic organisms. Therefore, a formulated control sediment which simulates natural sediments conditions (i.e., particle size and chemical composition) is needed for use in whole-sediment toxicity testing. In an attempt to develop this sediment, two tests were conducted. The first evaluated 11 sources of organic carbon at 2 concentrations (2% and 10%) in a formulated control sediment for 10d. The second sediment test evaluated aging maple leaves (for use as an organic carbon source) for up to 14 days. Three treatments of aged maple leaves were used (1) leaves aged with rabbit manure, (2) leaves aged with cow manure, and (3) leaves without manure treatment. Manure was added to the system to increase the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and to aid in leaf degradation. Low dissolved oxygen concentrations in overlying water were observed in 8 of the 11 organic carbon sources. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were consistently low in organic carbon sources. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were consistently low in organic carbon sources. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were consistently low in both the 2% and 10% organic carbon levels of these 8 treatments. Hyalella azteca survival in the 10d organic carbon test was significantly greater in the cow manure exposures (both 2 and 10%) compared to all other organic carbon sources. Preliminary results suggest that aging leaves for two weeks may be an adequate procedure for development of a organic compound source for use in formulating sediment.

  16. [Twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity test of N-(fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide in rats].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Y; Tsuda, M; Naito, K; Saitoh, M; Isama, K; Ikarashi, Y; Kawasaki, Y; Momma, J; Kitajima, S; Kaniwa, M

    1995-01-01

    N-(Fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide (Fluor-folpet) has been widely used as an anti-mold and anti-bacterial agent. In this study, 28 days repeated-dose oral toxicity study of fluor-folpet was carried out in Slc:Wistar rats. An oral toxicity study for fluor-folpet, the twenty-eight days test, repeated-dose, oral administration, was performed as follows: Five week-old rats, male and female, 10 rats, each/group, were treated with intragastric administration of fluor-folpet with a dose of 0 (1% Sodium CMC, control), 20, 80 and 320 mg/kg, body weight. Recovery test, for 14 days after the last treatment, was examined for the control and the 320 mg/kg groups. The 320 mg/kg groups, both males and females, showed significantly reduced their body-weight gain compared with the control group. In the 320 mg/kg group, five out of 20 male rats and four out of 20 female rats died from dyspnea during the treatment period. In the female rats in the 320 mg/kg group, serum ChE level was decreased to 50% of control level and gamma-GT was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but these serum levels recovered after 14 days non-treatment period. No histopathological change, relating to the treatment, in liver was observed. Increased weight of the kidney and vacuolation in renal tubules were found in both sexes of 320 mg/kg group. Hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the stomach epithelium were observed at the dose more than 80 mg/kg in male, and more than 20 mg/kg in female. A supplemental study, repeated-dose, oral administration in rats carried out to examine the dyspnea revealed that severe acute toxic damages in epithelium of nasal cavity and meatus nasopharyngeus were induced by intragastric administration of fluor-folpet. Fluor-folpet is shown to be cytotoxic. In conclusion, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for fluor-folpet was not found under the experimental conditions employed in this repeated-dose toxicity study. PMID:8717224

  17. Short communication The sea urchin embryo as a model for studying

    E-print Network

    Short communication The sea urchin embryo as a model for studying efflux transporters: Roles the embryo from cyto- toxic drugs that can disrupt cell division or induce apoptosis. The energy cost and the sea urchin embryo as a convenient aquatic model organism; their combined use allows reproducible

  18. Toxicity testing of NCSRP priority substances for the development of soil quality criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Cureton, P.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch; Balch, G.; Lintott, D.; Poirrier, K.; Goudey, S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of 14 National Contaminated Sites Remediation Program (NCSRP) priority substances was measured on emergence and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus saliva) and on survival of the earthworm Eisenia foetida. The worm and seedling emergence tests were conducted in an artificial soil mixture composed of 10% peat moss, 20% kaolinite clay, and 70% silica sand (70 mesh) spiked with the contaminant. The root elongation tests were conducted on filter paper moistened with the contaminant solution. The following endpoints were derived on nominal and measured concentrations: NOEC, LOEC, the LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 25} for earthworm mortality and the EC{sub 50} and EC{sub 25} for emergence and root elongation. The contaminants tested included: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, vanadium, benzo(a)pyrene, cyanide, naphthalene, ethylene glycol, pentachlorophenol, and phenol. Each test was repeated three times using different batches of freshly prepared soil, seed lots and worm cultures. The authors will present the findings and discuss the application of toxicity test results in developing generic soil quality criteria.

  19. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    PubMed

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p?embryos. The ecotoxicological risk of black-odor rivers was demonstrated in urban area, which suggests bioassay is necessary for evaluation of water quality. In the present study, spatial and seasonal bioassay for toxicity of JS and SX provides a complete example for evaluation of urban rivers. PMID:24385189

  20. Does the survivorship of activated resting stages in toxic environments provide cues for ballast water treatment?

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Victor; Makrushin, Andrey; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of three inorganic metals (Cu, Cr, Hg), three organic (phenol, formalin, ammonium) chemicals, ozone-enriched water and peroxides (H2O2) on embryonic development were tested in 8 species from the Porifera, Bryozoa and Crustacea. Toxicants with lower molecular weight showed stronger negative impacts on post-diapause embryos than chemicals with higher molecular weight if related to the toxicity of the chemicals to active adult stages. Only few embryos of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and none of the cladoceran Wlassicsia pannonica treated with peroxides at concentration 0.3% developed further. Ozone-enriched water had no significant effect on post-diapause embryonic development in cladocerans. Ammonium (the product of NH4OH dissociation) in concentration 100 mg/l and higher killed all embryos of M. macrocopa inside protective membranes. Peroxides and ammonium are suggested for the purification of ship ballast waters as effective, non-expensive and non-persistent toxic chemicals. Resting stages of invertebrates including at least Crustaceans, Porifera and Bryozoa seem to allow not only dispersal among toxic industrial environments such as ship ballast compartments, but may also endure serious pollution events common in seaports and estuaries. Artemia cysts due to their strong protection against different toxic substances are recommended as a model for studies of toxic effects in diapausing stages in polluted estuaries and marine environments. PMID:20356608

  1. The role of chorion on toxicity of silver nanoparticles in the embryonic zebrafish assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to investigate how the size- and surface coating-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is influenced by the presence and absence of the chorion in an embryonic zebrafish assay. Methods Normal and dechorinated embryos were exposed to four different AgNPs, 20 or 110 nm in size, with polypyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate surface coatings in a standard zebrafish embryo medium (EM). This was then compared to a 62.5 ?M calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution where agglomeration was controlled. Results Embryonic toxicity in the absence of the chorion was greater than in its presence. The smaller 20 nm AgNPs were more toxic than the larger 110 nm AgNPs, regardless of the chorion and test media. However, surface coating affected toxicity, since PVPcoated AgNPs were more toxic than citrate-coated AgNPs; this was strongly affected by the presence of the chorion in both EM and CaCl2. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the permeability function of the chorion on the size- and surface coating-dependent toxicity of AgNPs. Thereafter, careful experiment should be conducted to assess nanoparticle toxicity in zebrafish embryos. PMID:25518841

  2. Development of site-specific sediment no-effect concentrations based on synoptic chemical analyses and toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sferra, J.; Barber, T.; Fuchsman, P. [ChemRisk, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sheehan, P. [ChemRisk, Alameda, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Site-specific maximum observed no-effect concentrations (MONECs) were developed using sediment chemistry and toxicity test data concomitantly collected from 33 sample locations in a river system adjacent to a RCRA facility in Ohio. Physical and chemical analyses included VOCs, SVOCs, metals, pesticides and PCBs, acid volatile sulfides and simultaneously extracted metals, ammonia, total organic carbon and grain size. Concentrations of hydrophobic, non-polar organic compounds were normalized to 1% total organic carbon contents, as the bioavailability of these compounds was considered to be primarily controlled by sediment organic carbon content through adsorption. Toxicity tests conducted using Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca were analyzed for impacts to survival and growth endpoints for both species. Samples were separated into two categories for each test endpoint, depending on whether toxicity was observed. MONECs were defined as the highest measured chemical concentration that did not produce a significant effect in toxicity tests. MONEC values were derived for each species and test endpoint, and the lowest of these four values was adopted as the site-specific MONEC for each chemical. Site-specific MONECs were used as a tool to assist in the identification of chemicals contributing to observed sediment toxicity.

  3. ABILITY OF STANDARD TOXICITY TESTS TO PREDICT THE EFFECTS OF THE INSECTICIDE DIFLUBENZURON ON LABORATORY STREAM COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors assessed the ability of a standard set of freshwater single species toxicity test to predict accurately effects of the insecticide diflubenzuron (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) on complex laboratory stream communities. The single-species tests complie...

  4. Proposal for a tiered approach to developmental toxicity testing for veterinary pharmaceutical products for food-producing animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Hurtt; G. D. Cappon; A. Browning

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish the safety of veterinary drug residues in human food, a number of toxicological evaluations are required, including the assessment of potential risks to development. In the light of the use of developmental toxicity testing for risk characterization, we evaluated whether conducting these tests in more than one species was redundant. Review of the published Summary Reports

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Protection Agency released peer reviewed results from the second phase of its independent toxicity testing on mixtures of eight oil dispersants with Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil. EPA conducted the tests as part of an effort to ensure that EPA decisions remain grounded ...

  6. Using a Sequence Homology-Based Predictive Strategy to Address Current Demands for Focused Toxicity Testing in Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of resources available for comprehensive toxicity testing, international interest in limiting the quantity of animals used in testing, and a mounting list of anthropogenic chemicals produced world-wide have led to the exploration of innovative means for identifying chemi...

  7. Results of in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity tests on methyl isocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Michael D.; Allen, James W.; Caspary, William J.; Haworth, Steven; Ivett, James; Kligerman, Andrew; Luke, Carol A.; Mason, James M.; Myhr, Brian; Tice, Raymond R.; Valencia, Ruby; Zeiger, Errol

    1987-01-01

    Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was tested for genetic toxicity in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Negative results were obtained in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using five bacterial strains in a preincubation protocol. The Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal test also gave negative results in studies that involved three routes of administration: inhalation, feeding, and injection. Positive results were obtained for three endpoints in cultured mammalian cells. Reproducible, dose-related increases in trifluorothymidine-resistant clones were induced in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and the frequencies of both SCE and chromosomal aberrations increased in Chinese hamster ovary cells. These effects were independent of exogenous metabolism. In mice exposed to methyl isocyanate by inhalation, cytogenetic analyses were carried out on bone marrow, blood, and lung cells. A single, 2-hr exposure to concentrations of 0, 3, 10, and 30 ppm MIC produced no evidence of chromosomal effects in the bone marrow, although significant cell cycle delay was observed. In four experiments involving exposures on 4 consecutive days to 0, 1, 3, or 6 ppm, delays in bone marrow cell cycle were again observed. Increases in SCE and chromosomal aberrations were observed in bone marrow cells, and a dose-related increase in SCE occurred in lung cells but not in peripheral blood lymphocytes. A significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood was observed in male mice in one experiment. From these results, it appears that methyl isocyanate has the capacity to affect chromosome structure but not to induce gene mutations. Furthermore, in vitro tests show that the induction of chromosomal effects is not dependent on an exogenous source of metabolism. Based on these results and on what is known about the binding of carbamoylating agents to cellular macromolecules, methyl isocyanate may exert its genetic toxicity by binding to nuclear proteins rather than by binding to DNA. PMID:3113932

  8. A field assessment of long-term laboratory sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Hayward, J.M.R.; Jones, J.R.; Jones, S.B.; Ireland, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Response of the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments for 10 to 42 d in laboratory toxicity tests was compared to responses observed in controlled three-month invertebrate colonization exposures conducted in a pond. Sediments evaluated included a sediment spiked with dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) or dilutions of a field sediment collected from the Grand Calumet River (GCR) in Indiana (USA) (contaminated with organic compounds and metals). Consistent effects were observed at the highest exposure concentrations (400 ??g DDD/goc [DDD concentrations normalized to grams of organic carbon (goc) in sedimentl or 4% GCR sediment) on survival, length, and reproduction of amphipods in the laboratory and on abundance of invertebrates colonizing sediments in the field. Effect concentrations for DDD observed for 10-d length and 42-d reproduction of amphipods (e.g., chronic value [ChV] of 66 ??g DDD/goc and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25] of 68 ??g DDD/goc for reproduction) were similar to the lowest effect concentrations for DDD measured on invertebrates colonizing sediment the field. Effect concentrations for GCR sediment on 28-d survival and length and 42-d reproduction and length of amphipods (i.e., ChVs of 0.20-0.66% GCR sediment) provided more conservative effect concentrations compared to 10-d survival or length of amphipods in the laboratory or the response of invertebrates colonizing sediment in the field (e.g., ChVs of 2.2% GCR sediment). Results of this study indicate that use of chronic laboratory toxicity tests with H. azteca and benthic colonization studies should be used to provide conservative estimates of impacts on benthic communities exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation of DDD by oligochaetes colonizing the DDD-spiked sediment was similar to results of laboratory sediment tests previously conducted with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegates, confirming that laboratory exposures can be used to estimate bioaccumulation by oligochaetes exposed in the field. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  9. Effects of several variables on whole effluent toxicity test performance and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, P.J.; Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Nakada, K.M.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Protocol changes and options contained within US Environmental Protection Agency whole effluent toxicity tests represent variables that have the potential to affect bioassay performance and interpretation of results. Variables evaluated in this study include: the change in allowable age in the Pimephales promelas acute bioassay from up to 90 d to a maximum of 14 d, age-specific acute responses of P. promelas among the allowable ages of 1 to 14 d, change in the chronic growth endpoint definition from final mass to biomass, differences between hemacytometer and fluorometer measurements in the Selenastrum capricornutum protocol, and options for statistical interpretation of species sensitivity in multiple test/species screening bioassays. Clear age-related sensitivity and precision differences were observed in acute responses of P. promelas. Results obtained using the younger age classes were typically more variable in studies of both 1- to 14-d-old and 14- to 90-d-old P. promelas. In the experiments on 1- to 14-d-old organisms, larvae at 1 d of age were significantly less sensitive. In the tests on 14- to 90-d-old organisms, the 14-d-old organisms were significantly less sensitive. The change in endpoint definition in the P. promelas chronic bioassay resulted in an apparent increase in toxic response in the inhibition concentration (ICp) value for each bioassay, evaluated by the biomass method, with no general improvement in statistical interest precision estimates and no predictable impact on the no-observed-effect concentration endpoint. Fluorometric scoring in the Selenastrum bioassay was significantly more precise and better capable of estimating counts than hemacytometer measurements. Discrepancies associated with commonly used statistical endpoints used to determine the most sensitive species were identified, and potential solutions were proposed.

  10. Microbial characterization of artificial sediment and comparisons with natural sediments--implications for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Goedkoop, Willem; Widenfalk, Anneli; Haglund, Ann-Louise; Steger, Kristin; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    The development and activity of microbiota in artificial sediment may have strong implications for the fate of test compounds and the outcome of toxicity tests. In this study, we compare a number of microbial variables in the artificial sediment commonly used in toxicity testing with that of natural sediments. Bacterial abundance of artificial sediment ranged 5.7 to 7.1 x 10(8) cells/g wet weight, which is about two orders of magnitude lower than values commonly reported for natural sediments. Similarly, alternative estimates of microbial biomass (sum of phospholipid fatty acid, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate) were several times lower for artificial sediment compared with natural sediment. Bacterial activity (3H-thymidine incorporation) ranged 4.0 to 7.4 pmol g(-1) h(-1) (or 0.062-0.113 microg C g(-1) h(-1)) in artificial sediments, which is low compared with values commonly reported for freshwater sediments. Community respiration in artificial sediment was 34 to 93 microg CO2 g(-1) d(-1). Bacterial community composition assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that natural bacterial communities appear to be more diverse than their counterparts in artificial sediment. The average similarity of the microbial communities obtained by this method was less than 40%, and different operational taxonomic units appeared to dominate the artificial and natural sediment, respectively. These results and supporting data from previous studies in natural sediments suggest that the artificial sediment has a poorly developed microbial component that differs substantially from that in natural sediments. PMID:16398106

  11. Metal toxicity and biodiversity in serpentine soils: application of bioassay tests and microarthropod index.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Menta, Cristina; Gardi, Ciro; Conti, Federica Delia

    2013-01-01

    Eco-toxicological or bioassay tests have been intensively discussed as tools for the evaluation of soil quality. Tests using soil organisms, including microarthropods and plants, allow direct estimates to be made of important soil characteristics and functions. In this study we compared the results obtained by two in vitro standard bioassays following ISO or OECD guidelines: (i) the short term-chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test using three different plant species Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Brassicaceae), and Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae) and (ii) the inhibition of reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola) by soil pollutants to investigate the toxicity of a serpentine soil present in the Italian Apennines, rich in heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, and Co. In addition, microarthropod communities were characterised to evaluate the effects of metal contents on the soil fauna in natural conditions. Abundances, Acari/Collembola ratio, biodiversity indices and the QBS-ar index were calculated. Our results demonstrate that the two in vitro tests distinguish differences correlated with metal and organic matter contents in four sub-sites within the serpentinite. Soil fauna characterisation, not previously performed on serpentine soils, revealed differences in the most vulnerable and adapted groups of microarthropods to soil among the four sub-sites: the microarthropod community was found to be rich in term of biodiversity in the sub-site characterised by a lower metal content and a higher organic matter content and vegetation. PMID:23107056

  12. Perspectives on Validation of High-Throughput Assays Supporting 21st Century Toxicity Testing1

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Richard; Kavlock, Robert; Martin, Matt; Reif, David; Houck, Keith; Knudsen, Thomas; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Whelan, Maurice; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher; Daston, George; Hartung, Thomas; Fowle, John R.; Wooge, William; Tong, Weida; Dix, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary In vitro, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are seeing increasing use in toxicity testing. HTS assays can simultaneously test many chemicals, but have seen limited use in the regulatory arena, in part because of the need to undergo rigorous, time-consuming formal validation. Here we discuss streamlining the validation process, specifically for prioritization applications in which HTS assays are used to identify a high-concern subset of a collection of chemicals. The high-concern chemicals could then be tested sooner rather than later in standard guideline bioassays. The streamlined validation process would continue to ensure the reliability and relevance of assays for this application. We discuss the following practical guidelines: (1) follow current validation practice to the extent possible and practical; (2) make increased use of reference compounds to better demonstrate assay reliability and relevance; (3) deemphasize the need for cross-laboratory testing, and; (4) implement a web-based, transparent and expedited peer review process. PMID:23338806

  13. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Henshel, D.S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  14. A Test of a Major-ion Toxicity Model to Predict the Toxicity of Coal Bed Methane Product Waters to Aquatic Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, M. B.; Meyer, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) accounts for about 7.5% of the total natural gas production in the United States, and the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Montana and Wyoming has recently become a major production area. During CBM extraction, a coal seam is partially de-watered to relieve hydraulic pressure, thus causing methane gas to desorb. Some of this water (called product water) is discharged on the land surface and allowed to run into local drainages in the PRB. Due to the massive amounts of product water being discharged (rates up to 64,000 L/day per well), studies are needed to examine the potential effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, models to predict such effects would be useful regulatory screening tools. To that end, we tested the ability of a multivariate logistic regression model of the toxicity of major inorganic ions (i.e., Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-) to predict the acute toxicity of CBM-related waters to two aquatic invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). First, we entered water chemistry data for several CBM product and receiving waters from the PRB into the major-ion model. Then we compared the model's predicted survival to the survival of the three species in toxicity tests we had previously conducted with those waters. For the majority of CBM product water and stream water samples in which CBM product water constituted the entire flow of the stream, the major-ion model consistently under-predicted survival by >50%. Therefore, from a regulatory standpoint, this model is conservative for detecting toxicity of CBM product waters (i.e., it over-predicts toxicity). Although the model appeared to be an excellent predictor of survival for receiving waters that contained no inputs from CBM processing (i.e., the difference between predicted and observed survival was <=10%), the majority of those cases were inconclusive tests of the model because the predicted and observed survival were either both >90% or both <10%. In such cases, it was not possible to test the accuracy of the regression coefficients in the major-ion model.

  15. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Horneck, G.

    In the 21 st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system reacts with a dose-dependent reduction of GFP-fluorescence. Currently, a fully automated miniaturized hardware system for the bacterial set up, which includes measurements of luminescence and fluorescence or absorption and the image analysis based evaluation is under development. During the first mission of the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-Test on the ISS, a standardized, DNA-damaging radiation source still to be determined will be used as a genotoxic inducer. A panel of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying either the SOS-LUX plasmid or the fluorescence-mediating lac-GFPuv plasmid will be used to determine in parallel on one microplate the genotoxic and the cytotoxic action of the applied radiation in combination with microgravity. Either in addition to or in place of the fluorometric measurements of the cytotoxic agents, photometric measurements will simultaneously monitor cell growth, giving additional data on survival of the cells. The obtained data will be available on line during the TRIPLE-LUX mission time. Though it is the main goal during the TRIPLE-LUX mission to measure the radiation effect in microgravity, the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test in principle is also applicable as a biomonitor for the detection and measurement of genotoxic substances in air or in the (recycled) water system on the ISS or on earth in general.

  16. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Interlaboratory evaluation of Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans short-term and long-term sediment toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norberg-King, T. J.; Sibley, P.K.; Burton, G.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Ireland, S.; Mount, D.R.; Rowland, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Methods for assessing the long-term toxicity of sediments to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans can significantly enhance the capacity to assess sublethal effects of contaminated sediments through multiple endpoints. Sublethal tests allow us to begin to understand the relationship between short-term and long-term effects for toxic sediments. We present an interlaboratory evaluation with long-term and 10-d tests using control and contaminated sediments in which we assess whether proposed and existing performance criteria (test acceptability criteria [TAC]) could be achieved. Laboratories became familiar with newly developed, long-term protocols by testing two control sediments in phase 1. In phase 2, the 10-d and long-term tests were examined with several sediments. Laboratories met the TACs, but results varied depending on the test organism, test duration, and endpoints. For the long-term tests in phase 1, 66 to 100% of the laboratories consistently met the TACs for survival, growth, or reproduction using H. azteca, and 70 to 100% of the laboratories met the TACs for survival and growth, emergence, reproduction, and hatchability using C. tentans. In phase 2, fewer laboratories participated in long-term tests: 71 to 88% of the laboratories met the TAC for H. azteca, whereas 50 to 67% met the TAC for C. tentans. In the 10-d tests with H. azteca and C. tentans, 82 and 88% of the laboratories met the TAC for survival, respectively, and 80% met the TAC for C. tentans growth. For the 10-d and long-term tests, laboratories predicted similar toxicity. Overall, the interlaboratory evaluation showed good precision of the methods, appropriate endpoints were incorporated into the test protocols, and tests effectively predicted the toxicity of sediments. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  18. Toxic effects of two pesticides, Imazalil and Triadimefon, on the early development of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Chordata, Ascidiacea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Pennati; Silvia Groppelli; Giuliana Zega; Maira Biggiogero; Fiorenza De Bernardi; Cristina Sotgia

    2006-01-01

    Azole compounds are fungicides used in agriculture and in clinical area and are suspected to produce craniofacial malformations in vertebrates. Toxicity tests on sperm viability, fertilization and embryogenesis of the solitary ascidian Phallusia mammillata were performed to evaluate the effects of two azole derivatives, Imazalil and Triadimefon. Ascidian (Chordata, Ascidiacea) embryos and larvae could provide biological criteria for seawater quality

  19. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Shor; W. D. Bostick; A. C. Coroneos; D. H. Bunch; L. V. Gibson; D. P. Hoffmann; J. L. Shoemaker

    1992-01-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200°C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack

  20. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Shor; W. D. Bostick; A. C. Coroneos; D. H. Bunch; L. V. Gibson; D. P. Hoffmann; J. L. Shoemaker

    1992-01-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures (1200°C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)). Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack