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Sample records for embryonic cortical cultures

  1. Duration of culture and sonic hedgehog signaling differentially specify PV versus SST cortical interneuron fates from embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Jennifer A.; Goldberg, Ethan M.; Maroof, Asif M.; Xu, Qing; Petros, Timothy J.; Anderson, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic cortical interneurons (cINs) consist of multiple subtypes that are involved in many cortical functions. They also have a remarkable capacity to migrate, survive and integrate into cortical circuitry after transplantation into postnatal cortex. These features have engendered considerable interest in generating distinct subgroups of interneurons from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for the study of interneuron fate and function, and for the development of cell-based therapies. Although advances have been made, the capacity to generate highly enriched pools of subgroup fate-committed interneuron progenitors from PSCs has remained elusive. Previous studies have suggested that the two main MGE-derived interneuron subgroups – those expressing somatostatin (SST) and those expressing parvalbumin (PV) – are specified in the MGE from Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors at higher or lower levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, respectively. To further explore the role of Shh and other factors in cIN fate determination, we generated a reporter line such that Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors express mCherry and postmitotic Lhx6-expressing MGE-derived interneurons express GFP. Manipulations of Shh exposure and time in culture influenced the subgroup fates of ESC-derived interneurons. Exposure to higher Shh levels, and collecting GFP-expressing precursors at 12 days in culture, resulted in the strongest enrichment for SST interneurons over those expressing PV, whereas the strongest enrichment for PV interneurons was produced by lower Shh and by collecting mCherry-expressing cells after 17 days in culture. These findings confirm that fate determination of cIN subgroups is crucially influenced by Shh signaling, and provide a system for the further study of interneuron fate and function. PMID:25804737

  2. Endogenous microglia regulate development of embryonic cortical precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Antony, Joseph M; Paquin, Annie; Nutt, Stephen L; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

    2011-03-01

    Microglia play important roles in the damaged or degenerating adult nervous system. However, the role of microglia in embryonic brain development is still largely uncharacterized. Here we show that microglia are present in regions of the developing brain that contain neural precursors from E11 onward. To determine whether these microglia are important for neural precursor maintenance or self-renewal, we cultured embryonic neural precursors from the cortex of PU.1(-/-) mice, which we show lack resident microglia during embryogenesis. Cell survival and neurogenesis were similar in cultures from PU.1(-/-) vs. PU.1(+/+) mice, but precursor proliferation and astrogenesis were both reduced. Cortical precursors depleted of microglia also displayed decreased precursor proliferation and astrogenesis, and these deficits could be rescued when microglia were added back to the cultures. Moreover, when the number of microglia present in cortical precursor cultures was increased above normal levels, astrogenesis but not neurogenesis was increased. Together these results demonstrate that microglia present within the embryonic neural precursor niche can regulate neural precursor development and suggest that alterations in microglial number as a consequence of genetic or pathological events could perturb neural development by directly affecting embryonic neural precursors. PMID:21259316

  3. Mouse Embryonic Retina Delivers Information Controlling Cortical Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bonetti, Ciro; Surace, Enrico Maria

    2010-01-01

    The relative contribution of extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms to cortical development is an intensely debated issue and an outstanding question in neurobiology. Currently, the emerging view is that interplay between intrinsic genetic mechanisms and extrinsic information shape different stages of cortical development [1]. Yet, whereas the intrinsic program of early neocortical developmental events has been at least in part decoded [2], the exact nature and impact of extrinsic signaling are still elusive and controversial. We found that in the mouse developing visual system, acute pharmacological inhibition of spontaneous retinal activity (retinal waves-RWs) during embryonic stages increase the rate of corticogenesis (cell cycle withdrawal). Furthermore, early perturbation of retinal spontaneous activity leads to changes of cortical layer structure at a later time point. These data suggest that mouse embryonic retina delivers long-distance information capable of modulating cell genesis in the developing visual cortex and that spontaneous activity is the candidate long-distance acting extrinsic cue mediating this process. In addition, these data may support spontaneous activity to be a general signal coordinating neurogenesis in other developing sensory pathways or areas of the central nervous system. PMID:21170332

  4. Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

  5. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  6. Morphometric assessment of toxicant induced neuronal degeneration in full and restricted contact co-cultures of embryonic cortical rat neurons and astrocytes: using m-Dinitrobezene as a model neurotoxicant.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Angela R; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-04-01

    With m-Dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) as a selected model neurotoxicant, we demonstrate how to assess neurotoxicity, using morphology based measurement of neurite degeneration, in a conventional "full-contact" and a modern "restricted-contact" co-culture of rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. In the "full-contact" co-culture, neurons and astrocytes in complete physical contact are "globally" exposed to m-DNB. A newly emergent "restricted-contact" co-culture is attained with a microfluidic device that polarizes neuron somas and neurites into separate compartments, and the neurite compartment is "selectively" exposed to m-DNB. Morphometric analysis of the neuronal area revealed that m-DNB exposure produced no significant change in mean neuronal cell area in "full-contact" co-cultures, whereas a significant decrease was observed for neuron monocultures. Neurite elaboration into a neurite exclusive compartment in a compartmentalized microfluidic device, for both monocultures (no astrocytes) and "restricted" co-cultures (astrocytes touching neurites), decreased with exposure to increasing concentrations of m-DNB, but the average neurite area was higher in co-cultures. By using co-culture systems that more closely approach biological and architectural complexities, and the directionality of exposure found in the brain, this study provides a methodological foundation for unraveling the role of physical contact between astrocytes and neurons in mitigating the toxic effects of chemicals such as m-DNB. PMID:25553915

  7. Morphometric Assessment of Toxicant Induced Neuronal Degeneration in Full and Restricted Contact Co-cultures of Embryonic Cortical Rat Neurons and Astrocytes: Using m-Dinitrobezene as a Model Neurotoxicant

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Angela R.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    With m-Dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) as a selected model neurotoxicant, we demonstrate how to assess neurotoxicity, using morphology based measurement of neurite degeneration, in a conventional “full-contact” and a modern “restricted-contact” co-culture of rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. In the “full-contact” co-culture, neurons and astrocytes in complete physical contact are “globally” exposed to m-DNB. A newly emergent “restricted-contact” co-culture is attained with a microfluidic device that polarizes neuron somas and neurites into separate compartments, and the neurite compartment is “selectively” exposed to m-DNB. Morphometric analysis of the neuronal area revealed that m-DNB exposure produced no significant change in mean neuronal cell area in “full-contact” co-cultures, whereas a significant decrease was observed for neuron monocultures. Neurite elaboration into a neurite exclusive compartment in a compartmentalized microfluidic device, for both monocultures (no astrocytes) and “restricted” co-cultures (astrocytes touching neurites), decreased with exposure to increasing concentrations of m-DNB, but the average neurite area was higher in co-cultures. By using co-culture systems that more closely approach biological and architectural complexities, and the directionality of exposure found in the brain, this study provides a methodological foundation for unraveling the role of physical contact between astrocytes and neurons in mitigating the toxic effects of chemicals such as m-DNB. PMID:25553915

  8. Development and Maturation of Embryonic Cortical Neurons Grafted into the Damaged Adult Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ballout, Nissrine; Frappé, Isabelle; Péron, Sophie; Jaber, Mohamed; Zibara, Kazem; Gaillard, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the human central nervous system can lead to devastating consequences due to its poor ability to self-repair. Neural transplantation aimed at replacing lost neurons and restore functional circuitry has proven to be a promising therapeutical avenue. We previously reported in adult rodent animal models with cortical lesions that grafted fetal cortical neurons could effectively re-establish specific patterns of projections and synapses. The current study was designed to provide a detailed characterization of the spatio-temporal in vivo development of fetal cortical transplanted cells within the lesioned adult motor cortex and their corresponding axonal projections. We show here that as early as 2 weeks after grafting, cortical neuroblasts transplanted into damaged adult motor cortex developed appropriate projections to cortical and subcortical targets. Grafted cells initially exhibited characteristics of immature neurons, which then differentiated into mature neurons with appropriate cortical phenotypes where most were glutamatergic and few were GABAergic. All cortical subtypes identified with the specific markers CTIP2, Cux1, FOXP2, and Tbr1 were generated after grafting as evidenced with BrdU co-labeling. The set of data provided here is of interest as it sets biological standards for future studies aimed at replacing fetal cells with embryonic stem cells as a source of cortical neurons. PMID:27536221

  9. FGF SIGNALING EXPANDS EMBRYONIC CORTICAL SURFACE AREA BY REGULATING NOTCH-DEPENDENT NEUROGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Brian G.; Lim, H. David; Breunig, Joshua J.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes regulating cortical surface area expansion during development and evolution are unknown. We show that loss of function of all Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FgfR) expressed at the earliest stages of cortical development causes severe deficits in surface area growth by embryonic day (E) 12.5 in the mouse. In FgfR mutants, accelerated production of neurons led to severe loss of radial progenitors and premature termination of neurogenesis. Nevertheless, these mutants showed remarkably little change in cortical layer structure. Birthdating experiments indicated that a greater proportion of layer fates was generated during early neurogenic stages, revealing that FgfR activity normally slows the temporal progression of cortical layer fates. Electroporation of a dominant negative FgfR at E11.5 increased cortical neurogenesis in normal mice—an effect that was blocked by simultaneous activation of the Notch pathway. Together with changes in the expression of Notch pathway genes in FgfR mutant embryos, these findings indicate that Notch lies downstream of FgfR signaling in the same pathway regulating cortical neurogenesis and begin to establish a mechanism for regulating cortical surface expansion. PMID:22031906

  10. Culturing murine embryonic organs: Pros, cons, tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Kathryn S; Bowles, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    There are three established techniques described for ex vivo culture of the early embryonic organs: filter culture, agar block culture and hanging drop culture. Each of these protocols has advantages and disadvantages; here we assess the merits of each approach. Agar block culture has a long history and has been well described. This method results in good embryonic organ morphology. Filter culture has been used to culture a number of different embryonic organs and there are a variety of filter choices available. The key disadvantage of agar-block and filter based culture is that the large amount of media required can make the approach expensive, especially if biologicals such as growth factors are necessary; in addition, using these methods it can be difficult to track particular samples. Hanging drop culture is most commonly used to enable the aggregation of embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies but it has also been employed for ex vivo organ culture. This method requires only 40μL of media per drop and isolates every organ to a trackable unit. We describe each of these methods and the use of different medias and provide the user with a matrix to help determine the optimal culture method for their needs. Glass-based culture methods required for live imaging are not discussed here. PMID:26988290

  11. Density gradient electrophoresis of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Giranda, V.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ground based confirmation of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of human embryonic kidney cell cultures, the general characterization of their electrophoretic migration, and observations on the general properties of cultures derived from electrophoretic subpopulations were studied. Cell migration in a density gradient electrophoresis column and cell electrophoretic mobility was determined. The mobility and heterogeneity of cultured human embryonic kidney cells with those of fixed rat erythrocytes as model test particle was compared. Electrophoretically separated cell subpopulations with respect to size, viability, and culture characteristics were examined.

  12. Cultured networks of excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons for studying human cortical neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Chong; Fan, Jing; Wang, Xueqing; Eacker, Stephen M; Kam, Tae-In; Chen, Li; Yin, Xiling; Zhu, Juehua; Chi, Zhikai; Jiang, Haisong; Chen, Rong; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2016-04-01

    Translating neuroprotective treatments from discovery in cell and animal models to the clinic has proven challenging. To reduce the gap between basic studies of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection and clinically relevant therapies, we developed a human cortical neuron culture system from human embryonic stem cells or human inducible pluripotent stem cells that generated both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks resembling the composition of the human cortex. This methodology used timed administration of retinoic acid to FOXG1(+)neural precursor cells leading to differentiation of neuronal populations representative of the six cortical layers with both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks that were functional and homeostatically stable. In human cortical neuronal cultures, excitotoxicity or ischemia due to oxygen and glucose deprivation led to cell death that was dependent onN-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, nitric oxide (NO), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (a cell death pathway called parthanatos that is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis, and other forms of cell death). Neuronal cell death was attenuated by PARP inhibitors that are currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment. This culture system provides a new platform for the study of human cortical neurotoxicity and suggests that PARP inhibitors may be useful for ameliorating excitotoxic and ischemic cell death in human neurons. PMID:27053772

  13. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  14. Immunodissection and culture of rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, W.S.; Sonnenburg, W.K.; Allen, M.L.; Arend, L.J.; Gerozissis, K.; Smith, W.L.

    1986-08-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody designated IgG3 (rct-30) has been prepared that reacts specifically with an antigen on the surface of all cells comprising the cortical and medullary rabbit renal collecting tubule including the arcades. Plastic culture dishes coated with IgG3 (rct-30) were used to isolate collecting tubule cells from collagenase dispersions of rabbit renal cortical cells by immunoadsorption. Typically, 10W rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT) cells were obtained from 5 g of renal cortex (2 kidneys). Between 20 and 30% of the RCCT cells were reactive with peanut lectin suggesting that RCCT cells are a mixture of principal and intercalated cells. Approximately 10X RCCT cells were obtained after 4 to 5 days in primary culture. Moreover, RCCT cells continued to proliferate after passaging with a doubling time of approx.32 h. RCCT cells passaged once and then cultured 4-5 days were found 1) to synthesize cAMP in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), isoproterenol, and parathyroid hormone, but not calcitonin, prostaglandin D2, or prostaglandin I, and 2) to release PGE2 in response to bradykinin but not arginine vasopressin or isoproterenol. The results indicate that cultured RCCT cells retain many of the hormonal, histochemical, and morphological properties expected for a mixture of principal and intercalated rabbit cortical collecting tubule epithelia. RCCT cells should prove useful both for studying hormonal interactions in the cortical collecting tubule and as a starting population for isolating intercalated collecting tubule epithelia.

  15. Increased Expression of GM1 Detected by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry in Rat Primary Embryonic Cortical Neurons Exposed to Glutamate Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Hee; Wang, Lynn; Pittock, Paula; Lajoie, Gilles; Whitehead, Shawn Narain

    2016-08-01

    Neurons within different brain regions have varying levels of vulnerability to external stress and respond differently to injury. A potential reason to explain this may lie within a key lipid class of the cell's plasma membrane called gangliosides. These glycosphingolipid species have been shown to play various roles in the maintenance of neuronal viability. The purpose of this study is to use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the temporal expression profiles of gangliosides during the course of neurodegeneration in rat primary cortical neurons exposed to glutamate toxicity. Primary embryonic (E18) rat cortical neurons were cultured to DIV (days in vitro) 14. Glutamate toxicity was induced for 1, 3, 6, and 24 h to injure and kill neurons. Immunofluorescence was used to stain for GM1 and GM3 species, and ESI-MS was used to quantify the ganglioside species expressed within these injured neurons. ESI-MS data revealed that GM1, GM2, and GM3 were up-regulated in neurons exposed to glutamate. Interestingly, using immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that the GM1 increase following glutamate exposure occurred in viable neurons, possibly indicating a potential intrinsic neuroprotective response. To test this potential neuroprotective property, neurons were pretreated with GM1 for 24 h prior to glutamate exposure. Pretreatment with GM1 conferred significant neuroprotection against glutamate-induced cell death. Overall, work from this study validates the use of ESI-MS for cell-derived gangliosides and supports the further development of lipid based strategies to protect against neuron cell death. PMID:27376483

  16. Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsal development in organ culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals were removed from embryos at 13 days of gestation and cultured in a defined, serum-free medium for up to 15 days. By histological analysis, we observe that the cultured pre-metatarsal tissue undergoes a similar developmental profile as pre-metatarsals growing normally in vivo. The initial mesenchyme condensation regions undergo differentiation and morphogenesis to form distinct rods made up of cartilage tissue. A marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of type II collagen. Metabolic labelling, pepsin digestion, SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography were used to demonstrate this protein when cartilage tissue is present in the cultures. After additional culture time, terminal chondrocyte differentiation and morphogenesis take place in specific regions of the cartilage rods to form bands of hypertrophied chondrocytes. One marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. We have measured the activity of this enzyme throughout the culture period and see a substantial increase at the time of terminal chondrocyte differentiation. Another feature of hypertrophied chondrocytes is that the matrix around the cells becomes calcified. Calcified matrix in our cultured pre-metatarsals was visualized by staining with alizarin red. By supplementing the defined culture medium with ITS, we observed that terminal chondrocyte differentiation took place in a shorter culture time. Supplementation of the medium with serum results in a similar acceleration of terminal differentiation, and, with additional culture time, an osteoid-like matrix forms around the central region of the rods.

  17. Urokinase production by electrophoretically separated cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.; Plank, L. D.; Giranda, V.; Sedor, K.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Urokinase is a plasminogen activator found in urine. Relatively pure preparations have been tested in Europe, Japan and the United States for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and other dangerous blood clots. Human embryonic kidney cell cultures have been found to produce urokinase at much higher concentrations, but less than 5% of the cells in typical cultures are producers. Since human diploid cells become senescent in culture the selection of clones derived from single cells will not provide enough material to be useful, so a bulk purification method is needed for the isolation of urokinase producing cell populations. Preparative cell electrophoresis was chosen as the method, since evidence exists that human embryonic cell cultures are richly heterogeneous with respect to electrophoretic mobility, and preliminary electrophoretic separations on the Apollo-Soyuz space flight produced cell populations that were rich in urokinase production. Similarly, erythropoietin is useful in the treatment of certain anemias and is a kidney cell duct, and electrophoretically enriched cell populations producing this product have been reported. Thus, there is a clear need for diploid human cells that produce these products, and there is evidence that such cells should be separable by free-flow cell electrophoresis.

  18. Neurotrophic effect of isoquinoline derivatives in primary cortical culture.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Y; Nakanishi, H; Yoshida, K

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, (+)-1-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline hydrochloride (FR 115427), enhanced neuronal survival in primary culture of cortical neurons from mouse embryos. In the present study isoquinoline derivatives were examined for the neurotrophic activity in primary culture of cortical neurons and were also examined for anti-NMDA activity. In spite of varying level of anti-NMDA activity, isoquinoline derivatives enhanced neuronal survival at the concentration of 10 microM. To elucidate of the mechanisms of neurotrophic activity in primary cortical culture, nicardipine and flunarizine, known calcium channel blockers, were also tested. Neither nicardipine nor flunarizine showed neurotrophic activity up to the doses causing toxicity in cultured neurons. NBQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist, was also tested for neurotrophic activity. However no enhancement of neuronal survival was observed. These data suggest that one of the mechanisms to promote neuronal survival may depend on the structure of isoquinoline ring. Moreover neurotrophic activity observed in our culture systems might not relate on anti-NMDA activity, blockade of voltage dependent L-type calcium channels and antagonization of AMPA receptor. PMID:10530799

  19. Cortical radial glia: identification in tissue culture and evidence for their transformation to astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Culican, S M; Baumrind, N L; Yamamoto, M; Pearlman, A L

    1990-02-01

    Radial glia are transiently present in the developing cerebral cortex, where they are thought to guide the migration of neurons from the proliferative zone to the forming cortical plate. To provide a framework for experimental studies of radial glia, we have defined morphological and immunocytochemical criteria to identify them in primary cultures of cortical cells obtained at embryonic day 13 in the mouse. Cortical radial glia in culture for 1-2 d resemble radial glia in vivo: they have a long, thin, unbranched process extending from one or both ends of the elongated cell body and are labeled with the monoclonal antibody RC1 but not with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (abGFAP). We tested the specificity of RC1 by double-labeling with a panel of cell-type specific antibodies, and found that it labels radial glia, astrocytes, and fibroblast-like cells, but not neurons. Fibroblasts are easily distinguished from glia by morphology and by labeling with antibodies to fibronectin. To test the hypothesis that radial glia become astrocytes when their developmental role is complete, we examined their morphological and immunocytochemical development in culture. After 3-4 d in vitro radial glia develop several branched processes; in this transitional stage they are labeled by both RC1 and abGFAP. Many radial glia lose RC1 immunoreactivity as they become increasingly branched and immunoreactive to abGFAP. In areas of the cultures that have few neurons and in cultures depleted of neurons by washing, flat, nonprocess-bearing glia predominate. These cells do not lose immunoreactivity to RC1 during the 9-d period of observation even though they acquire GFAP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2303868

  20. Mineralization and growth of cultured embryonic skeletal tissue in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity provides a unique environment in which to study normal and pathological phenomenon. Very few studies have been done to examine the effects of microgravity on developing skeletal tissue such as growth plate formation and maintenance, elongation of bone primordia, or the mineralization of growth plate cartilage. Embryonic mouse premetatarsal triads were cultured on three space shuttle flights to study cartilage growth, differentiation, and mineralization, in a microgravity environment. The premetatarsal triads that were cultured in microgravity all formed cartilage rods and grew in length. However, the premetatarsal cartilage rods cultured in microgravity grew less in length than the ground control cartilage rods. Terminal chondrocyte differentiation also occurred during culture in microgravity, as well as in the ground controls, and the matrix around the hypertrophied chondrocytes was capable of mineralizing in both groups. The same percentage of premetatarsals mineralized in the microgravity cultures as mineralized in the ground control cultures. In addition, the sizes of the mineralized areas between the two groups were very similar. However, the amount of 45Ca incorporated into the mineralized areas was significantly lower in the microgravity cultures, suggesting that the composition or density of the mineralized regions was compromised in microgravity. There was no significant difference in the amount of 45Ca liberated from prelabeled explants in microgravity or in the ground controls.

  1. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  2. Inhibitory neurons modulate spontaneous signaling in cultured cortical neurons: density-dependent regulation of excitatory neuronal signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Michael; Guaraldi, Mary; Shea, Thomas B.

    2010-06-01

    Cortical neuronal activity depends on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences. Culturing of neurons on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) has provided insight into the development and maintenance of neuronal networks. Herein, we seeded MEAs with murine embryonic cortical/hippocampal neurons at different densities (<150 or >1000 cells mm-2) and monitored resultant spontaneous signaling. Sparsely seeded cultures displayed a large number of bipolar, rapid, high-amplitude individual signals with no apparent temporal regularity. By contrast, densely seeded cultures instead displayed clusters of signals at regular intervals. These patterns were observed even within thinner and thicker areas of the same culture. GABAergic neurons (25% of total neurons in our cultures) mediated the differential signal patterns observed above, since addition of the inhibitory antagonist bicuculline to dense cultures and hippocampal slice cultures induced the signal pattern characteristic of sparse cultures. Sparsely seeded cultures likely lacked sufficient inhibitory neurons to modulate excitatory activity. Differential seeding of MEAs can provide a unique model for analyses of pertubation in the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory function during aging and neuropathological conditions where dysregulation of GABAergic neurons is a significant component.

  3. [Effects of different culture system of isolating and passage of sheep embryonic stem-like cells].

    PubMed

    Bai, Changming; Liu, Chousheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xinzhuang

    2008-07-01

    In this research, we use mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layers. To eliminate the influence of serum and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) conditioned medium (ESCCM) on self-renewal of sheep embryonic stem-like cells, knockout serum replacement (KSR) was used to replace serum, then supplanted with ESCCM for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells. We found when inner cell masses (ICMs) cultured in the control group with medium supplanted with fetal bovine serum (FBS), sheep ES-like cells could not survive for more than 3 passages. However, sheep embryonic stem-like cells could remain undifferentiated for 5 passages when cultured in the medium that FBS was substituted by KSR. The result indicates that KSR culture system was more suitable for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells compared to FBS culture system. Finally we applied medium with 15% KSR as basic medium supplanted with 40% ESCCM as a new culture system to isolate sheep embryonic stem-like cells, we found one embryonic stem-like cell line still maintained undifferentiating for 8 passages, which characterized with a normal and stable karyotype and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that it is suitable to culture sheep ICM in the new culture system with 15% KSR as basic medium and supplanted with 40% ESCCM, which indicated that mouse ES cells might secrete factors playing important roles in promoting sheep ES-like cells' self-renewal. PMID:18837407

  4. The effects of simulated microgravity on cultured chicken embryonic chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, X. B.; Yang, S. Z.; Li, S. G.; Jiang, P. D.; Lin, Z. H.

    2003-10-01

    Using the cultured chicken embryonic chondrocytes as a model, the effects of simulated microgravity on the microtubular system of the cellular skeleton, extracellular matrix, alkaline phosphatase activity, intracellular free calcium concentration and mitochondrial ATP synthase activity with its oligomycin inhibition rate were studied with a clinostat. The microtubular content was measured by a flow cytometer. The decrease of microtubular content showed the impairment of the cellular skeleton system. Observation on the extracellualr matrix by the scanning electron microscopy showed that it decreased significantly after rotating, and the fibers in the extracellular matrix were more tiny and disorderly than that of the control group. It can be concluded that the simulated microgravity can affect the secreting and assembly of the extracellular matrix. In contrast to the control, there was a time course decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity of chondrocytes, a marker of matrix mineralization. Meanwhile a significant drop in the intracellular calcium concentration happened at the beginning of rotation. These results indicate that simulated microgravity can suppress matrix calcification of cultured chondrocytes, and intracellular free calcium may be involved in the regulation of matrix calcification as the second signal transmitter. No significant changes happened in the mitochondrial ATP synthase activity and its oligomycin inhibition rate. Perhaps the energy metabolism wasn't affected by the simulated microgravity. The possible mechanisms about them were discussed.

  5. Minocycline Attenuates Iron Neurotoxicity in Cortical Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Roetling, Jing; Chen, Lifen; Regan, Raymond F.

    2009-01-01

    Iron neurotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The tetracycline derivative minocycline is protective in ICH models, due putatively to inhibition of microglial activation. Although minocycline also chelates iron, its effect on iron neurotoxicity has not been reported, and was examined in this study. Cortical cultures treated with 10 μM ferrous sulfate for 24h sustained loss of most neurons and an increase in malondialdehyde. Minocycline prevented this injury, with near-complete protection at 30 μM. Two other inhibitors of microglial activation, doxycycline and macrophage/microglia inhibitory factor, were ineffective. Oxidation of isolated culture membranes by iron was also inhibited by minocycline. Consistent with prior observations, minocycline chelated iron in a siderophore colorometric assay; at concentrations less than 100 μM, its activity exceeded that of deferoxamine. These results suggest that attenuation of iron neurotoxicity may contribute to the beneficial effect of minocycline in hemorrhagic stroke and other CNS injury models. PMID:19523448

  6. Study of Pluripotency Markers in Zebrafish Embryos and Transient Embryonic Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Vanesa; Martí, Mercé

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Targeted genomic manipulation using embryonic stem (ES) cells has not yet been achieved in zebrafish, although methods for zebrafish ES cell culture has been described in literature. The knowledge of pluripotency markers in this species is almost nonexistent and this is a very limiting factor in the definition of the ideal culture conditions for ES cells. Here, we studied the expression of several genes associated with pluripotency in zebrafish embryonic cells versus differentiated cells and the expression of some of these genes is recorded throughout embryonic development. Some of the commonly accepted pluripotency markers are also tested in embryonic cells, transient embryonic cell cultures, and differentiated cells. Our results support the hypothesis that stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1) is a marker that precedes the expression of pluripotency genes in a zebrafish embryonic cell colony, in the same way that SOX2 precedes nestin expression in those colonies that have already started differentiation toward neurons. We consider this study a step forward in the knowledge of zebrafish pluripotency markers and, therefore, an important tool for the monitoring of zebrafish embryonic cell cultures. PMID:21563922

  7. Adherence of Bilophila wadsworthia to cultured human embryonic intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, S H; Garcia, M M; Wexler, H M; Finegold, S M

    1998-02-01

    Adherence of Bilophila wadsworthia to the cultured human embryonic intestinal cell line, Intestine 407 (Int 407), varied among the strains tested from strongly adherent (76-100% cells positive for one or more adherent bacteria) to non- or weakly adherent (0-25% positive cells). Although negative staining revealed that infrequent cells of an adherent strain, WAL 9077, the adherent type-strain, WAL 7959, and a non-adherent strain, WAL 8448, expressed loosely associated fimbrial structures, a role for these structures in adhesion could not be confirmed with either scanning or thin-section electron micrography. Ruthenium red staining of thin-section preparations and subsequent electron microscopy failed to reveal an extensive extracellular polysaccharide layer. SDS-PAGE analysis of crude outer membrane fractions of WAL 9077 and WAL 8448 demonstrated clear differences in their major and minor outer membrane protein components. Thus, we postulate that the adherence of B. wadsworthia to Int 407 cells is mediated by an outer membrane or cell wall component. PMID:16887620

  8. Signal transfer within a cultured asymmetric cortical neuron circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Takuya; Shimba, Kenta; Takayama, Yuzo; Takeuchi, Akimasa; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Simplified neuronal circuits are required for investigating information representation in nervous systems and for validating theoretical neural network models. Here, we developed patterned neuronal circuits using micro fabricated devices, comprising a micro-well array bonded to a microelectrode-array substrate. Approach. The micro-well array consisted of micrometre-scale wells connected by tunnels, all contained within a silicone slab called a micro-chamber. The design of the micro-chamber confined somata to the wells and allowed axons to grow through the tunnels bidirectionally but with a designed, unidirectional bias. We guided axons into the point of the arrow structure where one of the two tunnel entrances is located, making that the preferred direction. Main results. When rat cortical neurons were cultured in the wells, their axons grew through the tunnels and connected to neurons in adjoining wells. Unidirectional burst transfers and other asymmetric signal-propagation phenomena were observed via the substrate-embedded electrodes. Seventy-nine percent of burst transfers were in the forward direction. We also observed rapid propagation of activity from sites of local electrical stimulation, and significant effects of inhibitory synapse blockade on bursting activity. Significance. These results suggest that this simple, substrate-controlled neuronal circuit can be applied to develop in vitro models of the function of cortical microcircuits or deep neural networks, better to elucidate the laws governing the dynamics of neuronal networks.

  9. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the

  10. Magnetic field-magnetic nanoparticle culture system used to grow in vitro murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Erika Regina Leal; Soares, Paula Roberta Otaviano; de Santos, Rachel Paula; dos Santos, Regiane Lopes; Porfírio, Elaine Paulucio; Báo, Sônia N; Lima, Emília Celma Oliveira; Guillo, Lídia Andreu

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro growth of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is usually obtained in the presence of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), but new methods for in vitro expansion of ESCs should be developed due to their potential clinical use. This study aims to establish a culture system to expand and maintain ESCs in the absence of MEF by using murine embryonic stem cells (mECS) as a model of embryonic stem cell. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for growing mESCs in the presence of an external magnetic field, creating the magnetic field-magnetic nanoparticle (MF-MNP) culture system. The growth characteristics were evaluated showing a doubling time slightly higher for mESCs cultivated in the presence of the system than in the presence of the MEF. The undifferentiated state was characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, alkaline phosphatase activity and electron microscopy. Murine embryonic stem cells cultivated in presence of the MF-MNP culture system exhibited Oct-4 and Nanog expression and high alkaline phosphatase activity. Ultrastructural morphology showed that the MF-MNP culture system did not interfere with processes that cause structural changes in the cytoplasm or nucleus. The MF-MNP culture system provides a tool for in vitro expansion of mESCs and could contribute to studies that aim the therapeutic use of embryonic stem cells. PMID:21446404

  11. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  12. Hierarchical Interaction Structure of Neural Activities in Cortical Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gustavo S.; Gireesh, Elakkat D.; Plenz, Dietmar; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of neuronal activities suggest that the instantaneous activity patterns can be mostly explained by considering only first-order and pairwise interactions between recorded elements, i.e., action potentials or local field potentials (LFP), and do not require higher-than-pairwise-order interactions. If generally applicable, this pairwise approach greatly simplifies the description of network interactions. However, an important question remains: are the recorded elements the units of interaction that best describe neuronal activity patterns? To explore this, we recorded spontaneous LFP peak activities in cortical organotypic cultures using planar, integrated 60-microelectrode arrays. We compared predictions obtained using a pairwise approach with those using a hierarchical approach that uses two different spatial units for describing the activity interactions: single electrodes and electrode clusters. In this hierarchical model, short-range interactions within each cluster were modeled by pairwise interactions of electrode activities and long-range interactions were modeled by pairwise interactions of cluster activities. Despite the relatively low number of parameters used, the hierarchical model provided a more accurate description of the activity patterns than the pairwise model when applied to ensembles of 10 electrodes. Furthermore, the hierarchical model was successfully applied to a larger-scale data of ~60 electrodes. Electrode activities within clusters were highly correlated and spatially contiguous. In contrast, long-range interactions were diffuse, suggesting the presence of higher-than-pairwise-order interactions involved in the LFP peak activities. Thus, the identification of appropriate units of interaction may allow for the successful characterization of neuronal activities in large-scale networks. PMID:20592194

  13. Membrane particle aggregates in innervated and noninnervated cultures of Xenopus embryonic muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, H B; Nakajima, Y

    1978-01-01

    Clusters of membrane particle aggregates were found in the cultures of Xenopus embryonic muscle cells. In innervated cultures, the aggregates were usually found in the vicinity of the nerve. In terms of particle density and morphology, they resembled the postsynaptic particle aggregates of adult skeletal muscle fibers, suggesting that they may be related to acetylcholine receptors. Similar particle aggregates were also found in noninnervated cultures. They may correspond to extrajunctional clusters of acetylcholine receptors or "hot spots." Images PMID:272667

  14. Effect of quercetine on survival and morphological properties of cultured embryonic rat spinal motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Ternaux, Jean-Pierre; Portalier, Paule

    2002-10-25

    Quercetine a flavonoid compound present in many plants and in the extract of Ginkgo biloba was shown to enhance the survival of purified rat spinal embryonic motoneurones, sampled at day embryonic 15 and maintained in culture for several days. Survival of embryonic spinal motoneurones is dose dependent and concentrations of quercetine ranging from 1 to 10 microM increase by 25% the number of living motoneurones in the culture. Excepted a slight significant decrease in the number of branches at day 3 and a small reduction of total neuritic length, no drastic changes in the motoneurones morphologies were observed in presence of quercetine. Results are discussed in term of neuronal protective effect of quercetine. PMID:12377378

  15. The culture of human embryonic stem cells in microchannel perfusion bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korin, Natanel; Bransky, Avishay; Dinnar, Uri; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2007-12-01

    The culture of human Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in microchannel bioreactors can be highly beneficial for ES cell biology studies and ES tissue engineering applications. In the present study we examine the use of Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) cells as feeder cells for human ES culture in a microchannel perfusion bioreactor. PDMS microchannels (depth:130 micron) were fabricated using conventional soft-lithography techniques. The channels were sterilized, coated with a human fibronectin solution and seeded with cells. Following a period of static incubation, culture medium was perfused through the channels at various flow rates and cell growth was monitored throughout the culture process. Mass transport and fluid mechanics models were used to evaluate the culture conditions (shear stress, oxygen levels within the micro-bioreactor as a function of the medium flow rate. The conditions for successful long-term culture (>7 days) of HFF under flow were established. Experiments with human embryonic stem cells cultured in microchannels show that the conditions essential to co-culture human ES cell on HFF cells under perfusion differ from the conditions necessary for HFF cell culture. Human ES cells were found to be highly sensitive to flow and culture conditions and did not grow under flow rates which were suitable for HFF long-term culture. Successful culture of undifferentiated human ES cell colonies in a perfusion micro-bioreactor is a basic step towards utilizing microfluidic techniques to explore stem cell biology.

  16. Lectin-based Isolation and Culture of Mouse Embryonic Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Rebecca; Jablonka, Sibylle; Sczepan, Teresa; Sendtner, Michael; Wiese, Stefan; Klausmeyer, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Spinal motoneurons develop towards postmitotic stages through early embryonic nervous system development and subsequently grow out dendrites and axons. Neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube that express Nkx6.1 are the unique precursor cells for spinal motoneurons1. Though postmitotic motoneurons move towards their final position and organize themselves into columns along the spinal tract2,3. More than 90% of all these differentiated and positioned motoneurons express the transcription factors Islet 1/2. They innervate the muscles of the limbs as well as those of the body and the inner organs. Among others, motoneurons typically express the high affinity receptors for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), the tropomyosin-related kinase B and C (TrkB, TrkC). They do not express the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA)4. Beside the two high affinity receptors, motoneurons do express the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. The p75NTR can bind all neurotrophins with similar but lower affinity to all neurotrophins than the high affinity receptors would bind the mature neurotrophins. Within the embryonic spinal cord, the p75NTR is exclusively expressed by the spinal motoneurons5. This has been used to develop motoneuron isolation techniques to purify the cells from the vast majority of surrounding cells6. Isolating motoneurons with the help of specific antibodies (panning) against the extracellular domains of p75NTR has turned out to be an expensive method as the amount of antibody used for a single experiment is high due to the size of the plate used for panning. A much more economical alternative is the use of lectin. Lectin has been shown to specifically bind to p75NTR as well7. The following method describes an alternative technique using wheat germ agglutinin for a preplating procedure instead of the p75NTR antibody. The lectin is an extremely inexpensive alternative to the p75NTR antibody and the purification grades using

  17. EMBRYONIC PALATAL RESPONSES TO TERATOGENS IN SERUM-FREE ORGAN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines development of rat, mouse and human embryonic palates in submerged, serum-free organ culture. he concentration-response profiles for retinoic acid (RA), triamcinolone (TRI), hydrocortisone (HC), dexamethasone (DEX), and 2,3,7,11- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (T...

  18. Effect of passage number on electrophoretic mobility distributions of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic investigation was undertaken to characterize population shifts that occur in cultured human embryonic kidney cells as a function of passage number in vitro after original explantation. This approach to cell population shift analysis follows the suggestion of Mehreshi, Klein and Revesz that perturbed cell populations can be characterized by electrophoretic mobility distributions if they contain subpopulations with different electrophoretic mobilities. It was shown that this is the case with early passage cultured human embryo cells.

  19. Cultured embryonic chick skeletal muscle cells contain specific receptors for a myotrophic factor identified as neutrotransferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Stamotos, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured embryonic chick myotubes require iron during proliferation and differentiation. Ovotransferrin (OvoTF), the iron-binding protein of egg white, produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of myogenesis, as evaluated by a sensitive quantitative bioassay for acetylcholine receptors. Neurotransferrin, a myotrophic protein isolated from adult chicken sciatic nerve, is immunologically and physiologically very similar, if not identical, to OvoTf. Cultured embryonic chick spinal cord neurons were metabolically labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine, homogenized and subjected to immunoprecipitation with antibody against neurotransferrin. The authors demonstrated that neuronal cell enriched cultures synthesize and secrete neurotransferrin. The binding of OvoTf to cultured myotubes is specific, saturated at a concentration of 80 nM OvoTf and reversible. Binding of OvoTf to cultured myotubes occurs at 4/sup 0/C and at 37/sup 0/C. Internalization studies using /sup 125/I-ovotransferrin or /sup 55/Fe-OvoTf suggested that OvoTf is internalized, depleted of iron and then recycled intact to the extracellular milieu. Autoradiography of muscle cell cultures incubated with /sup 125/I-OvoTf revealed clusters of OvoTf receptors along the surface of the myotubes. Electron microscopy autoradiography of myotubes incubated with /sup 55/Fe-OvoTf showed that iron delivered by OvoTf is rapidly distributed throughout the cell. The results of the studies suggest that neurotransferrin may play a critical role during in vivo embryonic chick skeletal muscle development.

  20. Generation of Sheffield (Shef) human embryonic stem cell lines using a microdrop culture system.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Behrouz; Ruban, Ludmila; Shamsuddin, Shamsul; Baker, Duncan; Andrews, Peter; Moore, Harry

    2010-04-01

    The conventional method for the derivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) involves inner cell mass (ICM) co-culture with a feeder layer of inactivated mouse or human embryonic fibroblasts in an in vitro fertilisation culture dish. Growth factors potentially involved in primary derivation of hESCs may be lost or diluted in such a system. We established a microdrop method which maintained feeder cells and efficiently generated hESCs. Embryos were donated for stem cell research after fully informed patient consent. A feeder cell layer was made by incubating inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) feeder cells in a 50 microl drop of medium (DMEM/10% foetal calf serum) under mineral oil in a small tissue culture dish. MEFs formed a confluent layer and medium was replaced with human embryonic stem medium supplemented with 10% Plasmanate (Bayer) and incubated overnight. Cryopreserved embryos were thawed and cultured until the blastocyst stage and the zona pellucida removed with pronase (2 mg/ml; Calbiochem). A zona-free intact blastocyst was placed in the feeder microdrop and monitored for ES derivation with medium changed every 2-3 d. Proliferating hESCs were passaged into other feeder drops and standard feeder preparation by manual dissection until a stable cell line was established. Six hESC lines (Shef 3-8) were derived. From a total of 46 blastocysts (early to expanded), five hESC lines were generated (Shef 3-7). Shef 3-6 were generated on MEFs from 25 blastocysts. Shef7 was generated on human foetal gonadal embryonic fibroblasts from a further 21 blastocysts. From our experience, microdrop technique is more efficient than conventional method for derivation of hESCs and it is much easier to monitor early hESC derivation. The microdrop method lends itself to good manufacturing practice derivation of hESCs. PMID:20224972

  1. Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of Xenopus laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ng-Sui-Hing, Ng-Kwet-Leok A.; Rabe, Brian A.; Lewis, Brittany B.; Saha, Margaret S.

    2012-01-01

    The process by which the anterior region of the neural plate gives rise to the vertebrate retina continues to be a major focus of both clinical and basic research. In addition to the obvious medical relevance for understanding and treating retinal disease, the development of the vertebrate retina continues to serve as an important and elegant model system for understanding neuronal cell type determination and differentiation1-16. The neural retina consists of six discrete cell types (ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and Müller glial cells) arranged in stereotypical layers, a pattern that is largely conserved among all vertebrates 12,14-18. While studying the retina in the intact developing embryo is clearly required for understanding how this complex organ develops from a protrusion of the forebrain into a layered structure, there are many questions that benefit from employing approaches using primary cell culture of presumptive retinal cells 7,19-23. For example, analyzing cells from tissues removed and dissociated at different stages allows one to discern the state of specification of individual cells at different developmental stages, that is, the fate of the cells in the absence of interactions with neighboring tissues 8,19-22,24-33. Primary cell culture also allows the investigator to treat the culture with specific reagents and analyze the results on a single cell level 5,8,21,24,27-30,33-39. Xenopus laevis, a classic model system for the study of early neural development 19,27,29,31-32,40-42, serves as a particularly suitable system for retinal primary cell culture 10,38,43-45. Presumptive retinal tissue is accessible from the earliest stages of development, immediately following neural induction 25,38,43. In addition, given that each cell in the embryo contains a supply of yolk, retinal cells can be cultured in a very simple defined media consisting of a buffered salt solution, thus removing the confounding effects of

  2. Dissection, culture, and analysis of Xenopus laevis embryonic retinal tissue.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Molly J; Allen, Chelsea E; Ng-Sui-Hing, Ng-Kwet-Leok A; Rabe, Brian A; Lewis, Brittany B; Saha, Margaret S

    2012-01-01

    The process by which the anterior region of the neural plate gives rise to the vertebrate retina continues to be a major focus of both clinical and basic research. In addition to the obvious medical relevance for understanding and treating retinal disease, the development of the vertebrate retina continues to serve as an important and elegant model system for understanding neuronal cell type determination and differentiation(1-16). The neural retina consists of six discrete cell types (ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and Müller glial cells) arranged in stereotypical layers, a pattern that is largely conserved among all vertebrates (12,14-18). While studying the retina in the intact developing embryo is clearly required for understanding how this complex organ develops from a protrusion of the forebrain into a layered structure, there are many questions that benefit from employing approaches using primary cell culture of presumptive retinal cells (7,19-23). For example, analyzing cells from tissues removed and dissociated at different stages allows one to discern the state of specification of individual cells at different developmental stages, that is, the fate of the cells in the absence of interactions with neighboring tissues (8,19-22,24-33). Primary cell culture also allows the investigator to treat the culture with specific reagents and analyze the results on a single cell level (5,8,21,24,27-30,33-39). Xenopus laevis, a classic model system for the study of early neural development (19,27,29,31-32,40-42), serves as a particularly suitable system for retinal primary cell culture (10,38,43-45). Presumptive retinal tissue is accessible from the earliest stages of development, immediately following neural induction (25,38,43). In addition, given that each cell in the embryo contains a supply of yolk, retinal cells can be cultured in a very simple defined media consisting of a buffered salt solution, thus removing the confounding

  3. Electrophoretic mobilities of cultured human embryonic kidney cells in various buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Data on the electrophoretic mobility distributions of cells in the new D-1 buffer and the interlaboratory standardization of urokinase assay methods are presented. A table of cell strains and recent data on cell dispersal methods are also included. It was decided that glycerol in A-1 electrophoretic mobility data on cultured human embryonic kidney cells subjected to electrophoresis in this buffer. The buffer composition is presented.

  4. [Penetration of polyene antibiotics into human embryonic kidney tissue cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, L S; Sokolov, V N; Vaĭnshteĭn, V A; Diment, A V; Tereshin, I M

    1977-12-01

    Penetration of 14C-amphotericin AM-2 into the cells of the tissue culture of the human embryon kidneys was studied by means of light autoradiography after incubation with the antibiotic. Microscopic examination of the autographs of the cell slices revealed the presence of the radioactive label in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the cells. The revealed intracellular localization of the label was evident of the antibiotic penetration into the cells. PMID:596858

  5. Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor in mouse embryonic stem cell culture and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Laura C; Fitzsimmons, Ross; Lee, Poh; Krawetz, Roman; Rancourt, Derrick E; Uludağ, Hasan

    2013-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells are actively explored as a cell source in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involving bone repair. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been a valuable growth factor to support the culture of human stem cells as well as their osteogenic differentiation, but the influence of bFGF on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells is not known. Towards this goal, D3 cells were treated with bFGF during maintenance conditions and during spontaneous and osteogenic differentiation. In feeder-free monolayers, up to 40 ng/ml of exogenous bFGF did not support self-renewal of mES without LIF during cell expansion. During spontaneous differentiation in high-density cultures, bFGF stimulated cell proliferation under certain conditions but did not influence differentiation, as judged by stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 expression. The addition of bFGF reduced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity associated with osteoblast activity during differentiation induced by osteogenic supplements, although the extent of mineralization was unaffected by bFGF. The bFGF increased the mesenchymal stem cell marker Sca-1 in an mES cell population and led to an enhanced increase in osteocalcin and runx2 expression in combination with BMP-2. These results suggest that bFGF could be utilized to expand the cell population in high-density cultures in addition to enriching the BMP-2 responsiveness of mES cells. PMID:22674886

  6. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in cultured rat cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Takadera, Tsuneo . E-mail: t-takadera@hokuriku-u.ac.jp; Ishida, Akira; Ohyashiki, Takao

    2006-01-15

    Recent data suggest that anesthetic drugs cause neurodegeneration during development. Ketamine is frequently used in infants and toddlers for elective surgeries. The purpose of this study is to determine whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is involved in ketamine-induced apoptosis. Ketamine increased apoptotic cell death with morphological changes which were characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation or fragmentation. In addition, insulin growth factor-1 completely blocked the ketamine-induced apoptotic cell death. Ketamine decreased Akt phosphorylation. GSK-3 is known as a downstream target of Akt. The selective inhibitors of GSK-3 prevented the ketamine-induced apoptosis. Moreover, caspase-3 activation was accompanied by the ketamine-induced cell death and inhibited by the GSK-3 inhibitors. These results suggest that activation of GSK-3 is involved in ketamine-induced apoptosis in rat cortical neurons.

  7. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency.

    PubMed

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A; Bonderup, Kasper; Abelchian, Sahar; Brakebusch, Cord; Brickman, Joshua M

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i) or with knockout serum replacement (KOSR), but not serum, can generate high-level chimeras regardless of how these cells were derived. ESCs cultured in these conditions showed a transcriptional correlation with early pre-implantation embryos (E1.5-E3.5) and contributed to development from the 2-cell stage. Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells derived in one condition can be reprogrammed to another developmental state merely by adaptation to another culture condition. PMID:27509134

  8. Mechanism of soluble beta-amyloid 25-35 neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Lili; Hu, Weimin; Li, Guanglai

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of soluble beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) on cell viability, calcium overload, and PI3K-p85 expression in cultured cortical rat neurons. Primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons of newborn rats were divided randomly into six groups. Five groups were treated with soluble Aβ25-35 at concentrations of 10nmol/L, 100nmol/L, 1μmol/L, 10μmol/L, or 30μmol/L. Cell Counting Kit-8 staining was used to measure cell viability, laser-scanning confocal imaging was used to detect changes in intracellular free calcium concentration, and western blot assay was used to measure neuronal PI3K-p85 expression. Soluble Aβ25-35 was found to reduce cell viability and induce calcium overload in primary cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, in a concentration-dependent manner. At certain concentrations, soluble Aβ25-35 also increased neuronal PI3K-p85 expression. These findings reveal that soluble Aβ25-35 reduces the viability of cultured cerebral cortical rat neurons. The neurotoxicity mechanism may involve calcium overload and disruption of insulin signal transduction pathways. PMID:26940239

  9. Embryonic brain extract induces collagen biosynthesis in cultured muscle cells: involvement in acetylcholine receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Kalcheim, C; Vogel, Z; Duksin, D

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of extracellular matrix components in induction of the aggregation of acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors by factor(s) present in embryonic brain extract was investigated. Embryonic brain extract induced a three-fold increase in the number of AcCho receptor aggregates on the surface of cultured myotubes and a 5- to 10-fold increase in the synthesis of procollagen, which was secreted into the medium and converted to collagen. Adult brain extract, embryonic serum, and embryonic liver extract were less active in stimulating both collagen synthesis and AcCho receptor aggregation. A physiological connection between the two processes is suggested, since the number of AcCho receptor aggregates could be reduced to control levels by treating brain extract-stimulated myotubes with purified bacterial collagenase. In addition, stimulation of collagen secretion by ascorbic acid (50 micrograms/ml) promoted a 1.6-fold increase in AcCho receptor aggregation. When ascorbic acid was added together with the brain extract, further increases in both collagen synthesis and AcCho receptor aggregation were observed. Images PMID:6285338

  10. A thermoresponsive and chemically defined hydrogel for long-term culture of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Mjoseng, Heidi K.; Hoeve, Marieke A.; Bauer, Nina G.; Pells, Steve; Besseling, Rut; Velugotla, Srinivas; Tourniaire, Guilhem; Kishen, Ria E. B.; Tsenkina, Yanina; Armit, Chris; Duffy, Cairnan R. E.; Helfen, Martina; Edenhofer, Frank; de Sousa, Paul A.; Bradley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cultures of human embryonic stem cell typically rely on protein matrices or feeder cells to support attachment and growth, while mechanical, enzymatic or chemical cell dissociation methods are used for cellular passaging. However, these methods are ill defined, thus introducing variability into the system, and may damage cells. They also exert selective pressures favouring cell aneuploidy and loss of differentiation potential. Here we report the identification of a family of chemically defined thermoresponsive synthetic hydrogels based on 2-(diethylamino)ethyl acrylate, which support long-term human embryonic stem cell growth and pluripotency over a period of 2–6 months. The hydrogels permitted gentle, reagent-free cell passaging by virtue of transient modulation of the ambient temperature from 37 to 15 °C for 30 min. These chemically defined alternatives to currently used, undefined biological substrates represent a flexible and scalable approach for improving the definition, efficacy and safety of human embryonic stem cell culture systems for research, industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23299885

  11. In vitro production of monoclonal antibodies to cultured embryonic chick limb mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Capehart, A A

    2000-01-01

    A simple, rapid protocol for the in vitro production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize native antigens in cultured chick limb mesenchyme during chondrogenic differentiation is described. Murine lymphocytes were stimulated by direct exposure to methanol-fixed micromass cultures of limb mesenchyme derived from the distal tip of stage 25 chick limb buds. Initial immunohistochemical characterization of two antibodies (DIDI and DIIA5) produced by this method showed preferential localization of reactivity with antigens in developing cartilage nodules during chondrogenesis in cultured chick limb mesenchyme. This study demonstrates the utility of in vitro immunization of lymphocytes for the production of MAbs to native antigens expressed by differentiating embryonic limb cells in culture. Immunohistochemical data provided by DIDI and DIIA5 suggest that antigens bearing these epitopes may be important in early morphogenetic events during limb skeletal development. PMID:11549945

  12. Sulfite triggers sustained calcium overload in cultured cortical neurons via a redox-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Cao, Hui; Guan, Xin-Lei; Long, Li-Hong; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wu, Peng-Fei

    2016-09-01

    Sulfite is a compound commonly used as preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals. Many studies have examined the neurotoxicity of sulfite, but its effect on neuronal calcium homeostasis has not yet been reported. Here, we observed the effect of sulfite on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured cortical neurons using Fura-2/AM based calcium imaging technique. Sulfite (250-1000μM) caused a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i in the neurons via a dose-dependent manner. In Ca(2+)-free solution, sulfite failed to increase [Ca(2+)]i. After the depletion of the intracellular calcium store, the effect of sulfite on the [Ca(2+)]i was largely abolished. Pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway blocked sulfite-induced increase of [Ca(2+)]i. Interestingly, antioxidants such as trolox and dithiothreitol, abolished the increase of [Ca(2+)]i induced by sulfite. Exposure to sulfite triggered generation of sulfur- and oxygen-centered free radicals in neurons and increased oxidative stress both in the cultured cortical neurons and the prefrontal cortex of rats. Furthemore, sulfite decreased cell viability in cultured cortical neurons via a calcium-dependent manner. Thus, our current study suggests that the redox-dependent calcium overload triggered by sulfite in cortical neuronsmay be involved in its neurotoxicity. PMID:27313092

  13. Transcriptional expression profile of cultured human embryonic stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Keil, Marlen; Siegert, Antje; Eckert, Klaus; Gerlach, Jörg; Haider, Wolfram; Fichtner, Iduna

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the influence of in vitro partial differentiation on in vivo teratoma formation in immunodeficient mice. Standardized methods are needed for long-term cultivation of undifferentiated stem cells and the multilineage cells that spontaneously differentiate from them. Accordingly, SA002 human embryonic stem cells were cultured on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells, on irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts, or were cultured feeder-free using matrigel. Expression of marker protein transcripts was analyzed in undifferentiated and differentiated stem cells using real-time PCR, and both types of stem cells were transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice to test for teratoma formation. Teratoma histology and expression profiles were subsequently characterized. Cells cultured using different conditions and morphologically undifferentiated cells had comparable marker expression profiles, showing high expression levels of markers for pluripotency and low-to-moderate expression levels of germ layer markers. Cells showing spontaneous differentiation that were cultured in feeder-free conditions in the absence of basic fibroblast growth factor demonstrated slight upregulation of sex determining region Y-box 17, connexin 32, and albumin expression at early time points, as well as expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4, proteoglycan epitopes on podocalyxin (Trafalgar), and alkaline phosphatase. At later time points, expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-3-beta, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4-alpha and alpha fetoprotein was upregulated, whereas beta-3-tubulin, chemokine receptor, nestin, sex-determining region Y-box 17, and connexin 32 were downregulated. Expression of pluripotency markers remained high, and hematopoetic markers were not expressed. SA002 cells that showed

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Artificial extracellular matrix for embryonic stem cell cultures: a new frontier of nanobiomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amranul Haque, Md; Nagaoka, Masato; Hexig, Bayar; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2010-02-01

    Nanobiomaterials can play a central role in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering by facilitating cellular behavior and function, such as those where extracellular matrices (ECMs) direct embryonic stem (ES) cell morphogenesis, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, controlling ES cell proliferation and differentiation using matrices from natural sources is still challenging due to complex and heterogeneous culture conditions. Moreover, the systemic investigation of the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation to lineage specific cells depends on the use of defined and stress-free culture conditions. Both goals can be achieved by the development of biomaterial design targeting ECM or growth factors for ES cell culture. This targeted application will benefit from expansion of ES cells for transplantation, as well as the production of a specific differentiated cell type either by controlling the differentiation in a very specific pathway or by elimination of undesirable cell types.

  15. Morphology of human embryonic kidney cells in culture after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Kunze, M. E.; Williams, K.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of human embyronic kidney cells to differentiate into small epithelioid, large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated morphological cell types following space flight is examined. Kidney cells exposed to 1 day at 1 g, then 1 day in orbit, and a 12 minute passage through the electrophoretic separator are compared with control cultures. The data reveal that 70 percent of small epithelioid, 16 percent of large epithelioid, 9 percent of dome-forming, and 5 percent of fenestrated cells formed in the space exposed cells; the distributions correlate well with control data. The formation of domed cells from cells cultured from low electrophoretic mobility fractions and small epithelioid cells from high mobility fractions is unaffected by space flight conditions. It is concluded that storage under microgravity conditions does not influence the morphological differentiation of human embryonic kidney cells in low-passage culture.

  16. Concentration-dependent gene expression responses to flusilazole in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Dartel, Dorien A.M. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Fonteyne, Liset J.J. de la; Brauers, Karen J.J.; Claessen, Sandra; Delft, Joost H. van; Kleinjans, Jos C.S.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-03-01

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is designed to evaluate developmental toxicity based on compound-induced inhibition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes. The addition of transcriptomic evaluation within the EST may result in enhanced predictability and improved characterization of the applicability domain, therefore improving usage of the EST for regulatory testing strategies. Transcriptomic analyses assessing factors critical for risk assessment (i.e. dose) are needed to determine the value of transcriptomic evaluation in the EST. Here, using the developmentally toxic compound, flusilazole, we investigated the effect of compound concentration on gene expression regulation and toxicity prediction in ESC differentiation cultures. Cultures were exposed for 24 h to multiple concentrations of flusilazole (0.54-54 {mu}M) and RNA was isolated. In addition, we sampled control cultures 0, 24, and 48 h to evaluate the transcriptomic status of the cultures across differentiation. Transcriptomic profiling identified a higher sensitivity of development-related processes as compared to cell division-related processes in flusilazole-exposed differentiation cultures. Furthermore, the sterol synthesis-related mode of action of flusilazole toxicity was detected. Principal component analysis using gene sets related to normal ESC differentiation was used to describe the dynamics of ESC differentiation, defined as the 'differentiation track'. The concentration-dependent effects on development were reflected in the significance of deviation of flusilazole-exposed cultures from this transcriptomic-based differentiation track. Thus, the detection of developmental toxicity in EST using transcriptomics was shown to be compound concentration-dependent. This study provides further insight into the possible application of transcriptomics in the EST as an improved alternative model system for developmental toxicity testing.

  17. COMMUNICATION: Folate and S-adenosylmethionine modulate synaptic activity in cultured cortical neurons: acute differential impact on normal and apolipoprotein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Michael; Chan, Amy; Dubey, Maya; Gilman, Vladimir; Shea, Thomas B.

    2008-12-01

    Folate deficiency is accompanied by a decline in the cognitive neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a decline in cognitive performance in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/- mice), a low-density lipoprotein that regulates aspects of lipid metabolism. One direct consequence of folate deficiency is a decline in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Since dietary SAM supplementation maintains acetylcholine levels and cognitive performance in the absence of folate, we examined herein the impact of folate and SAM on neuronal synaptic activity. Embryonic cortical neurons from mice expressing or lacking ApoE (ApoE+/+ or -/-, respectively) were cultured for 1 month on multi-electrode arrays, and signaling was recorded. ApoE+/+ cultures displayed significantly more frequent spontaneous signals than ApoE-/- cultures. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM (not normally present in culture medium) increased signal frequency and decreased signal amplitude in ApoE+/+ cultures. SAM also increased the frequency of tightly clustered signal bursts. Folate deprivation reversibly reduced signal frequency in ApoE+/+ cultures; SAM supplementation maintained signal frequency despite folate deprivation. These findings support the importance of dietary supplementation with folate and SAM on neuronal health. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM did not alter signaling in ApoE-/- cultures, which may be a reflection of the reduced SAM levels in ApoE-/- mice. The differential impact of SAM on ApoE+/+ and -/- neurons underscores the combined impact of nutritional and genetic deficiencies on neuronal homeostasis.

  18. Patenting, morality and human embryonic stem cell science: bioethics and cultural politics in Europe.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian

    2007-05-01

    As the recent experience of the European Patent Office graphically demonstrates, there is an inherent political tension between the individual ownership rights necessary for the operation of an international market in human embryonic stem cell science and the communal values of the many cultures in which such markets operate. This report examines the basis of the conflict between patenting and morality at national and international levels, the manifestation of those tensions in European patenting policy, and the contribution of bioethics to the attempt by European institutions to develop a governance response. PMID:17511566

  19. A Single-Cell and Feeder-Free Culture System for Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kato, Yosuke; Fujita, Risako; Araki, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Tomoko; Kato, Hidemasa; Torii, Ryuzo; Sato, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Primate pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hold great potential for research and application in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. To maximize primate PSC potential, a practical system is required for generating desired functional cells and reproducible differentiation techniques. Much progress regarding their culture systems has been reported to date; however, better methods would still be required for their practical use, particularly in industrial and clinical fields. Here we report a new single-cell and feeder-free culture system for primate PSCs, the key feature of which is an originally formulated serum-free medium containing FGF and activin. In this culture system, cynomolgus monkey ESCs can be passaged many times by single-cell dissociation with traditional trypsin treatment and can be propagated with a high proliferation rate as a monolayer without any feeder cells; further, typical PSC properties and genomic stability can be retained. In addition, it has been demonstrated that monkey ESCs maintained in the culture system can be used for various experiments such as in vitro differentiation and gene manipulation. Thus, compared with the conventional culture system, monkey ESCs grown in the aforementioned culture system can serve as a cell source with the following practical advantages: simple, stable, and easy cell maintenance; gene manipulation; cryopreservation; and desired differentiation. We propose that this culture system can serve as a reliable platform to prepare primate PSCs useful for future research and application. PMID:24505480

  20. Locust bean gum as an alternative polymeric coating for embryonic stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina; Grenha, Ana; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; Belo, José António

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into any cellular type depending on specific cues (pluripotency) and, therefore, have become a vibrant research area in the biomedical field. ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or on top of a monolayer of feeder cells such as mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard support to maintain the ESCs in the pluripotent state. Examples of versatile, non-animal derived and inexpensive materials that are able to support pluripotent ESCs are limited. Therefore, our aim was to find a biomaterial able to support ESC growth in a pluripotent state avoiding laborious and time consuming parallel culture of MEFsi and as simple to handle as gelatin. Many of the new biomaterials used to develop stem cell microenvironments are using natural polymers adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface to improve the biocompatibility of synthetic polymers. Locust beam gum (LBG) is a natural, edible polymer, which has a wide range of potential applications in different fields, such as food and pharmaceutical industry, due to its biocompatibility, adhesiveness and thickening properties. The present work brings a natural system based on the use of LBG as a coating for ESC culture. Undifferentiated mouse ESCs were cultured on commercially available LBG to evaluate its potential in maintaining pluripotent ESCs. In terms of morphology, ESC colonies in LBG presented the regular dome shape with bright borders, similar to the colonies obtained in co-cultures with MEFsi and characteristic of pluripotent ESC colonies. In short-term cultures, ESC proliferation in LBG coating was similar to ESC cultured in gelatin and the cells maintained their viability. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression of mouse ESCs cultured in LBG were comparable or in some cases higher than in ESCs cultured in gelatin. An in vitro

  1. Prefrontal cortical activation during arithmetic processing differentiated by cultures: a preliminary fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanghong; Pan, Yaozhang; Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Leamy, Darren J

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural basis of arithmetic processes could play an important role in improving mathematical education. This study investigates the prefrontal cortical activation among subjects from different cultural backgrounds while performing two difficulty levels of mental arithmetic tasks. The prefrontal cortical activation is measured using a high density 206 channels fNIRS. 8 healthy subjects, consisting of 5 Asians and 3 Europeans, are included in this study. NIRS-SPM is used to compute hemoglobin response changes and generate brain activation map based on two contrasts defined as Easy versus Rest and Hard versus Rest. Differences between the Asian group and the European group are found in both contrasts of Easy versus Rest and Hard versus Rest. The results suggest people with different cultural backgrounds engage different neural pathways during arithmetic processing. PMID:23366981

  2. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  3. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlagen in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montufar-Solis, D.; Oakley, C. R.; Jefferson, Y.; Duke, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms involved in development of the embryonic limb have remained the same throughout eons of genetic and environmental evolution under Earth gravity (lg). During the spaceflight era it has been of interest to explore the ancient theory that form of the skeleton develops in response to gravity, and that changes in gravitational forces can change the developmental pattern of the limb. This has been shown in vivo and in vitro, allowing the hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space to be used as tools to increase our knowledge of limb development. In recapitulations of spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a bioreactor, and found to be shorter and less differentiated than those cultured in standard culture dishes. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes due to the skeletal elements having a more in vivo 3D shape while in suspension vs. flattened tissues compressed by their own weight. A culture system with an outcome closer to in vivo and that supports growth of younger limb buds than traditional systems will allow studies of early Hox gene expression, and contribute to the understanding of very early stages of development. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the growth and differentiation with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were cultured for six days, either in the bioreactor or in center-well organ culture dishes, fixed, and embedded for histology. E13 specimens grown in culture dishes were flat, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections showed excellent cartilage differentiation in both culture systems, with more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Younger limb buds fused together during culture, so an additional set of El 1

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coat Protein Neurotoxicity Mediated by Nitric Oxide in Primary Cortical Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Uhl, George R.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1993-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coat protein, gp120, kills neurons in primary cortical cultures at low picomolar concentrations. The toxicity requires external glutamate and calcium and is blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to gp120 toxicity, since nitroarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, prevents toxicity as does deletion of arginine from the incubation medium and hemoglobin, which binds NO. Superoxide dismutase also attenuates toxicity, implying a role for superoxide anions.

  5. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  6. Key electrophysiological, molecular, and metabolic signatures of sleep and wakefulness revealed in primary cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Hinard, Valérie; Mikhail, Cyril; Pradervand, Sylvain; Curie, Thomas; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Auwerx, Johan; Franken, Paul; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-09-01

    Although sleep is defined as a behavioral state, at the cortical level sleep has local and use-dependent features suggesting that it is a property of neuronal assemblies requiring sleep in function of the activation experienced during prior wakefulness. Here we show that mature cortical cultured neurons display a default state characterized by synchronized burst-pause firing activity reminiscent of sleep. This default sleep-like state can be changed to transient tonic firing reminiscent of wakefulness when cultures are stimulated with a mixture of waking neurotransmitters and spontaneously returns to sleep-like state. In addition to electrophysiological similarities, the transcriptome of stimulated cultures strikingly resembles the cortical transcriptome of sleep-deprived mice, and plastic changes as reflected by AMPA receptors phosphorylation are also similar. We used our in vitro model and sleep-deprived animals to map the metabolic pathways activated by waking. Only a few metabolic pathways were identified, including glycolysis, aminoacid, and lipids. Unexpectedly large increases in lysolipids were found both in vivo after sleep deprivation and in vitro after stimulation, strongly suggesting that sleep might play a major role in reestablishing the neuronal membrane homeostasis. With our in vitro model, the cellular and molecular consequences of sleep and wakefulness can now be investigated in a dish. PMID:22956841

  7. Effects of 3-D microwell culture on growth kinetics and metabolism of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Azarin, Samira M.; Larson, Elise A.; Almodóvar-Cruz, Janice M; de Pablo, Juan J.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold potential in the field of tissue engineering given their capacity for both limitless self-renewal and differentiation to any adult cell type. However, several limitations, including the ability to expand undifferentiated cells and efficiently direct differentiation at scales needed for commercial cell production, prevent realizing the potential of hESCs in tissue engineering. Numerous studies have illustrated that 3-D culture systems provide microenvironmental cues that affect hESC pluripotency and differentiation fates, but little is known about how 3-D culture affects cell expansion. Here we have used a 3-D microwell array to model the differences in hESC growth kinetics and metabolism in 2-D vs. 3-D cultures. Our results demonstrated that 3-D microwell culture reduced hESC size and proliferative capacity, and impacted cell cycle dynamics, lengthening the G1 phase and shortening the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. However, glucose and lactate metabolism were similar in 2-D and 3-D cultures. Elucidating the effects of 3-D culture on growth and metabolism of hESCs may facilitate efforts for developing integrated, scalable cell expansion and differentiation processes with these cells. PMID:23586789

  8. The impact of caffeine on connexin expression in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system.

    PubMed

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyocytes are electrically coupled by gap junctions, defined as clusters of low-resistance multisubunit transmembrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs). The expression of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45, which are present in cardiomyocytes, is known to be developmentally regulated. This study investigates the premise that alterations in gap junction proteins are one of the mechanisms by which teratogens may act. Specifically, those molecules known to be teratogenic in humans could cause their effects via disruption of cell-to-cell communication pathways, resulting in an inability to co-ordinate tissue development. Caffeine significantly inhibited contractile activity at concentrations above and including 1500 μm (P < 0.05), while not affecting cell viability and total protein, in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system. The effects of caffeine on key cardiac gap junction protein (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression were analysed using immunocytochemistry and in-cell Western blotting. The results indicated that caffeine altered the expression pattern of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≥2000 μm), i.e., at concentrations that did not affect total cell protein and cell viability. In addition the effects of caffeine on cardiomyocyte formation and function (contractile activity score) were correlated with modulation of Cxs (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression, at above and including 2000 μm caffeine concentrations (P < 0.05). These experiments provide evidence that embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture may be a useful in vitro method for mechanistic studies of perturbation of embryonic heart development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26304238

  9. Resistance to neurotoxicity in cortical cultures from neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dawson, V L; Kizushi, V M; Huang, P L; Snyder, S H; Dawson, T M

    1996-04-15

    In addition to its functions as a neuronal messenger molecule, nitric oxide (NO) has also been implicated in playing a major role in ischemic damage and glutamate neurotoxicity. Using primary cortical cultures from transgenic neuronal NO synthase (NOS) null (nNOS-) mice, we definitively establish NO as a mediator of NMDA and hypoxic neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity elicited by NMDA is markedly attenuated in nNOS- cortical cultures compared with wild-type cultures. The NOS inhibitor nitro-L-arginine is neuroprotective in wild-type but not nNOS-cultures, confirming the role of nNOS-derived NO in glutamate neurotoxicity. Confirming that the nNOS- cultures lack NMDA-stimulated nNOS activity, NMDA did not stimulate the formation of cGMP in nNOS- cultures, but markedly elevates cGMP in wild-type cultures. Both wild-type and nNOS- cultures are sensitive to toxicity induced by NO donors, indicating that pathways stimulated by NO that result in neuronal cell death are still intact in the transgenic mice. Superoxide dismutase is neuroprotective against NMDA and NO neurotoxicity in both wild-type and nNOS- cultures, highlighting the importance of superoxide anion in subsequent neuronal damage. The unknown cellular factors that endow differential resistance to NMDA neurotoxicity and differential susceptibility to quisqualate neurotoxicity remain intact in the nNOS- cultures, because the response of somatostatin-immunopositive neurons in nNOS- cultures to high-dose NMDA and low-dose quisqualate is identical to the response of NOS-immunopositive neurons in the wild-type cultures. There is no difference in susceptibility to kainate neurotoxicity between nNOS- and wild-type cultures and only a modest resistance to quisqualate neurotoxicity, confirming observations that NO-mediated neurotoxicity is associated primarily with activation of the NMDA receptor. The nNOS- cultures are markedly protected from 60 min of combined oxygen-glucose deprivation neurotoxicity compared with wild

  10. Secretion of inhibin beta A by endoderm cultured from early embryonic chicken.

    PubMed

    Kokan-Moore, N P; Bolender, D L; Lough, J

    1991-07-01

    Although several reports have indicated a role for endoderm in the regulation of heart development, the mechanism remains unknown. To begin characterization of endoderm-secreted proteins, explants from postgastrulation (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 5/6-8) chicken embryos were cultured in defined medium. Fluorography of SDS-PAGE gels revealed a pattern of synthesized, secreted proteins that was independent of time in culture or embryonic stage when explants were removed. Approximately 10 labeled bands were detected, the most prominent of which migrated at 17, 25, and 200 kDa. ELISA analysis revealed that while acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor-like antigens were barely detectable, fibronectin and inhibin beta A were very reactive. Western blot analysis verified the presence of fibronectin and, most remarkably, inhibin beta A, activin dimers of which have recently been implicated in Xenopus mesoderm induction (Smith, Price, Van Nimmen, and Huylebrock (1990). Nature 345, 729.) PMID:2060706

  11. Identification and quantitation of morphological cell types in electrophoretically separated human embryonic kidney cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. B.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Four major cell types were identified by phase microscopy in early passage human embryonic kidney cell cultures. They are small and large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated cells. Fibroblasts are also present in some explants. The percent of each cell type changes with passage number as any given culture grows. As a general rule, the fraction of small epithelioid cells increases, while the fraction of fenestrated cells, always small, decreases further. When fibroblasts are present, they always increase in percentage of the total cell population. Electrophoretic separation of early passage cells showed that the domed cells have the highest electrophoretic mobility, fibroblasts have an intermediate high mobility, small epithelioid cells have a low mobility, broadly distributed, and fenestrated cells have the lowest mobility. All cell types were broadly distributed among electrophoretic subfractions, which were never pure but only enriched with respect to a given cell type.

  12. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%). PMID:26049089

  13. Simplified three-dimensional culture system for long-term expansion of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Christina; Perez-Cruet, Mick; Chavez, Ferman; Chaudhry, G Rasul

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To devise a simplified and efficient method for long-term culture and maintenance of embryonic stem cells requiring less frequent passaging. METHODS: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) labeled with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein were cultured in three-dimensional (3-D) self-assembling scaffolds and compared with traditional two-dimentional (2-D) culture techniques requiring mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers or leukemia inhibitory factor. 3-D scaffolds encapsulating ESCs were prepared by mixing ESCs with polyethylene glycol tetra-acrylate (PEG-4-Acr) and thiol-functionalized dextran (Dex-SH). Distribution of ESCs in 3-D was monitored by confocal microscopy. Viability and proliferation of encapsulated cells during long-term culture were determined by propidium iodide as well as direct cell counts and PrestoBlue (PB) assays. Genetic expression of pluripotency markers (Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, and Sox2) in ESCs grown under 2-D and 3-D culture conditions was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected stemness markers was determined by two different methods, immunofluorescence staining (Oct4 and Nanog) and western blot analysis (Oct4, Nanog, and Klf4). Pluripotency of 3-D scaffold grown ESCs was analyzed by in vivo teratoma assay and in vitro differentiation via embryoid bodies into cells of all three germ layers. RESULTS: Self-assembling scaffolds encapsulating ESCs for 3-D culture without the loss of cell viability were prepared by mixing PEG-4-Acr and Dex-SH (1:1 v/v) to a final concentration of 5% (w/v). Scaffold integrity was dependent on the degree of thiol substitution of Dex-SH and cell concentration. Scaffolds prepared using Dex-SH with 7.5% and 33% thiol substitution and incubated in culture medium maintained their integrity for 11 and 13 d without cells and 22 ± 5 d and 37 ± 5 d with cells, respectively. ESCs formed compact colonies, which progressively increased in size over time due to cell

  14. Morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and myosin dynamics of mouse embryonic fibroblasts cultured on nanofibrillar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ijaz; Ponery, Abdul S; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Kamal, Jabeen; Meshel, Adam S; Sheetz, Michael P; Schindler, Melvin; Meiners, Sally

    2007-07-01

    Growth of cells in tissue culture is generally performed on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces composed of polystyrene or glass. Recent work, however, has shown that such 2D cultures are incomplete and do not adequately represent the physical characteristics of native extracellular matrix (ECM)/basement membrane (BM), namely dimensionality, compliance, fibrillarity, and porosity. In the current study, a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrillar surface composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers was utilized to mimic the topology and physical structure of ECM/BM. Additional chemical cues were incorporated into the nanofibrillar matrix by coating the surfaces with fibronectin, collagen I, or laminin-1. Results from the current study show an enhanced response of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to culture on nanofibrillar surfaces with more dramatic changes in cell spreading and reorganization of the cytoskeleton than previously observed for established cell lines. In addition, the cells cultured on nanofibrillar and 2D surfaces exhibited differential responses to the specific ECM/BM coatings. The localization and activity of myosin II-B for MEFs cultured on nanofibers was also compared. A dynamic redistribution of myosin II-B was observed within membrane protrusions. This was previously described for cells associated with nanofibers composed of collagen I but not for cells attached to 2D surfaces coated with monomeric collagen. These results provide further evidence that nanofibrillar surfaces offer a significantly different environment for cells than 2D substrates. PMID:17294137

  15. Reproducible culture and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells using an automated microwell platform☆

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Waqar; Moens, Nathalie; Veraitch, Farlan S.; Hernandez, Diana; Mason, Chris; Lye, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their progeny in high throughput drug discovery and regenerative medicine will require production at scale of well characterized cells at an appropriate level of purity. The adoption of automated bioprocessing techniques offers the possibility to overcome the lack of consistency and high failure rates seen with current manual protocols. To build the case for increased use of automation this work addresses the key question: “can an automated system match the quality of a highly skilled and experienced person working manually?” To answer this we first describe an integrated automation platform designed for the ‘hands-free’ culture and differentiation of ESCs in microwell formats. Next we outline a framework for the systematic investigation and optimization of key bioprocess variables for the rapid establishment of validatable Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Finally the experimental comparison between manual and automated bioprocessing is exemplified by expansion of the murine Oct-4-GiP ESC line over eight sequential passages with their subsequent directed differentiation into neural precursors. Our results show that ESCs can be effectively maintained and differentiated in a highly reproducible manner by the automated system described. Statistical analysis of the results for cell growth over single and multiple passages shows up to a 3-fold improvement in the consistency of cell growth kinetics with automated passaging. The quality of the cells produced was evaluated using a panel of biological markers including cell growth rate and viability, nutrient and metabolite profiles, changes in gene expression and immunocytochemistry. Automated processing of the ESCs had no measurable negative effect on either their pluripotency or their ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. Equally important is that over a 6-month period of culture without antibiotics in the medium, we have not had any cases

  16. Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Masquelier, Timothée; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, synchronization among cells of an assembly is a common phenomenon, and thought to be functionally relevant. Here we used an in vitro experimental model of cell assemblies, cortical cultures, combined with numerical simulations of a spiking neural network (SNN) to investigate how and why spontaneous synchronization occurs. In order to deal with excitation only, we pharmacologically blocked GABAAergic transmission using bicuculline. Synchronous events in cortical cultures tend to involve almost every cell and to display relatively constant durations. We have thus named these "network spikes" (NS). The inter-NS-intervals (INSIs) proved to be a more interesting phenomenon. In most cortical cultures NSs typically come in series or bursts ("bursts of NSs", BNS), with short (~1 s) INSIs and separated by long silent intervals (tens of s), which leads to bimodal INSI distributions. This suggests that a facilitating mechanism is at work, presumably short-term synaptic facilitation, as well as two fatigue mechanisms: one with a short timescale, presumably short-term synaptic depression, and another one with a longer timescale, presumably cellular adaptation. We thus incorporated these three mechanisms into the SNN, which, indeed, produced realistic BNSs. Next, we systematically varied the recurrent excitation for various adaptation timescales. Strong excitability led to frequent, quasi-periodic BNSs (CV~0), and weak excitability led to rare BNSs, approaching a Poisson process (CV~1). Experimental cultures appear to operate within an intermediate weakly-synchronized regime (CV~0.5), with an adaptation timescale in the 2-8 s range, and well described by a Poisson-with-refractory-period model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the INSI statistics are indeed informative: they allowed us to infer the mechanisms at work, and many parameters that we cannot access experimentally. PMID:24146781

  17. Teratogenic potential in cultures optimized for oligodendrocyte development from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Dorota; Kiel, Mary E; Apicella, Marisa; Arriola, Aileen G; Chen, Cui Ping; McKinnon, Randall D

    2010-09-01

    We describe a rapid and efficient 5-step program of defined factors for the genesis of brain myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The OLs emerge on the same time frame in vitro as seen in vivo. Factors promoting neural induction (retinoids, noggin) are required, while exogenous Sonic hedgehog is not. In contrast we were unable to generate OLs by trans-differentiation of ethically neutral mesenchymal stem cells, indicating a requirement for cis-differentiation via neural ectoderm for OL genesis. In the ESC-derived cultures, our optimized protocol generated a mixed population with 49% O4(+), Olig2(+) OL lineage cells. These cultures also retained pluripotential markers including Oct4, and an analysis of embryoid body formation in vitro, and allogeneic grafts in vivo, revealed that the ESC-derived cultures also retained teratogenic cells. The frequency of embryoid body formation from terminal differentiated OL cultures was 0.001%, 100-fold lower than that from ESCs. Our results provide the first quantitative measurement of teratogenicity in ESC-derived, exhaustively differentiated allogeneic grafts, and demonstrate the unequivocal need to purify ESC-derived cells in order to generate a safe population for regenerative therapy. PMID:20131970

  18. Effects of Feeder Cell Types on Culture of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Gwi; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun-Young; Hyun, Hyuk; Shin, Min-Young; Son, Yeo-Jin; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Se-Pill

    2015-01-01

    The suitable feeder cell layer is important for culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of two kinds of the feeder cell, MEF cells and STO cells, layer to mouse ES (mES) cell culture for maintenance of stemness. We compare the colony formations, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities, expression of pluripotency marker genes and proteins of D3 cell colonies cultured on MEF feeder cell layer (D3/MEF) or STO cell layers (D3/STO) compared to feeder free condition (D3/–) as a control group. Although there were no differences to colony formations and AP activities, interestingly, the transcripts level of pluripotency marker genes, Pou5f1 and Nanog were highly expressed in D3/MEF (79 and 93) than D3/STO (61and 77) or D3/– (65 and 81). Also, pluripotency marker proteins, NANOG and SOX-2, were more synthesized in D3/MEF (72.8±7.69 and 81.2±3.56) than D3/STO (32.0±4.30 and 56.0±4.90) or D3/– (55.0±4.64 and 62.0±6.20). These results suggest that MEF feeder cell layer is more suitable to mES cell culture. PMID:27004268

  19. Voltage-gated calcium currents in cultured embryonic Xenopus spinal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Barish, M E

    1991-01-01

    1. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents were studied in cultured embryonic Xenopus spinal neurones using whole-cell gigaohm seal techniques. Cultures of neural plate cells were established from stage 15-17 embryos (see Methods), and were studied for up to 80 h in vitro. During this period neural precursor cells morphologically differentiate and commence expression of multiple types of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels. 2. Embryonic Xenopus neurones studied during the first 20-40 h in culture display Ca2+ currents that correspond to the low-voltage-activated (T-type) and high-voltage-activated forms described in other neurones and excitable cells. These Ca2+ current types could be separated based on voltage dependencies and pharmacological sensitivities. 3. T-type Ca2+ current was activated at voltages positive to -50 mV, and was selectively blocked by 200 microM-Ni2+. Curves describing the voltage dependencies of activation and steady-state inactivation overlapped in a region centred on -40 mV. A small sustained Ca2+ current could be recorded within this voltage region. 4. High-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents were observed at voltages positive to -10 mV, and could be separated into relaxing and sustained components (denoted as HVA-relaxing and HVA-sustained). HVA-relaxing current was selectively reduced by Met-enkephalin (17.5 microM). Both components of HVA current were sensitive to verapamil (100 microM), were almost completely blocked by omega-conotoxin (3 microM) and were insensitive to nifedipine (20 microM). 5. The data indicate that T-type Ca2+ current is present in the membrane during the initial period of channel and receptor expression, process outgrowth, and synaptogenesis, and is the dominant influence on voltage-gated Ca2+ influx during subthreshold voltage excursions. Further, at more positive voltages, T-type Ca2+ current contributes to inward Ca2+ current during the first 5-10 ms after depolarizing voltage steps, and thus to inward Ca2+ current

  20. Isolation and culture of cells from the nephrogenic zone of the embryonic mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aaron C; Blank, Ulrika; Adams, Derek C; Karolak, Michele J; Fetting, Jennifer L; Hill, Beth L; Oxburgh, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic development of the kidney has been extensively studied both as a model for epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in organogenesis and to gain understanding of the origins of congenital kidney disease. More recently, the possibility of steering naïve embryonic stem cells toward nephrogenic fates has been explored in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Genetic studies in the mouse have identified several pathways required for kidney development, and a global catalog of gene transcription in the organ has recently been generated http://www.gudmap.org/, providing numerous candidate regulators of essential developmental functions. Organogenesis of the rodent kidney can be studied in organ culture, and many reports have used this approach to analyze outcomes of either applying candidate proteins or knocking down the expression of candidate genes using siRNA or morpholinos. However, the applicability of organ culture to the study of signaling that regulates stem/progenitor cell differentiation versus renewal in the developing kidney is limited as cultured organs contain a compact extracellular matrix limiting diffusion of macromolecules and virus particles. To study the cell signaling events that influence the stem/progenitor cell niche in the kidney we have developed a primary cell system that establishes the nephrogenic zone or progenitor cell niche of the developing kidney ex vivo in isolation from the epithelial inducer of differentiation. Using limited enzymatic digestion, nephrogenic zone cells can be selectively liberated from developing kidneys at E17.5. Following filtration, these cells can be cultured as an irregular monolayer using optimized conditions. Marker gene analysis demonstrates that these cultures contain a distribution of cell types characteristic of the nephrogenic zone in vivo, and that they maintain appropriate marker gene expression during the culture period. These cells are highly accessible to small molecule and recombinant

  1. Isolation and Culture of Cells from the Nephrogenic Zone of the Embryonic Mouse Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aaron C.; Blank, Ulrika; Adams, Derek C.; Karolak, Michele J.; Fetting, Jennifer L.; Hill, Beth L.; Oxburgh, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic development of the kidney has been extensively studied both as a model for epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in organogenesis and to gain understanding of the origins of congenital kidney disease. More recently, the possibility of steering naïve embryonic stem cells toward nephrogenic fates has been explored in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Genetic studies in the mouse have identified several pathways required for kidney development, and a global catalog of gene transcription in the organ has recently been generated http://www.gudmap.org/, providing numerous candidate regulators of essential developmental functions. Organogenesis of the rodent kidney can be studied in organ culture, and many reports have used this approach to analyze outcomes of either applying candidate proteins or knocking down the expression of candidate genes using siRNA or morpholinos. However, the applicability of organ culture to the study of signaling that regulates stem/progenitor cell differentiation versus renewal in the developing kidney is limited as cultured organs contain a compact extracellular matrix limiting diffusion of macromolecules and virus particles. To study the cell signaling events that influence the stem/progenitor cell niche in the kidney we have developed a primary cell system that establishes the nephrogenic zone or progenitor cell niche of the developing kidney ex vivo in isolation from the epithelial inducer of differentiation. Using limited enzymatic digestion, nephrogenic zone cells can be selectively liberated from developing kidneys at E17.5. Following filtration, these cells can be cultured as an irregular monolayer using optimized conditions. Marker gene analysis demonstrates that these cultures contain a distribution of cell types characteristic of the nephrogenic zone in vivo, and that they maintain appropriate marker gene expression during the culture period. These cells are highly accessible to small molecule and recombinant

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate the Differentiation of Neurons in Clonal Cortical Cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Tsatmali, Marina; Walcott, Elisabeth C.; Makarenkova, Helen; Crossin, Kathryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important regulators of intracellular signaling. We examined the expression of ROS during rat brain development and explored their role in differentiation using cortical cultures. High levels of ROS were found in newborn neurons. Neurons produced ROS, not connected with cell death, throughout embryogenesis and postnatal stages. By P20, ROS-producing cells were found only in neurogenic regions. Cells with low levels of ROS, isolated from E15 brains by FACS, differentiated into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in clonal cultures. Neurons produced high ROS early in culture and later differentiated into two types: large pyramidal-like neurons that fired no or only a single action potential and smaller neurons that expressed nuclear calretinin and fired repeated action potentials. Antioxidant treatment did not alter neuron number but increased the ratio of small to large neurons. These findings suggest that modulation of ROS levels influences multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation. PMID:17000118

  3. Three-Dimensional Neural Spheroid Culture: An In Vitro Model for Cortical Studies.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Yu-Ting L; Boutin, Molly E; Chirila, Anda M; Livi, Liane L; Labriola, Nicholas R; Jakubek, Lorin M; Morgan, Jeffrey R; Darling, Eric M; Kauer, Julie A; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2015-12-01

    There is a high demand for in vitro models of the central nervous system (CNS) to study neurological disorders, injuries, toxicity, and drug efficacy. Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models can bridge the gap between traditional two-dimensional culture and animal models because they present an in vivo-like microenvironment in a tailorable experimental platform. Within the expanding variety of sophisticated 3D cultures, scaffold-free, self-assembled spheroid culture avoids the introduction of foreign materials and preserves the native cell populations and extracellular matrix types. In this study, we generated 3D spheroids with primary postnatal rat cortical cells using an accessible, size-controlled, reproducible, and cost-effective method. Neurons and glia formed laminin-containing 3D networks within the spheroids. The neurons were electrically active and formed circuitry through both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The mechanical properties of the spheroids were in the range of brain tissue. These in vivo-like features of 3D cortical spheroids provide the potential for relevant and translatable investigations of the CNS in vitro. PMID:26414693

  4. Higher-Density Culture in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Results in DNA Damage and Genome Instability.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kurt; Zambelli, Filippo; Mertzanidou, Afroditi; Smolders, Ilse; Geens, Mieke; Nguyen, Ha Thi; Barbé, Lise; Sermon, Karen; Spits, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) show great promise for clinical and research applications, but their well-known proneness to genomic instability hampers the development to their full potential. Here, we demonstrate that medium acidification linked to culture density is the main cause of DNA damage and genomic alterations in hESC grown on feeder layers, and this even in the short time span of a single passage. In line with this, we show that increasing the frequency of the medium refreshments minimizes the levels of DNA damage and genetic instability. Also, we show that cells cultured on laminin-521 do not present this increase in DNA damage when grown at high density, although the (long-term) impact on their genomic stability remains to be elucidated. Our results explain the high levels of genome instability observed over the years by many laboratories worldwide, and show that the development of optimal culture conditions is key to solving this problem. PMID:26923824

  5. Higher-Density Culture in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Results in DNA Damage and Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Kurt; Zambelli, Filippo; Mertzanidou, Afroditi; Smolders, Ilse; Geens, Mieke; Nguyen, Ha Thi; Barbé, Lise; Sermon, Karen; Spits, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) show great promise for clinical and research applications, but their well-known proneness to genomic instability hampers the development to their full potential. Here, we demonstrate that medium acidification linked to culture density is the main cause of DNA damage and genomic alterations in hESC grown on feeder layers, and this even in the short time span of a single passage. In line with this, we show that increasing the frequency of the medium refreshments minimizes the levels of DNA damage and genetic instability. Also, we show that cells cultured on laminin-521 do not present this increase in DNA damage when grown at high density, although the (long-term) impact on their genomic stability remains to be elucidated. Our results explain the high levels of genome instability observed over the years by many laboratories worldwide, and show that the development of optimal culture conditions is key to solving this problem. PMID:26923824

  6. Cellular differentiation hierarchies in normal and culture-adapted human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Enver, Tariq; Soneji, Shamit; Joshi, Chirag; Brown, John; Iborra, Francisco; Orntoft, Torben; Thykjaer, Thomas; Maltby, Edna; Smith, Kath; Abu Dawud, Raed; Jones, Mark; Matin, Maryam; Gokhale, Paul; Draper, Jonathan; Andrews, Peter W

    2005-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) lines vary in their characteristics and behaviour not only because they are derived from genetically outbred populations, but also because they may undergo progressive adaptation upon long-term culture in vitro. Such adaptation may reflect selection of variants with altered propensity for survival and retention of an undifferentiated phenotype. Elucidating the mechanisms involved will be important for understanding normal self-renewal and commitment to differentiation and for validating the safety of HESC-based therapy. We have investigated this process of adaptation at the cellular and molecular levels through a comparison of early passage (normal) and late passage (adapted) sublines of a single HESC line, H7. To account for spontaneous differentiation that occurs in HESC cultures, we sorted cells for SSEA3, which marks undifferentiated HESC. We show that the gene expression programmes of the adapted cells partially reflected their aberrant karyotype, but also resulted from a failure in X-inactivation, emphasizing the importance in adaptation of karyotypically silent epigenetic changes. On the basis of growth potential, ability to re-initiate ES cultures and global transcription profiles, we propose a cellular differentiation hierarchy for maintenance cultures of HESC: normal SSEA3+ cells represent pluripotent stem cells. Normal SSEA3- cells have exited this compartment, but retain multilineage differentiation potential. However, adapted SSEA3+ and SSEA3- cells co-segregate within the stem cell territory, implying that adaptation reflects an alteration in the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. As this balance is also an essential feature of cancer, the mechanisms of culture adaptation may mirror those of oncogenesis and tumour progression. PMID:16159889

  7. mGluR3 promotes proliferation of human embryonic cortical neural progenitor cells by activating ERK1/2 and JNK2 signaling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Zhou, X; Chen, Y; Bai, M; Yang, X; Zhao, K; Hao, W; Wei, W; Zhang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in brain; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of mGluR3 on the proliferation of human embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs), the expression of cyclin D1 and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The results showed that mGluR3 agonist N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) increased the proliferation of NPCs by increasing cell activity, diameter of neurospheres and cell division. In addition, mGluR3 siRNA decreased the NPC proliferation. The protein expressions of cyclin D1 increased with NAAG treatment and decreased after siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of NPCs. NAAG increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK2 levels, and meanwhile p-p38 level decreased; but p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK2 levels decreased after siRNA treatment, and p-p38 level increased. ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and JNK2 inhibitor SP600125 attenuated the increase of proliferation induced by NAAG. These findings demonstrated that mGluR3 promoted the proliferation of human embryonic cortical NPCs and increased cyclin D1 expression by activating ERK1/2 and JNK2 signaling pathways in vitro, suggesting that mGluR3 may be a target molecule for regulating NPC proliferation in brain development. PMID:25198581

  8. Functional connectivity and dynamics of cortical-thalamic networks co-cultured in a dual compartment device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T.; Massobrio, Paolo; Barone, Rocco Andrea; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J.; Decré, Michel M. J.

    2012-06-01

    Co-cultures containing dissociated cortical and thalamic cells may provide a unique model for understanding the pathophysiology in the respective neuronal sub-circuitry. In addition, developing an in vitro dissociated co-culture model offers the possibility of studying the system without influence from other neuronal sub-populations. Here we demonstrate a dual compartment system coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for co-culturing and recording spontaneous activities from neuronal sub-populations. Propagation of electrical activities between cortical and thalamic regions and their interdependence in connectivity is verified by means of a cross-correlation algorithm. We found that burst events originate in the cortical region and drive the entire cortical-thalamic network bursting behavior while mutually weak thalamic connections play a relevant role in sustaining longer burst events in cortical cells. To support these experimental findings, a neuronal network model was developed and used to investigate the interplay between network dynamics and connectivity in the cortical-thalamic system.

  9. Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors is neuroprotective in cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Copani, A; Bonanno, L; Knoepfel, T; Kuhn, R; Roberts, P J; Nicoletti, F

    1996-08-22

    (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and (S)-alpha-methyl-3-carboxyphenylalanine (M3CPA), two novel preferential antagonists of group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, antagonized the neuroprotective activity of L-2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoate (L-AP4) or L-serine-O-phosphate in mice cultured cortical cells exposed to a toxic pulse of N-methyl-D-aspartate. In contrast, MPPG did not influence the neuroprotective activity of the selective group II mGlu receptor agonist, (2S,1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxy-cyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV). These results indicate that activation of group III mGu receptors exerts neuroprotective activity against excitotoxic neuronal death. At least one of the two major group III mGlu receptor subtypes, i.e. mGlu4 receptor, is expressed by cultured cortical neurons, as shown by immunocytochemical analysis with specific polyclonal antibodies. PMID:8880068

  10. Neuroprotective effect of the endogenous neural peptide apelin in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xiang Jun; Yu, Shan Ping; Zhang, Like; Wei, Ling

    2010-07-01

    The adipocytokine apelin and its G protein-coupled APJ receptor were initially isolated from a bovine stomach and have been detected in the brain and cardiovascular system. Recent studies suggest that apelin can protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the effect of apelin on apoptosis in mouse primary cultures of cortical neurons. Exposure of the cortical cultures to a serum-free medium for 24 h induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic death; apelin-13 (1.0-5.0 nM) markedly prevented the neuronal apoptosis. Apelin neuroprotective effects were mediated by multiple mechanisms. Apelin-13 reduced serum deprivation (SD)-induced ROS generation, mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. Apelin-13 prevented SD-induced changes in phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, apelin-13 attenuated NMDA-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} accumulation. These results indicate that apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective adipocytokine that may block apoptosis and excitotoxic death via cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that apelins may be further explored as a potential neuroprotective reagent for ischemia-induced brain damage.

  11. Multilineage differentiation of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Silvia S.; Revoltella, Roberto P.; Papini, Sandra; Michelini, Monica; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Margolis, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    In the course of normal embryogenesis, embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate along different lineages in the context of complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures. In order to study this phenomenon in vitro under controlled conditions, 3D culture systems are necessary. Here, we studied in vitro differentiation of rhesus monkey ES cells in 3D collagen matrixes (collagen gels and porous collagen sponges). Differentiation of ES cells in these 3D systems was different from that in monolayers. ES cells differentiated in collagen matrixes into neural, epithelial, and endothelial lineages. The abilities of ES cells to form various structures in two chemically similar but topologically different matrixes were different. In particular, in collagen gels ES cells formed gland-like circular structures, whereas in collagen sponges ES cells were scattered through the matrix or formed aggregates. Soluble factors produced by feeder cells or added to the culture medium facilitated ES cell differentiation into particular lineages. Coculture with fibroblasts in collagen gel facilitated ES cell differentiation into cells of a neural lineage expressing nestin, neural cell adhesion molecule, and class III beta-tubulin. In collagen sponges, keratinocytes facilitated ES cell differentiation into cells of an endothelial lineage expressing factor VIII. Exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor further enhanced endothelial differentiation. Thus, both soluble factors and the type of extracellular matrix seem to be critical in directing differentiation of ES cells and the formation of tissue-like structures. Three-dimensional culture systems are a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of these phenomena.

  12. Receptor-mediated uptake of labeled transferrin by embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Markelonis, G J; Oh, T H; Park, L P; Azari, P; Max, S R

    1985-01-01

    Transferrin is a growth-promoting plasma protein which is known to occur within developing neurons. Since little information exists on the process by which transferrin is internalized by neurons, we studied this process using dissociated embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. Cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons were incubated in the presence of 3.75 nM (125)I-transferrin at 37°C, the cultures were extensively washed, the neurons were solubilized in a Triton-containing buffer and internalized (125)I-transferrin was quantified with a gamma counter. (125)I-transferrin was internalized in a linear fashion for at least 60 min, and this uptake was abolished by the presence of 1.25 μM unlabeled transferrin. No competition for the uptake of (125)I-transferrin was observed in the presence of 1.25 μM ovalbumin, cytochrome c, hemoglobin, insulin, horseradish peroxidase, aldolase or the carboxyl-terminal fragment ('half-site') of transferrin. By contrast, uptake was inhibited by approximately 50% in the presence of the ammo-terminal fragment ('half-site') of transferrin (1.25 μM) or in the presence of concanavalin A (1.25 μM). The binding of transferrin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate to neurons at 4°C and its subsequent internalization at 37°C was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy of unfixed cells following incubation of the neurons in the presence of the fluorescently labeled protein. Furthermore, the transferrin receptors were visualized immunocytochemically on the surface membranes of dorsal root ganglion neurons using rabbit antibodies directed against transferrin receptors from chicken reticulocytes. From these data, we conclude that transferrin is internalized by neurons via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and suggest that this protein may serve an important role in the development and survival of dorsal root ganglion neurons. PMID:24874753

  13. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to dopaminergic neurons in serum-free suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Thomas C; Noggle, Scott A; Palmarini, Gail M; Weiler, Deb A; Lyons, Ian G; Pensa, Kate A; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Davidson, Bruce P; Lambert, Nevin A; Condie, Brian G

    2004-01-01

    The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a source of dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson's disease cell therapy will require the development of simple and reliable cell differentiation protocols. The use of cell cocultures, added extracellular signaling factors, or transgenic approaches to drive hESC differentiation could lead to additional regulatory as well as cell production delays for these therapies. Because the neuronal cell lineage seems to require limited or no signaling for its formation, we tested the ability of hESCs to differentiate to form dopamine-producing neurons in a simple serum-free suspension culture system. BG01 and BG03 hESCs were differentiated as suspension aggregates, and neural progenitors and neurons were detectable after 2-4 weeks. Plated neurons responded appropriately to electrophysiological cues. This differentiation was inhibited by early exposure to bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-4, but a pulse of BMP-4 from days 5 to 9 caused induction of peripheral neuronal differentiation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of multiple markers of the midbrain dopaminergic phenotype in serum-free differentiations. Neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were killed by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxic catecholamine. Upon plating, these cells released dopamine and other catecholamines in response to K+ depolarization. Surviving TH+ neurons, derived from the cells differentiated in serum-free suspension cultures, were detected 8 weeks after transplantation into 6-OHDA-lesioned rat brains. This work suggests that hESCs can differentiate in simple serum-free suspension cultures to produce the large number of cells required for transplantation studies. PMID:15579641

  14. Apoptosis and necrosis: two distinct events induced by cadmium in cortical neurons in culture

    PubMed Central

    López, E; Figueroa, S; Oset-Gasque, M J; González, M P

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces, a food contaminant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Cadmium can severely damage several organs, including the brain. In this work, we have studied both the cadmium toxicity on rat cortical neurons in culture and the possible protective effect of serum. Our results indicate that: (1) cadmium is taken up by the neurons in a dose and serum dependent way; (2) cadmium, at concentrations from 1 μM or 10 μM (depending on the absence or the presence of serum) up to 100 μM, decreases the metabolic capacity, which was evaluated by the XTT (tetrazolium salt) test; (3) cadmium induces apoptosis and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release in a dose dependent way; (4) in a serum-free medium, the cadmium-induced apoptosis is accompanied by caspase-3 activation; (5) both the caspase-3 activation and the cadmium-induced apoptosis are reversed by N-acethyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (Ac-DEVD-CHO), a selective caspase-3 inhibitor, indicating that the caspase-3 pathway is involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in cortical neurons; and (6) the cadmium concentrations which produce caspase-3 activation do not modify the intracellular ATP levels; however, higher cadmium concentrations lead to both intracellular ATP depletion and ATP release, but do not increase the caspase-3 activity, indicating that cadmium also produces cellular death by necrosis. These results suggest that cadmium induces either apoptosis or necrosis in rat cortical neurons, depending on the cadmium concentration. PMID:12642392

  15. Propagation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells on Human Amniotic Fluid Cells as Feeder Cells in Xeno-Free Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Juwon; Baek, Jin Ah; Seol, Hye Won; Choi, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast feederlayers with a medium containing animal materials. For clinical application of hESCs, animal-derived products from the animal feeder cells, animal substrates such as gelatin or Matrigel and animal serum are strictly to be eliminated in the culture system. In this study, we performed that SNUhES32 and H1 were cultured on human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs) with KOSR XenoFree and a humanized substrate. All of hESCs were relatively well propagated on hAFCs feeders with xeno-free conditions and they expressed pluripotent stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4, TRA1-60, TRA1-81, Oct-4, and Nanog like hESCs cultured on STO or human foreskin fibroblast feeders. In addition, we observed the expression of nonhuman N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5GC) molecules by flow cytometry, which was xenotransplantation components of contamination in hESCs cultured on animal feeder conditions, was not detected in this xeno-free condition. In conclusion, SNUhES32 and H1 could be maintained on hAFCs for humanized culture conditions, therefore, we suggested that new xenofree conditions for clinical grade hESCs culture will be useful data in future clinical studies. PMID:27294211

  16. Generation, culture, and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shin Yong; Park, Yong Bin; Kim, Dae-Sung; Oh, Sun Kyung; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst, can continuously proliferate in an undifferentiated state and can also be induced to differentiate into a desired cell lineage. These abilities make ES cells an appealing source for cell replacement therapies, the study of developmental biology, and drug/toxin screening studies. As compared to mouse ES cells, human ES cells have only recently been derived and studied. Although there are many differences in properties between mouse and human ES cells, the study of mouse ES cells has provided important insights into human ES cell research. In this review, we describe the advantages and disadvantages of methods used for human ES cell derivation, the expansion of human ES cells, and the current status of human ES cell differentiation research. In addition, we discuss the endeavor that scientists have undertaken toward the therapeutic application of these cells, which includes therapeutic cloning and the improvement of human ES cell culture conditions. PMID:16242999

  17. Assessment of developmental cardiotoxic effects of some commonly used phytochemicals in mouse embryonic D3 stem cell differentiation and chick embryonic cardiomyocyte micromass culture models.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Omar J; McAlpine, Roseanna; Chiewhatpong, Phasawee; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-09-01

    Pregnant women often use herbal medicines to alleviate symptoms of pregnancy. The active phytochemicals eugenol (from holy basil) and α-bisabolol (from chamomile) are recommended to promote calmness and reduce stress. There is evidence that both eugenol and α-bisabolol possess pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects and induce reactive oxygen species. The potential effect was examined by monitoring cardiomyocyte contractile activity (differentiation), cell activity, protein content and ROS production for mouse D3 embryonic stem cell and ‎chick embryonic micromass culture. The results showed that eugenol (0.01-80μM) demonstrated effects on cell activity (both systems) and ROS production (stem cell system only), as well as decreasing the contractile activity and protein content at high concentrations in both systems. Additionally, α-bisabolol (0.01-80μM) at high concentrations decreased the contractile activity and cell activity and in the stem cell system induced ROS production and decreased protein content. The results suggest only low concentrations should be ingested in pregnancy.‎. PMID:27105832

  18. Endogenous cholinergic tone modulates spontaneous network level neuronal activity in primary cortical cultures grown on multi-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cortical cultures grown long-term on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) are frequently and extensively used as models of cortical networks in studies of neuronal firing activity, neuropharmacology, toxicology and mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. However, in contrast to the predominantly asynchronous neuronal firing activity exhibited by intact cortex, electrophysiological activity of mature cortical cultures is dominated by spontaneous epileptiform-like global burst events which hinders their effective use in network-level studies, particularly for neurally-controlled animat (‘artificial animal’) applications. Thus, the identification of culture features that can be exploited to produce neuronal activity more representative of that seen in vivo could increase the utility and relevance of studies that employ these preparations. Acetylcholine has a recognised neuromodulatory role affecting excitability, rhythmicity, plasticity and information flow in vivo although its endogenous production by cortical cultures and subsequent functional influence upon neuronal excitability remains unknown. Results Consequently, using MEA electrophysiological recording supported by immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR methods, we demonstrate for the first time, the presence of intrinsic cholinergic neurons and significant, endogenous cholinergic tone in cortical cultures with a characterisation of the muscarinic and nicotinic components that underlie modulation of spontaneous neuronal activity. We found that tonic muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) activation affects global excitability and burst event regularity in a culture age-dependent manner whilst, in contrast, tonic nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) activation can modulate burst duration and the proportion of spikes occurring within bursts in a spatio-temporal fashion. Conclusions We suggest that the presence of significant endogenous cholinergic tone in cortical cultures and the comparability of its modulatory effects

  19. Comparison of spike parameters from optically identified GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in sparse cortical cultures

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Keiko; Blanquie, Oriane; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Sinning, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuronal cultures share many typical features with the in vivo situation, including similarities in distinct electrical activity patterns and synaptic network interactions. Here, we use multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings from spontaneously active cultures of wildtype and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to evaluate which spike parameters differ between GABAergic interneurons and principal, putatively glutamatergic neurons. To analyze this question we combine MEA recordings with optical imaging in sparse cortical cultures to assign individual spikes to visually-identified single neurons. In our culture system, excitatory and inhibitory neurons are present at a similar ratio as described in vivo, and spike waveform characteristics and firing patterns are fully developed after 2 weeks in vitro. Spike amplitude, but not other spike waveform parameters, correlated with the distance between the recording electrode and the location of the assigned neuron’s soma. Cluster analysis of spike waveform properties revealed no particular cell population that may be assigned to putative inhibitory or excitatory neurons. Moreover, experiments in primary cultures from transgenic GAD67-GFP mice, which allow optical identification of GABAergic interneurons and thus unambiguous assignment of extracellular signals, did not reveal any significant difference in spike timing and spike waveform parameters between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Despite of our detailed characterization of spike waveform and temporal spiking properties we could not identify an unequivocal electrical parameter to discriminate between individual excitatory and inhibitory neurons in vitro. Our data suggest that under in vitro conditions cellular classifications of single neurons on the basis of their extracellular firing properties should be treated with caution. PMID:25642167

  20. Embryonic tongue morphogenesis in an organ culture model of mouse mandibular arches: blocking Sonic hedgehog signaling leads to microglossia.

    PubMed

    Torii, Daisuke; Soeno, Yuuichi; Fujita, Kazuya; Sato, Kaori; Aoba, Takaaki; Taya, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Mouse tongue development is initiated with the formation of lateral lingual swellings just before fusion between the mediodorsal surfaces of the mandibular arches at around embryonic day 11.0. Here, we investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in embryonic mouse tongue morphogenesis. For this, we used an organ culture model of the mandibular arches from mouse embryos at embryonic day 10.5. When the Shh signaling inhibitor jervine was added to the culture medium for 24-96 h, the formation of lateral lingual swellings and subsequent epithelial invagination into the mesenchyme were impaired markedly, leading to a hypoplastic tongue with an incomplete oral sulcus. Notably, jervine treatment reduced the proliferation of non-myogenic mesenchymal cells at the onset of forming the lateral lingual swellings, whereas it did not affect the proliferation and differentiation of a myogenic cell lineage, which created a cell community at the central circumferential region of the lateral lingual swellings as seen in vivo and in control cultures lacking the inhibitor. Thus, epithelium-derived Shh signaling stimulates the proliferation of non-myogenic mesenchymal cells essential for forming lateral lingual swellings and contributes to epithelial invagination into the mesenchyme during early tongue development. PMID:26334330

  1. Cultured Cortical Neurons Can Perform Blind Source Separation According to the Free-Energy Principle.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Takuya; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Blind source separation is the computation underlying the cocktail party effect--a partygoer can distinguish a particular talker's voice from the ambient noise. Early studies indicated that the brain might use blind source separation as a signal processing strategy for sensory perception and numerous mathematical models have been proposed; however, it remains unclear how the neural networks extract particular sources from a complex mixture of inputs. We discovered that neurons in cultures of dissociated rat cortical cells could learn to represent particular sources while filtering out other signals. Specifically, the distinct classes of neurons in the culture learned to respond to the distinct sources after repeating training stimulation. Moreover, the neural network structures changed to reduce free energy, as predicted by the free-energy principle, a candidate unified theory of learning and memory, and by Jaynes' principle of maximum entropy. This implicit learning can only be explained by some form of Hebbian plasticity. These results are the first in vitro (as opposed to in silico) demonstration of neural networks performing blind source separation, and the first formal demonstration of neuronal self-organization under the free energy principle. PMID:26690814

  2. A metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist does not mediate neuronal degeneration in cortical culture.

    PubMed

    Koh, J Y; Palmer, E; Lin, A; Cotman, C W

    1991-10-11

    In light of the evidence that calcium plays a critical role in excitotoxic neuronal death, it has been speculated that the metabotropic glutamate receptor may also contribute to excitotoxic damage through the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In the present study we examined this possibility by studying the neurotoxicity of trans-1-amino-cyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (trans-ACPD), a selective agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor. Exposure of cortical neurons to 100 microM trans-ACPD substantially increased phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intraneuronal free calcium in the presence of CPP and CNQX. Despite the presence of functional metabotropic receptors on cultured neurons, however, exposure of cultures to as high as 1 mM trans-ACPD for 24 h failed to produce any morphological or chemical signs of neuronal damage. Furthermore, trans-ACPD did not potentiate submaximal neurotoxicity produced by other non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonists, kainate and D,L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). PMID:1666330

  3. Cultured Cortical Neurons Can Perform Blind Source Separation According to the Free-Energy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Takuya; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Blind source separation is the computation underlying the cocktail party effect––a partygoer can distinguish a particular talker’s voice from the ambient noise. Early studies indicated that the brain might use blind source separation as a signal processing strategy for sensory perception and numerous mathematical models have been proposed; however, it remains unclear how the neural networks extract particular sources from a complex mixture of inputs. We discovered that neurons in cultures of dissociated rat cortical cells could learn to represent particular sources while filtering out other signals. Specifically, the distinct classes of neurons in the culture learned to respond to the distinct sources after repeating training stimulation. Moreover, the neural network structures changed to reduce free energy, as predicted by the free-energy principle, a candidate unified theory of learning and memory, and by Jaynes’ principle of maximum entropy. This implicit learning can only be explained by some form of Hebbian plasticity. These results are the first in vitro (as opposed to in silico) demonstration of neural networks performing blind source separation, and the first formal demonstration of neuronal self-organization under the free energy principle. PMID:26690814

  4. Isolation and Culture of Neural Crest Cells from Embryonic Murine Neural Tube

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Mundell, Nathan A.; Labosky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic neural crest (NC) is a multipotent progenitor population that originates at the dorsal aspect of the neural tube, undergoes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrates throughout the embryo, giving rise to diverse cell types 1-3. NC also has the unique ability to influence the differentiation and maturation of target organs4-6. When explanted in vitro, NC progenitors undergo self-renewal, migrate and differentiate into a variety of tissue types including neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, cartilage and bone. NC multipotency was first described from explants of the avian neural tube7-9. In vitro isolation of NC cells facilitates the study of NC dynamics including proliferation, migration, and multipotency. Further work in the avian and rat systems demonstrated that explanted NC cells retain their NC potential when transplanted back into the embryo10-13. Because these inherent cellular properties are preserved in explanted NC progenitors, the neural tube explant assay provides an attractive option for studying the NC in vitro. To attain a better understanding of the mammalian NC, many methods have been employed to isolate NC populations. NC-derived progenitors can be cultured from post-migratory locations in both the embryo and adult to study the dynamics of post-migratory NC progenitors11,14-20, however isolation of NC progenitors as they emigrate from the neural tube provides optimal preservation of NC cell potential and migratory properties13,21,22. Some protocols employ fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate a NC population enriched for particular progenitors11,13,14,17. However, when starting with early stage embryos, cell numbers adequate for analyses are difficult to obtain with FACS, complicating the isolation of early NC populations from individual embryos. Here, we describe an approach that does not rely on FACS and results in an approximately 96% pure NC population based on a Wnt1-Cre activated lineage reporter

  5. Isolation and culture of neural crest cells from embryonic murine neural tube.

    PubMed

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R; Mundell, Nathan A; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic neural crest (NC) is a multipotent progenitor population that originates at the dorsal aspect of the neural tube, undergoes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrates throughout the embryo, giving rise to diverse cell types. NC also has the unique ability to influence the differentiation and maturation of target organs. When explanted in vitro, NC progenitors undergo self-renewal, migrate and differentiate into a variety of tissue types including neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, cartilage and bone. NC multipotency was first described from explants of the avian neural tube. In vitro isolation of NC cells facilitates the study of NC dynamics including proliferation, migration, and multipotency. Further work in the avian and rat systems demonstrated that explanted NC cells retain their NC potential when transplanted back into the embryo. Because these inherent cellular properties are preserved in explanted NC progenitors, the neural tube explant assay provides an attractive option for studying the NC in vitro. To attain a better understanding of the mammalian NC, many methods have been employed to isolate NC populations. NC-derived progenitors can be cultured from post-migratory locations in both the embryo and adult to study the dynamics of post-migratory NC progenitors, however isolation of NC progenitors as they emigrate from the neural tube provides optimal preservation of NC cell potential and migratory properties. Some protocols employ fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate a NC population enriched for particular progenitors. However, when starting with early stage embryos, cell numbers adequate for analyses are difficult to obtain with FACS, complicating the isolation of early NC populations from individual embryos. Here, we describe an approach that does not rely on FACS and results in an approximately 96% pure NC population based on a Wnt1-Cre activated lineage reporter. The method presented here is adapted from

  6. Memantine protects rat cortical cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity by attenuating tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Song, M S; Rauw, G; Baker, G B; Kar, S

    2008-11-01

    It has been suggested that accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide triggers neurodegeneration, at least in part, via glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. This is supported by observations that toxicity induced by Abeta peptide in cultured neurons and in adult rat brain is known to be mediated by activation of glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Additionally, recent clinical studies have shown that memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, can significantly improve cognitive functions in some AD patients. However, very little is currently known about the potential role of memantine against Abeta-induced toxicity. In the present study, we have shown that Abeta(1-42)-induced toxicity in rat primary cortical cultured neurons is accompanied by increased extracellular and decreased intracellular glutamate levels. We subsequently demonstrated that Abeta toxicity is induced by increased phosphorylation of tau protein and activation of tau kinases, i.e. glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. Additionally, Abeta treatment induced cleavage of caspase-3 and decreased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein, which are critical in determining survival of neurons. Memantine treatment significantly protected cultured neurons against Abeta-induced toxicity by attenuating tau-phosphorylation and its associated signaling mechanisms. However, this drug did not alter either conformation or internalization of Abeta(1-42) and it was unable to attenuate Abeta-induced potentiation of extracellular glutamate levels. These results, taken together, provide new insights into the possible neuroprotective action of memantine in AD pathology. PMID:19046381

  7. Soman and glutamate toxicity in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons: An in vitro model for testing neuroprotective drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, S.S.; Filbert, M.G.; Cann, F.J.

    1993-05-13

    An in vitro mammalian model neuronal system to evaluate intrinsic toxicity of soman and other neurotoxicants and the efficacy of potential countermeasures was developed. Primary dissociated cell cultures from rat hippocampus and cerebral neocortex have been established. The link between soman toxicity, glutamate hyperactivity and neuronal death in the central nervous system was investigated. The cytotoxicity was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion and also from the measurement of LDH released by damaged cells in the extracellular fluid 24 hr after exposure. Cortical or hippocampal cells exposed to glutamate for 15 min caused neuronal death in almost 80 % of the cells examined at 24 hr. when cortical cells were exposed to soman alone for 15 to 120 min, washed to remove excess ChE inhibitor and incubated for 24 hr, no damage was evident as assessed by trypan blue exclusion or LDH assay. Soman does not appear to have direct toxic effect on the cerebral cortical neurons.

  8. Comparison of biomaterials and extracellular matrices as a culture platform for multiple, independently derived human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Heidi; Rajala, Kristiina; Ojala, Marisa; Panula, Sarita; Areva, Sami; Kellomäki, Minna; Suuronen, Riitta; Skottman, Heli

    2009-07-01

    Long-term in vitro culture of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) traditionally requires a fibroblast feeder cell layer. Using feeder cells in hESC cultures is highly laborious and limits large-scale hESC production for potential application in regenerative medicine. Replacing feeder cells with defined human extracellular matrix (ECM) components or synthetic biomaterials would be ideal for large-scale production of clinical-grade hESCs. We tested and compared different feeder cell-free hESC culture methods based on different human ECM proteins, human and animal sera matrices, and a Matrigel matrix. Also selected biomaterials were tested for feeder cell-free propagation of undifferentiated hESCs. The matrices were tested together with conventional and modified hESC culture media, human foreskin fibroblast-conditioned culture medium, chemically defined medium, TeSR1, and modified TeSR1 media. The results showed the undefined, xenogeneic Matrigel to be a superior matrix for hESC culture compared with the purified human ECM proteins, serum matrices, and the biomaterials tested. A long-term, feeder cell-free culture system was successful on Matrigel in combination with mTeSR1 culture medium, but a xeno-free, fully defined, and reproducible feeder cell-free hESC culture method still remains to be developed. PMID:19132919

  9. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat{sup b}/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • Et

  10. Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Thomas; Voigt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of neuronal activity by means of electrical stimulation is a successful therapeutic approach for patients suffering from a variety of central nervous system disorders. Prototypic networks formed by cultured cortical neurons represent an important model system to gain general insights in the input-output relationships of neuronal tissue. These networks undergo a multitude of developmental changes during their maturation, such as the excitatory-inhibitory shift of the neurotransmitter GABA. Very few studies have addressed how the output properties to a given stimulus change with ongoing development. Here, we investigate input-output relationships of cultured cortical networks by probing cultures with and without functional GABAAergic synaptic transmission with a set of stimulation paradigms at various stages of maturation. On the cellular level, low stimulation rates (<15 Hz) led to reliable neuronal responses; higher rates were increasingly ineffective. Similarly, on the network level, lowest stimulation rates (<0.1 Hz) lead to maximal output rates at all ages, indicating a network wide refractory period after each stimulus. In cultures aged 3 weeks and older, a gradual recovery of the network excitability within tens of milliseconds was in contrast to an abrupt recovery after about 5 s in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. In these GABA deficient cultures evoked responses were prolonged and had multiple discharges. Furthermore, the network excitability changed periodically, with a very slow spontaneous change of the overall network activity in the minute range, which was not observed in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. The electrically evoked activity of cultured cortical networks, therefore, is governed by at least two potentially interacting mechanisms: A refractory period in the order of a few seconds and a very slow GABA dependent oscillation of the network excitability. PMID:26236196

  11. Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Thomas; Voigt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of neuronal activity by means of electrical stimulation is a successful therapeutic approach for patients suffering from a variety of central nervous system disorders. Prototypic networks formed by cultured cortical neurons represent an important model system to gain general insights in the input–output relationships of neuronal tissue. These networks undergo a multitude of developmental changes during their maturation, such as the excitatory–inhibitory shift of the neurotransmitter GABA. Very few studies have addressed how the output properties to a given stimulus change with ongoing development. Here, we investigate input–output relationships of cultured cortical networks by probing cultures with and without functional GABAAergic synaptic transmission with a set of stimulation paradigms at various stages of maturation. On the cellular level, low stimulation rates (<15 Hz) led to reliable neuronal responses; higher rates were increasingly ineffective. Similarly, on the network level, lowest stimulation rates (<0.1 Hz) lead to maximal output rates at all ages, indicating a network wide refractory period after each stimulus. In cultures aged 3 weeks and older, a gradual recovery of the network excitability within tens of milliseconds was in contrast to an abrupt recovery after about 5 s in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. In these GABA deficient cultures evoked responses were prolonged and had multiple discharges. Furthermore, the network excitability changed periodically, with a very slow spontaneous change of the overall network activity in the minute range, which was not observed in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. The electrically evoked activity of cultured cortical networks, therefore, is governed by at least two potentially interacting mechanisms: A refractory period in the order of a few seconds and a very slow GABA dependent oscillation of the network excitability. PMID:26236196

  12. Protective effect of donepezil in primary-cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Akasofu, Shigeru; Kimura, Manami; Kosasa, Takashi; Ogura, Hiroo; Sawada, Kohei

    2006-01-20

    Donepezil has a neuroprotective effect against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury and glutamate toxicity in cultured cortical neurons. In this study, we further characterized the neuroprotective properties of donepezil in rat cortical cell cultures using glutamate receptor-specific agonists (N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and kainate). Pretreatment with donepezil (1 microM) for 12 h significantly decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in response to NMDA (100 microM) by 43.8%, and reduced the LDH release in response to kainate (100 microM) and AMPA (100 microM) by 11.9% and 7.5% (without statistical significance), respectively. Donepezil appeared to inhibit LDH release in a concentration-dependent manner at 0.1-10 microM. Cortical neurons exposed to NMDA retained a normal morphological appearance in the presence of 10 microM donepezil. In binding assay for glutamate receptors, donepezil at 100 microM only slightly inhibited binding to the glycine and polyamine sites on NMDA receptor complex. On the other hand, 12 h pretreatment with donepezil at 10 and 100 microM significantly decreased the NMDA-induced increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In conclusion, our results show that donepezil has protective activity against NMDA toxicity in cortical neurons, and this neuroprotection seems to be partially mediated by inhibition of the increase of [Ca2+]i. PMID:16406045

  13. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26816095

  14. Transport mechanisms for adenosine and uridine in primary-cultured rat cortical neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Sadaki

    2005-09-01

    Endogenous adenosine and uridine are important modulators of neural survival and activity. In the present study, we examined transport mechanisms of adenosine and uridine in primary-cultured rat cortical neurons, and compared the results for neurons with those for astrocytes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified the mRNAs for ENT1, ENT2, and CNT2, but not CNT1 and CNT3, in neurons and astrocytes. [3H]Adenosine and [3H]uridine were time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependently taken up into neurons and astrocytes. In kinetic analyses, the uptake of both substrates by neurons and astrocytes consisted of two and one, respectively, saturable transport components. The uptake clearance for both substrates by neurons was greater than that by astrocytes. The relative contribution of the high-affinity major component of both substrates to total uptake was estimated to be approximately 80% in neurons. The uptake of [3H]adenosine and [3H]uridine by both neurons and astrocytes was almost entirely Na+-independent, and sensitive to micro, but not nano, molar concentrations of nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside, which are transport characteristics of ENT2. Therefore, it was indicated that adenosine and uridine are more efficiently taken up into neurons than into astrocytes, and ENT2 may predominantly contribute to the transport of the nucleosides as a high-affinity transport system in neurons, as in the case of astrocytes. PMID:16043124

  15. Rosuvastatin induces delayed preconditioning against L-glutamate excitotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Domoki, Ferenc; Kis, Béla; Gáspár, Tamás; Snipes, James A.; Bari, Ferenc; Busija, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether rosuvastatin (RST) protected against excitotoxic neuronal cell death in rat primary cortical neuronal cultures. L-glutamate (200µM, 1h) reduced neuronal viability (% of naive controls, mean±SEM, n=8–32, *p<0.05) from 100±2% to 60±1%*, but pretreatment with RST (0.5 µM, 3 days) increased survival to 88±2%*. RST-induced neuroprotection was not affected by coapplication with mevalonate (10µM), although the same dose of mevalonate fully prevented the neurotoxic effects of a high dose (20µM) of RST. RST (0.5 µM) pretreatment did not affect mitochondrial membrane potential or superoxide anion levels in quiescent neurons. However, RST pretreatment blunted elevations in free intracellular Ca2+ and reduced increases in superoxide anion levels following glutamate exposure. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), copper-zinc SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels were unaffected by RST pretreatment. In contrast, acute, one time RST application did not affect either baseline or L-glutamate-induced increases in superoxide levels. In summary, 3- day RST pretreatment induces resistance to the excitotoxic effect of L-glutamate in cultured neurons apparently by a mechanism that is independent of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A- reductase inhibition. The delayed neuroprotection by RST against excitotoxicity does not involve sustained mitochondrial depolarization or superoxide anion production as initiating events, although it is associated with reduced Ca2+ influx and superoxide anion production upon L-glutamate challenge. PMID:19931334

  16. Serum-based culture conditions provoke gene expression variability in mouse embryonic stem cells as revealed by single cell analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guoji; Pinello, Luca; Han, Xiaoping; Lai, Shujing; Shen, Li; Lin, Ta-Wei; Zou, Keyong; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Variation in gene expression is an important feature of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the mechanisms responsible for global gene expression variation in ESCs are not fully understood. We performed single cell mRNA-seq analysis of mouse ESCs and uncovered significant heterogeneity in ESCs cultured in serum. We define highly variable gene clusters with distinct chromatin states; and show that bivalent genes are prone to expression variation. At the same time, we identify an ESC priming pathway that initiates the exit from the naïve ESC state. Finally, we provide evidence that a large proportion of intracellular network variability is due to the extracellular culture environment. Serum free culture reduces cellular heterogeneity and transcriptome variation in ESCs. PMID:26804902

  17. Scale-up of human embryonic stem cell culture using a hollow fibre bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Iwan; Baila, Stefano; Rice, R Brent; Janssens, Michiel Etienne; Nguyen, Kim; Moens, Nathalie; Ruban, Ludmila; Hernandez, Diana; Coffey, Pete; Mason, Chris

    2012-12-01

    The commercialisation of human embryonic stem cell derived cell therapies for large patient populations is reliant on both minimising expensive and variable manual-handling methods whilst realising economies of scale. The Quantum Cell Expansion System, a hollow fibre bioreactor (Terumo BCT), was used in a pilot study to expand 60 million human embryonic stem cells to 708 million cells. Further improvements can be expected with optimisation of media flow rates throughout the run to better control the cellular microenvironment. High levels of pluripotency marker expression were maintained on the bioreactor, with 97.7 % of cells expressing SSEA-4 when harvested. PMID:22983716

  18. An endothelial cultured condition medium embedded porous PLGA scaffold for the enhancement of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Wen; Pan, Wei-Ting; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a microporous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold that combines a continuous release property and a three-dimensional (3D) scaffolding technique for the precise and efficient formation of endothelial cell lineage from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Eight PLGA scaffolds (14.29%, 16.67%, 20% and 25% concentrations of PLGA solutions) mixed with two crystal sizes of sodium chloride (NaCl) were fabricated by leaching. Then, vascular endothelial cell conditioned medium (ECCM) mixed with gelatin was embedded into the scaffold for culturing of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The 14.29% PLGA scaffolds fabricated using non-ground NaCl particles (NG-PLGA) and the 25% PLGA containing scaffolds fabricated using ground NaCl particles (G-PLGA) possessed minimum and maximum moisture content and bovine serum albumin (BSA) content properties, respectively. These two groups of scaffolds were used for future experiments in this study. Cell culture results demonstrated that the proposed porous scaffolds without growth factors were sufficient to induce mouse ESCs to differentiate into endothelial-like cells in the early culture stages, and combined with embedded ECCM could provide a long-term inducing system for ESC differentiation. PMID:27068738

  19. Effect of glutamate on lysosomal membrane permeabilization in primary cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    YAN, MIN; ZHU, WENBO; ZHENG, XIAOKE; LI, YUAN; TANG, LIPENG; LU, BINGZHENG; CHEN, WENLI; QIU, PENGXIN; LENG, TIANDONG; LIN, SUIZHEN; YAN, GUANGMEI; YIN, WEI

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the principal neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the predominant cause of cerebral damage. Recent studies have shown that lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is involved in ischemia-associated neuronal death in non-human primates. This study was designed to investigate the effect of glutamate on lysosomal stability in primary cultured cortical neurons. Glutamate treatment for 30 min induced the permeabilization of lysosomal membranes as assessed by acridine orange redistribution and immunofluorescence of cathepsin B in the cytoplasm. Inhibition of glutamate excitotoxicity by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the calcium chelator ethylene glycolbis (2-aminoethylether)-N, N, N′, N′-tetraacetic acid, rescued lysosomes from permeabilization. The role of calpain and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inducing LMP was also investigated. Ca2+ overload following glutamate treatment induced the activation of calpain and the production of ROS, which are two major contributors to neuronal death. It has been reported that lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) and heat shock protein (HSP)70 are two calpain substrates that promote LMP in cancer cells; however, it was found that calpains were activated by glutamate, but only LAMP2 was subsequently degraded. Furthermore, LMP was not alleviated by treatment with the calpain inhibitors calpeptin and SJA6017, which blocked the cleavage of the calpain substrate α-fodrin. It was demonstrated that LMP was significantly alleviated by treatment with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, indicating that LMP involvement in early glutamate excitotoxicity may be mediated partly by ROS rather than calpain activation. Overall, these data shed light on the role of ROS-mediated LMP in early glutamate excitotoxicity. PMID:26821268

  20. Effects of chelators on mercury, iron, and lead neurotoxicity in cortical culture.

    PubMed

    Rush, Travis; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Lobner, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy for the treatment of acute, high dose exposure to heavy metals is accepted medical practice. However, a much wider use of metal chelators is by alternative health practitioners for so called "chelation therapy". Given this widespread and largely unregulated use of metal chelators it is important to understand the actions of these compounds. We tested the effects of four commonly used metal chelators, calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa2EDTA), D-penicillamine (DPA), 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS), and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for their effects on heavy metal neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultures. We studied the toxicity of three forms of mercury, inorganic mercury (HgCl2), methyl mercury (MeHg), and ethyl mercury (thimerosal), as well as lead (PbCl2) and iron (Fe-citrate). DPA had the worst profile of effects, providing no protection while potentiating HgCl2, thimerosal, and Fe-citrate toxicity. DMPS and DMSA both attenuated HgCl2 toxicity and potentiated thimerosal and Fe toxicity, while DMPS also potentiated PbCl2 toxicity. CaNa2EDTA attenuated HgCl2 toxicity, but caused a severe potentiation of Fe-citrate toxicity. The ability of these chelators to attenuate the toxicity of various metals is quite restricted, and potentiation of toxicity is a serious concern. Specifically, protection is provided only against inorganic mercury, while it is lacking against the common form of mercury found in food, MeHg, and the form found in vaccines, thimerosal. The potentiation of Fe-citrate toxicity is of concern because of iron's role in oxidative stress in the body. Potentiation of iron toxicity could have serious health consequences when using chelation therapy. PMID:19027035

  1. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-06-30

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

  2. Three-Dimensional Neuroepithelial Culture from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Its Use for Quantitative Conversion to Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu; Carido, Madalena; Meinhardt, Andrea; Kurth, Thomas; Karl, Mike O.; Ader, Marius; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2013-01-01

    A goal in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research is the faithful differentiation to given cell types such as neural lineages. During embryonic development, a basement membrane surrounds the neural plate that forms a tight, apico-basolaterally polarized epithelium before closing to form a neural tube with a single lumen. Here we show that the three-dimensional epithelial cyst culture of hESCs in Matrigel combined with neural induction results in a quantitative conversion into neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen. Cells attain a defined neuroepithelial identity by 5 days. The neuroepithelial cysts naturally generate retinal epithelium, in part due to IGF-1/insulin signaling. We demonstrate the utility of this epithelial culture approach by achieving a quantitative production of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from hESCs within 30 days. Direct transplantation of this RPE into a rat model of retinal degeneration without any selection or expansion of the cells results in the formation of a donor-derived RPE monolayer that rescues photoreceptor cells. The cyst method for neuroepithelial differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is not only of importance for RPE generation but will also be relevant to the production of other neuronal cell types and for reconstituting complex patterning events from three-dimensional neuroepithelia. PMID:23358448

  3. [Influence of the activator of transcription GAL4 on growth and development of embryos and embryonic cells in primary cultures of sand dollar].

    PubMed

    Odintsova, N A; Kiselev, K V; Bulgakov, V P; Kol'tsova, E A; Iakovlev, K V

    2003-01-01

    In order to solve many tasks of biotechnology, constant lines of the cells of marine invertebrates with a high growth potential are required, which are absent at present. We used the universal activator of transcription gal4 to change the degree of expression of genes of growth factors in embryonic sea urchin cells and, thereby, increase their proliferative activity. The fertilized sea urchin eggs and dissociated embryonic cells at the blastula stage were treated with plasmids containing both the functional gene gal4 and the gene devoid of the regions encoding the activator domain. The transfection of embryonic sea urchin eggs with the functional gene led to cell dedifferentiation and formation of tumor-like structures in the embryos or increased number of embryonic cells in culture. In the cells obtained from the transfected embryos, the pigments were found within two months of cultivation, whose absorption spectrum coincided with that of echinochrome. PMID:12942737

  4. Increased Risk of Genetic and Epigenetic Instability in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Associated with Specific Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Garitaonandia, Ibon; Amir, Hadar; Boscolo, Francesca Sesillo; Wambua, Gerald K.; Schultheisz, Heather L.; Sabatini, Karen; Morey, Robert; Waltz, Shannon; Wang, Yu-Chieh; Tran, Ha; Leonardo, Trevor R.; Nazor, Kristopher; Slavin, Ileana; Lynch, Candace; Li, Yingchun; Coleman, Ronald; Gallego Romero, Irene; Altun, Gulsah; Reynolds, David; Dalton, Stephen; Parast, Mana; Loring, Jeanne F.; Laurent, Louise C.

    2015-01-01

    The self-renewal and differentiation capacities of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) make them a promising source of material for cell transplantation therapy, drug development, and studies of cellular differentiation and development. However, the large numbers of cells necessary for many of these applications require extensive expansion of hPSC cultures, a process that has been associated with genetic and epigenetic alterations. We have performed a combinatorial study on both hESCs and hiPSCs to compare the effects of enzymatic vs. mechanical passaging, and feeder-free vs. mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder substrate, on the genetic and epigenetic stability and the phenotypic characteristics of hPSCs. In extensive experiments involving over 100 continuous passages, we observed that both enzymatic passaging and feeder-free culture were associated with genetic instability, higher rates of cell proliferation, and persistence of OCT4/POU5F1-positive cells in teratomas, with enzymatic passaging having the stronger effect. In all combinations of culture conditions except for mechanical passaging on feeder layers, we noted recurrent deletions in the genomic region containing the tumor suppressor gene TP53, which was associated with decreased mRNA expression of TP53, as well as alterations in the expression of several downstream genes consistent with a decrease in the activity of the TP53 pathway. Among the hESC cultures, we also observed culture-associated variations in global gene expression and DNA methylation. The effects of enzymatic passaging and feeder-free conditions were also observed in hiPSC cultures. Our results highlight the need for careful assessment of the effects of culture conditions on cells intended for clinical therapies. PMID:25714340

  5. Effects of methylmercury upon dissociated embryonic rat brain cells in rotation-mediated re-aggregation culture

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B.H.; Ahn, B.T. )

    1989-02-09

    In order to test the hypothesis that methylmercury poisoning disrupts the organization and differentiation of the developing brain, mechanically dissociated cells from embryonic rat cerebra (E-17) and grown in rotation-mediated aggregation cultures were exposed varying concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 {mu}M) of methylmercuric chloride (MMC) in F-12 medium containing 5% fetal calf and 5% horse sera. Controls received physiological saline in place of MMC. Cultures were harvested at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days and examined by phase and EM, radioautography, and immunocytochemistry. Although both control and MMC-exposed cells formed aggregates within 24 hours, the latter showed disaggregation of cell clumps at 48 hours and failure to reaggregate thereafter, whereas, in control cultures, there was progressive aggregation with EM evidence of differentiation. In control cultures, peripherally situated astrocytes extended their processes around and into the clumps, thereby maintaining the integrity of the clumps. Direct toxic damage to astrocytes interferes with this integrity and appear to play a major role in the disaggregation and failure of reaggregation. Preservation of the 3H-TdR labeling index in Hg-exposed cells despite disaggregation and cytotoxicity suggests that cells proliferation continues at the levels of Hg concentrations used while reaggregation is severely affected.

  6. The effects of BmNPV on biochemical changes in primary cultures of Bombyx mori embryonic tissue.

    PubMed

    Matindoost, Leila; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Etebari, Kayvan; Rahbarizade, Fateme

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) on biochemical changes of TC-100 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in embryonic primary cultures of silkworm was investigated. The primary cultures that reached 60% confluence were infected by 0.5, 1, and 2-ml viral inoculums (diluted with TC-100 medium representing multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.25, 0.5, and 1). Glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the medium of BmNPV-infected primary cultures. All biochemical compounds showed significant changes. Glucose decreased considerably by about 55 mg/ml, while different concentrations of the virus inoculums did not demonstrate significant differences among them. Total protein had only increased in 2 ml concentration and there were no changes in other concentrations. Uric acid as a by-product accumulated dramatically in all concentrations, while the amount of urea reduced in all treatments and this reduction was more evident in lower concentrations. Cholesterol consumption was high in cultures postinfection, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity decreased in infected cells. PMID:18288542

  7. Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium

    PubMed Central

    Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Todorović, Slađana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae) produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of the Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 sesquiterpene lactones from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All sesquiterpene lactones containing the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE although a number of compounds displayed significant cellular toxicity towards the cultures. The structure activity relationship of the sesquiterpene lactones indicate that the guaianolides isolated were more active and less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

  8. Fabrication of uniform-sized poly-ɛ-caprolactone microspheres and their applications in human embryonic stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Lam, Alan Tin-Lun; Toh, Jessica Pei Wen; Reuveny, Shaul; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng; Birch, William R

    2015-12-01

    The generation of liquefied poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) droplets by means of a microfluidic device results in uniform-sized microspheres, which are validated as microcarriers for human embryonic stem cell culture. Formed droplet size and size distribution, as well as the resulting PCL microsphere size, are correlated with the viscosity and flow rate ratio of the dispersed (Q d) and continuous (Q c) phases. PCL in dichloromethane increases its viscosity with concentration and molecular weight. Higher viscosity and Q d/Q c lead to the formation of larger droplets, within two observed formation modes: dripping and jetting. At low viscosity of dispersed phase and Q d/Q c, the microfluidic device is operated in dripping mode, which generates droplets and microspheres with greater size uniformity. Solutions with lower molecular weight PCL have lower viscosity, resulting in a wider concentration range for the dripping mode. When coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, the fabricated PCL microspheres are demonstrated capable of supporting the expansion of human embryonic stem cells. PMID:26458560

  9. Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Hepatic Endoderm and Its Role in Bioartificial Liver Construction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruchi; Greenhough, Sebastian; Medine, Claire N.; Hay, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays. PMID:20169088

  10. Epidermal growth factor improves developmental competence and embryonic quality of singly cultured domestic cat embryos

    PubMed Central

    THONGKITTIDILOK, Chommanart; THARASANIT, Theerawat; SONGSASEN, Nucharin; SANANMUANG, Thanida; BUARPUNG, Sirirak; TECHAKUMPHU, Mongkol

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of EGF on the expression of EGF receptors (EGFR) and developmental competence of embryos cultured individually versus those cultured in groups. Cat oocytes were in vitro matured and fertilized (IVM/IVF), and cleaved embryos were randomly assigned to one of seven culture conditions: one group each in which embryos were subjected to group culture supplemented with or without 5 ng/ml EGF and five groups in which embryos were subjected to single-embryo culture supplemented with EGF (0, 5, 25, 50 or 100 ng/ml). Morulae, blastocysts and hatching blastocysts were assessed at days 5 and 7; post IVF, respectively, and total blastocyst cell numbers were assessed at day 7. Relative mRNA expressions of EGFR of 2–4-cell embryos, 8–16-cell embryos, morulae and blastocysts cultured in groups or singly with or without EGF supplementation were examined. OCT3/4 and Ki67 in blastocysts derived from the group or single-embryo culture systems with or without EGF supplementation were localized. A higher rate of embryos cultured in groups developed to blastocysts than individually incubated cohorts. Although EGF increased blastocyst formation in the single-embryo culture system, EGF did not affect embryo development in group culture. Expression levels of EGFR decreased in morulae and blastocysts cultured with EGF. An increased ratio of Ki67-positive cells to the total number of cells in the blastocyst was observed in singly cultured embryos in the presence of EGF. However, EGF did not affect the expression of OCT3/4. These findings indicate that EGF enhanced developmental competence of cat embryos cultured singly by stimulating cell proliferation and modulating the EGFR expression at various developmental stages. PMID:25985792

  11. Co-culture with endometrial stromal cells enhances the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into endometrium-like cells

    PubMed Central

    YU, WENZHU; NIU, WENBIN; WANG, SHUNA; CHEN, XUEMEI; SUN, BO; WANG, FANG; SUN, YINGPU

    2015-01-01

    In vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into endometrium-like cells may provide a useful tool for clinical treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differentiation potential of hESCs into endometrium-like cells using three methods, which included induction by feeder cells, co-culture with endometrial stromal cells and induction with embryoid bodies. Following differentiation, the majority of cells positively expressed cytokeratin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM). Factors associated with endometrium cell function, namely the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), were also detected. At day 21 following the induction of differentiation, the expression levels of cytokeratin, EPCAM, ER and PR were significantly increased in the co-culture method group, as compared with the other two methods. Furthermore, these cells became decidualized in response to progesterone and prolactin. In addition, the number of cytokeratin-positive or EPCAM-positive cells significantly increased following the induction of differentiation using the co-culture method, as compared with the other two methods. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt members that are associated with endometrial development were subsequently examined, and Wnt5a was found to be significantly upregulated in the differentiated cells induced by feeder cells and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells; however, Wnt4 and Wnt7a expression levels were unaffected. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of Wnt5a in the differentiated cells co-cultured with endometrial stromal cells were higher when compared with those induced by feeder cells. In conclusion, the present findings indicated that the co-culture system is the optimal protocol for the induction of hESC differentiation into endometrium-like cells, and Wnt5a signaling may be involved in this process. PMID:26170910

  12. Functional anterior pituitary generated in self-organizing culture of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ozone, Chikafumi; Suga, Hidetaka; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Kadoshima, Taisuke; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Takata, Nozomu; Oiso, Yutaka; Tsuji, Takashi; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Anterior pituitary is critical for endocrine systems. Its hormonal responses to positive and negative regulators are indispensable for homeostasis. For this reason, generating human anterior pituitary tissue that retains regulatory hormonal control in vitro is an important step for the development of cell transplantation therapy for pituitary diseases. Here we achieve this by recapitulating mouse pituitary development using human embryonic stem cells. We find that anterior pituitary self-forms in vitro following the co-induction of hypothalamic and oral ectoderm. The juxtaposition of these tissues facilitated the formation of pituitary placode, which subsequently differentiated into pituitary hormone-producing cells. They responded normally to both releasing and feedback signals. In addition, after transplantation into hypopituitary mice, the in vitro-generated corticotrophs rescued physical activity levels and survival of the hosts. Thus, we report a useful methodology for the production of regulator-responsive human pituitary tissue that may benefit future studies in regenerative medicine. PMID:26762480

  13. Functional anterior pituitary generated in self-organizing culture of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ozone, Chikafumi; Suga, Hidetaka; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Kadoshima, Taisuke; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Takata, Nozomu; Oiso, Yutaka; Tsuji, Takashi; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Anterior pituitary is critical for endocrine systems. Its hormonal responses to positive and negative regulators are indispensable for homeostasis. For this reason, generating human anterior pituitary tissue that retains regulatory hormonal control in vitro is an important step for the development of cell transplantation therapy for pituitary diseases. Here we achieve this by recapitulating mouse pituitary development using human embryonic stem cells. We find that anterior pituitary self-forms in vitro following the co-induction of hypothalamic and oral ectoderm. The juxtaposition of these tissues facilitated the formation of pituitary placode, which subsequently differentiated into pituitary hormone-producing cells. They responded normally to both releasing and feedback signals. In addition, after transplantation into hypopituitary mice, the in vitro-generated corticotrophs rescued physical activity levels and survival of the hosts. Thus, we report a useful methodology for the production of regulator-responsive human pituitary tissue that may benefit future studies in regenerative medicine. PMID:26762480

  14. LOWERING PH INCREASES EMBRYONIC SENSITIVITY TO FORMATE IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of formate exposure on mammalian embryo development were investigated using the rat whole embryo culture system as a model. ay 9.5 (presomite) rat embryos were explanted and cultured for 48 hours in rotating bottles containing rat serum with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 or 1...

  15. Increased adipogenesis in cultured embryonic chondrocytes and in adult bone marrow of dominant negative Erg transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Flajollet, Sébastien; Tian, Tian V; Huot, Ludovic; Tomavo, Nathalie; Flourens, Anne; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Le Jeune, Marion; Dumont, Patrick; Hot, David; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In monolayer culture, primary articular chondrocytes have an intrinsic tendency to lose their phenotype during expansion. The molecular events underlying this chondrocyte dedifferentiation are still largely unknown. Several transcription factors are important for chondrocyte differentiation. The Ets transcription factor family may be involved in skeletal development. One family member, the Erg gene, is mainly expressed during cartilage formation. To further investigate the potential role of Erg in the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, we isolated and cultured chondrocytes from the rib cartilage of embryos of transgenic mice that express a dominant negative form of Erg (DN-Erg) during cartilage formation. DN-Erg expression in chondrocytes cultured for up to 20 days did not affect the early dedifferentiation usually observed in cultured chondrocytes. However, lipid droplets accumulated in DN-Erg chondrocytes, suggesting adipocyte emergence. Transcriptomic analysis using a DNA microarray, validated by quantitative RT-PCR, revealed strong differential gene expression, with a decrease in chondrogenesis-related markers and an increase in adipogenesis-related gene expression in cultured DN-Erg chondrocytes. These results indicate that Erg is involved in either maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype in vitro or in cell fate orientation. Along with the in vitro studies, we compared adipocyte presence in wild-type and transgenic mice skeletons. Histological investigations revealed an increase in the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow of adult DN-Erg mice even though no adipocytes were detected in embryonic cartilage or bone. These findings suggest that the Ets transcription factor family may contribute to the homeostatic balance in skeleton cell plasticity. PMID:23155398

  16. IL-10 Promotes Neurite Outgrowth and Synapse Formation in Cultured Cortical Neurons after the Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation via JAK1/STAT3 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongbin; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Yixian; Lin, Longzai; Chen, Jianhao; Zeng, Yongping; Zheng, Mouwei; Zhuang, Zezhong; Du, Houwei; Chen, Ronghua; Liu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    As a classic immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10) provides neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia in vivo or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury in vitro. However, it remains blurred whether IL-10 promotes neurite outgrowth and synapse formation in cultured primary cortical neurons after OGD injury. In order to evaluate its effect on neuronal apoptosis, neurite outgrowth and synapse formation, we administered IL-10 or IL-10 neutralizing antibody (IL-10NA) to cultured rat primary cortical neurons after OGD injury. We found that IL-10 treatment activated the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Moreover, IL-10 attenuated OGD-induced neuronal apoptosis by down-regulating the Bax expression and up-regulating the Bcl-2 expression, facilitated neurite outgrowth by increasing the expression of Netrin-1, and promoted synapse formation in cultured primary cortical neurons after OGD injury. These effects were partly abolished by JAK1 inhibitor GLPG0634. Contrarily, IL-10NA produced opposite effects on the cultured cortical neurons after OGD injury. Taken together, our findings suggest that IL-10 not only attenuates neuronal apoptosis, but also promotes neurite outgrowth and synapse formation via the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway in cultured primary cortical neurons after OGD injury. PMID:27456198

  17. Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured in Microfluidic Chambers Take Control of Their Fate by Producing Endogenous Signals Including LIF.

    PubMed

    Guild, Joshua; Haque, Amranul; Gheibi, Pantea; Gao, Yandong; Son, Kyung Jin; Foster, Elena; Dumont, Sophie; Revzin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the role played by endogenous signals in shaping stem cell fate decisions to develop better culture systems and to improve understanding of development processes. In this study, we describe the behavior of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) inside microfluidic chambers (microchambers) operated under conditions of minimal perfusion. mESCs inside microchambers formed colonies and expressed markers of pluripotency in the absence of feeders or pluripotency-inducing signals such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), while mESCs in standard cultureware differentiated rapidly. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that remarkable differences in stem cell phenotype are due to endogenous production of LIF and other growth factors brought upon by cultivation in confines of a microchamber in the absence of perfusion (dilution). At the protein level, mESCs produced ∼140 times more LIF inside microchambers than under standard culture conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that pluripotent phenotype of stem cells could be degraded by increasing the height (volume) of the microchamber. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of LIF in microchambers, via the JAK/STAT3 pathway, leads to preferential differentiation into mesoderm that is driven by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to design a cell culture system where stem cell fate is controlled solely by the endogenous signals. Our study may help shift the paradigm of stem cell cultivation away from relying on expensive exogenous molecules such as growth factors and toward designing culture chambers for harnessing endogenous signals. Stem Cells 2016;34:1501-1512. PMID:26865369

  18. In vitro culture of embryonic mouse intestinal epithelium: cell differentiation and introduction of reporter genes

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jonathan M; Yu, Wei-Yuan; Hornsey, Mark A; Tosh, David; Slack, Jonathan MW

    2006-01-01

    Background Study of the normal development of the intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable model systems, in particular ones that enable the introduction of exogenous genes. Production of such a system would advance our understanding of normal epithelial development and help to shed light on the pathogenesis of intestinal neoplasia. The criteria for a reliable culture system include the ability to perform real time observations and manipulations in vitro, the preparation of wholemounts for immunostaining and the potential for introducing genes. Results The new culture system involves growing mouse embryo intestinal explants on fibronectin-coated coverslips in basal Eagle's medium+20% fetal bovine serum. Initially the cultures maintain expression of the intestinal transcription factor Cdx2 together with columnar epithelial (cytokeratin 8) and mesenchymal (smooth muscle actin) markers. Over a few days of culture, differentiation markers appear characteristic of absorptive epithelium (sucrase-isomaltase), goblet cells (Periodic Acid Schiff positive), enteroendocrine cells (chromogranin A) and Paneth cells (lysozyme). Three different approaches were tested to express genes in the developing cultures: transfection, electroporation and adenoviral infection. All could introduce genes into the mesenchyme, but only to a small extent into the epithelium. However the efficiency of adenovirus infection can be greatly improved by a limited enzyme digestion, which makes accessible the lateral faces of cells bearing the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. This enables reliable delivery of genes into epithelial cells. Conclusion We describe a new in vitro culture system for the small intestine of the mouse embryo that recapitulates its normal development. The system both provides a model for studying normal development of the intestinal epithelium and also allows for the manipulation of gene expression. The explants can be cultured for up to two weeks, they

  19. Pigmented epithelium induces complete retinal reconstitution from dispersed embryonic chick retinae in reaggregation culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rothermel, A; Willbold, E; Degrip, W J; Layer, P G

    1997-01-01

    Reaggregation of dispersed retinal cells of the chick embryo leads to histotypic retinospheroids in which the laminar organization remains incomplete: photoreceptors form rosettes which are surrounded by constituents of the other retinal layers. Here, for the first time, a complete arrangement of layers is achieved in cellular spheres (stratoids), provided that fully dispersed retinal cells are younger than embryonic day E6, and are reaggregated in the presence of a monolayer of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). A remarkable mechanism of stratoid formation from 1 to 15 days in vitro is revealed by the establishment of a radial Müller glia scaffold and of photoreceptors. During the first two days of reaggregation on RPE, rosettes are still observed. At this stage immunostaining with vimentin and F11 antibodies for radial Müller glia reveal a disorganized pattern. Subsequently, radial glia processes organize into long parallel fibre bundles which are arranged like spokes to stabilize the surface and centre of the stratoid. The opsin-specific antibody CERN 901 detects photoreceptors as they gradually build up an outer nuclear layer at the surface. These findings assign to the RPE a decisive role for the genesis and regeneration of a vertebrate retina. PMID:9332014

  20. Continuous Hypoxic Culturing of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Enhances SSEA-3 and MYC Levels

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Asta; Rahkonen, Nelly; Emani, Maheswara Reddy; Viitala, Miro; Laurila, Kirsti; Sahla, Roosa; Lund, Riikka; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Jaakkola, Panu; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) contributes critically to pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by preventing spontaneous differentiation and supporting self-renewal. However, it is not well understood how hESCs respond to reduced oxygen availability and what are the molecular mechanisms maintaining pluripotency in these conditions. In this study we characterized the transcriptional and molecular responses of three hESC lines (H9, HS401 and HS360) on short (2 hours), intermediate (24 hours) and prolonged (7 days) exposure to low oxygen conditions (4% O2). In response to prolonged hypoxia the expression of pluripotency surface marker SSEA-3 was increased. Furthermore, the genome wide gene-expression analysis revealed that a substantial proportion (12%) of all hypoxia-regulated genes in hESCs, were directly linked to the mechanisms controlling pluripotency or differentiation. Moreover, transcription of MYC oncogene was induced in response to continuous hypoxia. At the protein level MYC was stabilized through phosphorylation already in response to a short hypoxic exposure. Total MYC protein levels remained elevated throughout all the time points studied. Further, MYC protein expression in hypoxia was affected by silencing HIF2α, but not HIF1α. Since MYC has a crucial role in regulating pluripotency we propose that induction of sustained MYC expression in hypoxia contributes to activation of transcriptional programs critical for hESC self-renewal and maintenance of enhanced pluripotent state. PMID:24236059

  1. Immobilization of Heparan Sulfate on Electrospun Meshes to Support Embryonic Stem Cell Culture and Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Kate A.; White, Kathryn J.; Pickford, Claire E.; Holley, Rebecca J.; Marson, Andrew; Tillotson, Donna; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Whittle, Jason D.; Day, Anthony J.; Merry, Catherine L. R.

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of what guides the behavior of multi- and pluripotent stem cells deepens, so too does our ability to utilize certain cues to manipulate their behavior and maximize their therapeutic potential. Engineered, biologically functionalized materials have the capacity to influence stem cell behavior through a powerful combination of biological, mechanical, and topographical cues. Here, we present the development of a novel electrospun scaffold, functionalized with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ionically immobilized onto the fiber surface. Bound GAGs retained the ability to interact with GAG-binding molecules and, crucially, presented GAG sulfation motifs fundamental to mediating stem cell behavior. Bound GAG proved to be biologically active, rescuing the neural differentiation capacity of heparan sulfate-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells and functioning in concert with FGF4 to facilitate the formation of extensive neural processes across the scaffold surface. The combination of GAGs with electrospun scaffolds creates a biomaterial with potent applicability for the propagation and effective differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23235146

  2. Accumulation of pyrethroid compounds in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic compounds (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)) rapidly accumulate in cells in culture to concentrations much higher than in the surrounding media. Primary cultures of neur...

  3. Neuronal-enriched cultures from embryonic rat ventral mesencephalon for pharmacological studies of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Pardo, B; Paíno, C L; Casarejos, M J; Mena, M A

    1997-05-01

    The method described herein provides a convenient and rapid procedure to obtain enriched neuronal cultures containing reproducible numbers of dopamine (DA) cells. These cultures allow experimental paradigms designed to study the effect of drugs on DA neurons without astroglial mediation. Neuronal-enriched cultures are prepared from the mesencephalon of rat embryos at the 14th day of gestation (E14). At that moment, DA cells of the developing substantia nigra are located ventrally at the level of the mesencephalic flexure. Because the neurons of the pars compacta are mostly born between E12 and E15, E14 corresponds to an optimal stage for obtaining a high survival of DA cells. A defined medium (EF12) allows the maturation of DA neurons and reduces drastically the number of astrocytes. After 7 days in vitro (DIV) in EF12, the cultures contain 2-5% astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) and DA neurons represent 0.5-2% of the cells, as assessed by immunostaining to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The function of DA neurons is assessed by [3H]DA uptake and of those non-DA neurons by the high affinity [3H]GABA uptake. Cell survival is assessed by Trypan blue dye exclusion. PMID:9385075

  4. Embryonic lung morphogenesis in organ culture: experimental evidence for a proteoglycan function in the extracellular matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Bassett, K. E.; Spooner, B. S. Jr

    1993-01-01

    The lung rudiment, isolated from mid-gestation (11 day) mouse embryos, can undergo morphogenesis in organ culture. Observation of living rudiments, in culture, reveals both growth and ongoing bronchiolar branching activity. To detect proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, and deposition in the extracellular matrix, rudiments were metabolically labeled with radioactive sulfate, then fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for autoradiography. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) types, composing the carbohydrate component of the proteoglycans, were evaluated by selective GAG degradative approaches that showed chondroitin sulfate PG principally associated with the interstitial matrix, and heparan sulfate PG principally associated with the basement membrane. Experiments using the proteoglycan biosynthesis disrupter, beta-xyloside, suggest that when chondroitin sulfate PG deposition into the ECM is perturbed, branching morphogenesis is compromised.

  5. Influence of GM1 gangliosides on the growth of cultured rat embryonic serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Marlier, L; Poulat, P; König, N; Drian, M J; Privat, A

    1989-01-01

    GM1 gangliosides were added to the medium of cultured raphe neurons enriched in the serotonergic phenotype in order to study their influence on biochemical and morphological growth parameters of serotonergic neurons. After 2 days of culture in the presence of GM1, specific uptake of serotonin measured by scintillation counting exhibited a moderate but significant increase for a GM1 concentration of 5 X 10(-8) M. Morphological parameters of 5-HT neurons were measured after immunocytochemical staining with specific serotonin antiserum, and digitalization of immunoreactive cells. Eight parameters were studied; for concentrations of 5 X 10(-8) and 10(-7) M of GM1, the absolute neuritic field area and the total length of the segments were significantly increased, whereas the number of neuritic segments, and their mean length were not modified. We conclude that GM1 ganglioside has a significant influence on the growth of serotonergic neurons. Moreover, electron microscopy showed, on treated cultures, a dramatic increase of the number of spicules all along the neuron's process, suggesting that GM1 could act by modifying the attachment of cells to their substrate. The possible molecular mechanisms of the action of GM1 are discussed. PMID:2603760

  6. Micro-electrode array recordings reveal reductions in both excitation and inhibition in cultured cortical neuron networks lacking Shank3.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Chen, Q; Zhou, T; Bozic, D; Fu, Z; Pan, J Q; Feng, G

    2016-02-01

    Numerous risk genes have recently been implicated in susceptibility to autism and schizophrenia. Translating such genetic findings into disease-relevant neurobiological mechanisms is challenging due to the lack of throughput assays that can be used to assess their functions on an appropriate scale. To address this issue, we explored the feasibility of using a micro-electrode array (MEA) as a potentially scalable assay to identify the electrical network phenotypes associated with risk genes. We first characterized local and global network firing in cortical neurons with MEAs, and then developed methods to analyze the alternation between the network active period (NAP) and the network inactive period (NIP), each of which lasts tens of seconds. We then evaluated the electric phenotypes of neurons derived from Shank3 knockout (KO) mice. Cortical neurons cultured on MEAs displayed a rich repertoire of spontaneous firing, and Shank3 deletion led to reduced firing activity. Enhancing excitation with CX546 rescued the deficit in the spike rate in the Shank3 KO network. In addition, the Shank3 KO network produced a shorter NIP, and this altered network firing pattern was normalized by clonazepam, a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. MEA recordings revealed electric phenotypes that displayed altered excitation and inhibition in the network lacking Shank3. Thus, our study highlights MEAs as an experimental framework for measuring multiple robust neurobiological end points in dynamic networks and as an assay system that could be used to identify electric phenotypes in cultured neuronal networks and to analyze additional risk genes identified in psychiatric genetics. PMID:26598066

  7. Embryonic body formation using the tapered soft stencil for cluster culture device.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Hiroshi; Ikeuchi, Masashi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ikuta, Koji; Hayashi, Shuji

    2011-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to provide a source of tissue, a renewable cell source for tissue engineering, and a method for in vitro drug screening for patient-specific or disease-specific treatment. A simple technology by which iPS cells can be differentiated effectively and in large quantities is strongly desired. In this paper, a new device (Tapered Soft Stencil for Cluster Culture: TASCL) is proposed for the easy and efficient formation of EBs which can be used in regenerative medicine. This device was compared with the two major methods currently being evaluated, namely the HD method and the Terasaki® plate (MWC substitution), in terms of the efficiency, morphology and acquired number of EB formation. Using the TASCL device, the shape of the EBs formed was almost a perfect sphere, and the formation was also faster than for the two other methods. There was little variability in the number of cells. Moreover, EBs formed using the TASCL device had the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers, and differentiation of EBs from the TASCL culture into hepatic cells was confirmed. In conclusion, it appears that the TASCL device can be utilized for EB formation to generate cells for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21354615

  8. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and morphogenetic factors on early chondrogenic commitment of human embryonic stem cells in embryoid body culture.

    PubMed

    Yodmuang, Supansa; Marolt, Darja; Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Gadjanski, Ivana; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-04-01

    Derivation of articular chondrocytes from human stem cells would advance our current understanding of chondrogenesis, and accelerate development of new stem cell therapies for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been studied using supplemental and cell-secreted morphogenetic factors. The use of bioreactors enabled insights into the effects of physical forces and controlled oxygen tension. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of controlled variation of oxygen tension and chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors on chondrogenic differentiation of hESCs in the embryoid body format (hESC-EB). Transient hypoxic culture (2 weeks at 5 % O2 followed by 1 week at 21 % O2) of hESC-EBs in medium conditioned with primary chondrocytes up-regulated the expression of SOX9 and suppressed pluripotent markers OCT4 and NANOG. Pellets derived from these cells showed significant up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN) and enhanced production of cartilaginous matrix (collagen type II and proteoglycan) as compared to the pellets from hESC-EBs cultured under normoxic conditions. Gene expression profiles corresponded to those associated with native cartilage development, with early expression of N-cadherin (indicator of cell condensation) and late expression of aggrecan (ACAN, indicator of proteoglycan production). When implanted into highly vascularized subcutaneous area in immunocompromised mice for 4 weeks, pellets remained phenotypically stable and consisted of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), without evidence of dedifferentiation or teratoma formation. Based on these results, we propose that chondrogenesis in hESC can be synergistically enhanced by a control of oxygen tension and morphogenetic factors secreted by chondrocytes. PMID:25618295

  9. Synergistic Effects of Hypoxia and Morphogenetic Factors on Early Chondrogenic Commitment of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Embryoid Body Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yodmuang, Supansa; Marolt, Darja; Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Gadjanski, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Derivation of articular chondrocytes from human stem cells would advance our current understanding of chondrogenesis, and accelerate development of new stem cell therapies for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been studied using supplemental and cell-secreted morphogenetic factors. The use of bioreactors enabled insights into the effects of physical forces and controlled oxygen tension. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of controlled variation of oxygen tension and chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors on chondrogenic differentiation of hESCs in the embryoid body format (hESC-EB). Transient hypoxic culture (2 weeks at 5 % O2 followed by 1 week at 21 % O2) of hESC-EBs in medium conditioned with primary chondrocytes up-regulated the expression of SOX9 and suppressed pluripotent markers OCT4 and NANOG. Pellets derived from these cells showed significant up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN) and enhanced production of cartilaginous matrix (collagen type II and proteoglycan) as compared to the pellets from hESC-EBs cultured under normoxic conditions. Gene expression profiles corresponded to those associated with native cartilage development, with early expression of N-cadherin (indicator of cell condensation) and late expression of aggrecan (ACAN, indicator of proteoglycan production). When implanted into highly vascularized subcutaneous area in immunocompromised mice for 4 weeks, pellets remained phenotypically stable and consisted of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), without evidence of dedifferentiation or teratoma formation. Based on these results, we propose that chondrogenesis in hESC can be synergistically enhanced by a control of oxygen tension and morphogenetic factors secreted by chondrocytes. PMID:25618295

  10. Medium-throughput computer aided micro-island method to assay embryonic dopaminergic neuron cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Planken, A; Porokuokka, L L; Hänninen, A-L; Tuominen, R K; Andressoo, J-O

    2010-12-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons degenerate and die, causing loss of motor function. Currently no therapies exist to ameliorate neurodegeneration or to restore DA neurons, although neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are promising leads. Prior in vivo studies the NTFs are routinely assessed in vitro by quantifying the survival of DA neurons from embryonic rodent midbrain cultures. Current in vitro methods are limited in terms of assay reliability, arduous workflow, low throughput, low statistical power and may obscure detection of molecules with minor yet critically important therapeutic effects. We have developed a medium-throughput, micro-island culture method. It permits analysis of 10-12 data points from a single embryo - several fold more than any previously published method - and enables comparisons of DA neurons from a single gene knockout (KO) embryo. It is computer-aided, improves statistical power and decreases the number of animals and workload per experiment. This method enhances testing capabilities of NTFs and other factors, and enables small scale screening of chemical drug libraries. We have validated the method by confirming the known effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NRTN), and demonstrated additive effects via simultaneous addition of GDNF and heparin binding growth associated molecule (HB-GAM). We also show for the first time that DA neurons isolated from GDNF receptor RET-deficient mice are still GDNF responsive, suggesting the presence of an alternative non-RET receptor for GDNF in the DA system. Finally, the method can be adapted for analyses of other low abundance neuronal systems. PMID:20951734

  11. Pyrethroid insecticide accumulation in primary cultures of cortical neurons in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary cultures of neurons have been widely utilized to study the actions of pyrethroids and other neurotoxicants, with the presumption that the media concentration accurately reflects the dose received by the cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic comp...

  12. Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ibáñez, Naiara; García-Cruz, Leticia; Montiel, Vicente; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Iniesta, Jesús

    2016-03-15

    l-lactate is an essential metabolite present in embryonic cell culture. Changes of this important metabolite during the growth of human embryo reflect the quality and viability of the embryo. In this study, we report a sensitive, stable, and easily manufactured electrochemical biosensor for the detection of lactate within embryonic cell cultures media. Screen-printed disposable electrodes are used as electrochemical sensing platforms for the miniaturization of the lactate biosensor. Chitosan/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite have been employed for the enzymatic immobilization of the lactate oxidase enzyme. This novel electrochemical lactate biosensor analytical efficacy is explored towards the sensing of lactate in model (buffer) solutions and is found to exhibit a linear response towards lactate over the concentration range of 30.4 and 243.9 µM in phosphate buffer solution, with a corresponding limit of detection (based on 3-sigma) of 22.6 µM and exhibits a sensitivity of 3417 ± 131 µAM(-1) according to the reproducibility study. These novel electrochemical lactate biosensors exhibit a high reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.8% and an enzymatic response over 82% after 5 months stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to independently validate the electrochemical lactate biosensor for the determination of lactate in a commercial embryonic cell culture medium providing excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols. PMID:26579934

  13. Calcium-activated chloride channels in cultured embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N

    1992-12-01

    1. Single-channel currents were recorded from Xenopus spinal neurons developing in vitro using the patch-clamp technique, to identify the channels underlying the large and small macroscopic Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents (ICl(Ca)) present in these cells. 2. Channels of large (maxi-channels; 310 pS) and smaller conductance (mini-channels; 50-60 pS) are activated by elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Channel activity is not altered by subsequent removal of Ca2+ from the bath, arguing against a direct ligand-type Ca2+ dependence. The much higher incidence of channel activation in cell-attached patches from cells permeabilized with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 than in excised patches also suggests the involvement of some unidentified intracellular factor. 3. The reversal potential of maxi-Cl- channels is not altered by changes in Na+ concentration, but is shifted in the negative direction by the substitution of Cl- by methanesulfonate on the intracellular side of the patch, indicating their anionic selectivity. 4. Maxi-Cl- channels exhibited the presence of multiple probable subconductance states and showed marked voltage-dependent inactivation above and below +/- 20 mV. 5. Examination of maxi-Cl- channels at early times in culture (6-9 h) and 24 h later did not reveal any developmental change in the characteristics described above. However, the mean open duration of the channel was found to increase twofold during this period of time. 6. The simultaneous presence of maxi- and mini-Cl- channels prevented detailed characterization of the latter. The anionic selectivity of mini-Cl- channels is suggested by their reversal potential that lies close to the Cl- equilibrium potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1283407

  14. Stretch-activated single ion channel currents in tissue-cultured embryonic chick skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Guharay, F; Sachs, F

    1984-01-01

    The membrane of tissue-cultured chick pectoral muscle contains an ionic channel which is activated by membrane stretch. Nicotinic channels and Ca2+-activated K+ channels are not affected by stretch. In 150 mM-external K+ and 150 mM-internal Na+ the channel has a conductance of 70 pS, linear current-voltage relationship between -50 and -140 mV and a reversal potential of +30 mV. Kinetic analysis of single-channel records indicates that there are one open (O) and three closed (C) states. The data can be fitted by the reaction scheme: C1-C2-C3-O. Only the rate constant that governs the C1-C2 transition (k1,2) is stretch-sensitive. None of the rates are voltage-sensitive. The rate constant k1,2 varies with the square of the tension as k1, 2 = k0 X e alpha T2, where alpha is a constant describing the sensitivity to stretch and T is the tension. A typical value of alpha is 0.08 (dyn cm-1)-2. Following exposure to cytochalasin B the channel becomes more sensitive to stretch. The stretch-sensitivity constant, alpha, increases from 0.08 to 2.4 (dyn cm-1)-2. The probability of the channel being open is strongly dependent upon the extracellular K+ concentration. With a suction of 2 cmHg the probability increases from 0.004 in normal saline (5 mM-K+) to 0.26 in 150 mM-K+. The channel appears to gather force from a large area of membrane (greater than 3 X 10(5) A2), probably by a cytochalasin-resistant cytoskeletal network. PMID:6086918

  15. Ion permeation properties of the glutamate receptor channel in cultured embryonic Drosophila myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H; Ciani, S; Kidokoro, Y

    1994-01-01

    Ion permeation properties of the glutamate receptor channel in cultured myotubes of Drosophila embryos were studied using the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Lowering the NaCl concentration in the bath (intracellular solution), while maintaining that of the external solution constant, caused a shift of the reversal potential in the positive direction, thus indicating a higher permeability of the channel to Na+ than to Cl- (PCl/PNa < 0.04), and suggesting that the channel is cation selective. With 145 mM Na+ on both sides of the membrane, the single-channel current-voltage relation was almost linear in the voltage range between -80 and +80 mV, the conductance showing some variability in the range between 140 and 170 pS. All monovalent alkali cations tested, as well as NH4+, permeated the channel effectively. Using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation for the reversal potential, the permeability ratios with respect to Na+ were estimated to be: 1.32 for K+, 1.18 for NH4+, 1.15 for Rb+, 1.09 for Cs+, and 0.57 for Li+. Divalent cations, i.e. Mg2+ and Ca2+, in the external solution depressed not only the inward but also the outward Na+ currents, although reversal potential measurements indicated that both ions have considerably higher permeabilities than Na+ (PMg/PNa = 2.31; PCa/PNa = 9.55). The conductance-activity relation for Na+ was described by a hyperbolic curve. The maximal conductance was about 195 pS and the half-saturating activity 45 mM. This result suggests that Na+ ions bind to sites in the channel. All data were fitted by a model based on the Eyring's reaction rate theory, in which the receptor channel is a one-ion pore with three energy barriers and two internal sites. PMID:7519261

  16. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) cause degeneration of cytoskeleton and disrupt synaptic machinery of cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their effective antimicrobial properties, are being widely used in a broad range of applications. These include, but are not limited to, antibacterial materials, the textile industry, cosmetics, coatings of various household appliances and medical devices. Despite their extensive use, little is known about AgNP safety and toxicity vis-à-vis human and animal health. Recent studies have drawn attention towards potential neurotoxic effects of AgNPs, however, the primary cellular and molecular targets of AgNP action/s remain to be defined. Results Here we examine the effects of ultra fine scales (20 nm) of AgNPs at various concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 50 μg/ml) on primary rat cortical cell cultures. We found that AgNPs (at 1-50 μg/ml) not only inhibited neurite outgrowth and reduced cell viability of premature neurons and glial cells, but also induced degeneration of neuronal processes of mature neurons. Our immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated that AgNPs induced the loss of cytoskeleton components such as the β-tubulin and filamentous actin (F-actin). AgNPs also dramatically reduced the number of synaptic clusters of the presynaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, and the postsynaptic receptor density protein PSD-95. Finally, AgNP exposure also resulted in mitochondria dysfunction in rat cortical cells. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that AgNPs induce toxicity in neurons, which involves degradation of cytoskeleton components, perturbations of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death. Our study clearly demonstrates the potential detrimental effects of AgNPs on neuronal development and physiological functions and warns against its prolific usage. PMID:23782671

  17. Neurotrophic effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on neurite extension and neuronal migration of embryonic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in chick olfactory nerve bundle culture.

    PubMed

    Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Enomoto, Masahiro; Endo, Daisuke; Maehiro, Sayaka; Park, Min Kyun; Murakami, Shizuko

    2009-08-01

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a pivotal role in regulating the reproductive function of vertebrates. These neurons are known to originate in the olfactory placode and migrate along olfactory-related axons to reach the forebrain during embryonic development. Although GnRH is suggested to be secreted during such migration, its physiological significance is unknown. This point is difficult to explore in vivo because recent studies suggest that GnRH is an important factor for normal brain development and that modification of the embryonic GnRH system by exogenous GnRH analogue or genetic methods would result in dysgenesis of the brain. Therefore, to study the role of GnRH in the migratory process of GnRH neurons, we established an in vitro chick embryonic olfactory nerve bundle explant model. Embryonic day 7.5-8 olfactory nerve bundles were cultured in a mixture of Matrigel and collagen gel. At day 3 of culture, GnRH neurons extended their unbranched neurites and migrated out from both edges of the explant. The nature of neurite extension and migratory behavior of GnRH neurons was well maintained in the gel containing 25% Matrigel and 50% collagen. With this culture system, we examined the effect of GnRH on the migrating GnRH neurons. Cetrorelix, a GnRH antagonist, was found to inhibit significantly neurite growth and neuronal migration of GnRH neurons, the effects of which were repressed by the addition of chicken GnRH-I. These results suggest that GnRH functions as one of the regulating factors of GnRH neuronal development by promoting neurite extension and neuronal migration. PMID:19301422

  18. Repeated Stimulation of Cultured Networks of Rat Cortical Neurons Induces Parallel Memory Traces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Feber, Joost; Witteveen, Tim; van Veenendaal, Tamar M.; Dijkstra, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    During systems consolidation, memories are spontaneously replayed favoring information transfer from hippocampus to neocortex. However, at present no empirically supported mechanism to accomplish a transfer of memory from hippocampal to extra-hippocampal sites has been offered. We used cultured neuronal networks on multielectrode arrays and…

  19. Modulation of inhibitory glycine receptors in cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons by zinc, thiol containing redox agents and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Thio, L L; Zhang, H X

    2006-01-01

    Modulation of inhibitory glycine receptors by zinc (Zn(2+)) and endogenous redox agents such as glutathione may alter inhibition in the mammalian brain. Despite the abundance of Zn(2+) in the hippocampus and its ability to modulate glycine receptors, few studies have examined Zn(2+) modulation of hippocampal glycine receptors. Whether redox agents modulate hippocampal glycine receptors also remains unknown. This study examined Zn(2+) and redox modulation of glycine receptor-mediated currents in cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons using whole-cell recordings. Zn(2+) concentrations below 10 microM potentiated currents elicited by low glycine, beta-alanine, and taurine concentrations by 300-400%. Zn(2+) concentrations above 300 microM produced nearly complete inhibition. Potentiating Zn(2+) concentrations shifted the dose-response curves for the three agonists to the left and decreased the Hill coefficient for glycine and beta-alanine but not taurine. Inhibiting Zn(2+) concentrations shifted the dose-response curves for glycine and beta-alanine to the right but reduced the maximum taurine response. Histidine residues may participate in potentiation because diethyl pyrocarbonate and pH 5.4 diminished Zn(2+) enhancement of glycine currents. pH 5.4 diminished Zn(2+) block of glycine currents, but diethyl pyrocarbonate did not. These findings indicate that separate sites mediate Zn(2+) potentiation and inhibition. The redox agents glutathione, dithiothreitol, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) did not alter glycine currents by a redox mechanism. However, glutathione and dithiothreitol interfered with the effects of Zn(2+) on glycine currents by chelating it. Carnosine had similar effects. Thus, Zn(2+) and thiol containing redox agents that chelate Zn(2+) modulate hippocampal glycine receptors with the mechanism of Zn(2+) modulation being agonist dependent. PMID:16515845

  20. Differential effects of ciguatoxin and maitotoxin in primary cultures of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Martin, Victor; Vale, Carmen; Antelo, Alvaro; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2014-08-18

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs) are polyether ladder shaped toxins derived from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. Despite the fact that MTXs are 3 times larger than CTXs, part of the structure of MTXs resembles that of CTXs. To date, the synthetic ciguatoxin, CTX 3C has been reported to activate voltage-gated sodium channels, whereas the main effect of MTX is inducing calcium influx into the cell leading to cell death. However, there is a lack of information regarding the effects of these toxins in a common cellular model. Here, in order to have an overview of the main effects of these toxins in mice cortical neurons, we examined the effects of MTX and the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on the main voltage dependent ion channels in neurons, sodium, potassium, and calcium channels as well as on membrane potential, cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), intracellular pH (pHi), and neuronal viability. Regarding voltage-gated ion channels, neither CTX 3C nor MTX affected voltage-gated calcium or potassium channels, but while CTX 3C had a large effect on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) by shifting the activation and inactivation curves to more hyperpolarized potentials and decreasing peak sodium channel amplitude, MTX, at 5 nM, had no effect on VGSC activation and inactivation but decreased peak sodium current amplitude. Other major differences between both toxins were the massive calcium influx and intracellular acidification produced by MTX but not by CTX 3C. Indeed, the novel finding that MTX produces acidosis supports a pathway recently described in which MTX produces calcium influx via the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHX). For the first time, we found that VGSC blockers partially blocked the MTX-induced calcium influx, intracellular acidification, and protected against the short-term MTX-induced cytotoxicity. The results presented here provide the first report that shows the comparative effects of two prototypical ciguatera toxins, CTX 3C

  1. Effects of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta-1) and dentin non-collagenous proteins (DNCP) on human embryonic ectomesenchymal cells in a three-dimensional culture system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Manjing; Shi, Junnan; Smith, Anthony J; Jin, Yan

    2005-11-01

    Cranial neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal cells represent a population of pluripotent stem cells giving rise to many of the various oro-facial and dental tissues. The factors determining the terminal fate of these cells are still unclear. The potentiality of human embryonic ectomesenchymal cells from the first branchial arch have been investigated when isolated and grown in a three-dimensional (3D)-collagen gel culture system in the presence of dentin matrix-derived non-collagenous proteins (DNCP) and TGFbeta-1. Functional differentiation of cells showing some characteristics of odontoblast-like cells could be observed when the cells were cultured with DNCP+TGFbeta-1 or DNCP, however, only cytological differentiation was observed during culture with TGFbeta-1 alone. The characteristics of these cells was assessed by morphological appearance, expression of the odontoblast phenotype marker dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), increased alkaline phosphatase levels and formation of mineralised nodules in vitro. The results indicate that these embryonic cells from the first branchial arch are capable of responding to the inductive stimulus of DNCP or DNCP+TGFbeta-1 when isolated and grown in the 3D collagen gel culture system. The capacity of the isolated cells to differentiate into mineralizing cells showing some characteristics of odontoblast-like cells under these growth conditions highlights the potential of such approaches for tissue engineering strategies for hard-tissue regeneration after injury. PMID:15871903

  2. Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents in dissociated cortical cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Vicini, S; Alho, H; Costa, E; Mienville, J M; Santi, M R; Vaccarino, F M

    1986-01-01

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated synaptic currents were studied in dissociated primary cultures of neonatal rat cortex with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Immunocytochemical staining of the cultures showed the presence of a large number of glutamic acid decarboxylase-containing neurons, and electrical stimulation of randomly selected neurons produced in many cases chloride-mediated and bicuculline-sensitive inhibitory synaptic currents in postsynaptic cells. The amplitude and decay time of the inhibitory synaptic currents were increased by flunitrazepam and decreased by the beta-carboline derivative methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, two high-affinity ligands for the allosteric regulatory sites of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. The imidazobenzodiazepine Ro 15-1788, another high-affinity ligand of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor regulatory sites that has negligible intrinsic activity, blocked the action of flunitrazepam and beta-carboline. However, Ro 15-1788 also increased the decay rate of the inhibitory synaptic currents. This might suggest that an endogenous ligand for the benzodiazepine-beta-carboline binding site is operative in gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated synaptic transmission. Images PMID:3097650

  3. AMPK Mediates Glucocorticoids Stress-Induced Downregulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Cultured Rat Prefrontal Cortical Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Long, Li-Hong; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Wang, Yi; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces altered energy metabolism and plays important roles in the etiology of depression, in which the glucocorticoid negative feedback is disrupted due to imbalanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functions. The mechanism underlying the dysregulation of GR by chronic stress remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the key enzyme regulating cellular energy metabolism, and related signaling pathways in chronic stress-induced GR dysregulation. In cultured rat cortical astrocytes, glucocorticoid treatment decreased the level, which was accompanied by the decreased expression of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and reduced phosphorylation of AMPK. Glucocorticoid-induced effects were attenuated by glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) inhibitor GSK650394, which also inhibited glucocorticoid induced phosphorylation of Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a). Furthermore, glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation of GR was mimicked by the inhibition of AMPK and abolished by the AMPK activators or the histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) inhibitors. In line with the role of AMPK in GR expression, AMPK activator metformin reversed glucocorticoid-induced reduction of AMPK phosphorylation and GR expression as well as behavioral alteration of rats. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic stress activates SGK1 and suppresses the expression of LKB1 via inhibitory phosphorylation of FOXO3a. Downregulated LKB1 contributes to reduced activation of AMPK, leading to the dephosphorylation of HDAC5 and the suppression of transcription of GR. PMID:27513844

  4. GSK-3β downregulates Nrf2 in cultured cortical neurons and in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yuanling; Zhu, Jin; Lei, Shipeng; Dong, Yuan; Li, Lingyu; Jiang, Beibei; Tan, Li; Wu, Jingxian; Yu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a critical role in protecting against oxidative stress in brain ischemia and reperfusion injury. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) may play a critical role in regulating Nrf2 in a Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-independent manner. However, the relationship between GSK-3β and Nrf2 in brain ischemia and reperfusion injury is not clear. In this study, we explored the mechanisms through which GSK-3β regulates Nrf2 and Nrf-2/ARE pathways in vitro and in vivo. We used oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cultured cortical neurons and a middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO/R) rat model to mimic ischemic insult. In this study, GSK-3β siRNA and inhibitors (SB216763 and LiCl) were used to inhibit GSK-3β in vitro and in vivo. After inhibiting GSK-3β, expression of total and nuclear Nrf2, Nrf2-ARE binding activity, and expression of Nrf2/ARE pathway-driven genes HO-1 and NQO-1 increased. Overexpression of GSK-3β yielded opposite results. These results suggest that GSK-3β downregulates Nrf2 and the Nrf2/ARE pathway in brain ischemia and reperfusion injury. GSK-3β may be an endogenous antioxidant relevant protein, and may represent a new therapeutic target in treatment of ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26838164

  5. Downregulation of Gabra4 expression during alcohol withdrawal is mediated by specific microRNAs in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bekdash, Rola A; Harrison, Neil L

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and dependence are a serious public health problem. A large number of alcohol-regulated genes, (ARGs) are known to be influenced by alcohol use and withdrawal (AW), and recent evidence suggests that neuroadaptation to alcohol may be due in part to epigenetic changes in the expression of ARGs. Gabra4, which encodes the α4 subunit of GABAA receptors (GABAARs), is one of a number of ARGs that show remarkable plasticity in response to alcohol, being rapidly upregulated by acute alcohol exposure. This study addressed the effects of AW on changes in the expression of Gabra4 and related genes that encode other subunits of GABAARs, and the potential regulation of Gabra4 by microRNAs. Methods We studied gene and microRNAs expression, using RT-PCR and microRNA microarray in cultured cortical neurons treated with alcohol, which was then removed in order to simulate AW in vitro. We also used microRNA mimics or inhibitors, and a promoter-reporter construct carrying the 3′UTR of Gabra4. Results Eleven hours after removal of alcohol, Gabra4 was downregulated, with a modest increase in the expression of Gabrg2, but no change in the expression of Gabra1, Gabrd, or Gabrb2. microRNA profiling in neurons undergoing AW revealed upregulation in the expression of miR-155, miR-186, miR-24, and miR-375 after 8 h of AW. Transfection with molecular mimics of miR-186, miR-24, or miR-375 also downregulated Gabra4 expression, whereas transfection with the corresponding inhibitors of these microRNAs normalized Gabra4 expression in AW neurons to the level measured in control neurons. Promoter-reporter experiments supported the idea that miR-155, miR-186, miR-24, miR-27b, or miR-375 bind to the 3′UTR of Gabra4 and thereby inhibit protein production. Conclusions Our data suggest that AW decreases Gabra4 expression, and that this may be mediated in part by the induction of specific microRNAs in cortical neurons during AW. PMID:26357588

  6. Cell structure and proliferative activity of organ cultures of normal embryonic lung tissue of mice resistant (C57BL) and predisposed (A) to lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, T.S.; Gor'kova, T.G.

    1985-08-01

    Local factors such as proliferative activity and the numerical ratio between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, and also the character of interaction between the tissue components in ontogeny may play an important role in the realization of sensitivity of mice of a particular line to the development of lung tumors. These characteristics of lung tissue in mice of lines A and C57BL are investigated under normal conditions and during induced carcinogenesis. Results are given of a comparative study of the relative numbers of epithelial and mesenchymal cells in organ cultures of embryonic lungs. /sup 3/H-thymidine was added to the cultures on the 14th day of the experiment in a concentration of 1 microCi/m1 medium. An autoradiographic study of the cultures was performed.

  7. Axonal conduction slowing induced by spontaneous bursting activity in cortical neurons cultured in a microtunnel device.

    PubMed

    Shimba, Kenta; Sakai, Koji; Isomura, Takuya; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, axons have been recognized as computational units in neuronal networks that can change their conduction properties along with their firing. However, little is known about the relationship between spontaneous activity and changes in the conduction velocity due to lack of a suitable method. Here, we studied changes in the conduction velocity during bursting activity using a new microfabricated device and the spike sorting method. The propagating action potentials were recorded from axons, which extended through a microtunnel in our device, comprised of a microfabricated chamber and a microelectrode array. By using waveforms recorded from a series of three electrodes along the bottom of a microtunnel, we achieved a sorting accuracy approximately 8.0% higher than that of the conventional one-electrode waveform method. We then demonstrated for the first time that conduction delays increased by 8.0% in action potentials of a mathematically isolated axon during one burst recorded at 10 days in vitro (DIV). Moreover, 79.4% of all clusters showed this conduction slowing during bursting activity at 10 DIV. Finally, we evaluated the days-in-culture dependence of the properties of bursting activity. These results suggest that our method is suitable for evaluating changes in conduction properties induced by spontaneous activity. PMID:25418582

  8. Electrophoretic separation and analysis of living cells from solid tissues by several methods - Human embryonic kidney cell cultures as a model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul; Plank, Lindsay D.; Kunze, M. Elaine; Lewis, Marian L.; Morrison, Dennis R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of free-fluid electrophoresis methods to separate tissue cells having a specific function is discussed. It is shown that cells suspended by trypsinization from cultures of human embryonic kidney are electrophoretically heterogeneous and tolerate a wide range of electrophoresis buffers and conditions without significant attenuation of function. Moreover, these cells do not separate electrophoretically on the basis of size or cell position alone and can be separated according to their ability to give rise to progeny that produce specific plasminogen activators.

  9. Trophic and proliferative effects of Shh on motor neurons in embryonic spinal cord culture from wildtype and G93A SOD1 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The developmental morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) may continue to play a trophic role in the support of terminally-differentiated motor neurons, of potential relevance to motor neuron disease. In addition, it may support the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous stem cells along motor neuronal lineages. As such, we have examined the trophic and proliferative effects of Shh supplementation or Shh antagonism in embryonic spinal cord cell cultures derived from wildtype or G93A SOD1 mice, a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Results Shh supported survival, and stimulated growth of motor neurons, neurite outgrowth, and neurosphere formation in primary culture derived from both G93A SOD1 and WT mice. Shh increased the percentage of ciliated motor neurons, especially in G93A SOD1 culture. Shh-treated cultures showed increased neuronal proliferation compared to controls and especially cyclopamine treated cultures, from G93A SOD1 and WT mice. Moreover, Shh enhanced cell survival and differentiation of motor neuron precursors in WT culture. Conclusions Shh is neurotrophic to motor neurons and has mitogenic effects in WT and mSOD1 G93A culture in vitro. PMID:24119209

  10. Histamine up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and increases FOXP2 neurons in cultured neural precursors by histamine type 1 receptor activation: conceivable role of histamine in neurogenesis during cortical development in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During rat development, histamine (HA) is one of the first neuroactive molecules to appear in the brain, reaching its maximal value at embryonic day 14, a period when neurogenesis of deep layers is occurring in the cerebral cortex, suggesting a role of this amine in neuronal specification. We previously reported, using high-density cerebrocortical neural precursor cultures, that micromolar HA enhanced the effect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 on proliferation, and that HA increased neuronal differentiation, due to HA type 1 receptor (H1R) activation. Results Clonal experiments performed here showed that HA decreased colony size and caused a significant increase in the percentage of clones containing mature neurons through H1R stimulation. In proliferating precursors, we studied whether HA activates G protein-coupled receptors linked to intracellular calcium increases. Neural cells presented an increase in cytoplasmic calcium even in the absence of extracellular calcium, a response mediated by H1R. Since FGF receptors (FGFRs) are known to be key players in cell proliferation and differentiation, we determined whether HA modifies the expression of FGFRs1-4 by using RT-PCR. An important transcriptional increase in FGFR1 was elicited after H1R activation. We also tested whether HA promotes differentiation specifically to neurons with molecular markers of different cortical layers by immunocytochemistry. HA caused significant increases in cells expressing the deep layer neuronal marker FOXP2; this induction of FOXP2-positive neurons elicited by HA was blocked by the H1R antagonist chlorpheniramine in vitro. Finally, we found a notable decrease in FOXP2+ cortical neurons in vivo, when chlorpheniramine was infused in the cerebral ventricles through intrauterine injection. Conclusion These results show that HA, by activating H1R, has a neurogenic effect in clonal conditions and suggest that intracellular calcium elevation and transcriptional up

  11. Multidisciplinary Inquiry-Based Investigation Learning Using an Ex Ovo Chicken Culture Platform: Role of Vitamin A on Embryonic Morphogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Gould, Russell A.; Curran, Susan; Archer, Shivaun D.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development offers a unique perspective on the function of many biological processes because of embryos' heightened sensitivity to environmental factors. This hands-on lesson investigates the effects of elevated vitamin A on the morphogenesis of chicken embryos. The active form of vitamin A (retinoic acid) is applied to shell-less (ex…

  12. Ethanol activation of protein kinase A regulates GABAA α1 receptor function and trafficking in cultured cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephen L; Kumar, Sandeep; Werner, David F; Comerford, Christopher E; Morrow, A Leslie

    2013-05-01

    Ethanol exposure produces alterations in GABAergic signaling that are associated with dependence and withdrawal. Previously, we demonstrated that ethanol-induced protein kinase C (PKC) γ signaling selectively contributes to changes in GABAA α1 synaptic receptor activity and surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that protein kinase A (PKA) exerts opposing effects on GABAA receptor adaptations during brief ethanol exposure. Cerebral cortical neurons from day 0-1 rat pups were tested after 18 days in culture. Receptor trafficking was assessed by Western blot analysis, and functional changes were measured using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of evoked and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) responses. One-hour ethanol exposure increased membrane-associated PKC and PKA, but steady-state GABAA α1 subunit levels were maintained. Activation of PKA by Sp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine alone increased GABAA α1 subunit surface expression and zolpidem potentiation of GABA responses, whereas coexposure of ethanol with the PKA inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine decreased α1 subunit expression and zolpidem responses. Exposure to the PKC inhibitor calphostin-C with ethanol mimicked the effect of direct PKA activation. The effects of PKA modulation on mIPSC decay τ were consistent with its effects on GABA currents evoked in the presence of zolpidem. Overall, the results suggest that PKA acts in opposition to PKC on α1-containing GABAA receptors, mediating the GABAergic effects of ethanol exposure, and may provide an important target for the treatment of alcohol dependence/withdrawal. PMID:23408117

  13. Investigation of hatching and early post-embryonic life of freshwater crayfish by in vitro culture, behavioral analysis, and light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter

    2008-07-01

    The late embryonic and early post-embryonic life period of freshwater crayfish, which is the main time period of organogenesis, is poorly investigated because of the protective brooding behavior of crayfish mothers. A combination of in vitro culture, behavioral observations, and microscopic investigations of organs involved in hatching, attachment, exploration of the environment, and searching and processing of food yielded deeper insights in this important period of life. Experiments were performed with the robust parthenogenetic marbled crayfish. The following results were obtained: (1) Marbled crayfish can be raised in simple in vitro systems from 80% embryonic development to juvenile Stage 4 with up to 100% survival; (2) Hatching is prepared by chemical weakening of the egg shell and completed by levering actions of the hatchling's appendages; (3) The telson thread, a safety line that keeps the hatchling secured to the mother, is formed by secretions from the telson and the detaching inner layer of the egg case; (4) Molting Stage-1 juveniles are secured by an anal thread that results from delayed molting of the hindgut; (5) Active attachment of the hatchlings to the maternal pleopods with their 1st pereiopods is achieved by an innate fixed action pattern; (6) In vitro, juveniles are motile from Stage 2 despite incomplete development of their balance controlling statocysts. Movement pattern and social behavior vary greatly among individuals; and (7) Feeding starts in Stage 3, when the mouthparts and the gastric mill are fully developed. Onset of feeding is innate and does not require maternal contributions. In vitro culture of the isogenic marbled crayfish is recommended for broader use in research because it enables not only time and stage-specific sampling but also precisely timed experimental manipulations. PMID:18438781

  14. EFFECT OF AROCLOR 1254 ON THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR CREB AND CELL VIABILITY IN A PRIMARY CULTURE OF IMMATURE CORTICAL CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable work indicates that elevations in Ca2+ levels and kinase activity are sensitive responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are developmental neurotoxicants. In cortical cells in vitro the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces temporally and mechanistica...

  15. Insulin: its binding to specific receptors and its stimulation of DNA synthesis and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase in embryonic mouse brain cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, G.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Previously, the authors demonstrated that ornithine decarboxylase was stimulated by insulin in cultures of embryonic mouse brain cells. In the present work, they have investigated the presence and specificity of insulin receptors in these cultures. A time study showed that maximum binding of /sup 125/(I) labelled insulin was around 75 min. Other studies measured the influence of concentration and age on insulin binding. A displacement study using increasing concentrations of cold insulin, glucagon or growth hormone demonstrated that the specificity of the receptors for insulin was rather high. It was also found that insulin displayed a clear dose-dependent stimulation of thymidine incorporation into the brain cells. Insulin also stimulated the glial enzyme 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase (CNP-ase). The results suggest a dual role for insulin; it regulates both cell proliferation as well as differentiation.

  16. Isolation of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rodent Embryos for use with Dissected Cerebral Cortical Explants

    PubMed Central

    Zappaterra, Mauro W.; LaMantia, Anthony S.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Lehtinen, Maria K.

    2013-01-01

    The CSF is a complex fluid with a dynamically varying proteome throughout development and in adulthood. During embryonic development, the nascent CSF differentiates from the amniotic fluid upon closure of the anterior neural tube. CSF volume then increases over subsequent days as the neuroepithelial progenitor cells lining the ventricles and the choroid plexus generate CSF. The embryonic CSF contacts the apical, ventricular surface of the neural stem cells of the developing brain and spinal cord. CSF provides crucial fluid pressure for the expansion of the developing brain and distributes important growth promoting factors to neural progenitor cells in a temporally-specific manner. To investigate the function of the CSF, it is important to isolate pure samples of embryonic CSF without contamination from blood or the developing telencephalic tissue. Here, we describe a technique to isolate relatively pure samples of ventricular embryonic CSF that can be used for a wide range of experimental assays including mass spectrometry, protein electrophoresis, and cell and primary explant culture. We demonstrate how to dissect and culture cortical explants on porous polycarbonate membranes in order to grow developing cortical tissue with reduced volumes of media or CSF. With this method, experiments can be performed using CSF from varying ages or conditions to investigate the biological activity of the CSF proteome on target cells. PMID:23524481

  17. Primary Bovine Extra-Embryonic Cultured Cells: A New Resource for the Study of In Vivo Peri-Implanting Phenotypes and Mesoderm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Isabelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Fournier, Thierry; Degrelle, Séverine A.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to nourishing the embryo, extra-embryonic tissues (EETs) contribute to early embryonic patterning, primitive hematopoiesis, and fetal health. These tissues are of major importance for human medicine, as well as for efforts to improve livestock efficiency, but they remain incompletely understood. In bovines, EETs are accessible easily, in large amounts, and prior to implantation. We took advantage of this system to describe, in vitro and in vivo, the cell types present in bovine EETs at Day 18 of development. Specifically, we characterized the gene expression patterns and phenotypes of bovine extra-embryonic ectoderm (or trophoblast; bTC), endoderm (bXEC), and mesoderm (bXMC) cells in culture and compared them to their respective in vivo micro-dissected cells. After a week of culture, certain characteristics (e.g., gene expression) of the in vitro cells were altered with respect to the in vivo cells, but we were able to identify “cores” of cell-type-specific (and substrate-independent) genes that were shared between in vitro and in vivo samples. In addition, many cellular phenotypes were cell-type-specific with regard to extracellular adhesion. We evaluated the ability of individual bXMCs to migrate and spread on micro-patterns, and observed that they easily adapted to diverse environments, similar to in vivo EE mesoderm cells, which encounter different EE epithelia to form chorion, yolk sac, and allantois. With these tissue interactions, different functions arose that were detected in silico and corroborated in vivo at D21–D25. Moreover, analysis of bXMCs allowed us to identify the EE cell ring surrounding the embryonic disc (ED) at D14-15 as mesoderm cells, which had been hypothesized but not shown prior to this study. We envision these data will serve as a major resource for the future in the analysis of peri-implanting phenotypes in response to the maternal metabolism and contribute to subsequent studies of placental/fetal development in

  18. Enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for the 3D culture and release of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic precursor cell aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Luke D.; Holtzinger, Audrey; Keller, Gordon; Mahoney, Melissa J.; Bryant, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a three dimensional culture platform for aggregates of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitors that enables long-term culture, maintains aggregate size and morphology, does not adversely affect differentiation and provides a means for aggregate recovery. A platform was developed with poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels containing collagen type I, for cell-matrix interactions, and peptide crosslinkers, for facile recovery of aggregates. The platform was first demonstrated with RIN-m5F cells, showing encapsulation and subsequent release of single cells and aggregates without adversely affecting viability. Aggregates of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors with an effective diameter of 82 (15) μm were either encapsulated in hydrogels or cultured in suspension for 28 days. At day 14, aggregate viability was maintained in the hydrogels, but significantly reduced (88%) in suspension culture. However by day 28, viability was reduced in both culture conditions. Aggregate size was maintained in the hydrogels, but in suspension was significantly higher (~2-fold) by day 28. The ability to release aggregates followed by a second enzyme treatment to achieve single cells enabled assessment by flow cytometry. Prior to encapsulation, there were 39% Pdx1+/Nkx6.1+ cells, key endocrine markers required for β-cell maturation. The fraction of doubly positive cells was not affected in hydrogels but was slightly and significantly lower in suspension culture by 28 days. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a MMP-sensitive PEG hydrogel containing collagen type I is a promising platform for hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors that maintains viable aggregates, aggregate size, and progenitor state and offers facile recovery of aggregates. PMID:25913222

  19. Features specific to retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from three-dimensional human embryonic stem cell cultures — a new donor for cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengya; Li, Qiyou; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation is a particularly promising treatment of retinal degenerative diseases affecting RPE-photoreceptor complex. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an abundant donor source for RPE transplantation. Herein, we studied the time-course characteristics of RPE cells derived from three-dimensional human ESCs cultures (3D-RPE). We showed that 3D-RPE cells possessed morphology, ultrastructure, gene expression profile, and functions of authentic RPE. As differentiation proceeded, 3D-RPE cells could mature gradually with decreasing proliferation but increasing functions. Besides, 3D-RPE cells could form polarized monolayer with functional tight junction and gap junction. When grafted into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons rats, 3D-RPE cells were safe and efficient to rescue retinal degeneration. This study showed that 3D-RPE cells were a new donor for cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27009841

  20. Changes in NMDA receptor-induced cyclic nucleotide synthesis regulate the age-dependent increase in PDE4A expression in primary cortical cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hajjhussein, Hassan; Suvarna, Neesha U.; Gremillion, Carmen; Judson Chandler, L.; O’Donnell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    NMDA receptor-induced cAMP and cGMP are selectively hydrolyzed by PDE4 and PDE2, respectively, in rat primary cerebral cortical and hippocampal cultures. Because cAMP levels regulate the expression of PDE4 in rat primary cortical cultures, we examined the manner in which NMDA receptor activity regulates the age-dependent increase in the expression of PDE4A observed in vivo and in vitro. Inhibiting the activity of NR2B subunit with ifenprodil blocked NMDA receptor-induced cGMP synthesis and increased NMDA receptor-induced cAMP levels in a manner that reduced PDE4 activity. Therefore, NR1/NR2B receptor-induced cGMP signaling is involved in an acute cross-talk regulation of NR1/NR2A receptor-induced cAMP levels, mediated by PDE4. Chronic inhibition of NMDA receptor activity with MK-801 reduced PDE4A1 and PDE4A5 expression and activity in a time-dependent manner; this effect was reversed by adding the PKA activator dbr-cAMP. Inhibiting GABA receptors with bicuculline increased NMDA receptor-induced cAMP synthesis and PDE4A expression in cultures treated between DIV 16 and DIV 21 but not in cultures treated between DIV 8 and DIV 13. This effect was due to a high tone of NMDA receptor-induced cGMP in younger cultures, which negatively regulated the expression of PDE4A by a PKG-mediated process. The present results are consistent with behavioral data showing that both PDE4 and PDE2 are involved in NMDA receptor-mediated memory processes. PMID:17407767

  1. Potential Role of KCNQ/M-Channels in Regulating Neuronal Differentiation in Mouse Hippocampal and Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Song, MingKe; Chen, Dongdong; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability, playing major roles in setting resting membrane potential, repolarizing the cell membrane after action potentials and affecting transmitter release. The M-type channel or M-channel is a unique voltage- and ligand-regulated K+ channel. It is composed of the molecular counterparts KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 (also named Kv7.2 and Kv7.3) channels and expressed in the soma and dendrites of neurons. The present investigation examined the hypothesis that KCNQ2/3 channels played a regulatory role in neuronal differentiation and maturation. In cultured mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells undergoing neuronal differentiation and primary embryonic (E15-17) hippocampal cultures, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels and underlying M-currents were identified. Blocking of KCNQ channels in these cells for 5 days using the specific channel blocker XE991 (10 μM) or linopirdine (30 μM) significantly decreased synaptophysin and syntaxin expression without affecting cell viability. Chronic KCNQ2/3 channel block reduced the expression of vesicular GABA transporter (v-GAT), but not vesicular glutamate transporter (v-GluT). Enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in XE991- and linopirdine-treated neural progenitor cells. In electrophysiological recordings, cells undergoing chronic block of KCNQ2/3 channels showed normal amplitude of mPSCs while the frequency of mPSCs was reduced. On the other hand, KCNQ channel opener N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM, 2 μM) increased mPSC frequency. Fluorescent imaging using fluorescent styryl-dye FM4-64 revealed that chronic blockade of KCNQ2/3 channels decreased endocytosis but facilitated exocytosis. These data indicate that KCNQ2/3 channels participate in regulation of neuronal differentiation and show a tonic regulation on pre-synaptic transmitter release and recycling in developing neuronal cells. PMID:21466805

  2. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin specifically reduces mRNA for the mineralization-related dentin sialophosphoprotein in cultured mouse embryonic molar teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukkonen, Anu . E-mail: Anu.Kiukkonen@helsinki.fi; Sahlberg, Carin; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Alaluusua, Satu; Peltonen, Eija; Partanen, Anna-Maija

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies show that the most toxic dioxin congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), interferes with mineralization of the dental matrices in developing mouse and rat teeth. Culture of mouse embryonic molar teeth with TCDD leads to the failure of enamel to be deposited and dentin to undergo mineralization. Lactationally exposed rats show defectively matured enamel and retardation of dentin mineralization. To see if the impaired mineralization is associated with changes in the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), Bono1 and/or matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20), thought to be involved in mineralization of the dental hard tissues, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E18 mandibular molars for 3, 5 or 7 days and exposed them to 1 {mu}M TCDD after 2 days of culture. As detected by in situ hybridization of tissue sections, localization and intensity of Bono1 and MMP-20 expression showed no definite difference between the control and exposed tooth explants, suggesting that TCDD does not affect their expression. On the contrary, TCDD reduced or prevented the expression of Dspp in secretory odontoblasts and decreased it in presecretory ameloblasts. The results suggest that the retardation of dentin mineralization by TCDD in mouse molar teeth involves specific interference with Dspp expression.

  3. Characterization of Three-Dimensional Retinal Tissue Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Adherent Monolayer Cultures.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Mallela, Ramya K; Cornuet, Pamela K; Reifler, Aaron N; Chervenak, Andrew P; West, Michael D; Wong, Kwoon Y; Nasonkin, Igor O

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell-based therapy of retinal degenerative conditions is a promising modality to treat blindness, but requires new strategies to improve the number of functionally integrating cells. Grafting semidifferentiated retinal tissue rather than progenitors allows preservation of tissue structure and connectivity in retinal grafts, mandatory for vision restoration. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we derived retinal tissue growing in adherent conditions consisting of conjoined neural retina and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and evaluated cell fate determination and maturation in this tissue. We found that deriving such tissue in adherent conditions robustly induces all eye field genes (RX, PAX6, LHX2, SIX3, SIX6) and produces four layers of pure populations of retinal cells: RPE (expressing NHERF1, EZRIN, RPE65, DCT, TYR, TYRP, MITF, PMEL), early photoreceptors (PRs) (coexpressing CRX and RCVRN), inner nuclear layer neurons (expressing CALB2), and retinal ganglion cells [RGCs, expressing BRN3B and Neurofilament (NF) 200]. Furthermore, we found that retinal progenitors divide at the apical side of the hESC-derived retinal tissue (next to the RPE layer) and then migrate toward the basal side, similar to that found during embryonic retinogenesis. We detected synaptogenesis in hESC-derived retinal tissue, and found neurons containing many synaptophysin-positive boutons within the RGC and PR layers. We also observed long NF200-positive axons projected by RGCs toward the apical side. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that putative amacrine and/or ganglion cells exhibited electrophysiological responses reminiscent of those in normal retinal neurons. These responses included voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) currents, depolarization-induced spiking, and responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists. Differentiation in adherent conditions allows generation of long and flexible pieces of 3D retinal tissue suitable for isolating transplantable slices of tissue

  4. Defined culture of human embryonic stem cells and xeno-free derivation of retinal pigmented epithelial cells on a novel, synthetic substrate.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Britney O; Clegg, Dennis O; Melkoumian, Zara K; Hikita, Sherry T

    2015-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness, is characterized by the death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), which is a monolayer posterior to the retina that supports the photoreceptors. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can generate an unlimited source of RPE for cellular therapies, and clinical trials have been initiated. However, protocols for RPE derivation using defined conditions free of nonhuman derivatives (xeno-free) are preferred for clinical translation. This avoids exposing AMD patients to animal-derived products, which could incite an immune response. In this study, we investigated the maintenance of hESCs and their differentiation into RPE using Synthemax II-SC, which is a novel, synthetic animal-derived component-free, RGD peptide-containing copolymer compliant with good manufacturing practices designed for xeno-free stem cell culture. Cells on Synthemax II-SC were compared with cultures grown with xenogeneic and xeno-free control substrates. This report demonstrates that Synthemax II-SC supports long-term culture of H9 and H14 hESC lines and permits efficient differentiation of hESCs into functional RPE. Expression of RPE-specific markers was assessed by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry, and RPE function was determined by phagocytosis of rod outer segments and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor. Both hESCs and hESC-RPE maintained normal karyotypes after long-term culture on Synthemax II-SC. Furthermore, RPE generated on Synthemax II-SC are functional when seeded onto parylene-C scaffolds designed for clinical use. These experiments suggest that Synthemax II-SC is a suitable, defined substrate for hESC culture and the xeno-free derivation of RPE for cellular therapies. PMID:25593208

  5. Cynandione A from Cynanchum wilfordii protects cultured cortical neurons from toxicity induced by H2O2, L-glutamate, and kainate.

    PubMed

    Lee, M K; Yeo, H; Kim, J; Markelonis, G J; Oh, T H; Kim, Y C

    2000-01-15

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as a primary cause of neuronal death in certain neurodegenerative disorders and in aging brains. Natural products have been used in Asian societies for centuries for treating such neurodegenerative disorders as senile dementia. In an effort to identify active neuroprotective compounds from these products, we have employed cultures of rat cortical neurons as our screening system. A methanolic extract from dried roots of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (Asclepiadaceae) significantly mitigated the neurotoxicity induced by H2O2 in this screening system. Activity-guided fractionation using several chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of the neuroprotective compound, cynandione A, a biacetophenone. At a concentration of 50 microM, cynandione A significantly reduced neurotoxicity induced by H2O2. Cynandione A significantly attenuated decreases in levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and other enzymes that participate in the cellular defense against oxidative stress. Furthermore, cynandione A alleviated neurotoxicity induced by the excitotoxic neurotransmitter, L-glutamate, the neurotoxicity induced by kainate, but not that mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate. Cynandione A was demonstrated to be a natural antioxidant as it facilitated the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide in vitro; however, no mechanism was uncovered to explain its neuroprotectant effects against glutamate and kainate. Therefore, cynandione A may be efficacious in protecting neurons from oxidative stress mediated via activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate/kainate receptors since it exerted significant neuroprotective effects on cultured cortical neurons. PMID:10650884

  6. Live-Cell, Label-Free Identification of GABAergic and Non-GABAergic Neurons in Primary Cortical Cultures Using Micropatterned Surface

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Sho; Kushida, Takatoshi; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Niwano, Michio; Tanii, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons have distinct roles in cortical dynamics. Here we present a novel method for identifying inhibitory GABAergic neurons from non-GABAergic neurons, which are mostly excitatory glutamatergic neurons, in primary cortical cultures. This was achieved using an asymmetrically designed micropattern that directs an axonal process to the longest pathway. In the current work, we first modified the micropattern geometry to improve cell viability and then studied the axon length from 2 to 7 days in vitro (DIV). The cell types of neurons were evaluated retrospectively based on immunoreactivity against GAD67, a marker for inhibitory GABAergic neurons. We found that axons of non-GABAergic neurons grow significantly longer than those of GABAergic neurons in the early stages of development. The optimal threshold for identifying GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons was evaluated to be 110 μm at 6 DIV. The method does not require any fluorescence labelling and can be carried out on live cells. The accuracy of identification was 98.2%. We confirmed that the high accuracy was due to the use of a micropattern, which standardized the development of cultured neurons. The method promises to be beneficial both for engineering neuronal networks in vitro and for basic cellular neuroscience research. PMID:27513933

  7. Electrical excitability of outgrowing neurites of embryonic neurones in cultures of dissociated neural plate of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Willard, A L

    1980-01-01

    1. I have studied the electrical excitability of outgrowing processes of individual neurones in cultures made from dissociated neural plates of embryos of Xenopus laevis prior to the time of neurite outgrowth in vivo. 2. The electrical excitability of neurites was tested by stimulating them extracellularly and recording responses with an intracellular electrode in their cell bodies; neurites were excitable at all times examined. 3. The ionic basis of the excitability of neurites was tested by recording from cells while changing the composition of the salines perfusing the cultures. 4. In cultures less than 10 hr old, all neurites tested made responses which depended on Ca2+. The action potentials of the cell bodies were also Ca2+-dependent at these times. 5. Between 10 and 12 hr in culture, a time at which the cell bodies still made Ca2+-dependent action potentials, neurites acquired the ability to make Na+-dependent responses. At these times, two-thirds of neurites tested retained the ability to produce divalent cation-dependent action potentials when perfused with solutions of isotonic Ba2+. 6. After 12 hr in culture, no neurites were observed to make Ca2+-or Ba2+-dependent responses; only Na+-dependent responses were observed. Cells continued to initiate and elongate new neurites until about 24 hr in culture. Thus neurites sent out at different times in culture differed in their development of excitability. 7. Cell bodies making exclusively Ca2+-dependent action potentials could be found until about 15 hr in culture, after which time a Na+-dependent component appeared. Cell bodies could then be observed to make action potentials which depended on both Ca2+ and Na+ until about 3 days in culture. After 3 days, most cell bodies made predominately Na+-dependent action potentials. Unlike the neurites, cell bodies retained the ability to make action potentials in isotonic Ba2+ for as long as the cultures were maintained (up to 5 days). 8. The possibility that changes

  8. Synthesis and secretion of plasma proteins by embryonic chick hepatocytes: changing patterns during the first three days of culture

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A simple model system is described for studying synthesis of plasma proteins. The system is based on chick embryo hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture which synthesize a broad spectrum of plasma proteins and secrete them into the culture medium. The secreted proteins are stable and consist almost exclusively of plasma proteins. The cultured cells are nonproliferating hepatic parenchymal cells whose cell mass remains constant in culture. By a modification of Laurell's rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the secreted plasma proteins can be detected in nanogram amounts in 3 microliter of unconcentrated culture medium. Kinetics of secretion are obtained by sequential assay of proteins accumulating in the medium. In this system it is demonstrated that: (a) intracellular plasma protein levels are equivalent to less than 5% of the daily secretion; (b) synthesis and secretion are continuous; and (c) the overall half-time for plasma protein movement along the secretory pathway is less than 10 min. From these results, it follows that the rate at which the plasma proteins are secreted gives a valid estimate of their rate of synthesis. This feature of the culture and the sensitivity of the assay allow routine measurements of plasma protein synthesis without disruption of the cells and without the use of radioisotopes. It is shown, furthermore, that the overall rate of plasma protein synthesis in cultured hepatocytes is constant over a 3- day period and is similar to that of the intact liver. 3,000,000 cells, containing 1 mg cell protein, synthesize 0.2 mg of plasma proteins daily, amounting to one-fifth of hepatocellular protein synthesis. Under the conditions used, albumin synthesis steadily decreases with culture time whereas the synthesis of many other plasma proteins increases. The observed phenotypic changes and reorganization of plasma protein synthesis illustrate how the system may be exploited for studying the regulatory processes governing plasma protein synthesis. PMID

  9. Effect of recombinant porcine IGF-binding protein-3 on proliferation of embryonic porcine myogenic cell cultures in the presence and absence of IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Pampusch, M S; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, W R

    2003-02-01

    IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 is produced by cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cell (PEMC) cultures and is secreted into the medium. Levels of secreted IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-3 mRNA are significantly reduced during differentiation and increase after differentiation is complete, suggesting that IGFBP-3 may play some role in myogenesis and/or in changes in myogenic cell proliferation that accompany differentiation. IGFBP-3 reportedly may either suppress or stimulate proliferation of cultured cells depending on cell type. Additionally, IGFBP-3 has been shown to affect proliferation via both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms in some cell types but not all. Currently, the effect, if any, of IGFBP-3 on myogenic cell proliferation is not known. Consequently, the goal of this study was to assess the IGF-I-dependent and IGF-I-independent actions of recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 on proliferation of cultured porcine myogenic cells. To facilitate these investigations, we have expressed porcine IGFBP-3 in the baculovirus system, purified and characterized the expressed recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 (rpIGFBP-3), and produced and characterized an anti-porcine IGFBP-3 antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of porcine IGFBP-3. rpIGFBP-3 suppressed IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMCs in a concentration-dependent manner with equimolar concentrations of IGF-I and rpIGFBP-3, resulting in complete suppression of IGF-I-stimulated proliferation. rpIGFBP-3 also suppressed Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMC, indicating that rpIGFBP-3 possesses IGF-independent activity in this cell system. These data have established that IGFBP-3 has the potential to affect proliferation of PEMCs during critical periods of muscle development that may impact ultimate muscle mass achievable postnatally. PMID:12553871

  10. The lazaroid U-83836E improves the survival of rat embryonic mesencephalic tissue stored at 4 degrees C and subsequently used for cultures or intracerebral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grasbon-Frodl, E M; Nakao, N; Brundin, P

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the effects of addition of the lazaroid U-83836E to a preservation medium on the survival of rat dopamine neurons stored before culturing or intracerebral transplantation. Embryonic ventral mesencephalic tissue was preserved at 4 degrees C for 8 days with or without the addition of 0.3 mu M of U-83836E to a chemically defined "hibernation" medium. Freshly dissected mesencephalic tissue was used in control groups. For culture experiments, the mesencephalic tissue was dissociated and grown in serum-containing medium. Following 24-48 h in vitro, the number of dopamine neurons in cultures derived from tissue hibernated without the lazaroid was 40% of fresh control, compared with 67% of control in cultures prepared from tissue stored in the presence of U-83836E. When mesencephalic tissue was transplanted to the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats following 8 days storage at 4 degrees C in a medium without U-83836E, the mean number of surviving dopamine neurons in the grafts was significantly reduced to 40% of control. In contrast, grafts of tissue which had been hibernated in U-83836E-containing medium contained as many dopamine neurons as transplants of freshly dissected tissue. High yields of surviving grafted dopamine neurons were correlated to a significantly faster onset of functional recovery of amphetamine-induced motor asymmetry. We conclude that the storage period for rat mesencephalic tissue can be prolonged up to 8 days when using lazaroid-supplemented hibernation medium. As lazaroids have undergone clinical safety testing, the application of lazaroids for tissue storage in clinical transplantation trials can be envisaged. PMID:9138743

  11. Development of retrovirus vectors useful for expressing genes in cultured murine embryonal cells and hematopoietic cells in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Guild, B C; Finer, M H; Housman, D E; Mulligan, R C

    1988-01-01

    A series of retrovirus vectors were constructed in which cellular promoter elements derived from the chicken beta-actin and human histone H4 genes were introduced within the proviral transcriptional unit of Moloney murine leukemia virus in order to promote expression of inserted sequences. Each of these vectors gave rise to high titer of virus capable of transferring the expected proviral structure to cells. Inclusion of normal 5' splice sequences or a portion of viral gag sequences in these constructions resulted in significant increases in virus titer. Each construction was transcriptionally active in NIH 3T3 cells and in undifferentiated F9 cells. One of the vectors, HSG-neo, which contained the human histone H4 promoter, was shown to be transcriptionally active in hematopoietic cells derived from long-term reconstituted bone marrow transplant recipients engrafted with transduced stem cells. These vectors should be of general use for obtaining efficient gene expression in embryonal and hematopoietic cells. Images PMID:3418785

  12. A Defined and Xeno-Free Culture Method Enabling the Establishment of Clinical-Grade Human Embryonic, Induced Pluripotent and Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Kristiina; Lindroos, Bettina; Hussein, Samer M.; Lappalainen, Riikka S.; Pekkanen-Mattila, Mari; Inzunza, Jose; Rozell, Björn; Miettinen, Susanna; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kerkelä, Erja; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Otonkoski, Timo; Suuronen, Riitta; Hovatta, Outi; Skottman, Heli

    2010-01-01

    Background The growth of stem cells in in vitro conditions requires optimal balance between signals mediating cell survival, proliferation, and self-renewal. For clinical application of stem cells, the use of completely defined conditions and elimination of all animal-derived materials from the establishment, culture, and differentiation processes is desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the development of a fully defined xeno-free medium (RegES), capable of supporting the expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adipose stem cells (ASC). We describe the use of the xeno-free medium in the derivation and long-term (>80 passages) culture of three pluripotent karyotypically normal hESC lines: Regea 06/015, Regea 07/046, and Regea 08/013. Cardiomyocytes and neural cells differentiated from these cells exhibit features characteristic to these cell types. The same formulation of the xeno-free medium is capable of supporting the undifferentiated growth of iPSCs on human feeder cells. The characteristics of the pluripotent hESC and iPSC lines are comparable to lines derived and cultured in standard undefined culture conditions. In the culture of ASCs, the xeno-free medium provided significantly higher proliferation rates than ASCs cultured in medium containing allogeneic human serum (HS), while maintaining the differentiation potential and characteristic surface marker expression profile of ASCs, although significant differences in the surface marker expression of ASCs cultured in HS and RegES media were revealed. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that human ESCs, iPSCs and ASCs can be maintained in the same defined xeno-free medium formulation for a prolonged period of time while maintaining their characteristics, demonstrating the applicability of the simplified xeno-free medium formulation for the production of clinical-grade stem cells. The basic xeno-free formulation described herein

  13. Synthesis of a growth-associated protein by embryonic rat cerebrocortical neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Finklestein, S P; Benowitz, L I

    1986-12-01

    Proteins synthesized by embryonic rat cortical cultures were studied under conditions that were either permissive or nonpermissive to neurite outgrowth. Freshly dissected cortex from embryonic day 17 rat pups was mechanically dissociated and plated on poly(L-lysine) substrate in the presence of (1) serum-free media, which allowed neuronal survival but no outgrowth; (2) serum, which allowed survival of both neurons and glia as well as neurite outgrowth; or (3) a hormone-supplemented defined media, which allowed preferential survival and outgrowth of neurons. In addition, postnatal tissue was cultured as a source of glia. Cultures were pulse-labeled with 35S-methionine 48 hr after plating and the protein synthesis patterns examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography. The expression of an acidic 50 kDa protein, associated with the particulate fraction of cells, was found to be a prominent correlate of neurite outgrowth. This protein was synthesized in serum- or hormone-treated embryonic cultures showing neurite outgrowth but was undetectable in embryonic cultures without outgrowth or in postnatal glial cultures. By virtue of its migration position on 2-dimensional gels, its presence in a light membrane fraction, and its cleavage products after Staphylococcus aureus protease treatment, the 50 kDa protein appears to be identical to an acidic 43-49 kDa protein that has been identified in several developing and regenerating neural pathways, as well as to the B-50 phosphoprotein. These findings lend support for a critical role of this protein in neural development and demonstrate the feasibility of using primary CNS cell cultures to study its biosynthesis and function. PMID:2947982

  14. Development and characterization of a primary culture of chicken embryonic tracheal epithelial cells and their use in avian studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza is through cells of the airway epithelium. To study the molecular mechanism of infection and early host responses we created a primary chicken tracheal cell culture. Epithelial cells were isolated from the trachea of 18 day old chicken embryos and cult...

  15. Survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after in vitro culture of ovarian cortical slices in media containing coconut water.

    PubMed

    Silva, José R V; van den Hurk, Robert; Costa, Sonia H F; Andrade, Evelyn R; Nunes, Ana P A; Ferreira, Francisco V A; Lôbo, Raimundo N B; Figueiredo, José R

    2004-04-01

    The development of culture systems to support the initiation of growth of primordial follicles is important to the study of the factors that control the earliest stages of folliculogenesis. We investigated the effectiveness of five culture media, two supplements and three culture periods on the survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after culturing ovarian cortex. The media were based on minimal essential minimum (MEM) and coconut water solution (CWS) added in the proportion of 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. The two supplements were none versus supplemented with insulin-transferrin-selenium, pyruvate, glutamine, hypoxanthine, and BSA. Pieces of goat ovarian cortex were cultured in the media for 1, 3 or 5 days and representative samples were evaluated at day 0 as non-cultured controls. The replicates were the two ovaries of five mixed breed goats. The number of primordial, intermediate, primary and secondary follicles at each period of culture and the number of degenerated follicles were evaluated. Mitotic activity of granulosa cells was studied by immunolocalization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The number of follicles in each stage and degenerated follicles were statistically analyzed by ANOVA using a factorial design and the significance of differences assessed using Tukey test. Chi-square test was used to compare the percentage of follicles with PCNA positive granulosa cells. As the culture period progressed, the number of primordial follicles fell and there was a significant increase in the number of primary follicles. The fall in the number of primordial follicles was particularly marked after 1 day culture. No effect of media on the number of primordial and primary follicles was observed after culture, but MEM as well as supplements increased the number of intermediate follicles. Follicular degeneration was kept at the same level after culture in the media tested, except for pure CWS that increased the number of degenerated follicles. In

  16. STC1 induction by PACAP is mediated through cAMP and ERK1/2 but not PKA in cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Holighaus, Yvonne; Weihe, Eberhard; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    The neuroprotective actions of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) in vitro and in vivo suggest that activation of its cognate G protein-coupled receptor PAC1 or downstream signaling molecules, and thus activation of PACAP target genes, could be of therapeutic benefit. Here we show, that cultured rat cortical neurons predominantly expressed the PAC1hop and null variants, activation of which resulted in elevation of the two second messengers cAMP and Ca2+ and expression of the putative neuroprotectant stanniocalcin 1 (STC1). PACAP signaling to the STC1 gene proceeded through the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), but not through the cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA), and was mimicked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. PACAP- and forskolin-mediated activation of ERK1/2 occurred through cAMP, but not PKA. These results suggest that STC1 gene induction proceeds through cAMP and ERK1/2, independently of PKA, the canonical cAMP effector. In contrast, PACAP signaling to the BDNF gene proceeded through PKA, suggesting that two different neuroprotective cAMP pathways co-exist in differentiated cortical neurons. The selective activation of a potentially neuroprotective cAMP dependent pathway different from the canonical cAMP pathway used in many physiological processes, such as memory storage, has implications for pharmacological activation of neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:21975601

  17. Transfer and Detection of Freshly Isolated or Cultured Chicken (Gallus gallus) and Exotic Species’ Embryonic Gonadal Germ Stem Cells in Host Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Imus, Nastassja; Roe, Mandi; Charter, Suellen; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The management of captive avian breeding programs increasingly utilizes various artificial reproductive technologies, including in ova sexing of embryos to adjust population sex ratios. Currently, however, no attention has been given to the loss of genetic diversity following sex-selective incubation, even with respect to individuals from critically endangered species. This project evaluated the possibility of using xenotransfer of embryonic gonadal germline stem cells (GGCs) for future reintroduction of their germplasm into the gene pool. We examined and compared the host gonad colonization of freshly isolated and 3 day (3d) cultured donor GGCs from chicken and 13 species of exotic embryos. Following 3d-culture of GGCs, there was a significant increase in the percentage of stem cell marker (SSEA-1, -3, -4) positive cells. However, the percentage of positive host gonads with chicken donor-derived cells decreased from 68% (fresh) to 22% (3d), while the percentage of exotic species donor-cells positive host gonads decreased from 61% (fresh) to 49% (3d-cultured). Donor GGCs from both chicken and exotic species were localized within the caudal endoderm, including the region encompassing the gonadal ridge by 16 hours post-injection. Furthermore, donor-derived cells isolated from stage 36 host embryos were antigenic for anti SSEA-1, VASA/DDX4 and EMA-1 antibodies, presumably indicating maintenance of stem cell identity. This study demonstrates that GGCs from multiple species can migrate to the gonadal region and maintain presumed stemness following xenotransfer into a chicken host embryo, suggesting that germline stem cell migration is highly conserved in birds. PMID:24882096

  18. Interwoven Four-Compartment Capillary Membrane Technology for Three-Dimensional Perfusion with Decentralized Mass Exchange to Scale Up Embryonic Stem Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Jörg C.; Lübberstedt, Marc; Edsbagge, Josefina; Ring, Alexander; Hout, Mariah; Baun, Matt; Rossberg, Ingrid; Knöspel, Fanny; Peters, Grant; Eckert, Klaus; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Björquist, Petter; Stachelscheid, Harald; Urbaniak, Thomas; Schatten, Gerald; Miki, Toshio; Schmelzer, Eva; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We describe hollow fiber-based three-dimensional (3D) dynamic perfusion bioreactor technology for embryonic stem cells (ESC) which is scalable for laboratory and potentially clinical translation applications. We added 2 more compartments to the typical 2-compartment devices, namely an additional media capillary compartment for countercurrent ‘arteriovenous’ flow and an oxygenation capillary compartment. Each capillary membrane compartment can be perfused independently. Interweaving the 3 capillary systems to form repetitive units allows bioreactor scalability by multiplying the capillary units and provides decentralized media perfusion while enhancing mass exchange and reducing gradient distances from decimeters to more physiologic lengths of <1 mm. The exterior of the resulting membrane network, the cell compartment, is used as a physically active scaffold for cell aggregation; adjusting intercapillary distances enables control of the size of cell aggregates. To demonstrate the technology, mouse ESC (mESC) were cultured in 8- or 800-ml cell compartment bioreactors. We were able to confirm the hypothesis that this bioreactor enables mESC expansion qualitatively comparable to that obtained with Petri dishes, but on a larger scale. To test this, we compared the growth of 129/SVEV mESC in static two-dimensional Petri dishes with that in 3D perfusion bioreactors. We then tested the feasibility of scaling up the culture. In an 800-ml prototype, we cultured approximately 5 × 109 cells, replacing up to 800 conventional 100-mm Petri dishes. Teratoma formation studies in mice confirmed protein expression and gene expression results with regard to maintaining ‘stemness’ markers during cell expansion. PMID:20197653

  19. Oligomeric Amyloid-β Toxicity Can Be Inhibited by Blocking Its Cellular Binding in Cortical Neuronal Cultures with Addition of the Triphenylmethane Dye Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Jana, Metta K; Cappai, Roberto; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D

    2016-08-17

    Accumulation of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers in the brain has been suggested to cause neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous findings showed that the binding of Aβ trimer and tetramer to neurons is significantly correlated with Aβ-induced neuronal cell death. We propose blocking of neuronal binding of these neurotoxic Aβ oligomers as a therapeutic strategy for preventing this disease. To test this, a nontoxic triphenylmethane dye, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which has been reported to modulate Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity, was investigated using mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures treated with photoinduced cross-linked toxic Aβ40 oligomers as well as soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides. We found that the BBG-induced decrease in Aβ binding resulted in a significant decrease in its neurotoxicity. These findings support our hypothesis that disruption of cellular Aβ binding is a promising therapeutic strategy for combating AD. PMID:27258855

  20. Neuroprotective effects of a sesquiterpene lactone and flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa Steud. against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Cho, Sang-Buem; Moon, Hyung-In

    2010-12-01

    The neuroprotective effects of Paulownia tomentosa against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were studied in primary cultured rat cortical cells. It was found that the aqueous extract of this medicinal plant significantly attenuated glutamate-induced toxicity. In order to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this neuroprotective effect, the active fractions and components were isolated and identified. Five compounds were isolated as the methanol extracts from air-dried flowers of P. tomentosa. Isoatriplicolide tiglate exhibited significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity at concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 10 μM, and exhibited cell viability of approximately 43-78%. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of P. tomentosa might be due to the inhibition of glutamate-induced toxicity by the sesquiterpene lactone derivative it contains. PMID:20683844

  1. Structures of 1,4-benzodioxane derivatives from the seeds of Phytolacca americana and their neuritogenic activity in primary cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Takahasi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Kazue; Ueda, Masumi; Nakade, Kousuke; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of the seeds of Phytolacca americana was reinvestigated to yield three new 1,4-benzodioxane-type compounds, americanoic acid methyl ester (1), isoamericanoic acid A methyl ester (2), and 9'-O-methylamericanol A (3) along with the previously isolated neolignans 6-9. The structures of 1-3 were characterized by 2D NMR and long-range selective proton-decoupling (LSPD) techniques. The neuritogenic effects of compounds 1-3, and dicarboxilic acids 4 and 5, which had been previously synthesized with horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative coupling of caffeic acid, were examined in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. Americanoic acid A methyl ester (1) exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity at concentration of 0.01-1.0 microM, whereas dicarboxilic acids 4 and 5 were found to induce neuritogenesis dose dependently at the concentrations from 0.1 microM to 10 microM. PMID:14646313

  2. Localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGFBP)-3 in cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells before and after TGF-beta1 treatment.

    PubMed

    Xi, G; Hathaway, M R; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2007-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 binds IGFs with high affinity and affects their biological activity. IGFBP-3 that is not bound to IGF also affects cells via mechanisms involving binding to specific cell surface receptors and/or transport into the cell. IGFBP-3 is produced by porcine embryonic myogenic cell (PEMC) cultures. Additionally, IGFBP-3 facilitates the proliferation-suppressing actions of TGF-beta(1) and myostatin in PEMC cultures via mechanisms that do not involve IGF binding. Moreover, these mechanisms do not involve preventing myostatin or TGF-beta(1)-induced increases in phosphosmad2 or phosphosmad3 level. Consequently, the mechanism(s) by which IGFBP-3 facilitates the proliferation-suppressing actions of TGF-beta(1) and myostatin in PEMC is unclear. Since IGFBP-3 reportedly interacts with nuclear proteins that regulate transcription, TGF-beta(1) or myostatin-induced translocation of IGFBP-3 into the nucleus may facilitate the proliferation-suppressing actions of these cytokines. Here, we show that IGFBP-3 is localized in cells containing the muscle specific protein desmin, thus establishing the presence of this IGFBP in myogenic cells. IGFBP-3 is present in the cytoplasm of all myogenic cells and approximately 50% of the nuclei of proliferating PEMC. IGFBP-3 is also detectable in fused myotubes. IGFBP-3 suppresses IGF-I-stimulated differentiation of PEMC but has no affect on Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated differentiation of PEMC. Treatment of PEMC for 24h with TGF-beta(1) (20 ng/ml) results in a 78% (p<0.01) increase in the number of nuclei that contain detectable IGFBP-3. These results suggest that translocation of IGFBP-3 into the nucleus of PEMC could play a role in mediating the proliferation-suppressing action of TGF-beta(1). PMID:17049199

  3. Effects of amyloid-beta on cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive cells in cultured basal forebrain neurons of embryonic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Peter; Papp, Henrietta; Kasa, Peter; Pakaski, Magdolna; Balaspiri, Lajos

    2004-02-13

    The neurotoxic effects of amyloid-beta(1-42) and amyloid-beta(25-35) (A beta) on cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons were investigated in primary cultures derived from embryonic 18-day-old rat basal forebrain. After various time intervals, the cultures were treated with 1, 5, 10 or 20 microM A beta for different time periods. The cholinergic neurons and their axon terminals were revealed by vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunohistochemistry and the cholinoceptive cells by acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining. To assess the toxic effects of these A beta peptides on the cholinergic neurons, image analysis was applied for quantitative determination of the numbers of axon varicosities/terminals and cells. The results demonstrate that, following treatment with 1 or 5 microM A beta for 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120 min, no changes in vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunohistochemical staining were observed. However, after treatment for 30 min with 10 or 20 microM A beta, the number of stained axon varicosities was reduced, and treatment for 2 h they had disappeared. In contrast, vesicular acetylcholine transporter-positivity could be seen in some of the neuronal perikarya even after 3 days after treatment. The acetylcholinesterase staining was homogeneously distributed in the control neurons. After A beta treatment, the histochemical reaction end-product was detected in some of the neuronal perikarya or in the dendritic processes near to the soma. It is concluded that the neurotoxic effects of A beta appear more rapidly in the cholinergic axon terminals than in the cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive neuronal perikarya. PMID:14725970

  4. Evaluation of different embryonating bird eggs and cell cultures for isolation efficiency of avian influenza A virus and avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-positive wild bird surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Kira A; Stallknecht, David E; Swayne, David E

    2012-05-01

    Virus isolation rates for influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) from wild bird surveillance samples are lower than molecular detection rates for the specific viral genomes. The current study was conducted to examine the possibility of increased virus isolation rates from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) using alternative virus isolation substrates such as embryonating duck eggs (EDEs), embryonating turkey eggs (ETEs), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell cultures, and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell cultures. Rectal swabs of birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes were tested by real-time RT-PCR for the presence of FLUAV and APMV-1 genomes, and virus isolation (VI) was attempted on all real-time RT-PCR-positive samples. Samples with threshold cycle (Ct) ≤ 37 had VI rates for FLUAV of 62.5%, 50%, 43.8%, 31.5%, and 31.5% in embryonating chicken eggs (ECEs), ETEs, EDEs, MDCK cells, and Vero cells, respectively. A higher isolation rate was seen with ECEs compared to either cell culture method, but similar isolation rates were identified between the different embryonating avian eggs. Virus isolation rates for APMV-1 on samples with real-time RT-PCR Ct ≤ 37 were 75%, 100%, 100%, 0%, and 37.5% in ECEs, ETEs, EDEs, MDCK cells, and Vero cells, respectively. Significantly higher VI rates were seen with ECEs as compared to either cell culture method for all real-time RT-PCR-positive samples. Because of the limited availability and high cost of ETEs and EDEs, the data support the continuing usage of ECEs for primary isolation of both FLUAV and APMV-1 from real-time RT-PCR-positive wild bird surveillance samples. PMID:22529126

  5. Interneurons from Embryonic Development to Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Derek G.; Nicholas, Cory R.; Basbaum, Allan I.; Stryker, Michael P.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Rubenstein, John L.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Many neurologic and psychiatric disorders are marked by imbalances between neural excitation and inhibition. In the cerebral cortex, inhibition is mediated largely by GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid–secreting) interneurons, a cell type that originates in the embryonic ventral telencephalon and populates the cortex through long-distance tangential migration. Remarkably, when transplanted from embryos or in vitro culture preparations, immature interneurons disperse and integrate into host brain circuits, both in the cerebral cortex and in other regions of the central nervous system. These features make interneuron transplantation a powerful tool for the study of neurodevelopmental processes such as cell specification, cell death, and cortical plasticity. Moreover, interneuron transplantation provides a novel strategy for modifying neural circuits in rodent models of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, mood disorders, and chronic pain. PMID:24723614

  6. Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons Culture Is Mediated by a Calcium Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Ya; Hu, Fei-fei; Bian, Jian-chun; Liu, Xue-zhong; Gu, Jian-hong; Liu, Zong-ping

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal, capable of severely damaging several organs, including the brain. Studies have shown that Cd disrupts intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis, leading to apoptosis in a variety of cells including primary murine neurons. Calcium is a ubiquitous intracellular ion which acts as a signaling mediator in numerous cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival/death. However, little is known about the role of calcium signaling in Cd-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. Thus we investigated the role of calcium signaling in Cd-induced apoptosis in primary rat cerebral cortical neurons. Consistent with known toxic properties of Cd, exposure of cerebral cortical neurons to Cd caused morphological changes indicative of apoptosis and cell death. It also induced elevation of [Ca2+]i and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities. This Cd-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was suppressed by an IP3R inhibitor, 2-APB, suggesting that ER-regulated Ca2+ is involved. In addition, we observed elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, dysfunction of cytochrome oxidase subunits (COX-I/II/III), depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) during Cd exposure. Z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor, partially prevented Cd-induced apoptosis and cell death. Interestingly, apoptosis, cell death and these cellular events induced by Cd were blocked by BAPTA-AM, a specific intracellular Ca2+ chelator. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed an up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulated expression of Bax. However, these were not blocked by BAPTA-AM. Thus Cd toxicity is in part due to its disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, by compromising ATPases activities and ER-regulated Ca2+, and this elevation in Ca2+ triggers the activation of the Ca2+-mitochondria apoptotic signaling pathway. This

  7. The Effects of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Transforming Growth Factor-β3 on Bone Development in an Ex Vivo Organotypic Culture System of Embryonic Chick Femora

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma L.; Rashidi, Hassan; Kanczler, Janos M.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-β3) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25 (OH) 2D3) are essential factors in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis respectively. These factors also play a fundamental role in the developmental processes and the maintenance of skeletal integrity, but their respective direct effects on these processes are not fully understood. Using an organotypic bone rudiment culture system the current study has examined the direct roles the osteotropic factors 1α,25 (OH)2D3 and TGF-β3 exert on the development and modulation of the three dimensional structure of the embryonic femur. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E11) were organotypically cultured for 10 days in basal media, or basal media supplemented with either 1α,25 (OH) 2D3 (25 nM) or TGF-β3 (5 ng/mL & 15 ng/mL). Analyses of the femurs were undertaken using micro-computed tomography (μCT), histology and immunohistochemistry. 1α,25 (OH)2D3 supplemented cultures enhanced osteogenesis directly in the developing femurs with elevated levels of osteogenic markers such as type 1 collagen. In marked contrast organotypic femur cultures supplemented with TGF-β3 (5 ng/mL & 15 ng/mL) demonstrated enhanced chondrogenesis with a reduction in osteogenesis. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of the ex vivo organotypic embryonic femur culture employed to elucidate the direct roles of these molecules, 1α,25 (OH) 2D3 and TGF-β3 on the structural development of embryonic bone within a three dimensional framework. We conclude that 1α,25(OH)2D and TGF-β3 modify directly the various cell populations in bone rudiment organotypic cultures effecting tissue metabolism resulting in significant changes in embryonic bone growth and modulation. Understanding the roles of osteotropic agents in the process of skeletal development is integral to developing new strategies for the recapitulation of bone tissue in later life. PMID:25835745

  8. A single fraction from Uncaria sinensis exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Neui; Jang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Byung Tae

    2015-06-01

    We identified a neuroprotective single fraction among 62 ones of hexane extract from Uncaria sinensis (JGH43IA) and investigated its effects and mechanisms in primary cortical neurons. Pretreatment with JGH43IA showed a significantly increase cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with a decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase release. When we performed morphological assay and flow cytometry to determination of the type of cell death, pretreatment with JGH43IA showed a significant reduction of glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death. Then we explored the downstream signaling pathways of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) with calpain activation to elucidate possible pathways of neuroprotection by JGH43IA. Pretreatment with JGH43IA exhibited a significant attenuation of NMDAR GluN2B subunit activation and a decrease in active form of calpain 1 leading to subsequent cleavage of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). In addition, pretreatment with JGH43IA showed a marked increase of cAMP responsive element binding protein. These results suggest that JGH43IA may have neuroprotective effects through down-regulation of NMDAR GluN2B subunit and calpain 1 activation, and subsequent alleviation of STEP cleavage. This single fraction from U. sinensis might be a useful therapeutic agent for brain disorder associated with glutamate injury. PMID:26140220

  9. A single fraction from Uncaria sinensis exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Neui; Jang, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    We identified a neuroprotective single fraction among 62 ones of hexane extract from Uncaria sinensis (JGH43IA) and investigated its effects and mechanisms in primary cortical neurons. Pretreatment with JGH43IA showed a significantly increase cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with a decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase release. When we performed morphological assay and flow cytometry to determination of the type of cell death, pretreatment with JGH43IA showed a significant reduction of glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death. Then we explored the downstream signaling pathways of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) with calpain activation to elucidate possible pathways of neuroprotection by JGH43IA. Pretreatment with JGH43IA exhibited a significant attenuation of NMDAR GluN2B subunit activation and a decrease in active form of calpain 1 leading to subsequent cleavage of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). In addition, pretreatment with JGH43IA showed a marked increase of cAMP responsive element binding protein. These results suggest that JGH43IA may have neuroprotective effects through down-regulation of NMDAR GluN2B subunit and calpain 1 activation, and subsequent alleviation of STEP cleavage. This single fraction from U. sinensis might be a useful therapeutic agent for brain disorder associated with glutamate injury. PMID:26140220

  10. The Ketone Body, β-Hydroxybutyrate Stimulates the Autophagic Flux and Prevents Neuronal Death Induced by Glucose Deprivation in Cortical Cultured Neurons.

    PubMed

    Camberos-Luna, Lucy; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Montiel, Teresa; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Massieu, Lourdes

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the major energy substrate in brain, however, during ketogenesis induced by starvation or prolonged hypoglycemia, the ketone bodies (KB), acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can substitute for glucose. KB improve neuronal survival in diverse injury models, but the mechanisms by which KB prevent neuronal damage are still not well understood. In the present study we have investigated whether protection by the D isomer of BHB (D-BHB) against neuronal death induced by glucose deprivation (GD), is related to autophagy. Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradation process activated during nutritional stress, which leads to the digestion of damaged proteins and organelles providing energy for cell survival. Results show that autophagy is activated in cortical cultured neurons during GD, as indicated by the increase in the levels of the lipidated form of the microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II), and the number of autophagic vesicles. At early phases of glucose reintroduction (GR), the levels of p62 declined suggesting that the degradation of the autophagolysosomal content takes place at this time. In cultures exposed to GD and GR in the presence of D-BHB, the levels of LC3-II and p62 rapidly declined and remained low during GR, suggesting that the KB stimulates the autophagic flux preventing autophagosome accumulation and improving neuronal survival. PMID:26303508

  11. Embryonic hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Golub, Rachel; Cumano, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Blood cells are continually produced from a pool of progenitors that derive from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In vertebrates, the hematopoietic system develops from two distinct waves or generation of precursors. The first wave occurs in the yolk sac, in mammals or equivalent embryonic structure, and produces nucleated primitive erythrocytes that provide the embryo with the first oxygen transporter and are, therefore, essential for the viability of the embryo. The yolk sac also produces myeloid cells that migrate to the central nervous system and to the skin to form the microglia and skin specific macrophages, the Langerhans cells. The second wave occurs in the dorsal aorta and produces multipotential hematopoietic progenitors. These cells are generated once in the lifetime from mesoderm derivatives closely related to endothelial cells, during a short period of embryonic development. Newly generated cells do not reconstitute the hematopoietic compartment of conventional recipients; therefore, they are designated as immature or pre-HSCs. They undergo maturation into adult HSCs in the aorta or in the fetal liver accompanied by the expression of MHC class I, CD45, CD150, Sca-1 and the absence of CD48. Differentiation of HSCs first occurs in the fetal liver, giving rise to mature blood cells. HSCs also expand in the fetal liver, and in a short time period (four days in the mouse embryo), they increase over 40-fold. HSCs and progenitor cells exit the fetal liver and colonize the spleen, where differentiation to the myeloid lineage and particular lymphoid subsets is favored. PMID:24041595

  12. Low level Methylmercury enhances CNTF-evoked STAT3 signaling and glial differentiation in cultured cortical progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jebbett, Nathan J.; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Rand, Matthew D.; Eckenstein, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Although many previous investigations have studied how mercury compounds cause cell death, sub-cytotoxic levels may affect mechanisms essential for the proper development of the nervous system. The present study investigates whether low doses of methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) can modulate the activity of JAK/STAT signaling, a pathway that promotes gliogenesis. We report that sub-cytotoxic doses of MeHg enhance ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) evoked STAT3 phosphorylation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and mouse cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). This effect is specific for MeHg, since HgCl2 fails to enhance JAK/STAT signaling. Exposing NPCs to these low doses of MeHg (30-300 nM) enhances CNTF-induced expression of STAT3-target genes such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), and increases the proportion of cells expressing GFAP following two days of differentiation. Higher, near-cytotoxic concentrations of MeHg and HgCl2 inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and lead to increased production of superoxide. Lower concentrations of MeHg effective in enhancing JAK/STAT signaling (30 nM) do not result in a detectable increase in superoxide nor increased expression of the oxidant-responsive genes, heme oxygenase 1, heat shock protein A5 and sirtuin 1. These findings suggest that low concentrations of MeHg inappropriately enhance STAT3 phosphorylation and glial differentiation, and that the mechanism causing this enhancement is distinct from the reactive oxygen species -associated cell death observed at higher concentrations of MeHg and HgCl2. PMID:23845766

  13. Genetic manipulation of reptilian embryos: toward an understanding of cortical development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Yamashita, Wataru; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian neocortex is a remarkable structure that is characterized by tangential surface expansion and six-layered lamination. However, how the mammalian neocortex emerged during evolution remains elusive. Because all modern reptiles have a homolog of the neocortex at the dorsal pallium, developmental analyses of the reptilian cortex are valuable to explore the origin of the neocortex. However, reptilian cortical development and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear, mainly due to technical difficulties with sample collection and embryonic manipulation. Here, we introduce a method of embryonic manipulations for the Madagascar ground gecko and Chinese softshell turtle. We established in ovo electroporation and an ex ovo culture system to address neural stem cell dynamics, neuronal differentiation and migration. Applications of these techniques illuminate the developmental mechanisms underlying reptilian corticogenesis, which provides significant insight into the evolutionary steps of different types of cortex and the origin of the mammalian neocortex. PMID:25759636

  14. Effects of follicle-stimulating hormone and 17beta-estradiol on proliferation of chicken embryonic ovarian germ cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meina; Zhang, Caiqiao; Zeng, Weidong; Mi, Yuling

    2004-12-01

    The effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) on chicken ovarian germ cell proliferation were evaluated through a germ-somatic cell coculture model. Ovarian cells from the left ovaries of 18-day-old chicken embryos were cultured in serum-free McCoy's 5A medium at 39 degrees C and challenged with FSH (0.25-1.0 IU/mL) or E2 (10(-8)-10(-5) M) alone and in combination for 48 h. The number of germ cells was counted, and the proliferating cells were immunolocalized by a specific antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The labeling index (LI) was determined for germ cells. Results revealed that germ cells could survive and kept proliferating under support of somatic cells. Germ cells were localized by expression of a specific antibody for stem cell factor receptor c-kit. Both FSH (0.25-1.0 IU/mL) and E2 (10(-7)-10(-5) M) alone induced a marked increase in germ cell number (P<0.05), and PCNA-LI of germ cells was greater in FSH-treated groups (0.25-1.0 IU/mL) and E2-treated groups (10(-8)-10(-5) M), compared with vehicle-treated group (P<0.05). Furthermore, FSH manifested a synergistic effect with E2 (10(-6)-10(-5) M) in stimulating germ cell proliferation. These results indicate that FSH might interact with estrogen to promote ovarian germ cell proliferation in embryonic chickens near hatching. PMID:15596398

  15. Polarized Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Monolayers Have Higher Resistance to Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death Than Nonpolarized Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Jamie; Zhu, Danhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress-mediated injury to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major factor involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE cells are currently being evaluated for their potential for cell therapy in AMD patients through subretinal injection of cells in suspension and subretinal placement as a polarized monolayer. To gain an understanding of how transplanted RPE cells will respond to the highly oxidatively stressed environment of an AMD patient eye, we compared the survival of polarized and nonpolarized RPE cultures following oxidative stress treatment. Polarized, nonpolarized/confluent, nonpolarized/subconfluent hESC-RPE cells were treated with H2O2. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling stains revealed the highest amount of cell death in subconfluent hESC-RPE cells and little cell death in polarized hESC-RPE cells with H2O2 treatment. There were higher levels of proapoptotic factors (phosphorylated p38, phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, Bax, and cleaved caspase 3 fragments) in treated nonpolarized RPE—particularly subconfluent cells—relative to polarized cells. On the other hand, polarized RPE cells had constitutively higher levels of cell survival and antiapoptotic signaling factors such as p-Akt and Bcl-2, as well as antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase relative to nonpolarized cells, that possibly contributed to polarized cells’ higher tolerance to oxidative stress compared with nonpolarized RPE cells. Subconfluent cells were particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that implantation of polarized hESC-RPE monolayers for treating AMD patients with geographic atrophy should have better survival than injections of hESC-RPE cells in suspension. PMID:25411476

  16. Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and Quantitative Comparison of the Membrane Proteomes of Self-renewing and Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A.; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T. G.; Johansen, Pia T.; Henningsen, Jeanette; Kratchmarova, Irina; Kassem, Moustapha; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a powerful quantitative proteomics platform for comprehensive characterization of complex biological systems. However, the potential of SILAC-based approaches has not been fully utilized in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research mainly because of the complex nature of hESC culture conditions. Here we describe complete SILAC labeling of hESCs with fully preserved pluripotency, self-renewal capabilities, and overall proteome status that was quantitatively analyzed to a depth of 1556 proteins and 527 phosphorylation events. SILAC-labeled hESCs appear to be perfectly suitable for functional studies, and we exploited a SILAC-based proteomics strategy for discovery of hESC-specific surface markers. We determined and quantitatively compared the membrane proteomes of the self-renewing versus differentiating cells of two distinct human embryonic stem cell lines. Of the 811 identified membrane proteins, six displayed significantly higher expression levels in the undifferentiated state compared with differentiating cells. This group includes the established marker CD133/Prominin-1 as well as novel candidates for hESC surface markers: Glypican-4, Neuroligin-4, ErbB2, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ), and Glycoprotein M6B. Our study also revealed 17 potential markers of hESC differentiation as their corresponding protein expression levels displayed a dramatic increase in differentiated embryonic stem cell populations. PMID:19151416

  17. Induction of ER stress in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation of cortical cultures involves the activation of the PERK and IRE-1 pathways and of caspase-12

    PubMed Central

    Badiola, N; Penas, C; Miñano-Molina, A; Barneda-Zahonero, B; Fadó, R; Sánchez-Opazo, G; Comella, J X; Sabriá, J; Zhu, C; Blomgren, K; Casas, C; Rodríguez-Alvarez, J

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of calcium homeostasis and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are considered contributory components of cell death after ischemia. However, the signal-transducing events that are activated by ER stress after cerebral ischemia are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that caspase-12 and the PERK and IRE pathways are activated following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of mixed cortical cultures or neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI). Activation of PERK led to a transient phosphorylation of eIF2α, an increase in ATF4 levels and the induction of gadd34 (a subunit of an eIF2α-directed phosphatase). Interestingly, the upregulation of ATF4 did not lead to an increase in the levels of CHOP. Additionally, IRE1 activation was mediated by the increase in the processed form of xbp1, which would be responsible for the observed expression of edem2 and the increased levels of the chaperones GRP78 and GRP94. We were also able to detect caspase-12 proteolysis after HI or OGD. Processing of procaspase-12 was mediated by NMDA receptor and calpain activation. Moreover, our data suggest that caspase-12 activation is independent of the unfolded protein response activated by ER stress. PMID:21525936

  18. Development of a Scalable, High-Throughput-Compatible Assay to Detect Tau Aggregates Using iPSC-Derived Cortical Neurons Maintained in a Three-Dimensional Culture Format.

    PubMed

    Medda, X; Mertens, L; Versweyveld, S; Diels, A; Barnham, L; Bretteville, A; Buist, A; Verheyen, A; Royaux, I; Ebneth, A; Cabrera-Socorro, A

    2016-09-01

    Tau aggregation is the pathological hallmark that best correlates with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed of hyperphosphorylated tau, leads to neuronal dysfunction and loss, and is directly associated with the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. The limited success in targeting β-amyloid pathologies has reinforced the hypothesis of blocking tau phosphorylation, aggregation, and/or spreading as alternative therapeutic entry points to treat AD. Identification of novel therapies requires disease-relevant and scalable assays capable of reproducing key features of the pathology in an in vitro setting. Here we use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a virtually unlimited source of human cortical neurons to develop a robust and scalable tau aggregation model compatible with high-throughput screening (HTS). We downscaled cell culture conditions to 384-well plate format and used Matrigel to introduce an extra physical protection against cell detachment that reduces shearing stress and better recapitulates pathological conditions. We complemented the assay with AlphaLISA technology for the detection of tau aggregates in a high-throughput-compatible format. The assay is reproducible across users and works with different commercially available iPSC lines, representing a highly translational tool for the identification of novel treatments against tauopathies, including AD. PMID:26984927

  19. The Serum Response Factor and a Putative Novel Transcription Factor Regulate Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene Arc/Arg3.1 in Cultured Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pintchovski, Sean A.; Peebles, Carol L.; Kim, Hong Joo; Verdin, Eric; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The immediate-early effector gene Arc/Arg3.1 is robustly upregulated by synaptic activity associated with learning and memory. Here we show in primary cortical neuron culture that diverse stimuli induce Arc expression through new transcription. Searching for regulatory regions important for Arc transcription, we found nine DNaseI-sensitive nucleosome-depleted sites at this genomic locus. A reporter gene encompassing these sites responded to synaptic activity in an NMDA receptor–dependent manner, consistent with endogenous Arc mRNA. Responsiveness mapped to two enhancer regions ∼6.5 kb and ∼1.4 kb upstream of Arc. We dissected these regions further and found that the proximal enhancer contains a functional and conserved “Zeste-like” response element that binds a putative novel nuclear protein in neurons. Therefore, activity regulates Arc transcription partly by a novel signaling pathway. We also found that the distal enhancer has a functional and highly conserved serum response element. This element binds serum response factor, which is recruited by synaptic activity to regulate Arc. Thus, Arc is the first target of serum response factor that functions at synapses to mediate plasticity. PMID:19193899

  20. Identification of activity-dependent gene expression profiles reveals specific subsets of genes induced by different routes of Ca(2+) entry in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guangxin; Pan, Liangbin; Xing, Wanli; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jianping; Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Yuxiang

    2007-07-01

    Neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription is a key feature of long-lasting synaptic strengthening associated with learning and memory, as well as activity-dependent neuroprotection. To comprehensively determine the molecular alterations, we carried out genome-wide microarray analysis in cultured rat cortical neurons treated with specific pharmacological agents, a model with alterations in neuronal activity, which were monitored by multi-site electrophysiological recordings. Of the approximately 27,000 genes, the expression of 248 genes was strongly changed in response to enhanced activity. These genes encompass a large number of members of distinct families, including synaptic vesicle proteins, ion channels, signal transduction molecules, synaptic growth regulators, and others. Two subsets of these genes were further confirmed to be specifically induced by Ca(2+) influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). In addition, those genes dynamically regulated by the enhanced activity were also elucidated, as well as those candidate genes associated with synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Our findings therefore would help define the molecular mechanisms that occur in response to neuronal activity and identify specific clusters of genes that contribute to activity-dependent and Ca(2+)-inducible modulation of brain development and function. PMID:17443680

  1. Ethanol reduces GABAA alpha1 subunit receptor surface expression by a protein kinase Cgamma-dependent mechanism in cultured cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Suryanarayanan, Asha; Boyd, Kevin N; Comerford, Chris E; Lai, Marvin A; Ren, Qinglu; Morrow, A Leslie

    2010-05-01

    Prolonged ethanol exposure causes central nervous system hyperexcitability that involves a loss of GABAergic inhibition. We previously demonstrated that long-term ethanol exposure enhances the internalization of synaptic GABA(A) receptors composed of alpha1beta2/3gamma2 subunits. However, the mechanisms of ethanol-mediated internalization are unknown. This study explored the effect of ethanol on surface expression of GABA(A) alpha1 subunit-containing receptors in cultured cerebral cortical neurons and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) beta, gamma, and epsilon isoforms in their trafficking. Cultured neurons were prepared from rat pups on postnatal day 1 and maintained for 18 days. Cells were exposed to ethanol, and surface receptors were isolated by biotinylation and P2 fractionation, whereas functional analysis was conducted by whole-cell patch-clamp recording of GABA- and zolpidem-evoked responses. Ethanol exposure for 4 h decreased biotinylated surface expression of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunits and reduced zolpidem (100 nM) enhancement of GABA-evoked currents. The PKC activator phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate mimicked the effect of ethanol, and the selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C prevented ethanol-induced internalization of these receptors. Ethanol exposure for 4 h also increased the colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation of PKCgamma with alpha1 subunits, whereas PKCbeta/alpha1 association and PKCepsilon/alpha1 colocalization were not altered by ethanol exposure. Selective PKCgamma inhibition by transfection of selective PKCgamma small interfering RNAs blocked ethanol-induced internalization of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunits, whereas PKCbeta inhibition using pseudo-PKCbeta had no effect. These findings suggest that ethanol exposure selectively alters PKCgamma translocation to GABA(A) receptors and PKCgamma regulates GABA(A) alpha1 receptor trafficking after ethanol exposure. PMID:20159950

  2. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  3. Conditional ablation of p63 indicates that it is essential for embryonic development of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Cancino, Gonzalo I; Fatt, Michael P; Miller, Freda D; Kaplan, David R

    2015-01-01

    p63 is a member of the p53 family that regulates the survival of neural precursors in the adult brain. However, the relative importance of p63 in the developing brain is still unclear, since embryonic p63−/− mice display no apparent deficits in neural development. Here, we have used a more definitive conditional knockout mouse approach to address this issue, crossing p63fl/fl mice to mice carrying a nestin-CreERT2 transgene that drives inducible recombination in neural precursors following tamoxifen treatment. Inducible ablation of p63 following tamoxifen treatment of mice on embryonic day 12 resulted in highly perturbed forebrain morphology including a thinner cortex and enlarged lateral ventricles 3 d later. While the normal cortical layers were still present following acute p63 ablation, cortical precursors and neurons were both reduced in number due to widespread cellular apoptosis. This apoptosis was cell-autonomous, since it also occurred when p63 was inducibly ablated in primary cultured cortical precursors. Finally, we demonstrate increased expression of the mRNA encoding another p53 family member, ΔNp73, in cortical precursors of p63−/− but not tamoxifen-treated p63fl/fl;R26YFPfl/fl;nestin-CreERT2+/Ø embryos. Since ΔNp73 promotes cell survival, then this compensatory increase likely explains the lack of an embryonic brain phenotype in p63−/− mice. Thus, p63 plays a key prosurvival role in the developing mammalian brain. PMID:26359534

  4. TLR2 Activation Inhibits Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Eitan; Griffioen, Kathleen J.; Gen-Son, Tae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Hutchison, Emmette; Cheng, Aiwu; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Lathia, Justin D.; van Praag, Henriette; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in innate immunity, and increasing evidence indicates that these receptors are expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the brain, where they mediate responses to infection, stress and injury. To address the possibility that TLR2 heterodimer activation could affect progenitor cells in the developing brain, we analyzed the expression of TLR2 throughout the mouse cortical development, and assessed the role of TLR2 heterodimer activation in neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. TLR2 mRNA and protein was expressed in the cortex in embryonic and early postnatal stages of development, and in cultured cortical NPC. While NPC from TLR2-deficient and wild type embryos had the same proliferative capacity, TLR2 activation by the synthetic bacterial lipopeptides Pam3CSK4 and FSL1, or low molecular weight hyaluronan, an endogenous ligand for TLR2, inhibited neurosphere formation in vitro. Intracerebral in utero administration of TLR2 ligands resulted in ventricular dysgenesis characterized by increased ventricle size, reduced proliferative area around the ventricles, increased cell density, an increase in PH3+ cells and a decrease in BrdU+ cells in the sub-ventricular zone. Our findings indicate that loss of TLR2 does not result in defects in cerebral development. However, TLR2 is expressed and functional in the developing telencephalon from early embryonic stages and infectious agent-related activation of TLR2 inhibits NPC proliferation. TLR2–mediated inhibition of NPC proliferation may therefore be a mechanism by which infection, ischemia and inflammation adversely affect brain development. PMID:20456021

  5. Role of Ceacam1 in VEGF induced vasculogenesis of murine embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies in 3D culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Angel; Tsark, Walter; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Shively, John E.

    2009-06-10

    CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cell-cell adhesion has been shown to act as an angiogenic factor for mouse and human endothelial cells. Based on the ability of CEACAM1 to initiate lumen formation in human mammary epithelial cells grown in 3D culture (Matrigel), we hypothesized that murine CEACAM1 may play a similar role in vasculogenesis. In order to test this hypothesis, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells stimulated with VEGF were differentiated into embryoid bodies (EB) for 8 days (- 8-0 d) and transferred to Matrigel in the presence or absence of anti-CEACAM1 antibody for an additional 12 days (0-12 d). In the absence of anti-CEACAM1 antibody or in the presence of an isotype control antibody, the EB in Matrigel underwent extensive sprouting, generating lengthy vascular structures with well-defined lumina as demonstrated by confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Both the length and architecture of the vascular tubes were inhibited by anti-CEACAM1 mAb CC1, a mAb that blocks the cell-cell adhesion functions of CEACAM1, thus demonstrating a critical role for this cell-cell adhesion molecule in generating and maintaining vasculogenesis. QRT-PCR analysis of the VEGF treated ES cells grown under conditions that convert them to EB revealed expression of Ceacam1 as early as - 5 to - 3 d reaching a maximum at day 0 at which time EBs were transferred to Matrigel, thereafter levels at first declined and then increased over time. Other markers of vasculogenesis including Pecam1, VE-Cad, and Tie-1 were not detected until day 0 when EBs were transferred to Matrigel followed by a steady increase in levels, indicating later roles in vasculogenesis. In contrast, Tie-2 and Flk-1 (VEGFR2) were detected on day five of EB formation reaching a maximum at day 0 on transfer to Matrigel, similar to Ceacam1, but after which Tie-2 declined over time, while Flk-1 increased

  6. Large-Scale, High-Resolution Multielectrode-Array Recording Depicts Functional Network Differences of Cortical and Hippocampal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Hiolski, Emma; Rydygier, Przemyslaw; Gunning, Deborah E.; Hottowy, Pawel; Timme, Nicholas; Litke, Alan M.; Beggs, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the detailed circuitry of functioning neuronal networks is one of the major goals of neuroscience. Recent improvements in neuronal recording techniques have made it possible to record the spiking activity from hundreds of neurons simultaneously with sub-millisecond temporal resolution. Here we used a 512-channel multielectrode array system to record the activity from hundreds of neurons in organotypic cultures of cortico-hippocampal brain slices from mice. To probe the network structure, we employed a wavelet transform of the cross-correlogram to categorize the functional connectivity in different frequency ranges. With this method we directly compare, for the first time, in any preparation, the neuronal network structures of cortex and hippocampus, on the scale of hundreds of neurons, with sub-millisecond time resolution. Among the three frequency ranges that we investigated, the lower two frequency ranges (gamma (30–80 Hz) and beta (12–30 Hz) range) showed similar network structure between cortex and hippocampus, but there were many significant differences between these structures in the high frequency range (100–1000 Hz). The high frequency networks in cortex showed short tailed degree-distributions, shorter decay length of connectivity density, smaller clustering coefficients, and positive assortativity. Our results suggest that our method can characterize frequency dependent differences of network architecture from different brain regions. Crucially, because these differences between brain regions require millisecond temporal scales to be observed and characterized, these results underscore the importance of high temporal resolution recordings for the understanding of functional networks in neuronal systems. PMID:25126851

  7. Brain distribution of carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) and its nuclear translocation in cultured cortical neurons following heat stress or oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lauren G; Meeker, Rick B; Poulton, Winona E; Huang, David Y

    2010-09-01

    Carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is thought to be a cytoprotective protein with protein quality control roles in neurodegenerative diseases and myocardial ischemia. This study describes the localization of CHIP expression in normal rodent brain and the early CHIP response in primary cultures of cortical neurons following ischemic stress models: heat stress (HS) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). CHIP was highly expressed throughout the brain, predominantly in neurons. The staining pattern was primarily cytoplasmic, although small amounts were seen in the nucleus. More intense nuclear staining was observed in primary cultured neurons which increased with stress. Nuclear accumulation of CHIP occurred within 5-10 min of HS and decreased to baseline levels or lower by 30-60 min. Decrease in nuclear CHIP at 30-60 min of HS was associated with a sharp increase in delayed cell death. While no changes in cytoplasmic CHIP were observed immediately following OGD, nuclear levels of CHIP increased slightly in response to OGD durations of 30 to 240 min. OGD-induced increases in nuclear CHIP decreased slowly during post-ischemic recovery. Nuclear CHIP decreased earlier in recovery following 120 min of OGD (4 h) than 30 min of OGD (12 h). Significant cell death first appeared between 12 and 24 h after OGD, again suggesting that delayed cell death follows closely behind the disappearance of nuclear CHIP. The ability of CHIP to translocate to and accumulate in the nucleus may be a limiting variable that determines how effectively cells respond to external stressors to facilitate cell survival. Using primary neuronal cell cultures, we were able to demonstrate rapid translocation of CHIP to the nucleus within minutes of heat stress and oxygen-glucose deprivation. An inverse relationship between nuclear CHIP and delayed cell death at 24 h suggests that the decrease in nuclear CHIP following extreme stress is linked to delayed cell death. Our findings of acute

  8. Paracrine Neuroprotective Effects of Neural Stem Cells on Glutamate-Induced Cortical Neuronal Cell Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geranmayeh, Mohammad Hossein; Baghbanzadeh, Ali; Barin, Abbas; Salar-Amoli, Jamileh; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Azari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian central nervous system. Excessive glutamate releasing overactivates its receptors and changes calcium homeostasis that in turn leads to a cascade of intracellular events causing neuronal degeneration. In current study, we used neural stem cells conditioned medium (NSCs-CM) to investigate its neuroprotective effects on glutamate-treated primary cortical neurons. Methods: Embryonic rat primary cortical cultures were exposed to different concentrations of glutamate for 1 hour and then they incubated with NSCs-CM. Subsequently, the amount of cell survival in different glutamate excitotoxic groups were measured after 24 h of incubation by trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Hoechst and propidium iodide were used for determining apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways proportion and then the effect of NSCs-CM was investigated on this proportion. Results: NSCs conditioned medium increased viability rate of the primary cortical neurons after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Also we found that NSCs-CM provides its neuroprotective effects mainly by decreasing apoptotic cell death rate rather than necrotic cell death rate. Conclusion: The current study shows that adult neural stem cells could exert paracrine neuroprotective effects on cortical neurons following a glutamate neurotoxic insult. PMID:26819924

  9. Characterizing HSF1 Binding and Post-Translational Modifications of hsp70 Promoter in Cultured Cortical Neurons: Implications in the Heat-Shock Response

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Andrea V.; Córdova, Gonzalo; Munita, Roberto; Parada, Guillermo E.; Barrios, Álvaro P.; Cancino, Gonzalo I.; Álvarez, Alejandra R.; Andrés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Causes of lower induction of Hsp70 in neurons during heat shock are still a matter of debate. To further inquire into the mechanisms regulating Hsp70 expression in neurons, we studied the activity of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) and histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) at the hsp70 promoter in rat cortical neurons. Heat shock induced a transient and efficient translocation of HSF1 to neuronal nuclei. However, no binding of HSF1 at the hsp70 promoter was detected while it bound to the hsp25 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock. Histone PTMs analysis showed that the hsp70 promoter harbors lower levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation in cortical neurons compared to PC12 cells under basal conditions. Transcriptomic profiling data analysis showed a predominant usage of cryptic transcriptional start sites at hsp70 gene in the rat cerebral cortex, compared with the whole brain. These data support a weaker activation of hsp70 canonical promoter. Heat shock increased H3Ac at the hsp70 promoter in PC12 cells, which correlated with increased Hsp70 expression while no modifications occurred at the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons. Increased histone H3 acetylation by Trichostatin A led to hsp70 mRNA and protein induction in cortical neurons. In conclusion, we found that two independent mechanisms maintain a lower induction of Hsp70 in cortical neurons. First, HSF1 fails to bind specifically to the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock and, second, the hsp70 promoter is less accessible in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells due to histone deacetylases repression. PMID:26053851

  10. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 mediate TGF-{beta}- and myostatin-induced suppression of proliferation in porcine embryonic myogenic cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kamanga-Sollo, E.; Pampusch, M.S.; White, M.E.; Hathaway, M.R.; Dayton, W.R. . E-mail: wdayton@umn.edu

    2005-11-15

    We have previously shown that cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMC) produce both insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 and secrete these proteins into their media. Exogenously added recombinant porcine (rp) IGFBP-3 and rpIGFBP-5 act via IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms to suppress proliferation of PEMC cultures. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in the PEMC culture medium results in increased DNA synthesis rate suggesting that endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 suppress PEMC proliferation. TGF-{beta} superfamily members myostatin and TGF-{beta}{sub 1} have also been shown to suppress proliferation of myogenic cells, and treatment of cultured PEMC with either TGF-{beta}{sub 1} or myostatin significantly (P < 0.01) increases levels of IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA. We have previously shown that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-3 decreases the proliferation-suppressing activity of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and myostatin. Here, we show that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-5 also significantly (P < 0.05) decreases the DNA synthesis-suppressing activity of these molecules. Simultaneous immunoneutralization of both IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in TGF-{beta}{sub 1} or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures restores Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis rates to 90% of the levels observed in control cultures receiving no TGF-{beta}{sub 1} or myostatin treatment (P < 0.05). Even though immunoneutralization of IGFBP-3 and -5 increased DNA synthesis rates in TGF-{beta}{sub 1} or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures, phosphosmad2 levels in these cultures were not affected. These findings strongly suggest that IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 affect processes downstream from receptor-mediated Smad phosphorylation that facilitate the ability of TGF-{beta} and myostatin to suppress proliferation of PEMC.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 mediate TGF-beta- and myostatin-induced suppression of proliferation in porcine embryonic myogenic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E; Pampusch, M S; White, M E; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, W R

    2005-11-15

    We have previously shown that cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMC) produce both insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 and secrete these proteins into their media. Exogenously added recombinant porcine (rp) IGFBP-3 and rpIGFBP-5 act via IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms to suppress proliferation of PEMC cultures. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in the PEMC culture medium results in increased DNA synthesis rate suggesting that endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 suppress PEMC proliferation. TGF-beta superfamily members myostatin and TGF-beta1 have also been shown to suppress proliferation of myogenic cells, and treatment of cultured PEMC with either TGF-beta1 or myostatin significantly (P < 0.01) increases levels of IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA. We have previously shown that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-3 decreases the proliferation-suppressing activity of TGF-beta1 and myostatin. Here, we show that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-5 also significantly (P < 0.05) decreases the DNA synthesis-suppressing activity of these molecules. Simultaneous immunoneutralization of both IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in TGF-beta1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures restores Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis rates to 90% of the levels observed in control cultures receiving no TGF-beta1 or myostatin treatment (P < 0.05). Even though immunoneutralization of IGFBP-3 and -5 increased DNA synthesis rates in TGF-beta1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures, phosphosmad2 levels in these cultures were not affected. These findings strongly suggest that IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 affect processes downstream from receptor-mediated Smad phosphorylation that facilitate the ability of TGF-beta and myostatin to suppress proliferation of PEMC. PMID:16214131

  12. C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain activates Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways in a Trk receptor-dependent manner in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Carles; Chaib-Oukadour, Imane; Aguilera, José

    2003-01-01

    Previous publications from our group [Gil, Chaib, Pelliccioni and Aguilera (2000) FEBS Lett. 481, 177-182; Gil, Chaib, Blasi and Aguilera (2001) Biochem. J. 356, 97-103] have reported the activation, in rat brain synaptosomes, of several phosphoproteins, such as neurotrophin tyrosine kinase (Trk) A receptor, phospholipase Cgamma-1, protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2). In the present study, we examined, by means of phospho-specific antibodies, the activation of the signalling cascades involving neurotrophin Trk receptor, Akt kinase and ERK pathway, in cultured cortical neurons from foetal rat brain, by tetanus toxin (TeTx) as well as by the C-terminal part of its heavy chain (H(C)-TeTx). TeTx and H(C)-TeTx induce fast and transient phosphorylation of Trk receptor at Tyr(674) and Tyr(675), but not at Tyr(490), although the potency of TeTx in this action was higher when compared with H(C)-TeTx action. Moreover, H(C)-TeTx and TeTx also induced phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser(473) and Thr(308)) and of ERK-1/2 (Thr(202)/Tyr(204)), in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The detection of TeTx- and H(C)-TeTx-induced phosphorylation at Ser(9) of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta confirms Akt activation. In the extended analysis of the ERK pathway, phosphorylation of the Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-1/2 and p90Rsk kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response-element-binding protein were detected. The use of tyrphostin AG879, an inhibitor of Trk receptors, demonstrates their necessary participation in the H(C)-TeTx-induced activation of Akt and ERK pathways, as well as in the phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma-1. Furthermore, both pathways are totally dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase action, and they are independent of PKC action, as assessed using wortmannin and Ro-31-8220 as inhibitors. The activation of PKC isoforms was determined by their translocation

  13. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a protective effect against Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced toxicity in primary cultured rat cortical neurons through the NF-κB/NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaying; Yang, Hongyu; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xingguo; Lou, Yijia

    2016-03-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a multipotent triterpene saponin extracted from ginseng, and has been proven to act as a nootropic agent against various types of neurological damage. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of Rg1 on apoptosis induced by β-amyloid peptide 25-35 (Aβ25-35) in primary cultured cortical neurons. The primary neurons were preincubated with 20 µM Rg1 for 24 h and exposed to 10 µM Aβ25-35 for 72 h. In the present study, we found that Rg1 prevented nuclear factor κ-light-chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and IκB-α phosphorylation in primary cultured cortical neurons after Aβ25-35 exposure by scavenging excess reactive oxygen species (ROS); ROS was measured using DCFDA and examined using a fluorescence microscope. In addition, Rg1 successfully suppressed Aβ25‑35-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in a NF-κB-dependent manner; the suppression of NO was clearly illustrated by the NO production assay. Pretreatment of the cells with Rg1 elevated the proportion of Bcl-2/Bax, lessened the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm and then blocked mitochondrial apoptotic cascades after Aβ25-35 insult by lowering NO generation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Rg1 rescues primary cultured cortical neurons from Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through the downregulation of the NF-κB/NO signaling pathway. PMID:26865401

  14. Cell migration in the rat embryonic neocortex.

    PubMed

    Bayer, S A; Altman, J; Russo, R J; Dai, X F; Simmons, J A

    1991-05-15

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the normal rat embryonic (E) neocortex on days E15, E17, E19, and E21, using Skandha (software designed by J. Prothero, University of Washington, Seattle), show that the neocortical ventricular zone shrinks rapidly in the medial direction during cortical morphogenesis. [3H]thymidine autoradiography indicates that the shrinkage of the ventricular zone occurs before neurons in lateral and ventrolateral parts of layers IV-II are generated. Consequently, most of these neurons originate 400-1000 microns medial to their settling sites in the cortical plate. Embryos killed at daily intervals up to E21 after a single injection of [3H]thymidine on either E17 or E18 revealed the presence of a prominent migratory path, the lateral cortical stream, used by neurons migrating to the lateral and ventrolateral cortical plate; neurons migrating to the dorsal cortical plate follow a direct radial path. Arrival times of neurons in the cortical plate depend on the migratory path and are proportional to the overall distance travelled. Neurons that migrate only radially arrive in the dorsal cortical plate in two days (shortest route). Neurons that migrate laterally arrive in the lateral cortical plate in 3 days (longer route) and in the ventrolateral cortical plate in 4 days (longest route). [3H]thymidine autoradiography also shows that cells generated in the neocortical ventricular zone migrate in the lateral cortical stream for 5 or more days and accumulate in a reservoir. Cells leave the reservoir to enter the piriform cortex and destinations (as yet undetermined) in the basal telencephalon. The lateral cortical stream is found wherever the neocortical primordium surrounds the basal ganglia and is absent behind the basal ganglia. A computer analysis of nuclear orientation in anterior and posterior parts of the intermediate zone in the dorsal neocortex between days E17 and E22 shows that horizontally oriented nuclei are more common anteriorly where

  15. Gene expression analysis of the embryonic subplate.

    PubMed

    Oeschger, Franziska M; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Lee, Sheena; García-Moreno, Fernando; Goffinet, André M; Arbonés, Maria L; Rakic, Sonja; Molnár, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    The subplate layer of the cerebral cortex is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells and contains some of the earliest-generated neurons. In the embryonic brain, subplate cells contribute to the guidance and areal targeting of thalamocortical axons. At later developmental stages, they are predominantly involved in the maturation and plasticity of the cortical circuitry and the establishment of functional modules. We aimed to further characterize the embryonic murine subplate population by establishing a gene expression profile at embryonic day (E) 15.5 using laser capture microdissection and microarrays. The microarray identified over 300 transcripts with higher expression in the subplate compared with the cortical plate at this stage. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we have confirmed specific expression in the E15.5 subplate for 13 selected genes, which have not been previously associated with this compartment (Abca8a, Cdh10, Cdh18, Csmd3, Gabra5, Kcnt2, Ogfrl1, Pls3, Rcan2, Sv2b, Slc8a2, Unc5c, and Zdhhc2). In the reeler mutant, the expression of the majority of these genes (9 of 13) was shifted in accordance with the altered position of subplate. These genes belong to several functional groups and likely contribute to synapse formation and axonal growth and guidance in subplate cells. PMID:21862448

  16. Gene expression analysis of the embryonic subplate

    PubMed Central

    Oeschger, Franziska M.; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Lee, Sheena; García-Moreno, Fernando; Goffinet, André M.; Arbones, Mariona; Rakic, Sonia; Molnár, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The subplate layer of the cerebral cortex is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells and contains some of the earliest-generated neurons. In the embryonic brain, subplate cells contribute to the guidance and areal targeting of thalamocortical axons. At later stages, they are involved in the maturation and plasticity of the cortical circuitry and the establishment of functional modules. We aimed to further characterize the embryonic murine subplate population by establishing a gene expression profile at embryonic day 15.5 using laser capture microdissection and microarrays. The microarray identified over 300 transcripts with higher expression in the subplate compared to the cortical plate at this stage. Using quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we have confirmed specific expression in the E15.5 subplate for 13 selected genes which have not been previously associated with this compartment (Abca8a, Cdh10, Cdh18, Csmd3, Gabra5, Kcnt2, Ogfrl1, Pls3, Rcan2, Sv2b, Slc8a2, Unc5c and Zdhhc2). In the reeler mutant, the expression of the majority of these genes (9 out of 13) was shifted in accordance with the altered position of subplate. These genes belong to several functional groups and likely contribute to the maturation and electrophysiological properties of subplate cells and to axonal growth and guidance. PMID:21862448

  17. The autism-related gene SNRPN regulates cortical and spine development via controlling nuclear receptor Nr4a1.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiping; Zhao, Pingping; Xu, Qiong; Shan, Shifang; Hu, Chunchun; Qiu, Zilong; Xu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene, encoding the RNA-associated SmN protein, duplications or deletions of which are strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. SNRPN-coding protein is highly expressed in the brain. However, the role of SNRPN protein in neural development remains largely unknown. Here we showed that the expression of SNRPN increased markedly during postnatal brain development. Overexpression or knockdown of SNRPN in cortical neurons impaired neurite outgrowth, neuron migration, and the distribution of dendritic spines. We found that SNRPN regulated the expression level of Nr4a1, a critical nuclear receptor during neural development, in cultured primary cortical neurons. The abnormal spine development caused by SNRPN overexpression could be fully rescued by Nr4a1 co-expression. Importantly, we found that either knockdown of Nr4a1 or 3, 3'- Diindolylmethane (DIM), an Nr4a1 antagonist, were able to rescue the effects of SNRPN knockdown on neurite outgrowth of embryonic cortical neurons, providing the potential therapeutic methods for SNRPN deletion disorders. We thus concluded that maintaining the proper level of SNRPN is critical in cortical neurodevelopment. Finally, Nr4a1 may serve as a potential drug target for SNRPN-related neurodevelopmental disabilities, including Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). PMID:27430727

  18. The autism-related gene SNRPN regulates cortical and spine development via controlling nuclear receptor Nr4a1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiping; Zhao, Pingping; Xu, Qiong; Shan, Shifang; Hu, Chunchun; Qiu, Zilong; Xu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene, encoding the RNA-associated SmN protein, duplications or deletions of which are strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. SNRPN-coding protein is highly expressed in the brain. However, the role of SNRPN protein in neural development remains largely unknown. Here we showed that the expression of SNRPN increased markedly during postnatal brain development. Overexpression or knockdown of SNRPN in cortical neurons impaired neurite outgrowth, neuron migration, and the distribution of dendritic spines. We found that SNRPN regulated the expression level of Nr4a1, a critical nuclear receptor during neural development, in cultured primary cortical neurons. The abnormal spine development caused by SNRPN overexpression could be fully rescued by Nr4a1 co-expression. Importantly, we found that either knockdown of Nr4a1 or 3, 3′- Diindolylmethane (DIM), an Nr4a1 antagonist, were able to rescue the effects of SNRPN knockdown on neurite outgrowth of embryonic cortical neurons, providing the potential therapeutic methods for SNRPN deletion disorders. We thus concluded that maintaining the proper level of SNRPN is critical in cortical neurodevelopment. Finally, Nr4a1 may serve as a potential drug target for SNRPN-related neurodevelopmental disabilities, including Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). PMID:27430727

  19. A feeder-free culture using autogeneic conditioned medium for undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells: Comparative expression profiles of mRNAs, microRNAs and proteins among different feeders and conditioned media

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines were derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts, and were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder to maintain undifferentiated growth, extensive renewal capacity, and pluripotency. The hES-T3 cell line with normal female karyotype was previously used to differentiate into autogeneic fibroblast-like cells (T3HDF) as feeder to support the undifferentiated growth of hES-T3 cells (T3/HDF) for 14 passages. Results A feeder-free culture on Matrigel in hES medium conditioned by the autogeneic feeder cells (T3HDF) was established to maintain the undifferentiated growth of hES-T3 cells (T3/CMHDF) for 8 passages in this investigation. The gene expression profiles of mRNAs, microRNAs and proteins between the undifferentiated T3/HDF and T3/CMHDF cells were shown to be very similar, and their expression profiles were also found to be similar to those of T3/MEF and T3/CMMEF cells grown on MEF feeder and feeder-free Matrigel in MEF-conditioned medium, respectively. The undifferentiated state of T3/HDF and T3/CMHDF as well as T3/MEF andT3/CMMEF cells was evidenced by the very high expression levels of "stemness" genes and low expression levels of differentiation markers of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm in addition to the strong staining of OCT4 and NANOG. Conclusion The T3HDF feeder and T3HDF-conditioned medium were able to support the undifferentiated growth of hES cells, and they would be useful for drug development and toxicity testing in addition to the reduced risks of xenogeneic pathogens when used for medical applications such as cell therapies. PMID:20937144

  20. Programming embryonic stem cells to neuronal subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Peljto, Mirza; Wichterle, Hynek

    2010-01-01

    Richness of neural circuits and specificity of neuronal connectivity depends on the diversification of nerve cells into functionally and molecularly distinct subtypes. While efficient methods for directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into multiple principal neuronal classes have been established, only a few studies systematically examined the subtype diversity of in vitro derived nerve cells. Here we review evidence based on molecular and in vivo transplantation studies that ESC-derived spinal motor neurons and cortical layer V pyramidal neurons acquire subtype specific functional properties. We discuss similarities and differences in the role of cell intrinsic transcriptional programs, extrinsic signals and cell-cell interactions during subtype diversification of the two classes of nerve cells. We conclude that the high degree of fidelity with which differentiating ESCs recapitulate normal embryonic development provides a unique opportunity to explore developmental processes underlying specification of mammalian neuronal diversity in a simplified and experimentally accessible system. PMID:20970319

  1. The biology and dynamics of mammalian cortical granules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals. PMID:22088197

  2. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  3. Amitriptyline induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression through ERK-dependent modulation of multiple BDNF mRNA variants in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes and microglia.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Kajitani, Naoto; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shigetou, Takahiro; Kasai, Miho; Matsumoto, Chie; Yokoe, Toshiki; Azuma, Honami; Takebayashi, Minoru; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A significant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been previously implicated in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. To ascertain the contribution of specific cell types in the brain that produce BDNF following antidepressant treatment, the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on rat primary neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cortical cultures were examined. Amitriptyline increased the expression of BDNF mRNA in astrocytic and microglial cultures but not neuronal cultures. Antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, such as clomipramine, duloxetine and fluvoxamine, also increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytic and microglial cultures. There are multiple BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IIA, IV and VI) expressed in astrocytes and microglia and the variant induced by antidepressants has yet to be elaborated. Treatment with antidepressants increased the expression of exon I, IV and VI in astrocyte and microglia. Clomipramine alone significantly upregulated expression of exon IIA. The amitriptyline-induced expression of both total and individual BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IV and VI) were blocked by MEK inhibitor U0126, indicating MEK/ERK signaling is required in the expression of BDNF. These findings indicate that non-neural cells are a significant target of antidepressants and further support the contention that glial production of BDNF is crucial role in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. The current data suggest that targeting of glial function could lead to the development of antidepressants with a truly novel mechanism of action. PMID:26764533

  4. Live Imaging of Mitosis in the Developing Mouse Embryonic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Silver, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Although of short duration, mitosis is a complex and dynamic multi-step process fundamental for development of organs including the brain. In the developing cerebral cortex, abnormal mitosis of neural progenitors can cause defects in brain size and function. Hence, there is a critical need for tools to understand the mechanisms of neural progenitor mitosis. Cortical development in rodents is an outstanding model for studying this process. Neural progenitor mitosis is commonly examined in fixed brain sections. This protocol will describe in detail an approach for live imaging of mitosis in ex vivo embryonic brain slices. We will describe the critical steps for this procedure, which include: brain extraction, brain embedding, vibratome sectioning of brain slices, staining and culturing of slices, and time-lapse imaging. We will then demonstrate and describe in detail how to perform post-acquisition analysis of mitosis. We include representative results from this assay using the vital dye Syto11, transgenic mice (histone H2B-EGFP and centrin-EGFP), and in utero electroporation (mCherry-α-tubulin). We will discuss how this procedure can be best optimized and how it can be modified for study of genetic regulation of mitosis. Live imaging of mitosis in brain slices is a flexible approach to assess the impact of age, anatomy, and genetic perturbation in a controlled environment, and to generate a large amount of data with high temporal and spatial resolution. Hence this protocol will complement existing tools for analysis of neural progenitor mitosis. PMID:24961595

  5. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  6. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A; Harris, William A

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  7. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Wuethrich, Andrew J.; Hancock, Deana L.

    2002-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 d of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 d. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in the weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-d period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens, and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and the breast muscle groups of 12-d chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 uM clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 d, beginning on the seventh d in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes was significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast or leg muscle cultures; however, the MHC quantity was 50-150% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The B-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) population was 4000-7000 betaARs per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle Culture. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the betaAR Population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 16,000-18,000 betaARs per cell. Basal concentration of cyclic adenosine 3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) was not significantly affected by the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 uM isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP Concentration above the. basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were

  8. Snythesis and differentiation of plasma proteins in cultured embryonic chicken liver cells: a system for study of regulation of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Grieninger, G; Granick, S

    1975-01-01

    A new system is described for studying the control of protein synthesis. In a monolayer culture of chick embryo liver cells, plasma proteins are synthesized for three days at in vivo rates. The plasma proteins are secreted into the culture medium and without concentration are detected there simply and sensitively by a modified Laurell electronimmunoassay. Secretion of the newly synthesized plasma proteins occurs within 30 min of their synthesis. Thus, rates of synthesis of the plasma proteins can be followed readily from rates of their accumulation in the culture medium. This system has the following advantages for the study of protein synthesis: cells do not have to be disrupted for the assay; the cell population can be followed over several days; it is not necessary to label the proteins radioactively; and turnover of plasma proteins is negligible and need not be taken into account. The usefulness of the system is illustrated by a number of findings. The spectrum of plasma proteins synthesized in culture changed qualitatively and quantitatively. Albumin synthesis steadily decreased with culture time and stopped at the third day, whereas the synthesis of some new plasma proteins ("adult") was induced. These qualitative changes suggest differential gene expression in culture and a special control of albumin synthesis in vivo, different from the synthesis of the other plasma proteins. Quantitative changes in the rates of synthesis of specific plasma proteins suggest a competition among their messenger RNAs for components of the translational machinery. Insulin has a differential effect on the synthesis of specific plasma proteins at concentrations within the physiological range of the hormone. Images PMID:1061087

  9. Acute exposure to ethanol potentiates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-induced Ca(2+) overload and neuronal death in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Brailoiu, Eugen; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Mameli, Giuseppe; Dolei, Antonina; Sawaya, Bassel E; Dun, Nae J

    2006-02-01

    A significant number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients are alcoholics. Either alcohol or HIV alone induces morphological and functional damage to the nervous system. HIV-1 Tat is a potent transcriptional activator of the viral promoter, with the ability to modulate a number of cellular regulatory circuits including apoptosis and to cause neuronal injury. To further evaluate the involvement of alcohol in neuronal injury, the authors examined the effect of ethanol on Tat-induced calcium responses in rat cerebral cortical neurons, using microfluorimetric calcium determination. HIV Tat protein (10 or 500 nM) elicited two types of calcium responses in cortical neurons: a fast-onset, short-lasting response and a slow-onset, sustained response. The responses were concentration-dependent and diminished in calcium-free saline. A short exposure to ethanol (50 mM) potentiated both types of calcium response, which was markedly decreased when the cells were pretreated with BAPTA-AM (20 microM). In addition, an increase in the neurotoxic effect of Tat, which was assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay, was observed. The result led the authors to conclude that alcohol exposure significantly potentiates Tat-induced calcium overload and neuronal death. PMID:16595370

  10. Derivation of Primordial germ cells from Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells is significantly improved by co-culture with human fetal gonadal cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Sub; Galic, Zoran; Conway, Anne E.; Lindgren, Anne; Van Handel, Benjamin J.; Magnusson, Mattias; Richter, Laura; Teitell, Michael A.; Mikkola, Hanna K.A; Lowry, William E.; Plath, Kathrin; Clark, Amander T

    2012-01-01

    The derivation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem (hIPS) cells represents a desirable experimental model and potential strategy for treating infertility. In the current study we developed a triple biomarker assay for identifying and isolating human primordial germ cells (PGCs) by first evaluating human PGC formation during the first trimester in vivo. Next, we applied this technology to characterizing in vitro derived PGCs (iPGCs) from pluripotent cells. Our results show that co-differentiation of hESCs on human fetal gonadal stromal cells significantly improves the efficiency of generating iPGCs. Furthermore, the efficiency was comparable between various pluripotent cell lines regardless of origin from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts (hESCs), or reprogramming of human skin fibroblasts (hIPS). In order to better characterize the iPGCs we performed Real time PCR, microarray and bisulfite sequencing. Our results show that iPGCs at day 7 of differentiation are transcriptionally distinct from the somatic cells, expressing genes associated with pluripotency and germ cell development while repressing genes associated with somatic differentiation (specifically multiple HOX genes). Using bisulfite sequencing, we show that iPGCs initiate imprint erasure from differentially methylated imprinted regions by day 7 of differentiation. However, iPGCs derived from hIPS cells do not initiate imprint erasure as efficiently. In conclusion, our results indicate that triple positive iPGCs derived from pluripotent cells differentiated on hFGS cells correspond to committed first trimester germ cells (before 9 weeks) that have initiated the process of imprint erasure. PMID:19350678