Science.gov

Sample records for emergency communication systems

  1. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  2. How do communication systems emerge?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a theoretical perspective why this should be the case, nor if there are any other routes to communication. Here, we develop an analytical model to examine how communication can emerge. We show that: (i) a state of non-interaction is evolutionarily stable, and so communication will not necessarily emerge even when it is in both parties' interest; (ii) the conditions for sensory manipulation are more stringent than for ritualization, and hence ritualization is likely to be more common; and (iii) communication can arise by a third route, when the intention to communicate can itself be communicated, but this may be limited to humans. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of a functional approach to communication. PMID:22217724

  3. 30 CFR 57.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18013 Emergency communications system. A suitable communication system shall be provided at the mine to obtain assistance in the event of an emergency. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency communications system....

  4. 30 CFR 56.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs § 56.18013 Emergency communications system. A suitable communication system shall be provided at... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 56.18013 Section 56.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  5. 30 CFR 56.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 56.18013 Section 56.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18013 Emergency communications...

  6. Communication Support System in Emergency Considering Dynamic Connection of Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yasumasa; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    It is frequently observed in emergent situation that important information does not reach to an right person or department in the organization because of the confusion after the emergency or in some case because of lack of knowledge on contact address. This phenomenon happens especially when different organizations are connected dynamically in emergency and it is very important to support communication in emergent situations. This paper deals with a communication support system considering dynamic organizational connection in emergency. The system is based on the communication model that considers human related factors such as “competence", “duty", “responsibility" and “knowledge" in organization. On the basis of the model, a communication support system to give contact address depending on the situation is designed and a prototype system with GUI is developed.

  7. An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were…

  8. 30 CFR 57.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 57.18013 Section 57.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs Surface and Underground §...

  9. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letertre, Thierry; Monebhurrun, Vikass; Toffano, Zeno

    2013-04-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  10. Emergency Communications Console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA has applied its communications equipment expertise to development of a communications console that provides, in a compact package only slightly larger than an electric typewriter, all the emergency medical services communications functions needed for a regional hospital. A prototype unit, built by Johnson Space Center, has been installed in the Odessa (Texas) Medical Center Hospital. The hospital is the medical control center for the 17-county Permian Basin Emergency Medical System in west Texas. The console project originated in response to a request to NASA from the Texas governor's office, which sought a better way of providing emergency medical care in rural areas. Because ambulance travel time is frequently long in remote areas of west Texas, it is important that treatment begin at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital emergency room. A radio and telephone system linking ambulance emergency technicians and hospital staff makes this possible. But earlier equipment was complex, requiring specialized operators. A highly reliable system was needed to minimize breakdowns and provide controls of utmost simplicity, so that the system could be operated by physicians and nurses rather than by communications specialists. The resulting console has both radio and telephone sections. With the radio equipment, hospital personnel can communicate with ambulance drivers and paramedics, receive incoming electrocardiagrams, consult with other hospitals, page hospital staff and set up a radio-to-telephone "patch." The telephone portion of the system includes a hotline from the Permian Basin Emergency Medical Service's resource control center, an automatic dialer for contacting special care facilities in the Permian Basin network, a hospital intercom terminal and a means of relaying cardioscope displays and other data between hospitals. The integrated system also provides links with local disaster and civil defense organizations and with emergency "Dial 911

  11. The Communication Model: An Emerging Systems Analysis Technique for Continuing Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, H. Griffin

    Continuing educators can gain knowledge about their programs' environments, as well as predict the outcomes of change processes, by utilizing an emerging systems concept called the communication model. Utilization of the communication model involves three steps: (1) diagramming the perceived reality of the organizational system, (2) using the…

  12. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  13. 49 CFR 238.121 - Emergency communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency communication. 238.121 Section 238.121... § 238.121 Emergency communication. (a) PA system (public address system). (1) Existing Tier I passenger... emergency situation. (2) New Tier I and all Tier II passenger cars. Each Tier I passenger car ordered on...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel at...) storage capacity must have an emergency communication system that provides for verbal communications... operation of safety equipment in time of emergency. The emergency communication system must be...

  15. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. PMID:26402649

  16. An emergency system to improve ambulance dispatching, ambulance diversion and clinical handover communication-a proposed model.

    PubMed

    El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2012-12-01

    Effective communication in healthcare is important and especially critical in emergency situations. In this paper we propose a new comprehensive emergency system which facilitates the communication process in emergency cases from ambulance dispatch to the patient's arrival and handover in the hospital. The proposed system has been designed to facilitate and computerize all the processes involved in an accident from finding the nearest ambulance through to accessing a patient's online health record which can assist in pre-hospital treatments. The proposed system also locates the nearest hospital specializing in the patient's condition and will communicate patient identification to the emergency department. The components of the proposed system and the technologies used in building this system are outlined in this paper as well as the challenges expected and proposed solutions to these challenges. PMID:22673893

  17. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To... preparedness communications between pipeline operators and emergency responders. To ensure a prompt,...

  18. Propagation issues for emerging mobile and portable communications: A systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1993-01-01

    The viewpoint of a system engineer regarding the format of propagation information and models suitable for the design of mobile and portable satellite communications systems for the following services: audio broadcast, two way voice, and packet data is presented. Topics covered include: propagation impairments for portable indoor reception in satellite communications systems; propagation impairments and mitigation techniques for mobile satellite communications systems; characterization of mobile satellite communications channels in the presence of roadside blockage when interleaving and FEC coding are implemented; characterization of short-term mobile satellite signal variations; and characterization of long-term signal variations.

  19. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 4 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG), and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures on a 24/7 basis. ECT is a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. This is the fourth year of the project.

  20. German critical incident reporting system database of prehospital emergency medicine: Analysis of reported communication and medication errors between 2005–2015

    PubMed Central

    Hohenstein, Christian; Fleischmann, Thomas; Rupp, Peter; Hempel, Dorothea; Wilk, Sophia; Winning, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Communication failure in prehospital emergency medicine can affect patient safety as it does in other areas of medicine as well. We analyzed the database of the critical incident reporting system for prehospital emergency medicine in Germany retrospectively regarding communication errors. METHODS: Experts of prehospital emergency medicine and risk management screened the database for verbal communication failure, non-verbal communication failure and missing communication at all. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, 845 reports were analyzed, of which 247 reports were considered to be related to communication failure. An arbitrary classification resulted in six different kinds: 1) no acknowledgement of a suggestion; 2) medication error; 3) miscommunication with dispatcher; 4) utterance heard/understood improperly; 5) missing information transfer between two persons; and 6) other communication failure. CONCLUSION: Communication deficits can lead to critical incidents in prehospital emergency medicine and are a very important aspect in patient safety. PMID:27313802

  1. Evolutionary Conditions for the Emergence of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, Sara; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    Communication plays a central role in the biology of most organisms, particularly social species. Although the neurophysiological processes of signal production and perception are well understood, the conditions conducive to the evolution of reliable systems of communication remain largely unknown. This is a particularly challenging problem because efficient communication requires tight coevolution between the signal emitted and the response elicited. We conducted experimental evolution with robots that could produce visual signals to provide information on food location. We found that communication readily evolves when colonies consist of genetically similar individuals and when selection acts at the colony level. We identified several distinct communication systems that differed in their efficiency. Once a given system of communication was well established, it constrained the evolution of more efficient communication systems. Under individual selection, the ability to produce visual signals resulted in the evolution of deceptive communication strategies in colonies of unrelated robots and a concomitant decrease in colony performance. This study generates predictions about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of communication and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous communication.

  2. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

    Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

  4. Personal Emergency Response Systems--Communication Technology Aids Elderly and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibner, Andrew S.

    Personal response systems (PRS) bring immediate help to aged and disabled persons at home at the touch of a button. The PRS user wears a tiny radio transmitter as a pendant or a bracelet and can send a telephone signal from any part of the home to a 24-hour emergency center when help is needed. This study examined research on the Lifeline system,…

  5. 30 CFR 77.1701 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mine shall establish and maintain a communication system from the mine to the nearest point of medical assistance for use in an emergency. (b) The emergency communication system required to be... any other means of prompt communication to any facility (for example, the local sheriff, the...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1713-2 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain a communication system from the mine to the nearest point of medical assistance for use in an emergency. (b) The emergency communication system required to be maintained under paragraph (a) of this § 75... communication to any facility (for example, the local sheriff, the State highway patrol, or local...

  7. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  8. Development of a mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system based on CDMA-1X EVDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Keon Ho; Jung, Haijo; Kang, Won-Suk; Jang, Bong Mun; Kim, Joong Il; Han, Dong Hoon; Yoo, Sun-Kook; Yoo, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2006-03-01

    The wireless mobile service with a high bit rate using CDMA-1X EVDO is now widely used in Korea. Mobile devices are also increasingly being used as the conventional communication mechanism. We have developed a web-based mobile system that communicates patient information and images, using CDMA-1X EVDO for emergency diagnosis. It is composed of a Mobile web application system using the Microsoft Windows 2003 server and an internet information service. Also, a mobile web PACS used for a database managing patient information and images was developed by using Microsoft access 2003. A wireless mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system is developed by using Microsoft Visual Studio.NET, and JPEG 2000 ActiveX control for PDA phone was developed by using the Microsoft Embedded Visual C++. Also, the CDMA-1X EVDO is used for connections between mobile web servers and the PDA phone. This system allows fast access to the patient information database, storing both medical images and patient information anytime and anywhere. Especially, images were compressed into a JPEG2000 format and transmitted from a mobile web PACS inside the hospital to the radiologist using a PDA phone located outside the hospital. Also, this system shows radiological images as well as physiological signal data, including blood pressure, vital signs and so on, in the web browser of the PDA phone so radiologists can diagnose more effectively. Also, we acquired good results using an RW-6100 PDA phone used in the university hospital system of the Sinchon Severance Hospital in Korea.

  9. 47 CFR 90.407 - Emergency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency communications. 90.407 Section 90.407... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.407 Emergency communications. The licensee of any station authorized under this part may, during a period of emergency in which the normal...

  10. Examining Parent-Teacher Communication in School Systems through the Use of Emergent Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a part of the fabric of the lives of people, whether it be communicating with a loved one on the other side of the world or paying a utility bill via the Internet. Most people have experienced some level of technology integration into their life. An inescapable rite of passage for most people in developed countries is the…

  11. 47 CFR 90.407 - Emergency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency communications. 90.407 Section 90.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... station authorized under this part may, during a period of emergency in which the normal...

  12. 49 CFR 238.121 - Emergency communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency communication. 238.121 Section 238.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.121 Emergency communication....

  13. Achieving reliable communication in dynamic emergency responses.

    PubMed

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  14. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  15. Directional navigation improves opportunistic communication for emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kokuti, Andras; Gelenbe, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  16. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Kokuti, Andras.; Gelenbe, Erol.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  17. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  18. Communication Between Professionals During Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana, Carmen; Spiller, Claire

    2007-07-01

    Successful communication between scientists, officials, media, and the public is imperative during a volcanic crisis. Misunderstanding can lead to confusion and distrust, and it ultimately can transform an emergency into a disaster.

  19. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency ship-to-shore communication system. (b) Each ship-to-shore communication system must be a dedicated system that allows voice communication between the person in charge of transfer operations on the vessel, the person in charge...

  20. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  1. Emergence of Leadership in Communication.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2016-01-01

    We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well-e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents-in particular, on their inertia against state changes. PMID:27532484

  2. Emergence of Leadership in Communication

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2016-01-01

    We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well—e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents—in particular, on their inertia against state changes. PMID:27532484

  3. Wireless Headset Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  4. Making the Most of Alert Notification Systems: Eleven Tips for Using Emergency Communication Solutions in Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Districts are finding that alert notification systems that deliver automated phone messages are an effective way to reach parents and employees. Implementing the technology is one thing and getting the most out of it is another. This article presents the Districts' goal to get in touch with parents and employees in emergency situations. Andy…

  5. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. PMID:22084861

  6. Emerging technologies for communication satellite payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüceer, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in payload designs will allow more flexible and efficient use of telecommunication satellites. Important modifications in repeater designs, antenna structures and spectrum policies open up exciting opportunities for GEO satellites to support a variety of emerging applications, ranging from telemedicine to real-time data transfer between LEO satellite and ground station. This study gives information about the emerging technologies in the design of communication satellites' transceiver subsystem and demonstrates the feasibility of using fiber optic links for the local oscillator distribution in future satellite payloads together with the optical inter-satellite link.

  7. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  8. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  9. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  10. The application of mobile satellite services to emergency response communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freibaum, J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of an integrated satellite/terrestrial emergency response communications system in disaster relief operations is discussed. Large area coverage communications capability, full-time availability, a high degree of mobility, plus reliability, are pointed out as criteria for an effective emergency communications system. Response time is seen as a major factor determining the possible survival and/or protection of property. These criteria, can not be met by existing communications systems and complete blackouts were experienced during the past decades caused by either interruption or destruction of existing power lines, and overload or inadequacy of remaining lines. Several emergency cases, caused by either hurricanes, tornados, or floods, during which communication via satellite was instrumental to inform rescue and relief teams, are described in detail. Seismic Risk Maps and charts of Major Tectonic Plates Earthquake Epicenters are given, and it is noted that, 35 percent of the U.S. population is living in critical areas. National and international agreements for the implementation of a satellite-aided global Search and Rescue Program is mentioned. Technological and economic breakthroughs are still needed in large multibeam antennas, switching circuits, and low cost mobile ground terminals. A pending plan of NASA to initiate a multiservice program in 1982/83, with a Land Mobile Satellite capability operating in the 806 - 890 MHz band as a major element, may help to accelerate the needed breakthroughs.

  11. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module XV. Telemetry and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on telemetry and communications is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Two units of study are presented: (1) emergency medical services communications systems (items of equipment and such radio communications concepts as frequency allocation,…

  12. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  13. Communication System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  14. Emergency cooling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

    1994-01-04

    An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

  15. Secure video communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  16. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  17. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  18. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  19. 76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Register on April 20, 2011, at 76 FR 22114, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no comments... SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications...

  20. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  1. Digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, Peyton Z., Jr.

    The fundamental principles of digital communication and the design of practical digital communication systems are explored in an introductory textbook for senior and graduate students of electrical engineering. Chapters are devoted to sampling principles, baseband digital waveforms, baseband digital systems, bandpass binary digital systems, and M-ary digital systems. Deterministic signals, networks, and random-signal theory are reviewed in extensive appendices, and graphs, flow charts, diagrams, and problems are provided.

  2. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  3. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  4. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istepanian, Robert; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Pattichis, Constantinos S.

    M-health can be defined as the "emerging mobile communications and network technologies for healthcare systems.' This book paves the path toward understanding the future of m-health technologies and services and also introducing the impact of mobility on existing e-health and commercial telemedical systems. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems presents a new and forward-looking source of information that explores the present and future trends in the applications of current and emerging wireless communication and network technologies for different healthcare scenaria.

  5. Emerging Definition of Next-Generation of Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Aviation continues to experience rapid growth. In regions such as the United States and Europe air traffic congestion is constraining operations, leading to major new efforts to develop methodologies and infrastructures to enable continued aviation growth through transformational air traffic management systems. Such a transformation requires better communications linking airborne and ground-based elements. Technologies for next-generation communications, the required capacities, frequency spectrum of operation, network interconnectivity, and global interoperability are now receiving increased attention. A number of major planning and development efforts have taken place or are in process now to define the transformed airspace of the future. These activities include government and industry led efforts in the United States and Europe, and by international organizations. This paper will review the features, approaches, and activities of several representative planning and development efforts, and identify the emerging global consensus on requirements of next generation aeronautical communications systems for air traffic control.

  6. Nonverbal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Dale G.

    This book was designed to meet five specific criteria which allow development of a course parallel to the treatment of the book's subject matter, active student involvement in testing and developing their own nonverbal communication capacities, delineation and analysis of the functional capacity of different nonverbal communication systems, an…

  7. Integrated Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ward

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Internet-based information system that has provided effective communications and reporting for the upgrade to K-12 schools in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Website and software applications created valuable communications in the construction process and improved reporting on progress. (SLD)

  8. An effective prehospital emergency system.

    PubMed

    McManus, W F; Tresch, D D; Darin, J C

    1977-04-01

    An Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system with the capabilities of rapid response, patient extrication, basic life support, advanced life support, radio communication, and transportation provides appropriate care for a wide spectrum of injured and acutely ill patients. The validity of the selective dual response system in demonstrated by: 1) rapid provision of basic life support, 2) appropriate availability of advanced life support, 3) conservation of educational and fiscal resources, and 4) the enchancement of knowledge and manipulative skill expertise of relatively few, but busy, EMT-paramedics who are provided close medical supervision and support. PMID:857049

  9. Emergency Lightning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Super Vacuum Manufacturing Company's Stem-Lite Emergency Lighting System is widely used by fire, police, ambulance and other emergency service departments. The lights -- four floodlights which provide 2,000 watts of daytime equivalent visibility and a high-intensity flashing beacon can be elevated 10 feet above the roof of an emergency vehicle by means of an extendible mast. The higher elevation expands the effective radius of the floodlights and increases the beacon's visibility to several miles affording extra warning time to approaching traffic. When not in use, the light can be retracted into the compact rooftop housing. Stem-Lite also includes a generator which can serve to power such emergency equipment as pumps and drills, and a dashboard-mounted control panel for switching the lights and extending or retracting the mast.

  10. AMPA experimental communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, D.; Fass, S.; Keon, T.; Sielman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The program was conducted to demonstrate the satellite communication advantages of Adaptive Phased Array Technology. A laboratory based experiment was designed and implemented to demonstrate a low earth orbit satellite communications system. Using a 32 element, L-band phased array augmented with 4 sets of weights (2 for reception and 2 for transmission) a high speed digital processing system and operating against multiple user terminals and interferers, the AMPA system demonstrated: communications with austere user terminals, frequency reuse, communications in the face of interference, and geolocation. The program and experiment objectives are described, the system hardware and software/firmware are defined, and the test performed and the resultant test data are presented.

  11. Improving Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has many communications systems which are used throughout a typical mission. Given that the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested, the ability to hear extremely weak signals requires greater receiver sensitivity. Dryden Flight Research Center approached Angle Linear, a manufacturer of linear radio frequency products and peripherals for communications, to solve the problem. The solution was a receiving preamplifier specially crafted for NASA. Communications with the Space Shuttle are now more reliable,with Dryden being able to also support local missions without purchasing additional equipment. The work has carried over into the Mir Space Station communication support effort and is under evaluation by other NASA centers. The company's preamplifier line was greatly expanded to cover a broader range of frequencies, providing the same sensational improvement to other areas of communication including business, government, trucking, land mobile, cellular and broadcast.

  12. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  13. Digital communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1713-2 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications; requirements. 75.1713-2 Section 75.1713-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-2 Emergency communications; requirements. (a)...

  15. The Skylab communications system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Skylab is an experimental manned space station which will be operated by three astronauts intermittently over eight months in 1973. It will be in a 235 nautical mile, 50 degree inclination orbit. The communication system includes an onboard audio distribution hard-line network with 13 stations; a teleprinter for recording messages from the ground; telemetry, voice and television links; an onboard video distribution network. The radio frequencies system also includes radiometer and scatterometer earth-scanning sensors operating at 13.9 GHz and 1.4 GHz. The overall Skylab Program is discussed briefly and the communications system is described in more detail.

  16. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  17. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a communications controller for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a Code 3 situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a communications controller which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection.

  18. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  19. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  20. Cockpit emergency safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Leo

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  1. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  2. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  3. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION:...

  4. 76 FR 22114 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments; New Information...

  5. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  6. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  7. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  8. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  9. An Emerging Interactional Theory of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Martin J.

    An interactional model of communication can be based on Erving Goffman's concept of the "interaction order" and the conversation analytic focus on meaning. Three sets of related ideas provide the intellectual foundations for this approach: actions are designed for recipients; talk is multi-functional; and self presentation is semiotic. These…

  10. Cerebral coherence between communicators marks the emergence of meaning.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Verhagen, Lennart; Volman, Inge; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Oostenveld, Robert; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-12-23

    How can we understand each other during communicative interactions? An influential suggestion holds that communicators are primed by each other's behaviors, with associative mechanisms automatically coordinating the production of communicative signals and the comprehension of their meanings. An alternative suggestion posits that mutual understanding requires shared conceptualizations of a signal's use, i.e., "conceptual pacts" that are abstracted away from specific experiences. Both accounts predict coherent neural dynamics across communicators, aligned either to the occurrence of a signal or to the dynamics of conceptual pacts. Using coherence spectral-density analysis of cerebral activity simultaneously measured in pairs of communicators, this study shows that establishing mutual understanding of novel signals synchronizes cerebral dynamics across communicators' right temporal lobes. This interpersonal cerebral coherence occurred only within pairs with a shared communicative history, and at temporal scales independent from signals' occurrences. These findings favor the notion that meaning emerges from shared conceptualizations of a signal's use. PMID:25489093

  11. Signalling Signalhood and the Emergence of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Kirby, Simon; Ritchie, Graham R. S.

    2009-01-01

    A unique hallmark of human language is that it uses signals that are both learnt and symbolic. The emergence of such signals was therefore a defining event in human cognitive evolution, yet very little is known about how such a process occurs. Previous work provides some insights on how meaning can become attached to form, but a more foundational…

  12. 33 CFR 149.325 - What emergency communications equipment must be on a manned deepwater port?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION..., telephone, or other means of emergency communication with the shore, vessels, and facilities in the vicinity in the event the primary communications system outlined in § 149.140 fails. This...

  13. Communicating the threat of emerging infections to the public.

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, V.; Linnan, H. W.; Potter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Communication theory and techniques, aided by the electronic revolution, provide new opportunities and challenges for the effective transfer of laboratory, epidemiologic, surveillance, and other public health data to the public who funds them. We review the applicability of communication theory, particularly the audience-source-message-channel meta-model, to emerging infectious disease issues. Emergence of new infectious organisms, microbial resistance to therapeutic drugs, and increased emphasis on prevention have expanded the role of communication as a vital component of public health practice. In the absence of cure, as in AIDS and many other public health problems, an effectively crafted and disseminated prevention message is the key control measure. Applying communication theory to disease prevention messages can increase the effectiveness of the messages and improve public health. PMID:10905966

  14. Real-time multimedia communications in medical emergency - the CONCERTO project solution.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Iacobelli, Lorenzo; Bergeron, Cyril; Hewage, Chaminda T; Panza, Gianmarco; Piri, Esa; Vehkapera, Janne; Amon, Peter; Mazzotti, Matteo; Savino, Ketty; Bokor, Laszlo

    2015-08-01

    The management of medical emergency, in particular cardiac emergency, requests prompt intervention and the possibility to communicate in real time from the emergency area / ambulance to the hospital as much diagnostic information as possible about the patient. This would enable a prompt emergency diagnosis and operation and the possibility to prepare the appropriate actions in the suitable hospital department. To address this scenario, the CONCERTO European project proposed a wireless communication system based on a novel cross-layer architecture, including the integration of building blocks for medical media content fusion, delivery and access. This paper describes the proposed system architecture, outlining the developed components and mechanisms, and the evaluation of the proposed system, carried out in a hospital with the support of medical staff. The technical results and the feedback received highlight the impact of the CONCERTO approach in the healthcare domain, in particular in enabling a prompt and reliable diagnosis in challenging medical emergency scenarios. PMID:26737983

  15. Digital and analog communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  16. Principles of military communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrieri, D. J.

    This book is devoted to an analytical study of those aspects of communication theory which have special relevance to military systems. The book is intended for graduate students and practicing engineers with a background in communication theory. Aspects of communication warfare are considered, taking into account power and propagation, analog communications, digital communications, and pulsed jamming. Pseudonoise spread-spectrum systems are examined, giving attention to principles, pseudonoise sequences, the concealment of pseudonoise waveforms, error probabilities in presence of interference, jamming, code synchronization, pseudonoise networks, and burst-communication systems. Frequency hopping is discussed along with interception, adaptive antenna systems, and cryptographic digital communications. Topics reviewed in an appendix are related to derivations of conditional bit error probabilities for frequency-shift keying, and the noncentral chi-squared distribution.

  17. Survey of Interlibrary Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    The growth and development of library networks increased the need for more rapid interlibrary communication. This survey describes the history, costs and recent developments of various means of interlibrary communication. Extensive references are provided for each area. The communications systems discussed are: surveys, mail, telephone, facsimile,…

  18. Information Systems and Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Raymond W., Ed.; Williams, Alfred B., Ed.

    Intended to provide orientation about the integration of business communication, business systems, and the researching and teaching of business communication, this books offers articles on a variety of topics concerning business communication. Titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Office Technology: Voice Store-and-Forward"…

  19. Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time. PMID:23521890

  20. Disaster and emergency communications prior to computers/Internet: a review.

    PubMed

    Farnham, John W

    2006-02-01

    When communications are needed the most desperately and most urgently, the difficulty of effecting the desired communications increases exponentially. Recent natural disasters in different parts of the world have provided eloquent testament to this. The history of disaster or emergency communications can provide us with a foundation for understanding the problems encountered today, and can offer us insight into how we might improve the systems and processes for communications. The first applications of communication technology that allowed messages to be sent more rapidly than the fastest form of transportation were mainly military in origin. This review takes us from the days of optical or visual telegraphy, through the early development of mobile and radio communications, and up to the current sophisticated technologies. We pay particular attention to the use of amateur radio operators in times of emergency, and relate their activities to those of the most effective military communications. The germane assumption made in this discussion is that any emergency or disaster communications would necessarily be involved in response and resolution of medical aspects of those emergencies. PMID:16420649

  1. Disaster and emergency communications prior to computers/Internet: a review

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, John W

    2006-01-01

    When communications are needed the most desperately and most urgently, the difficulty of effecting the desired communications increases exponentially. Recent natural disasters in different parts of the world have provided eloquent testament to this. The history of disaster or emergency communications can provide us with a foundation for understanding the problems encountered today, and can offer us insight into how we might improve the systems and processes for communications. The first applications of communication technology that allowed messages to be sent more rapidly than the fastest form of transportation were mainly military in origin. This review takes us from the days of optical or visual telegraphy, through the early development of mobile and radio communications, and up to the current sophisticated technologies. We pay particular attention to the use of amateur radio operators in times of emergency, and relate their activities to those of the most effective military communications. The germane assumption made in this discussion is that any emergency or disaster communications would necessarily be involved in response and resolution of medical aspects of those emergencies. PMID:16420649

  2. Potential applications of cable television (CATV) to the FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) communications mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, D. D.; Abtahi, H.; Becker, J. R., Jr.; Frantz, S. W.

    1983-07-01

    The history, technology, economics, regulation and vulnerability to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects of cable television are examined. Recommendations are made concerning FEMA integration of cable television systems into the FEMA emergency communications system and the protection of cable television systems for EMP effects.

  3. Software-Defined Ultra-wideband Radio Communications: A New RF Technology for Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2009-10-19

    Reliable wireless communication links for local-area (short-range) and regional (long-range) reach capabilities are crucial for emergency response to disasters. Lack of a dependable communication system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. To date, all wireless communications systems such as cell phones and walkie-talkies use narrowband radio frequency (RF) signaling for data communication. However, the hostile radio propagation environment caused by collapsed structures and rubble in various disaster sites results in significant degradation and attenuation of narrowband RF signals, which ends up in frequent communication breakdowns. To address the challenges of reliable radio communication in disaster fields, we propose an approach to use ultra-wideband (UWB) or wideband RF waveforms for implementation on Software Defined Radio (SDR) platforms. Ultra-wideband communications has been proven by many research groups to be effective in addressing many of the limitations faced by conventional narrowband radio technologies. In addition, LLNL's radio and wireless team have shown significant success in field deployment of various UWB communications system for harsh environments based on LLNL's patented UWB modulation and equalization techniques. Furthermore, using software defined radio platform for UWB communications offers a great deal of flexibility in operational parameters and helps the radio system to dynamically adapt itself to its environment for optimal performance.

  4. Emergence of Zipf's law in the evolution of communication.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-03-01

    Zipf's law seems to be ubiquitous in human languages and appears to be a universal property of complex communicating systems. Following the early proposal made by Zipf concerning the presence of a tension between the efforts of speaker and hearer in a communication system, we introduce evolution by means of a variational approach to the problem based on Kullback's Minimum Discrimination of Information Principle. Therefore, using a formalism fully embedded in the framework of information theory, we demonstrate that Zipf's law is the only expected outcome of an evolving communicative system under a rigorous definition of the communicative tension described by Zipf. PMID:21517566

  5. Underground communications and tracking systems update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-01-15

    Today, when it comes to having systems to communicate with track and locate underground coal miners, mining companies have many equipment choices, as a direct response to the USA's 2006 MINER Act and the West Virginia Legislative Rule 56-4-8. Coal Age spoke to several companies about their leaky feeder and purely wireless systems which are either approved by the US MSHA or have been submitted for approval. The article gives details of: a UHF leaky feeder system developed by Pillar Innovations, designed to exit a mine at multiple points and then tie the leads back together on the surface; the Venture/Helicomm MineTrader system for tracking, monitoring and emergency messaging for mines; Rajant Corp.'s BreadCrumb wireless system using battery-powered wireless access nodes that enable voice and data communications across a self-healing network; the SubterraCom Wireless Solution's communications systems; a wireless mesh peer-to-peer communications system and an ultra widebade (UWB)-base real-time location tracking system from L-3 Communications; and VHF and UHF leaky feeder amplifiers from Tunnel Radio. MSHA approved communications and tracking systems are tabulated. 11 photos., 1 tab.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1701 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications; requirements. 77.1701 Section 77.1701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  7. Communications systems checkout study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results and conclusions of an engineering study of Space Station communications subsystem checkout are reported. The primary purpose of the study is to recommend specific guidelines and constraints for the design and utilization of the communications subsystem leading to a practical and effective means of onboard checkout implementation. Major study objectives are as follows: (1) identify candidate communications subsystem checkout concepts, (2) determine implementation impacts of feasible concepts, (3) evaluate practicality and effectiveness of alternative concepts, (4) propose baseline modifications to accommodate preferred concepts, and (5) recommend areas for additional investigation. In addition, study results are interpreted, where appropriate, in terms of their applicability to checkout of Shuttle-Orbiter communications subsystem.

  8. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  9. Satellite personal communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Smith, J. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Voice channel communication between low power mobile stations dispersed over a large area is provided by a system which includes a geostationary satellite utilizing a large UHF antenna that can receive a transmission from a caller and retransmit it over any one beam of a matrix of narrow beams, so the chosen beam covers an area in which a designated called party is located. A single up-link control channel occupying a narrow frequency band, can be utilized to receive dial up signals from a caller, and another single down link control channel can be utilized to ring up the called party located anywhere within the continental United States. The satellite antenna includes a matrix of feed horns that not only direct the beams in a controlled matrix onto the area of the continental United States, but also permit detection of the region from which the caller's signal is transmitted and the region from which the called party's answer is received, to enable the interconnection of signals received from these two regions. The system is particularly useful for rural areas.

  10. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the greater challenges the Army faces is effectively dealing with the concerns of the public, local officials and the news media on the disposal of aging chemical agents. This paper describes the method developed for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). The purpose was to provide a fairly comprehensive document on risk communication research and recommended practices as they related to the CSEPP. Using the communications perspective suggested by Covello and colleagues, the existing practices of communicating risk information about chemical weapons and the associated efforts in emergency planning, storage and eventual disposal are described. Risk communication problems specific to the CSEPP are then examined and described via scenarios. A framework is developed that distinguishes between the major components of risk communication, flow and intent. Within this framework, the research and recommendations are summarized as to direction of flow -- dialogue, or two-way interaction, versus monologue, or one-way communication -- and that of intent -- exchange versus persuasion. The findings and recommendations are synthesized and related to risk events for the CSEPP as posited in the scenarios.

  11. Cryptography in a communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M. R.

    1982-10-01

    Communication system protection by cryptography is reviewed. Privacy and authentication problems are discussed. Conventional cryptographic systems as well as public key systems are complementary. Classical security methods such as signed contracts, physical locks, passwords and keys remain important.

  12. INMARSAT's personal communicator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Nick; Haugli, HANS-C.; Poskett, Peter; Smith, K.

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has been providing near global mobile satellite communications since 1982 and Inmarsat terminals are currently being used in more than 130 countries. The terminals have been reduced in size and cost over the years and new technology has enabled the recent introduction of briefcase sized personal telephony terminals (Inmarsat-M). This trend continues and we are likely to see Inmarsat handheld terminals by the end of the decade. These terminals are called Inmarsat-P and this paper focuses on the various elements required to support a high quality service to handheld terminals. The main system elements are: the handheld terminals; the space segment with the associated orbits; and the gateways to terrestrial networks. It is both likely and desirable that personal handheld satellite communications will be offered by more than one system provider and this competition will ensure strong emphasis on service quality and cost of ownership. The handheld terminals also have to be attractive to a large number of potential users, and this means that the terminals must be small enough to fit in a pocket. Battery lifetime is another important consideration, and this coupled with radiation safety requirements limits the maximum radiated EIRP. The terminal G/T is mainly constrained by the gain of the omnidirectional antenna and the noise figure of the RF front end (including input losses). Inmarsat has examined, with the support of industry, a number of Geosynchronous (GSO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite options for the provision of a handheld mobile satellite service. This paper describes the key satellite and orbit parameters and tradeoffs which affect the overall quality of service and the space segment costing. The paper also stresses not only the importance of using and sharing the available mobile frequency band allocations efficiently, but also the key considerations affecting the choice of feeder link bands. The design of the gateways

  13. Establishing Conventional Communication Systems: Is Common Knowledge Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Dale J.

    2004-01-01

    How do communities establish shared communication systems? The Common Knowledge view assumes that symbolic conventions develop through the accumulation of common knowledge regarding communication practices among the members of a community. In contrast with this view, it is proposed that coordinated communication emerges a by-product of local…

  14. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  15. Emergency ignition shutoff system

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, L.R. Jr.

    1987-01-13

    An emergency shut-off mechanism is described for a racing car having a roll bar framework forming a driver's cage. The mechanism comprises, in combination, a toggle switch wired in series with an ignition switch of the car, the toggle switch being mounted on a dashboard of the car, one end of a flexible cord being connected to the toggle switch, and an ''L''-shaped conduit affixed to the driver's cage through which the cord slidably extends. A snap hook is affixed to an opposite end of the cord and a ring is affixed to a rear portion of a driver's helmet for detachable attachment to the snap hook. The conduit extends from the dashboard to a position rearward of a driver's seat and of the helmet. Sufficient movement of the helmet pulls the cord, thereby actuating the switch and shutting off the car.

  16. EMERGENCY RESPONSE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM (ERNS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a database used to store information on notifications of oil discharges and hazardous substances releases. The ERNS program is a cooperative data sharing effort among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters, the ...

  17. System Design for Nano-Network Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ShahMohammadian, Hoda

    The potential applications of nanotechnology in a wide range of areas necessities nano-networking research. Nano-networking is a new type of networking which has emerged by applying nanotechnology to communication theory. Therefore, this dissertation presents a framework for physical layer communications in a nano-network and addresses some of the pressing unsolved challenges in designing a molecular communication system. The contribution of this dissertation is proposing well-justified models for signal propagation, noise sources, optimum receiver design and synchronization in molecular communication channels. The design of any communication system is primarily based on the signal propagation channel and noise models. Using the Brownian motion and advection molecular statistics, separate signal propagation and noise models are presented for diffusion-based and flow-based molecular communication channels. It is shown that the corrupting noise of molecular channels is uncorrelated and non-stationary with a signal dependent magnitude. The next key component of any communication system is the reception and detection process. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the effect of the ligand-receptor binding mechanism on the received signal, and develops the first optimal receiver design for molecular communications. The bit error rate performance of the proposed receiver is evaluated and the impact of medium motion on the receiver performance is investigated. Another important feature of any communication system is synchronization. In this dissertation, the first blind synchronization algorithm is presented for the molecular communication channels. The proposed algorithm uses a non-decision directed maximum likelihood criterion for estimating the channel delay. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is also derived and the performance of the proposed synchronization algorithm is evaluated by investigating its mean square error.

  18. 76 FR 12600 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to provide for national EAS testing and... a national Presidential alert. DATES: Effective March 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  19. 75 FR 4760 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...) by filing paper copies. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... seeking comment on its proposal to amend the Commission's rules governing the Emergency Alert System...

  20. 76 FR 35810 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... EB Docket No. 04-296, 72 FR 62123, November 2, 2007, which incorporated certain Common Alerting... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... (Commission) seeks comment on proposed changes to its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS)...

  1. 77 FR 26701 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) rules so that EAS Participants may, but are not... adopted rules specifying the manner in which EAS Participants must be able to receive alert...

  2. Emerging smart materials systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strock, H.B.

    1996-04-01

    Smart materials systems are nonliving systems that integrate the functions of sensing, actuation, logic and control to respond adaptively to changes in their condition or the environment to which they are exposed, in a useful and usually repetitive manner. Smart materials possess both sensing and actuation capability. They can adaptively respond to changing stimuli, e.g., the variable darkening of photochromic glass or plastic on exposure to sunlight. Such passively smart materials behavior has relatively limited, although marketable, functionality.

  3. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The ultramicrowave communications system program investigated the feasibility of a solid state system that meets the projected space to space requirements, while using the advantages of the 100 to 200 GHz band. The program successfully demonstrated a laboratory model of a high frequency communications system operating between 100 to 200 GHz. In the process, vendor claims for performance specifications of discrete components were evaluated, and a window was provided into system design and integration problems.

  4. Standardized emergency management system and response to a smallpox emergency.

    PubMed

    Kim-Farley, Robert J; Celentano, John T; Gunter, Carol; Jones, Jessica W; Stone, Rogelio A; Aller, Raymond D; Mascola, Laurene; Grigsby, Sharon F; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox. A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring

  5. [Ethics in pediatric emergencies: Care access, communication, and confidentiality].

    PubMed

    Benoit, J; Berdah, L; Carlier-Gonod, A; Guillou, T; Kouche, C; Patte, M; Schneider, M; Talcone, S; Chappuy, H

    2015-05-01

    Children suffer most from today's increasing precariousness. In France, access to care is available for all children through various structures and existing measures. The support for foreign children is overseen by specific legislation often unfamiliar to caregivers. Pediatric emergencies, their location, organization, actors, and patient flow are a particular environment that is not always suitable to communication and may lead to situations of abuse. Communication should not be forgotten because of the urgency of the situation. The place of the child in the dialogue is often forgotten. Considering the triangular relationship, listening to the child and involving the parents in care are the basis for a good therapeutic alliance. Privacy and medical confidentiality in pediatric emergencies are governed by law. However, changes in treatments and medical practices along with the variety of actors involved imply both individual and collective limitations, to the detriment of medical confidentiality. PMID:25840466

  6. Cerebral coherence between communicators marks the emergence of meaning

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Verhagen, Lennart; Volman, Inge; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Oostenveld, Robert; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    How can we understand each other during communicative interactions? An influential suggestion holds that communicators are primed by each other’s behaviors, with associative mechanisms automatically coordinating the production of communicative signals and the comprehension of their meanings. An alternative suggestion posits that mutual understanding requires shared conceptualizations of a signal’s use, i.e., “conceptual pacts” that are abstracted away from specific experiences. Both accounts predict coherent neural dynamics across communicators, aligned either to the occurrence of a signal or to the dynamics of conceptual pacts. Using coherence spectral-density analysis of cerebral activity simultaneously measured in pairs of communicators, this study shows that establishing mutual understanding of novel signals synchronizes cerebral dynamics across communicators’ right temporal lobes. This interpersonal cerebral coherence occurred only within pairs with a shared communicative history, and at temporal scales independent from signals’ occurrences. These findings favor the notion that meaning emerges from shared conceptualizations of a signal’s use. PMID:25489093

  7. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  8. Emergency Lighting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    When power outages occurred at Landmark Plastic Corporation, it took seven to twelve minutes for the primary mercury lamps to cool down enough to relight and two to seven minutes for the ELS incandescent lamps to relight. Production could not resume for as much as seven minutes. An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing the capabilities of photosensing devices led Landmark employee, Steve Keller to design a system now activated by any voltage loss in the main lamp circuit and coupled with photosensing devices used to keep them on until the primary mercury lamps reach full brightness.

  9. Emergent Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andres

    2002-01-01

    almost an Engineer (2002 will be my last year as student) and the studies that I'm now ending here, in Girona, are closely related not only with science and technology subjects but with optimization and economic result obtention, too. Huge distances that separate us from everything in space have launched scientists and engineers into a new challenge: How to reach maximum speeds keeping high ratios payload/total spacecraft mass? The key limitation of chemical rockets is that their exhaust velocity is relatively low. Because achieving Earth orbit requires a high velocity change a rocket must carry far more propellant than payload. The answer to all this complications seems to stare in one way: electric propulsion systems and the possibility of taking advantatge of solar winds to thrust our crafts. possible solutions, some of them have been studied for years and now they are not a project but a reality; also newest theories bring us the possibility of dream. Improve of commom propellants, search of new ones: Investigators continued research on use of atomic species as high-energy-density propellants, which could increase the specific impulse of hydrogen/oxygen rockets by 50-150%. Nuclear fission propulsion: Centered in development of reactors for nearterm nuclear electric propulsion aplications. Multimegawatt systems based on vapor core reactors and magnetohydrodynamic power conversion. Engineers investigated new fuels for compact nuclear thermal propulsion systems. What is called plasma state?: When a gas is heated to tens of thousands or millions of degrees, atoms lose their electrons. The result is a "soup" of charged particles, or plasma, made up of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. No known material can contain the hot plasma necessary for rocket propulsion, but specially designed magnetic fields can. Plasma rockets: This rockets are not powered by conventional chemical reactions as today's rockets are, but by electrical energy that heats

  10. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... on the role of DACA, the communication service architecture and various DACA platform...

  11. Proposal of an end-to-end emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2011-01-01

    A new comprehensive emergency system has been proposed to facilitate and computerize all the processes involved in an emergency from the initial contact to the ambulance emergency system, to finding the right and nearest available ambulance, and through to accessing a Smart Online Electronic Health Record (SOEHR). The proposed system will critically assist in pre-hospital treatments, indentify availability of the nearest available specialized hospital and communicate with the Hospital Emergency Department System (HEDS) to provide early information about the incoming patient for preparation to receive and assist. PMID:21893771

  12. The emergent neural modeling system.

    PubMed

    Aisa, Brad; Mingus, Brian; O'Reilly, Randy

    2008-10-01

    Emergent (http://grey.colorado.edu/emergent) is a powerful tool for the simulation of biologically plausible, complex neural systems that was released in August 2007. Inheriting decades of research and experience in network algorithms and modeling principles from its predecessors, PDP++ and PDP, Emergent has been redesigned as an efficient workspace for academic research and an engaging, easy-to-navigate environment for students. The system provides a modern and intuitive interface for programming and visualization centered around hierarchical, tree-based navigation and drag-and-drop reorganization. Emergent contains familiar, high-level simulation constructs such as Layers and Projections, a wide variety of algorithms, general-purpose data handling and analysis facilities and an integrated virtual environment for developing closed-loop cognitive agents. For students, the traditional role of a textbook has been enhanced by wikis embedded in every project that serve to explain, document, and help newcomers engage the interface and step through models using familiar hyperlinks. For advanced users, the software is easily extensible in all respects via runtime plugins, has a powerful shell with an integrated debugger, and a scripting language that is fully symmetric with the interface. Emergent strikes a balance between detailed, computationally expensive spiking neuron models and abstract, Bayesian or symbolic systems. This middle level of detail allows for the rapid development and successful execution of complex cognitive models while maintaining biological plausibility. PMID:18684591

  13. Characterizing emergency departments to improve understanding of emergency care systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    International emergency medicine aims to understand different systems of emergency care across the globe. To date, however, international emergency medicine lacks common descriptors that can encompass the wide variety of emergency care systems in different countries. The frequent use of general, system-wide indicators (e.g. the status of emergency medicine as a medical specialty or the presence of emergency medicine training programs) does not account for the diverse methods that contribute to the delivery of emergency care both within and between countries. Such indicators suggest that a uniform approach to the development and structure of emergency care is both feasible and desirable. One solution to this complex problem is to shift the focus of international studies away from system-wide characteristics of emergency care. We propose such an alternative methodology, in which studies would examine emergency department-specific characteristics to inventory the various methods by which emergency care is delivered. Such characteristics include: emergency department location, layout, time period open to patients, and patient type served. There are many more ways to describe emergency departments, but these characteristics are particularly suited to describe with common terms a wide range of sites. When combined, these four characteristics give a concise but detailed picture of how emergency care is delivered at a specific emergency department. This approach embraces the diversity of emergency care as well as the variety of individual emergency departments that deliver it, while still allowing for the aggregation of broad similarities that might help characterize a system of emergency care. PMID:21756328

  14. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552

  15. Emergence of Linguistic Communication: Studies on Grey Parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    Most studies on the evolution of communication systems concentrate on the primate lineage, ignoring the concept of parallel lines of evolution. Although phylogenetically remote from humans, some birds—particularly Grey parrots—share many cognitive and communicative abilities with humans. On certain tasks, they demonstrate processing abilities comparable to 5-6 year-old humans; they learn very simple vocal syntactic patterns and referential elements of human communication, but only through social interaction and in a manner that proceeds in ways similar to those of humans. Given this knowledge of vocal learning in birds, of the effects of social interaction on such learning, and of birds' complex cognitive abilities, we should not ignore the avian line if we wish to determine the evolutionary pressures that purportedly affected the evolution of complex communication systems—particularly vocal systems—and develop theories and models that can be tested.

  16. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  17. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    PubMed

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported. PMID:27579007

  18. Three Corner Sat Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bobby; Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Three Corner Satellite is a constellation of three nanosatellites designed and built by students. New Mexico State University has taken on the design of the communications system for this constellation. The system includes the forward link, return link, and the crosslink. Due to size, mass, power, and financial constraints, we must design a small, light, power efficient, and inexpensive communications system. This thesis presents the design of a radio system to accomplish the data transmission requirements in light of the system constraints. In addition to the hardware design, the operational commands needed by the satellite's on-board computer to control and communicate with the communications hardware will be presented. In order for the hardware to communicate with the ground stations, we will examine the link budgets derived from the radiated power of the transmitters, link distance, data modulation, and data rate for each link. The antenna design for the constellation is analyzed using software and testing the physical antennas on a model satellite. After the analysis and testing, a combination of different systems will meet and exceed the requirements and constraints of the Three Corner Satellite constellation.

  19. The picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed. PMID:9857393

  20. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  1. The PLATO IV Communications System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne; Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based educational system contains its own communications hardware and software for operating plasma-panel graphics terminals. Key echoing is performed by the central processing unit: every key pressed at a terminal passes through the entire system before anything appears on the terminal's screen. Each terminal is guaranteed…

  2. Multilocation teleradiology system for emergency triage consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, John M.; Yonas, Howard

    1996-05-01

    A remote consultation system is available at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) which links four outlying hospitals in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. This system has the potential to improve short and long term clinical outcomes and to reduce overall medical care cost by establishing improved emergency triage capability. An EMED, Inc. teleradiology system permits rapid, high-quality transfer of digitized film and CT images from the remote sites to the tertiary care center (UPMC). The images are sent over dial-on- demand ISDN and SW56 lines from the remote hospitals to a central server where they are transmitted to a dual 2K monitor workstation in the Emergency Department, thirteen Eastman Kodak PDS workstations within UPMC, and to three physician homes. Transmission to a workstation at each of the physician homes over ISDN lines enables `after hours' consultation. The radiographic images along with voice and fax communications provide a technique where physicians in outlying hospitals will be able to consult with specialists at any time. A study is in progress to evaluate the effectiveness of this system in terms of perception of utility and its potential to improve emergency triage capability, as well as selection of the appropriate transportation mode (helicopter versus ambulance).

  3. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  4. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  5. The ORBCOMM data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, David C.; Locke, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    The ORBCOMM system is designed to provide low-cost, two-way data communications for mobile and remote users. The communications system is ideally configured for low data rate applications where communicating devices are geographically dispersed and two-way communications through terrestrial means is cumbersome and not cost effective. The remote terminals use VHF frequencies which allow for the use of very small, low-cost terminals. ORBCOMM has entered into joint development agreements with several large manufacturers of both consumer and industrial electronics to design and build the remote terminals. Based on prototype work, the estimated retail cost of these units will range from $50 to $400 depending on the complexity of the design. Starting in the fall of 1993, ORBCOMM will begin service with a demonstration network consisting of two operating satellites. By the end of 1994, a full operating network of 26 satellites, four Gateway Earth Stations, and a Network Control Center will be in place. The full constellation will provide full coverage of the entire world with greater than 94 percent communications availability for the continental U.S. This paper describes the ORBCOMM system, the technology used in its implementation, and its applications.

  6. [Problems in the development of the emergency health care system].

    PubMed

    Hasić, Z; Sisić, I

    2000-01-01

    Since February 1994, during and after 4-years supervision of American specialists, Emergency department of Zenica hospital has been trying to implement Anglo-American working system within the hospital framework (video). Principles of quality functioning of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) are based on: Population that depends on different demographic factors and prevention programme (education of population, quality functioning of health legislation). Pre-hospital treatment depends on good quality communication and transport. Hospital treatment based on good functioning of Emergency department and Intensive care unit as well as proper coordination with other specialties. Proper implementation of items stated above depends on top-class teaching and compulsory periodical screening of attained knowledge and skills, properly organized communication, transport and technical equipment. Emergency medicine is not only a sum of urgencies from the existing conditions but a special medical discipline and it has special and unique approach to diagnosis and therapy of acute health disorders. Therefore, a main weakness in the development of emergency medicine is: no recognition of emergency medicine as a unique specialty in the most European countries, non-existing departments of emergency medicine at medical faculties, no unification of BiH emergency medicine system, undeveloped monitoring and development evaluation of emergency medicine etc. The World Association of Emergency Medicine should have an important role for emergency medicine recognition, and in its future development through links with health legislation and educational associations (ACLS, ATLS, APLS). PMID:11117025

  7. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  8. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  9. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  10. Coherent OCDMA communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Coherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique, where encoding and decoding are based on the phase and amplitude of optical field instead of its intensity, is receiving much attention for the overall superior performance over incoherent OCDMA and the development of compact and reliable en/decoders (E/D) such as spatial light phase modulator (SLPM), superstructured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) and multi-port array waveguide grating (AWG)-type E/D. In this paper, we will discuss several recent progresses in coherent OCDMA: a. Novel coding technology such as multi-phase-level SSFBG encoder, 50x50 multiport en/decoder and reconfigurable time domain spectral phase en/decoding; b. New signal modulation formats in OCDMA including DPSK, DQPSK, CSK and M-ary CSK; and c. Field trials of high capacity WDM/OCDMA systems.

  11. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  12. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Communications system design was completed and reviewed. Minor changes were made in order to make it more cost effective and to increase design flexibility. System design activities identified the techniques and procedures to generate and monitor high data rate test signals. Differential bi-phase demodulation is the proposed method for this system. The mockup and packaging designs were performed, and component layout and interconnection constraints were determined, as well as design drawings for dummy parts of the system. The possibility of adding a low cost option to the transceiver system was studied. The communications program has the advantage that new technology signal processing devices can be readily interfaced with the existing radio frequency subsystem to produce a short range radar.

  13. Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

  14. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel...

  15. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  16. Enhanced, Partially Redundant Emergency Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, Clark D.

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Emergency Notification System (JENS) software utilizes pre-existing computation and communication infrastructure to augment a prior variable-tone, siren-based, outdoor alarm system, in order to enhance the ability to give notice of emergencies to employees working in multiple buildings. The JENS software includes a component that implements an administrative Web site. Administrators can grant and deny access to the administrative site and to an originator Web site that enables authorized individuals to quickly compose and issue alarms. The originator site also facilitates maintenance and review of alarms already issued. A custom client/server application program enables an originator to notify every user who is logged in on a Microsoft Windows-based desktop computer by means of a pop-up message that interrupts, but does not disrupt, the user s work. Alternatively or in addition, the originator can send an alarm message to recipients on an e-mail distribution list and/or can post the notice on an internal Web site. An alarm message can consist of (1) text describing the emergency and suggesting a course of action and (2) a replica of the corresponding audible outdoor alarm.

  17. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  18. 76 FR 80780 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Third FNPRM), 76 FR 35810-01, June 20, 2011, in this docket sufficiently... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Alert System (EAS) rules to extend the deadline for EAS Participants to be able to receive...

  19. Emerging, Photonic Based Technologies for NASA Space Communications Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Levi, Anthony; Bos, Philip; Titus, Charles; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An objective of NASA's Computing, Information, and Communications Technology program is to support the development of technologies that could potentially lower the cost of the Earth science and space exploration missions, and result in greater scientific returns. NASA-supported photonic activities which will impact space communications will be described. The objective of the RF microphotonic research is to develop a Ka-band receiver that will enable the microwaves detected by an antenna to modulate a 1.55- micron optical carrier. A key element is the high-Q, microphotonic modulator that employs a lithium niobate microdisk. The technical approach could lead to new receivers that utilize ultra-fast, photonic signal processing techniques, and are low cost, compact, low weight and power efficient. The progress in the liquid crystal (LC) beam steering research will also be reported. The predicted benefits of an LC-based device on board a spacecraft include non-mechanical, submicroradian laser-beam pointing, milliradian scanning ranges, and wave-front correction. The potential applications of these emerging technologies to the various NASA missions will be presented.

  20. Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

    2006-07-01

    Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

  1. The Intelsat digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiel, John F., Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Intelsat international communication services resulting from the application of digital technology are summarized. Approximately 40 percent of the 140,000 terrestrial channels from the Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) provided by the Intelsat network are now handled by digital systems. Digital technology for the interconnection of the PSTNs is discussed. Particular attention is paid to modulation and access techniques including the intermediate data rate (IDR) system, and the fixed and satellite switched TDMA systems. Digital compression techniques used with TDMA and IDR, such as digital speech interpolation and digital circuit multiplication, are also discussed. The Intelsat Business Service and the Intelnet Service are described in the framework of digital technology for private networks and business users. Communications for remote areas, international television services, and future opportunities through digital technologies are briefly presented.

  2. 18 CFR 292.307 - System emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false System emergencies. 292... § 292.307 System emergencies. (a) Qualifying facility obligation to provide power during system... during a system emergency only to the extent: (1) Provided by agreement between such qualifying...

  3. 18 CFR 292.307 - System emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false System emergencies. 292... § 292.307 System emergencies. (a) Qualifying facility obligation to provide power during system... during a system emergency only to the extent: (1) Provided by agreement between such qualifying...

  4. Technology Evaluation of Programmable Communicating Thermostats with Radio Broadcast Data System Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth

    2008-10-31

    Programmable Communicating Thermostats are thermostats that can be programmed by the user to respond to signals indicating a grid-level system emergency or pricing event. The California Energy Commission is considering standards that would include a requirement for Programmable Communicating Thermostats in residential and small commercial applications. The current specification for Programmable Communicating Thermostats requires Radio Data System communications to Programmable Communicating Thermostats. This study tested the signal strength and reliability of Radio Data System signals at 40 customer sites within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, which is serviced by 17 radio stations that already transmit Radio Data System signals. The study also tested the functionality of a commercially available Programmable Communicating Thermostat for compliance with California Energy Commission design standards. Test results demonstrated that Radio Data System is capable of reliably sending price and emergency signals. This study also provides evidence that existing Programmable Communicating Thermostats, on receiving a Radio Data System pricing or event signal, are capable of automatically increasing set points to a customer-determined or utility-determined level, thus providing air-conditioning demand response within seconds or just a few (less than 5) minutes.

  5. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Communications with Health Care Providers: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care providers (HCPs) play an important role in public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) so need to be aware of public health threats and emergencies. To inform HCPs, public health issues PHEPR messages that provide guidelines and updates, and facilitate surveillance so HCPs will recognize and control communicable diseases, prevent excess deaths and mitigate suffering. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. We conducted a literature review to investigate the systems and tools used by public health to generate PHEPR communications to HCPs, and to identify specific characteristics of message delivery mechanisms and formats that may be associated with effective PHEPR communications. Methods A systematic review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed literature focused on the following questions: 1) What public health systems exist for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs? 2) Have these systems been evaluated and, if yes, what criteria were used to evaluate these systems? 3) What have these evaluations discovered about characterizations of the most effective ways for public health agencies to communicate PHEPR messages to HCPs? Results We identified 25 systems or tools for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs. Few articles assessed PHEPR communication systems or messaging methods or outcomes. Only one study compared the effectiveness of the delivery format, device or message itself. We also discovered that the potential is high for HCPs to experience "message overload" given redundancy of PHEPR messaging in multiple formats and/or through different delivery systems. Conclusions We found that detailed descriptions of PHEPR messaging from public health to HCPs

  6. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  7. Low Altitude Space Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Michiyoshi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Honda, Hideyuki; Toriumi, Michihiko; Kamioka, Eiji; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki; Ohta, Sigeo; Yamagami, Takamasa; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Hirosawa, Haruto; Ohya, Nobuhiko; Takezawa, Fukashi; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    We describe a new Low Altitude Space Communication System (LASCOS), which was completed in 1996 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan. This system consists of a mobile balloon tracking and receiving station and networks which connect them to the Sanriku Balloon Center in Iwate Municipality and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Kanagawa Municipality. This station and the SBC receiving station are connected via telephone lines, i. e. an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or an analog communication network. Balloon trajectory monitoring, telecommand transmission operation and telemetry data acquisition can be done from any computer terminal through the LASCOS. LASCOS has built-in flexibility to adapt to a foreign balloon station. The number of individuals necessary to operate it minimum. LASCOS will be used for long range tracking and balloon expedition. We present the results of its first test with an actual balloon flight

  8. Information Systems Coordinate Emergency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    -changing planet. This information can be captured, analyzed, and visualized by geographic information systems (GIS) to produce maps, charts, and other tools that can reveal information essential to a wide variety of applications including emergency management. Knowing precise, real-time information about the size, location, environmental conditions, and resulting damage of an event like a flood or wildfire as well as the location and numbers of emergency responders and other resources contributes directly to the effectiveness of disaster mitigation. The need for such information is also evident when responding to homeland security threats, such as a terrorist attack. Recognizing the value of its geospatial information resources for this and other purposes, in 1998 Stennis and the state of Mississippi partnered to form what became the Enterprise for Innovative Geospatial Solutions (EIGS) industry cluster, supporting the growth of remote sensing and GIS-based research and business. As part of EIGS, several companies partnered with NASA through dual use and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. Among those was NVision.

  9. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  10. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a) of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communication systems....

  11. China's future domestic satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, G.; Yaokun, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Some ideas about China's future domestic satellite communications system are discussed. The following objectives are considered in the design of the new domestic satellite communications system: (1) the satellite communications system should link the entire country and form a unified national network with the existing ground communications system, (2) based on the geographic situation, the satellite communications system should be primarily small and scattered in the west, and large and concentrated in the east, (3) the Telephone business should be the primary business of the satellite communications system. It should also be capable of transmitting television, telegram, data, facsimile, and broadcasting, (4) the communications system should be primarily designed as a single jump system. It should not exceed two jumps, and (5) the parameters of the communications system should be in agreement with CCIR and CCITT recommendations.

  12. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  13. An integration of Emergency Department Information and Ambulance Systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Nada; El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Emergency Department Information System that will be integrated with the ambulance system to improve the communication, enhance the quality of provided emergency services and facilitate information sharing. The proposed system utilizes new advanced technologies such as mobile web services that overcome the problems of interoperability between different systems, HL7 and GPS. The system is unique in that it allows ambulance officers to locate the nearest specialized hospital and allows access to the patient's electronic health record as well as providing the hospital with required information to prepare for the incoming patient. PMID:22874341

  14. Mobile Emergency, an Emergency Support System for Hospitals in Mobile Devices: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitals are vulnerable to natural disasters, man-made disasters, and mass causalities events. Within a short time, hospitals must provide care to large numbers of casualties in any damaged infrastructure, despite great personnel risk, inadequate communications, and limited resources. Communications are one of the most common challenges and drawbacks during in-hospital emergencies. Emergency difficulties in communicating with personnel and other agencies are mentioned in literature. At the moment of emergency inception and in the earliest emergency phases, the data regarding the true nature of the incidents are often inaccurate. The real needs and conditions are not yet clear, hospital personnel are neither efficiently coordinated nor informed on the real available resources. Information and communication technology solutions in health care turned out to have a great positive impact both on daily working practice and situations. Objective The objective of this paper was to find a solution that addresses the aspects of communicating among medical personnel, formalizing the modalities and protocols and the information to guide the medical personnel during emergency conditions with a support of a Central Station (command center) to cope with emergency management and best practice network to produce and distribute intelligent content made available in the mobile devices of the medical personnel. The aim was to reduce the time needed to react and to cope with emergency organization, while facilitating communications. Methods The solution has been realized by formalizing the scenarios, extracting, and identifying the requirements by using formal methods based on unified modeling language (UML). The system and was developed using mobile programming under iOS Apple and PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor My Structured Query Language (PHP MySQL). Formal questionnaires and time sheets were used for testing and validation, and a control group was used in order to estimate

  15. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. PMID:26575785

  16. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  17. Communications Systems for Mobile Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A; Pao, H

    2003-12-08

    Performance Confirmation is the activity by which the Yucca Mountain Project confirms that the engineered and natural containment barriers of this national nuclear waste repository are performing as predicted, so that an eventual decision to close the repository can be made. This activity involves systems that must be inspected and, in some cases, serviced by mobile robots. This paper discusses systems for underground mobile robot communications, including requirements, environments, options, issues, and down-select criteria. We reviewed a variety of systems, including Slotted Waveguide, Powerline Carrier, Leaky Feeder, Photonic Bandgap Fiber, Free-Space Optics, Millimeter Waves, Terahertz Systems, and RF Systems (including IEEE 802.11 a,b, and g, and Ultra-Wideband radio).

  18. 77 FR 33661 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ....42, 11.54(b)(13), and 11.55 published at 77 FR 16688, March 22, 2012, are effective June 7, 2012. FOR... requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 11-92, published at 77 FR 16688, March 22, 2012. The OMB... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  19. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 Section 11.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a) Analog and digital broadcast stations...

  20. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 Section 11.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a) Analog and digital broadcast stations...

  1. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 Section 11.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a) Analog and digital broadcast stations...

  2. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 Section 11.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a) Analog and digital broadcast stations...

  3. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 Section 11.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a) Analog and digital broadcast stations...

  4. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111 Communication systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication systems....

  5. Emerging applications of high temperature superconductors for space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed space missions require longevity of communications system components, high input power levels, and high speed digital logic devices. The complexity of these missions calls for a high data bandwidth capacity. Incorporation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films into some of these communications system components may provide a means of meeting these requirements. Space applications of superconducting technology has previously been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. Development of HTS materials with transition temperatures above 77 K along with the natural cooling ability of space suggest that space applications may lead the way in the applications of high temperature superconductivity. In order for HTS materials to be incorporated into microwave and millimeter wave devices, the material properties such as electrical conductivity, current density, surface resistivity and others as a function of temperature and frequency must be well characterized and understood. The millimeter wave conductivity and surface resistivity were well characterized, and at 77 K are better than copper. Basic microwave circuits such as ring resonators were used to determine transmission line losses. Higher Q values than those of gold resonator circuits were observed below the transition temperature. Several key HTS circuits including filters, oscillators, phase shifters and phased array antenna feeds are feasible in the near future. For technology to improve further, good quality, large area films must be reproducibly grown on low dielectric constant, low loss microwave substrates.

  6. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  7. Communications satellite system for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegl, W.; Laufenberg, W.

    1980-09-01

    Earlier established requirement estimations were improved upon by contacting African administrations and organizations. An enormous demand is shown to exist for telephony and teletype services in rural areas. It is shown that educational television broadcasting should be realized in the current African transport and communications decade (1978-1987). Radio broadcasting is proposed in order to overcome illiteracy and to improve educational levels. The technical and commercial feasibility of the system is provided by computer simulations which demonstrate how the required objectives can be fulfilled in conjunction with ground networks.

  8. System-Level Planning, Coordination, and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Robert K.; Dries, David; Luyckx, Valerie; Lim, Matthew L.; Wilgis, John; Anderson, Michael R.; Sarani, Babak; Hupert, Nathaniel; Mutter, Ryan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: System-level planning involves uniting hospitals and health systems, local/regional government agencies, emergency medical services, and other health-care entities involved in coordinating and enabling care in a major disaster. We reviewed the literature and sought expert opinions concerning system-level planning and engagement for mass critical care due to disasters or pandemics and offer suggestions for system-planning, coordination, communication, and response. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) consensus statement development process was followed in developing suggestions. Task Force members met in person to develop nine key questions believed to be most relevant for system-planning, coordination, and communication. A systematic literature review was then performed for relevant articles and documents, reports, and other publications reported since 1993. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Suggestions were developed and grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) national government support of health-care coalitions/regional health authorities (HC/RHAs), (2) teamwork within HC/RHAs, (3) system-level communication, (4) system-level surge capacity and capability, (5) pediatric patients and special populations, (6) HC/RHAs and networks, (7) models of advanced regional care systems, and (8) the use of simulation for preparedness and planning. CONCLUSIONS: System-level planning is essential to provide care for large numbers of critically ill patients because of disaster or pandemic. It also entails a

  9. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  10. Wireless augmented reality communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  11. Research in Corporate Communication: An Overview of an Emerging Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Riel, Cees B. M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature in both communication and business school disciplines. Gives three key concepts in such research: corporate identity, corporate reputation, and orchestration of communication. Advocates an interdisciplinary approach…

  12. Do Animal Communication Systems Have Phonemes?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Biologists often ask whether animal communication systems make use of conceptual entities from linguistics, such as semantics or syntax. A new study of an Australian bird species argues that their communication system has phonemes, but we argue that imposing linguistic concepts obscures, rather than clarifyies, communicative function. PMID:26346993

  13. Complex Communication System and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Won H.

    The basic question under examination is the underlying force that brings forth changes in cultural and social organizations. By employing general system theory and communication systemic analysis, the author concludes that communication, especially human communication, is the main vehicle of change. Human interchange, it is suggested, is constant…

  14. Emerging markets for satellite data communications in the public service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.

  15. ISS Update: High Rate Communications System

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

  16. The Opportunities of Crises and Emergency Risk Communication in Activities of Serbian Public Health Workforce in Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Radović, V; Ćurčić, L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was a recommendation and establishment the concept of the appropriate communication between public health, other competent services and population in emergency as the corner stone which guarantee that all goals which are important for community life will be achieved. Methods: We used methodology appropriate for social science: analyses of documents, historical approach and comparative analysis. Results: The finding shows the urgent need for accepting of crises and emergency risk communication principles, or some similar concepts, in Serbia, and implementing effective two way communication especially in multiethnic region. The pragmatic value of the paper lays in information about the recent improvement of health workforce and emergency services in emergencies using new concept of communication and as source of numerous useful documents published in USA and few recent Serbian examples. Conclusion: Health workforce has significant role in the process of protection of population in emergencies. Policy makers should work on finding a way to improve their coordination and communication, creating new academic programs, providing of adequate training, and financial means in order to give them different role in society and provide visibility. From other side health workforce should build back to the citizen trust in what they are doing for society welfare using all their skills and abilities. PMID:23308348

  17. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  18. Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

  19. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  20. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  1. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  2. Space Shuttle communications and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Cravey, Donald N.; Kuo, Yeng S.; Johnson, John H.; Teasdale, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive description of the Space Shuttle communications and tracking system design, development, and system operations. Areas of special innovative communications techniques implemented by the Space Shuttle such as source encoding, channel encoding, spread spectrum, and digital modulation are emphasized. In addition, the role of the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory in the development of the system is discussed.

  3. Considerations for lunar colony communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses system aspects of communications for a lunar colony. Human factors are particularly noted. The practical aspects of communications infrastructure are emphasized rather than specific technologies. Communications needs for mission support and morale are discussed along with potential means of satisfying them. Problem areas are identified and some possible solutions are considered.

  4. Verification of NASA Emergent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

  5. GPS and GPRS Based Telemonitoring System for Emergency Patient Transportation.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Sarma, A D; Sravan, J; Malini, M; Venkateswarlu, G

    2013-01-01

    Telemonitoring during the golden hour of patient transportation helps to improve medical care. Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call, physiological signals (like ECG, blood pressure, a body temperature, and blood oxygen saturation), location information, a snap shot of the patient, and voice. These requirements are presently met by using separate communication systems for voice, physiological data, and location that result in a lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues, in addition to being expensive. This paper presents design, development, and implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation employing ARM 9 processor module. This system is found to be very useful for the emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like the Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI). PMID:27019844

  6. GPS and GPRS Based Telemonitoring System for Emergency Patient Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, K.; Sarma, A. D.; Sravan, J.; Malini, M.; Venkateswarlu, G.

    2013-01-01

    Telemonitoring during the golden hour of patient transportation helps to improve medical care. Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call, physiological signals (like ECG, blood pressure, a body temperature, and blood oxygen saturation), location information, a snap shot of the patient, and voice. These requirements are presently met by using separate communication systems for voice, physiological data, and location that result in a lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues, in addition to being expensive. This paper presents design, development, and implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation employing ARM 9 processor module. This system is found to be very useful for the emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like the Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI). PMID:27019844

  7. A study of satellite emergency locator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Satellite emergency locator systems were studied. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and hardware requirements for satellite systems capable of identifying and locating the position emergency locator transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons. Both geosynchronous and near-polar-orbiting satellites were considered. One of the most important aspects of the study was to minimize the cost of the hardware required.

  8. A new device for communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A communication device and modulation capability were developed for the transmission of digital data or voices from point to point. This device is a fast-switching phase coherent frequency synthesizer. When this synthesizer is appropriately incorporated in a communication system it can provide interference resistance, multiple-user capability, user identification, ranging, navigation, Doppler correction, and digitized communication (voice and data). The application of this device to aircraft/airport complex and law enforcement communications is discussed.

  9. Experimental millimeter-wave satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masaaaki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Arimoto, Yoshinori; Inoue, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Okubo, Naofumi

    A 43/38 GHz (mm-wave) bands satellite communications experimental system featuring GEO/LEO and GEO/GEO intersatellite communications and personal communications is discussed in light of detailed performance data on the electrical model of the mm-wave transponder. Attention is given to the state-of-the-art solid-state power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, and personal communications terminal employed in these experiments.

  10. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.

  11. Preparing EBS messages. [Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  12. Exosomes: emerging roles in communication between blood cells and vascular tissues during atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heinrich J.; Holvoet, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Microvesicles, in general, and exosomes together with their delivered content in particular, are now being widely recognized as key players in atherosclerosis. We have previously reviewed the role of microvesicles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy. Here, we focus on the roles of exosomes and discuss their emergent role in mediating activation and response to inflammation, vessel infiltration and induction of coagulation. We will finally give an outlook to discuss novel detection techniques and systems biology based data analyses to investigate exosome-mediated cell-to-cell communication. Recent findings Recent research points to a role of exosomes in delivering apoptotic and inflammatory content between blood cells and vascular cells, with a potential contribution of exosomes secreted by adipose tissue. An atheroprotective role of exosomes in response to coagulation that may contrast with the procoagulatory role of platelet-derived larger microvesicles is envisaged. New detection and separation methods and systems biology techniques are emerging. Conclusion We project that the development of novel detection, separation and analysis mechanism and systems-based analysis methods will further unravel the paracrine and endocrine ‘communication protocol’ between cellular players in atherosclerosis, mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:26309202

  13. Information Requirements for Health Information Exchange Supported Communication between Emergency Departments and Poison Control Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Mollie R.; Crouch, Barbara I.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Mateos, Brenda; Muthukutty, Anusha; Wyckoff, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed audio recordings of telephone calls between emergency departments (EDs) and poison control centers (PCCs) in order to describe the information requirements for health information exchange. Analysis included a random sample of 120 poison exposure cases involving ED-PCC communication that occurred during 2009. We identified 52 information types characterized as patient or provider information, exposure information, ED assessment and treatment/ management, or PCC consultation. These information types constitute a focused subset of information that should be shared in the context of emergency treatment for poison exposure. Up to 60% of the information types identified in the analysis of call recordings can be represented using existing clinical terminology. In order to accomplish standards-based health information exchange between EDs and PCCs using data coded according to a standard clinical terminology system, it is necessary to define appropriate terms, information models and value sets. PMID:25954349

  14. Business E-Mail Communication: Some Emerging Tendencies in Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Julio C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the spoken nature of electronic mail messages has already started to affect business written communication. Examines register and context of the language as well as the style used in commercial electronic mail. (Author/VWL)

  15. An Integrated RFID and Sensor System for Emergency Handling in Underground Coal Mines Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Lingxia; Lou, Guohuan; Chen, Min

    Mobile communication system for underground coal mines is far more behind the one on surface for the unique underground tunnel environment and safety requirements. Though our previous CDMA System V1.0 can solve the problems of coal mine communication well in regular environments, it still remains a challenging issue for emergency handling. In this paper, we propose a novel integrated RFID and sensor system for emergency handling in underground coal mines environments.

  16. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day notice...

  17. 78 FR 69310 - Hazardous Materials Table, Special Provisions, Hazardous Materials Communications, Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 Hazardous Materials Table, Special Provisions, Hazardous Materials Communications, Emergency Response Information, Training Requirements,...

  18. Emergency management communication on university Web sites: A 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly L; Holguin, Gina; Scott, Tara Halbrook

    2016-01-01

    In the last several years, disasters-both manmade and natural-have taken their toll on college campuses. Extant research shows that college campuses have greatly increased their emergency management efforts. One area in which colleges and universities have made strides is emergency management communication. There has been some research examining emergency management communication across campuses, but there is still much to learn. This research fills a gap in this area by investigating the use of university Web sites to disseminate emergency management information to the university stakeholders. Data were gathered in 2007 and 2014 from the Web sites of public, 4-year universities in Indiana. The results show that universities are using the Internet to communicate emergency management information to their stakeholders. Among the most common categories of information available on the Web sites are links to other agencies, university response information, and threat levels. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27575641

  19. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  20. Augmentative Communication: Assessment, System Selection, and Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRuyter, Frank; Becker, Mary R.

    1988-01-01

    Augmentative communication systems for the nonspeaking brain-injured should be carefully selected to serve a variety of functions. These include the utilization of systems for communication purposes, assessment of cognitive-linguistic deficits, integration and participation by the individual in the rehabilitation program, and improvement in an…

  1. Organization of Communication in Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datsenko, V. P.; Zaytsev, N. G.

    Organization of communication between the center of an automated system of information exchange and the subscribers to the system is described. The three requirements are: (1) those technical communication means must be chosen which will provide effective and convenient avenues for calls from the subscribers to the center, (2) the required…

  2. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111 Section 127.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The...

  3. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111 Section 127.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The...

  4. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  5. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  6. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  7. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  8. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  9. Tumultuous Atmosphere (Physical, Mental), the Main Barrier to Emergency Department Inter-Professional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Varjoshani, Nasrin Jafari; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. Methodology & Methods: This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. Results: In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Conclusion: Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction. PMID:25560351

  10. Collaborative Design in a Networked Multimedia Environment: Emerging Communication Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geri; Grosz-Ngate, Maria

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the activities of engineering students working on a collaborative design project in a distributed multimedia environment. Topics discussed include learning as a social process; face-to-face and video communication; problem-solving techniques; use of interactive media; the construction of knowledge; and group…

  11. System Would Predictively Preempt Traffic Lights for Emergency Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2004-01-01

    Two electronic communication-and-control systems have been proposed as means of modifying the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. Both systems would utilize the inductive loops already installed in the streets of many municipalities to detect vehicles for timing the switching of traffic lights. The proposed systems could be used alone or to augment other automated emergency traffic-light preemption systems that are already present in some municipalities, including systems that recognize flashing lights or siren sounds or that utilize information on the positions of emergency vehicles derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Systems that detect flashing lights and siren sounds are limited in range, cannot "see" or "hear" well around corners, and are highly vulnerable to noise. GPS-based systems are effective in rural areas and small cities, but are often ineffective in large cities because of frequent occultation of GPS satellite signals by large structures. In contrast, the proposed traffic-loop forward prediction system would be relatively invulnerable to noise, would not be subject to significant range limitations, and would function well in large cities -- even in such places as underneath bridges and in tunnels, where GPS-based systems do not work. One proposed system has been characterized as "car-active" because each participating emergency vehicle would be equipped with a computer and a radio transceiver that would communicate with stationary transceivers at the traffic loops. The other proposed system has been characterized as "car-passive" because a passive radio transponder would be installed on the underside of a participating vehicle.

  12. ETS-VI multibeam satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Isao

    1989-10-01

    The fixed and mobile satellite communications systems of the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) are described. The system requirements are outlined along with the system configuration. The ETS-VI multibeam system employs three frequency bands. When used for Ka-band fixed communications, it covers the Japanese main islands with thirteen 0.3-degree-wide spot beam. Four of the beams are active for ETS-VI. When used for S-band mobile communications, five beams cover the area within 200 nautical miles from the Japanese coast. The C-band beam for fixed communications covers the central area of the Japanese main islands with a single beam. The onboard antenna system is described along with the transponders and their associated onboard systems. A discussion of the system technology follows, covering the TDMA transmisssion system, the relay function, rainfall compensation, and the antenna and propagation performance.

  13. Economics of satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one

  14. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  15. Three Types of Memory in Emergency Medical Services Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines memory and distributed cognition involved in the writing practices of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Results from a 16-month study indicate that EMS professionals rely on distributed cognition and three kinds of memory: individual, collaborative, and professional. Distributed cognition and the three types of…

  16. The Multi-Dimensional Nature of Emergency Communications Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staman, E. Michael; Katsouros, Mark; Hach, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Within an incredibly short period--perhaps less than twenty-four months--the need for emergency preparedness has risen to a higher level of urgency than at any other time in the history of academe. Large or small, public or private, higher education institutions are seriously considering the dual problems of notification and communications…

  17. Emergency Operating Procedures Tracking System: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, W.; Ng, K.B.

    1987-06-01

    This interim report describes the work performed in the Emergency Operating Procedure Tracking System project through December 1986. An Executive Summary (Part 1) provides a high level description of the application and project task description; Functional Specifications (Part II) and Detailed Design Specifications (Part III) give a detailed description of the form and function of the Emergency Operating Procedure Tracking System software. Appendices containing a complete compilation of the rules logic, output messages and version of the Kuo Sheng plant emergency operating procedures are used as a source in the full prototype implementation.

  18. Communicating bad news: a model for emergency mental health helpers.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Thomas J; Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the concerns of the messenger/helper who must convey tragic news to individuals and families. It offers a model to be used as a guide to ease the stress on both the deliverer and receiver of bad news. The model uses the mnemonic, PEWTER (Prepare, Evaluate, Warn, Tell, Emotional Response, Regroup), to represent the six components of the communication process. PMID:16944793

  19. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Teaching Communication to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    The new developmental stage of emerging adulthood (age 18-25) offers a framework for thinking about younger millennials in our classrooms. Smith, Christoffersen, Davidson, and Herzog's (2011) profile of emerging adults, based on longitudinal study of over 3200 emerging adults and culminating in 230 in-depth interviews, parallels research of the…

  20. Communications between local health departments and the public during emergencies: the importance of standardized web sites.

    PubMed

    Fallon, L Fleming; Schmalzried, Hans D; Hasan, Nausheen

    2011-01-01

    Of the 2790 local health departments (LHDs) in the United States, Internet homepages were located for 1986. We reviewed each homepage to document the presence of 9 elements deemed to be critical for effective communications during emergency or disaster situations. LHD Web site homepages had a mean of 4.1 (±1.4) elements. Among the findings, this review revealed that 4 of 5 (80.5%) of the LHDs included the agency phone number, half (49.4%) provided links to emergency information, and about 1 in 5 (19.6%) listed an agency e-mail address. Fewer than 1 in 20 (4.3%) of the LHD homepages reviewed allowed visitors to sign up for automatic alerts or notifications. We suggest that these results be used as a starting point in developing a standardized template containing the 9 homepage elements. Such a template complements National Incident Management System protocols and can provide a recognizable source of consistent and reliable information for people during a public health emergency or disaster. PMID:21135649

  1. Electronic Subsystems For Laser Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Catherine; Maruschak, John; Patschke, Robert; Powers, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Electronic subsystems of free-space laser communication system carry digital signals at 650 Mb/s over long distances. Applicable to general optical communications involving transfer of great quantities of data, and transmission and reception of video images of high definition.

  2. Strategic Choices for Data Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Robert G.; Urban, Patricia A.

    Issues and strategies for developing a campus data communications system are discussed. It is suggested that individual microcomputer (MC) workstations will occasionally have a need for (1) access, via a data communications network, to a more powerful processor; (2) specialized software; (3) sophisticated output devices; (4) central data sets; or…

  3. How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon

    2013-01-01

    How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…

  4. Simulating Rain Fade In A Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Nagy, Lawrence A.; Svoboda, James K.

    1994-01-01

    Automated, computer-controlled assembly of electronic equipment developed for use in simulation testing of downlink portion of Earth/satellite microwave digital communication system. Designed to show effects upon performance of system of rain-induced fading in received signal and increases in transmitted power meant to compensate for rain-induced fading. Design of communication system improved iteratively in response to results of simulations, leading eventually to design ensuring clear, uninterrupted transmission of digital signals.

  5. Preliminary Thoughts on Netted Cable Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Frank; Mason, William

    There are five categories of cable communication systems: Conventional Community Antenna Television (CATV), Pay-TV, Subscriber Response Systems, Electronic Information Handling Systems, and Two-Way Audio/Visual Systems. CATV and Pay-TV systems are designed for the one-way transmission of programs, the former providing for better quality…

  6. Modems for emerging digital cellular-mobile radio system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, Kamilo

    1991-01-01

    Digital modem techniques for emerging digital cellular telecommunications-mobile radio system applications are described and analyzed. In particular, theoretical performance, experimental results, principles of operation, and various architectures of pi/4-QPSK (pi/4-shifted coherent or differential QPSK) modems for second-generation US digital cellular radio system applications are presented. The spectral/power efficiency and performance of the pi/4-QPSK modems (American and Japanese digital cellular emerging standards) are studied and briefly compared to GMSK (Gaussian minimum-shift keying) modems (proposed for European DECT and GSM cellular standards). Improved filtering strategies and digital pilot-aided (digital channel sounding) techniques are also considered for pi/4-QPSK and other digital modems. These techniques could significantly improve the performance of digital cellular and other digital land mobile and satellite mobile radio systems. More spectrally efficient modem trends for future cellular/mobile (land mobile) and satellite communication systems applications are also highlighted.

  7. Conformal, Transparent Printed Antenna Developed for Communication and Navigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1999-01-01

    Conformal, transparent printed antennas have advantages over conventional antennas in terms of space reuse and aesthetics. Because of their compactness and thin profile, these antennas can be mounted on video displays for efficient integration in communication systems such as palmtop computers, digital telephones, and flat-panel television displays. As an array of multiple elements, the antenna subsystem may save weight by reusing space (via vertical stacking) on photovoltaic arrays or on Earth-facing sensors. Also, the antenna could go unnoticed on automobile windshields or building windows, enabling satellite uplinks and downlinks or other emerging high-frequency communications.

  8. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.S. ); Sorensen, J.H. )

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  10. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Curtis, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that is being developed under the direction of the US Army Chemical biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS system package. System administrators, database administrators, and general users can use this guide to install, configure, and maintain the FEMIS client software package. This document provides a description of the FEMIS environment; distribution media; data, communications, and electronic mail servers; user workstations; and system management.

  11. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  12. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication. PMID:20574880

  13. Automobile inspection system based on wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Ye, Chunqing

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to research the Automobile Inspection System based on Wireless Communication, and suggests an overall design scheme which uses GPS for speed detection and Bluetooth and GPRS for communication. The communication between PDA and PC was realized by means of GPRS and TCP/IP; and the hardware circuit and software for detection terminal were devised by means of JINOU-3264 Bluetooth Module after analyzing the Bluetooth and its communication protocol. According to the results of debugging test, this system accomplished GPRS based data communication and management as well as the real-time detection on auto safety performance parameters in crash test via PC, whereby the need for mobility and reliability was met and the efficiency and level of detection was improved.

  14. Building an advanced wireless end-to-end emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    Saddik, Basema; El-Masri, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication in healthcare is important and especially critical in emergency situations. In this paper we propose a new comprehensive emergency system which will facilitate the communication process in emergency cases from ambulance dispatch to the patient's arrival and handover in the hospital. The proposed system has been designed to facilitate and computerise all the processes involved in an accident from finding the nearest ambulance through to accessing a patient's online health record which can assist in pre-hospital treatments. The proposed system will also locate the nearest hospital specialising in the patient's condition and will communicate patient identification to the emergency department. The components of the proposed system and the technologies used in building this system are outlined in this paper as well as the challenges expected and proposed solutions to these challenges. PMID:21893922

  15. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  16. Systems Theory and Communication. Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, William G., Jr.

    This annotated bibliography presents annotations of 31 books and journal articles dealing with systems theory and its relation to organizational communication, marketing, information theory, and cybernetics. Materials were published between 1963 and 1992 and are listed alphabetically by author. (RS)

  17. Nutrition Implementation Programs as Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugelsang, Andreas

    1972-01-01

    Description of a model nutrition implementation program as a communication system. Focus is on developing countries where, author maintains, there is an over-emphasis on surveys and collection of data. Problems on program implementation are discussed. (LK)

  18. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  19. Communicating with the Workforce During Emergencies: Developing an Employee Text Messaging Program in a Local Public Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health – Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction. PMID:25355976

  20. NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gary A.; Nischan, Melissa L.; Iyengar, Mrinal A.; Kaushik, Sumanth; Griffin, Michael K.

    2000-11-01

    Atmospheric scattering of ultraviolet light is examined as a mechanism for short-range, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication between nodes in energy-constrained distributed sensor networks. The physics of scattering is discussed and modeled, and progress in the development of solid state sources and detectors is briefly summarized. The performance of a representative NLOS UV communication system is analyzed by means of a simulation model and compared to conventional RF systems in terms of covertness and transceiver power. A test bed for evaluating NLOS UV communication hardware and modulation schemes is described.

  1. Chemical Biological Emergency Management Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-15

    CB-EMIS is designed to provide information and analysis to transit system operators and emergency responders in the event of a chemical attack on a subway system. The software inforporates detector data, video images, train data, meteorological data, and above- and below-ground plume dispersion models, hight of the liquid level.

  2. Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods

    DOEpatents

    Scott; Jeff W. , Pratt; Richard M.

    2006-09-12

    Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods are described. In one aspect, a tag includes a plurality of antennas configured to receive a plurality of first wireless communication signals comprising data from a reader, a plurality of rectifying circuits coupled with. respective individual ones of the antennas and configured to provide rectified signals corresponding to the first wireless communication signals, wherein the rectified signals are combined to produce a composite signal, an adaptive reference circuit configured to vary a reference signal responsive to the composite signal, a comparator coupled with the adaptive reference circuit and the rectifying circuits and configured to compare the composite signal with respect to the reference signal and to output the data responsive to the comparison, and processing circuitry configured to receive the data from the comparator and to process the data.

  3. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.

  4. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  5. When all else fails: 21st century Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium.

    PubMed

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century demand for radio spectrum continues to increase with the explosive growth of wireless devices, but authorities reserve slices of the spectrum for licensed Amateur Radio operators, recognizing their value to the public, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. Blood banking and transfusion medicine are among the specialties that should also recognize the value of Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium, because blood collection, testing, processing, storage, and transfusion are life-saving activities that in modern times can be separated by considerable distance. PMID:24041739

  6. Emergency vehicle alert system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Tom; Harper, Warren; Reed, Bill; Wallace, David

    1993-01-01

    The EVAS provides warning for hearing-impaired motor vehicle drivers that an emergency vehicle is in the local vicinity. Direction and distance to the emergency vehicle are presented visually to the driver. This is accomplished by a special RF transmission/reception system. During this phase the receiver and transmitter from Phase 1 were updated and modified and a directional antenna developed. The system was then field tested with good results. Static and dynamic (moving vehicle) tests were made with the direction determined correctly 98 percent of the time.

  7. Quality and Safety Implications of Emergency Department Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Heather L.; Baumlin, Kevin M.; Hamedani, Azita G.; Cheung, Dickson S.; Edwards, Michael R.; Fuller, Drew C.; Genes, Nicholas; Griffey, Richard T.; Kelly, John J.; McClay, James C.; Nielson, Jeff; Phelan, Michael P.; Shapiro, Jason S.; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne; Pines, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services “meaningful use” incentive programs, in tandem with the boundless additional requirements for detailed reporting of quality metrics, have galvanized hospital efforts to implement hospital-based electronic health records. As such, emergency department information systems (EDISs) are an important and unique component of most hospitals’ electronic health records. System functionality varies greatly and affects physician decisionmaking, clinician workflow, communication, and, ultimately, the overall quality of care and patient safety. This article is a joint effort by members of the Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Section and the Informatics Section of the American College of Emergency Physicians. The aim of this effort is to examine the benefits and potential threats to quality and patient safety that could result from the choice of a particular EDIS, its implementation and optimization, and the hospital’s or physician group’s approach to continuous improvement of the EDIS. Specifically, we explored the following areas of potential EDIS safety concerns: communication failure, wrong order–wrong patient errors, poor data display, and alert fatigue. Case studies are presented that illustrate the potential harm that could befall patients from an inferior EDIS product or suboptimal execution of such a product in the clinical environment. The authors have developed 7 recommendations to improve patient safety with respect to the deployment of EDISs. These include ensuring that emergency providers actively participate in selection of the EDIS product, in the design of processes related to EDIS implementation and optimization, and in the monitoring of the system’s ongoing success or failure. Our recommendations apply to emergency departments using any type of EDIS: custom-developed systems, best-of-breed vendor systems, or

  8. EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM--PHASE III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITHERSPOON, JOHN P.; AND OTHERS

    MULTIPURPOSE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM MODELS WERE DEVELOPED FOR APPLICATION TO HIGHER EDUCATION. THREE MODEL SYSTEMS - INTRASTATE, INTERSTATE, AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES - WERE DESIGNED. THESE SYSTEM DESIGNS WERE ESTABLISHED FOR EASY EVALUATION AND MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY, WITH A MINIMUM OF PRESET AUTOMATIC EQUIPMENT. TWO ALTERNATIVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS…

  9. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Vasel W.

    1971-01-01

    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  10. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  11. Full-duplex optical communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  12. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  13. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or...

  14. A native IP satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner-Puschl, S.; Riedler, W.

    2004-08-01

    ≪ In the framework of ESA's ARTES-5 program the Institute of Applied Systems Technology (Joanneum Research) in cooperation with the Department of Communications and Wave Propagation has developed a novel meshed satellite communications system which is optimised for Internet traffic and applications (L*IP—Local Network Interconnection via Satellite Systems Using the IP Protocol Suite). Both symmetrical and asymmetrical connections are supported. Bandwidth on demand and guaranteed quality of service are key features of the system. A novel multi-frequency TDMA access scheme utilises efficient methods of IP encapsulation. In contrast to other solutions it avoids legacy transport network techniques. While the DVB-RCS standard is based on ATM or MPEG transport cells, the solution of the L*IP system uses variable-length cells which reduces the overhead significantly. A flexible and programmable platform based on Linux machines was chosen to allow the easy implementation and adaptation to different standards. This offers the possibility to apply the system not only to satellite communications, but provides seamless integration with terrestrial fixed broadcast wireless access systems. The platform is also an ideal test-bed for a variety of interactive broadband communications systems. The paper describes the system architecture and the key features of the system.

  15. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  16. Emergency Response Systems for Outdoor Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kurt; Satz, Jay A.

    The Student Conservation Association (SCA) runs backcountry programs in wilderness settings, providing both an educational experience for participants and badly needed conservation work on public lands. As part of its risk management efforts, SCA has developed an emergency response system that ties resources in the field to all the resources of…

  17. Emerging Systems of Systems for Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, D. E.; Fox, P.; Cinquini, L.; Burek, M.

    2007-05-01

    The scientific research community increasingly has complex, difficult questions to ask of its observations and model results - questions that will increasingly span disparate datasets, multiple disciplines, and international boundaries. Our future information systems are going to need to satisfy these growing demands. GEOSS, the Global Earth Observing System of Systems, puts forth a compelling vision in this area. Solid steps in the direction of this vision are already well underway, moving us towards the next generation of global, federated environmental data systems. For example, last year the World Meteorological Organization demonstrated its first prototype for WIS, the WMO Information System. WIS is a step in the direction of GEOSS, providing a federated system that provides aggregation of environmental data and services at national and regional levels, combined with a small number of redundant peer systems that can service large-scale geographical regions. Forming a foundational layer for efforts like WIS, the global community is in the process of building other systems of systems that essentially aggregate and integrate the output of data and modeling efforts, in areas such as weather, climate, space physics, and many others. This encouraging trend towards federation of new and existing systems is driven by scientific needs and underpinned by shared technology, interfaces, protocols, metadata standards, and the world of Grid computing. NCAR, working with many partners, is contributing to a number of projects that are focused upon some of these challenges. In this presentation we will describe a suite of complimentary and interconnected efforts, including the Earth System Grid (climate), the Community Data Portal (and WIS connections), TIGGE (weather), the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory, and related metadata thrusts. The main emphasis here is the pursuit of systems of systems as well as progress towards semantic integration, which will be very

  18. Pacs: Part Of An Integrated Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. G.; Brenton, Bradley C.; Staab, Edward V.; Perry, J. Randolph; Parrish, Denise; Johnston, R. Eugene; Creasy, Jeffrey L.

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Radiology at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) has developed the concept for an integrated picture archiving and communications system. A communications network has been installed, and computer facilities are being interfaced within radiology areas. Other projects include the establishment of a computer simulation model of departmental operations and assembly of a limited picture archival and communication system (PACS) beginning with the CT and NMR Modalities. While this approach may provide immediate clinical benefits, the initial thrust has been towards evaluation of prototype systems with flexibility for modifications. PACS operational parameters are being studied for their acceptability in support of radiology clinical services. The goal is to provide objective operational data as a basis for planning system improvements.

  19. Emergent quasicrystals in strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, Eran; Nussinov, Zohar

    2016-07-01

    Commensurability is of paramount importance in numerous strongly interacting electronic systems. In the fractional quantum Hall effect, a rich cascade of increasingly narrow plateaux appear at larger denominator filling fractions. Rich commensurate structures also emerge, at certain filling fractions, in high temperature superconductors and other electronic systems. A natural question concerns the character of these and other electronic systems at irrational filling fractions. Here we demonstrate that quasicrystalline structures naturally emerge in these situations, and trigger behaviors not typically expected of periodic systems. We first show that irrationally filled quantum Hall systems cross over into quasiperiodically ordered configuration in the thin-torus limit. Using known properties of quasicrystals, we argue that these states are unstable against the effects of disorder, in agreement with the existence of quantum Hall plateaux. We then study analogous physical situations in a system of cold Rydberg atoms placed on an optical lattice. Such an experimental setup is generally disorder free, and can therefore be used to detect the emergent quasicrystals we predict. We discuss similar situations in the Falicov-Kimball model, where known exact results can be used to establish quasicrystalline structures in one and two dimensions. We briefly speculate on possible relations between our theoretical findings and the existence of glassy dynamics and other features of strongly correlated electronic systems.

  20. Emergency Communication: A Unique Work in Progress for Those with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Clear communication in the best of human circumstances is often a work in progress, a goal yet to be attained. Efforts to make it happen in an emergency may be thwarted by the shock and distress of people involved or the need to get to a safe place fast. Unique complications may arise for people with limited, if any, natural speech and who are…

  1. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to…

  2. EMERGING AIR QUALITY MODELING TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To demonstrate applications of the HPCC technologies in air quality models, we organized the Specialty Evening Session 1, "Emerging Air Quality Modeling Technologies for High Performance Computing and Communication Environment" as a part of the Twenty First NATO/CCMS Internationa...

  3. Dynamic Emergence of Situational Willingness to Communicate in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that shows how situational willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language (L2) can dynamically emerge and fluctuate during a conversation situation. From inductive analysis of data from interviews, videotaped conversations, and stimulated recalls, it was found that situational WTC in L2 emerged…

  4. Constructing a Collaborative, Emergent Syllabus of Communicative Performances in a Nursing English Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Joel F.; Reddad, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum development research on nursing English in Taiwan has tended to end at needs analysis, offering little guidance on how to design and implement a course. Our objective was to examine how a course on workplace communication in English for nursing students in Taiwan would emerge in the classroom if teachers and students collaboratively…

  5. Situational Awareness in Mass Emergency: A Behavioral and Linguistic Analysis of Microblogged Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieweg, Sarah Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In times of mass emergency, users of Twitter (a popular microblogging service) often communicate information about the event, some of which contributes to situational awareness. Situational awareness refers to a state of understanding the "big picture" in time- and safety-critical situations. The more situational awareness people have,…

  6. 76 FR 22115 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Register on January 14, 2011, at 75 FR 2700, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY:...

  7. An Emergency Department Intervention to Increase Parent-Child Tobacco Communication: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…

  8. Effects of Gender and Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Katherine W.

    A study examined the role played by gender and communication content in the leadership emergence process in small, task-oriented groups. Six hours of transcribed group interaction from a sample of the group deliberations of 6 mixed-sex groups of college students (n=27) engaged in a 4-month-long decision-making project served as the database for…

  9. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.

    1996-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. 91 This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login, privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment.

  10. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  11. Influence: The Organizer in Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Larry; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines an array of categories that denote kinds of influence variables operative in organizational systems--including structures, relationships, and technology. This allows us to synthesize literature from a variety of system levels and sources by addressing the question: What variables influence a communicator's behavior at any given…

  12. School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flocco, Edward C.

    A comprehensive school planning tool is available from General Learning Corporation and the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon. This School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS) provides a deliverable system of training, implementation strategies and materials and technical…

  13. Name Authority Control in a Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Cathy Ann; Fair, C. James

    1983-01-01

    Examines use of Electronic Office System by Corporate Media Relations, a division of Communication Services, Standard Oil Company, focusing on the problem of name authority control. The media query file, variant entry problems, problems resulting from ineffective name authority control, and developing a control system are covered. Four sources are…

  14. A Systemic Perspective of Communication and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drecksel, Debra

    Communication and sexism are analyzed from a systemic perspective, illustrating how sexism is perpetuated through sexist interaction and symbol systems. Sexism is shown to be a disease in our society, which creates a societal situation with double-binding sex-role symbols which limit our adaptability. A remedy for sexism is suggested which…

  15. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  16. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  17. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  18. Communication Simulations for Power System Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-05-29

    New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-simulators for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The simulation of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-simulator for smart grid applications. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current simulator supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) simulators. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-simulator, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-simulation environment.

  19. RDS-SL VS Communication System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The RDS-SL VS Communication System is a component of the Radiation Detection System for Strategic, Low-Volume Seaports. Its purpose is to acquire real-time data from radiation portal monitors and cameras, record that data in a database, and make it available to system operators and administrators via a web interface. The software system contains two components: a standalone data acquisition and storage component and an ASP.NETweb application that implements the web interface.

  20. Space Station communications and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the existing Space Station communications and tracking system requirements, architecture, and design concepts is provided. Areas which will require innovative solutions to provide cost-effective flight systems are emphasized. Among these are the space-to-space links, the differential global positioning system for determining relative position with free-flying vehicles, multitarget radar, packet/isochronous signal processing, and laser docking systems. In addition, the importance of advanced development, tests, and analyses is summarized.

  1. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  2. NOVANET: communications network for a control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.R.; Severyn, J.R.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1983-05-23

    NOVANET is a control system oriented fiber optic local area network that was designed to meet the unique and often conflicting requirements of the Nova laser control system which will begin operation in 1984. The computers and data acquisition devices that form the distributed control system for a large laser fusion research facility need reliable, high speed communications. Both control/status messages and experimental data must be handled. A subset of NOVANET is currently operating on the two beam Novette laser system.

  3. Health systems organization for emergency care.

    PubMed

    Pedroto, Isabel; Amaro, Pedro; Romãozinho, José Manuel

    2013-10-01

    The increasing number of acute and severe digestive diseases presenting to hospital emergency departments, mainly related with an ageing population, demands an appropriate answer from health systems organization, taking into account the escalating pressure on cost reduction. However, patients expect and deserve a response that is appropriate, effective, efficient and safe. The huge variety of variables which can influence the evolution of such cases warranting intensive monitoring, and the coordination and optimization of a range of human and technical resources involved in the care of these high-risk patients, requires their admission in hospital units with conveniently equipped facilities, as is done for heart attack and stroke patients. Little information of gastroenterology emergencies as a function of structure, processes and outcome is available at the organizational level. Surveys that have been conducted in different countries just assess local treatment outcome and question the organizational structure and existing resources but its impact on the outcome is not clear. Most studies address the problem of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the out-of-hours endoscopy services in the hospital setting. The demands placed on emergency (part of the overall continuum of care) are obvious, as are the needs for the efficient use of resources and processes to improve the quality of care, meaning data must cover the full care cycle. Gastrointestinal emergencies, namely gastrointestinal bleeding, must be incorporated into the overall emergency response as is done for heart attack and stroke. This chapter aims to provide a review of current literature/evidence on organizational health system models towards a better management of gastroenterology emergencies and proposes a research agenda. PMID:24160936

  4. Experimental demonstration of next-generation FSO communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaura, Kamugisha; Omae, Kazunori; Suzuki, Toshiji; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Mutafungwa, Edward; Asatani, Koichi; Murakami, Tadaaki; Takahashi, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2006-10-01

    Free-space optical communication has emerged as a competitive and viable technology for offering high data rates, improved capacity, cost-effective and an easy to deploy solution for providing connectivity between two points which are up to a few kilometers apart. In this paper we present experimental work which demonstrates the practicality of next generation free-space optical (FSO) communication systems suitable for short-haul, high-speed and robust data links. This experimental system is placed between two buildings in the Waseda University campus area for a communication link spanning a distance of 1 km. We outline the design of the optical antenna which uses 1550 nm wavelength and directly coupling a freespace optical beam to a single-mode fiber without the need for OE/EO conversion, to offer a communication link with data rates from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps. The antenna is capable of overcoming most common limitations inherent in FSO communication systems, such as atmospheric induced beam wander and scintillation effects. A high-speed tracking mechanism which utilizes a fine positioning mirror (FPM) capable of tracking and controlling the received beam and focusing/steering most of beam power into the fiber is presented. This FPM is capable of suppressing the frequent power fluctuations caused by beam angle-of-arrival (AOA) variations. This paper presents experimental results of the FSO communication system capable offering stable performance in terms of measured bit-error-rate (BER). Performance results showing increasing the systems data rate from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gpbs are also presented.

  5. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  6. High-reliability teams and situation awareness: implementing a hospital emergency incident command system.

    PubMed

    Autrey, Pamela; Moss, Jacqueline

    2006-02-01

    To enhance disaster preparedness, hospitals are beginning to implement the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System. Although Hospital Emergency Incident Command System provides a template for disaster preparation, its successful implementation requires an understanding of situation awareness (SA) and high-reliability teams. The authors present the concept of SA and how this concept relates to team reliability in dynamic environments. Then strategies for increasing SA and team reliability through education, training, and improved communication systems are discussed. PMID:16528147

  7. A small terminal for satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fuqin; Wu, Dong; Jin, Min

    1994-01-01

    A small portable, low-cost satellite communications terminal system incorporating a modulator/demodulator and convolutional-Viterbi coder/decoder is described. Advances in signal processing and error-correction techniques in combination with higher power and higher frequencies aboard satellites allow for more efficient use of the space segment. This makes it possible to design small economical earth stations. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was chosen to test the system. ACTS, operating at the Ka band incorporates higher power, higher frequency, frequency and spatial reuse using spot beams and polarization.

  8. Emergent behavior in strongly correlated electron systems.

    PubMed

    Pines, David

    2016-09-01

    I describe early work on strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) from the perspective of a theoretical physicist who, while a participant in their reductionist top-down beginnings, is now part of the paradigm change to a bottom-up 'emergent' approach with its focus on using phenomenology to find the organizing principles responsible for their emergent behavior disclosed by experiment-and only then constructing microscopic models that incorporate these. After considering the organizing principles responsible for the emergence of plasmons, quasiparticles, and conventional superconductivity in SCES, I consider their application to three of SCES's sister systems, the helium liquids, nuclei, and the nuclear matter found in neutron stars. I note some recent applications of the random phase approximation and examine briefly the role that paradigm change is playing in two central problems in our field: understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials; and finding the mechanism for the unconventional superconductivity found in heavy electron, organic, cuprate, and iron-based materials. PMID:27484183

  9. Evolution of a radio communication relay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Hart, Abraham; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Neff, Joseph; Roth, Leif

    2013-05-01

    Providing long-distance non-line-of-sight control for unmanned ground robots has long been recognized as a problem, considering the nature of the required high-bandwidth radio links. In the early 2000s, the DARPA Mobile Autonomous Robot Software (MARS) program funded the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SSC) Pacific to demonstrate a capability for autonomous mobile communication relaying on a number of Pioneer laboratory robots. This effort also resulted in the development of ad hoc networking radios and software that were later leveraged in the development of a more practical and logistically simpler system, the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR). Funded by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise and internally by SSC Pacific, several generations of ADCR systems introduced increasingly more capable hardware and software for automatic maintenance of communication links through deployment of static relay nodes from mobile robots. This capability was finally tapped in 2010 to fulfill an urgent need from theater. 243 kits of ruggedized, robot-deployable communication relays were produced and sent to Afghanistan to extend the range of EOD and tactical ground robots in 2012. This paper provides a summary of the evolution of the radio relay technology at SSC Pacific, and then focuses on the latest two stages, the Manually-Deployed Communication Relays and the latest effort to automate the deployment of these ruggedized and fielded relay nodes.

  10. System for synchronizing synthesizers of communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enriquez, E. A. (Inventor); Gookin, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Frequency synthesizers at first and second stations that communicate with each other via a transmission link having a constant propagation delay time are started and synchronized by transmitting a tone from the first station to the second station via the link. The frequencies derived from the synthesizer at the second station are received at the first station and are combined with the frequencies derived from the synthesizer at the first station to derive a constant beat frequency as the two synthesizers are stepped.

  11. Opperational Systems for Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Baskett, R

    2003-11-10

    Operational systems predict the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials for real-time emergency response, pre-event planning, and post-incident assessment. Such systems provide federal, state, and local agencies, emergency planners and responders, public health officials, military personnel, and other users with critical information on which to base life-and-death decisions on safe zones for siting of incident command posts, sheltering-in-place or evacuation advisories, the need for protective equipment, and the utilization of hospital and health care resources. A range of operational modeling capabilities is required to support different types of release events, distance scales, and response times. Fast-response deployable models are used to perform hazard assessments and initial response functions, and can serve as a backup when connections to a reach-back center are not available. Higher-fidelity three-dimensional dispersion models, coupled to real-time observational data and numerical weather prediction model output, are used for real-time response and support expert quality-assured predictions and refined assessments. Computational fluid dynamics models, which explicitly resolve urban structures, are used for high fidelity applications including vulnerability analyses and planning studies. This paper will briefly discuss the types and capabilities of models used or under development for emergency response systems, customer products, supporting data, and a few representative examples of operational systems. Some selected research priorities are summarized in the final sections.

  12. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.

    1997-11-21

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links.

  13. Wireless communication system via nanoscale plasmonic antennas.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Juan M; Nesbitt, Nathan T; Calm, Yitzi M; Rose, Aaron H; D'Imperio, Luke; Yang, Chaobin; Naughton, Jeffrey R; Burns, Michael J; Kempa, Krzysztof; Naughton, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Present on-chip optical communication technology uses near-infrared light, but visible wavelengths would allow system miniaturization and higher energy confinement. Towards this end, we report a nanoscale wireless communication system that operates at visible wavelengths via in-plane information transmission. Here, plasmonic antenna radiation mediates a three-step conversion process (surface plasmon → photon → surface plasmon) with in-plane efficiency (plasmon → plasmon) of 38% for antenna separation 4λ0 (with λ0 the free-space excitation wavelength). Information transmission is demonstrated at bandwidths in the Hz and MHz ranges. This work opens the possibility of optical conveyance of information using plasmonic antennas for on-chip communication technology. PMID:27555451

  14. Domestic satellite communications systems - Background and projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargellini, P. L.

    Planned and existing national and international communications satellites are reviewed, along with comparative costs for leasing or owning a satellite and the basic capabilities of communications spacecraft. Eleven different satellite communications systems existed in 1982, including Intelsat, Marisat/Inmarsat, and Intersputnik as the international segments, and the Molniya, Telesat, Palapa, Westar, Satcom, Comstar, Amersat, and the SBS national systems. Seven of the twenty countries leasing Intelsat services are planning their own satellites. Leasing permits full capabilities withno development costs and ensures the lessor of full use of the satellite capacities. Developing countries can then gain hands-on experience with space technologies. Future demands are discussed, noting the broadening of the available bandwidths, better orbit utilization, and increases in transponder numbers to handle increased loads in future spacecraft.

  15. Wireless communication system via nanoscale plasmonic antennas

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Juan M.; Nesbitt, Nathan T.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Rose, Aaron H.; D’Imperio, Luke; Yang, Chaobin; Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Burns, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Naughton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Present on-chip optical communication technology uses near-infrared light, but visible wavelengths would allow system miniaturization and higher energy confinement. Towards this end, we report a nanoscale wireless communication system that operates at visible wavelengths via in-plane information transmission. Here, plasmonic antenna radiation mediates a three-step conversion process (surface plasmon → photon → surface plasmon) with in-plane efficiency (plasmon → plasmon) of 38% for antenna separation 4λ0 (with λ0 the free-space excitation wavelength). Information transmission is demonstrated at bandwidths in the Hz and MHz ranges. This work opens the possibility of optical conveyance of information using plasmonic antennas for on-chip communication technology. PMID:27555451

  16. Integrated Formation Optical Communication and Estimation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Kuhnert, Andreas; Kovalik, Joseph; Hadaegh, Fred; Shaddock, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    An architecture has been designed that integrates formation estimation methodologies, precision formation sensing, and high-bandwidth formation communication into a robust, strap-on system that meets knowledge and communication requirements for the majority of planned, precision formation missions. Specifically, the integrated system supports (a) sub-millimeter metrology, (b) multiple greater than 10 Mbps communication channels over a large, 10 deg field-of-view (FOV), and (c) generalized formation estimation methodologies. The sensing sub-system consists of several absolute, metrology gauges with up to 0.1 mm precision that use amplitude-modulated lasers and a LISA-heritage phase meter. Since amplitude modulation is used, inexpensive and robust diode lasers may be used instead of complex, frequency-stabilized lasers such as for nanometer-level metrology. The metrology subsystem laser transceivers consist of a laser diode, collecting optics, and an avalanche photo diode (APD) for detecting incoming laser signals. The APD is necessary since received power is small due to the large (for optical applications) FOV. The phase meter determines the phase of the incoming amplitude modulations as measured by the APD. This phase is equivalent to time-of-flight and, therefore, distance. By placing three laser transceivers on each spacecraft, 18 clock-offset-corrupted distances are calculated. These measurements are communicated and averaged to obtain nine correct distances between the transceivers. From these correct distances, the range and bearing between spacecraft and their relative attitude are determined. Next, communication is integrated on the laser carrier through spectral separation. Metrology amplitude modulations are limited to the 45-50 MHz band, leaving 0-45 MHz for communication. Through careful design of coding scheme, error correction, and filters, six independent 10 Mbps receive channels are possible. Hence, a spacecraft can simultaneously broadcast at 10

  17. A systems approach to animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Hauber, Mark E.; Hoke, Kim L.

    2016-01-01

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication—an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex. PMID:26936240

  18. Electronics systems test laboratory testing of shuttle communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. J.; Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    Shuttle communications and tracking systems space to space and space to ground compatibility and performance evaluations are conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL). This evaluation is accomplished through systems verification/certification tests using orbiter communications hardware in conjunction with other shuttle communications and tracking external elements to evaluate end to end system compatibility and to verify/certify that overall system performance meets program requirements before manned flight usage. In this role, the ESTL serves as a multielement major ground test facility. The ESTL capability and program concept are discussed. The system test philosophy for the complex communications channels is described in terms of the major phases. Results of space to space and space to ground systems tests are presented. Several examples of the ESTL's unique capabilities to locate and help resolve potential problems are discussed in detail.

  19. Parallel processing spacecraft communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An uplink controlling assembly speeds data processing using a special parallel codeblock technique. A correct start sequence initiates processing of a frame. Two possible start sequences can be used; and the one which is used determines whether data polarity is inverted or non-inverted. Processing continues until uncorrectable errors are found. The frame ends by intentionally sending a block with an uncorrectable error. Each of the codeblocks in the frame has a channel ID. Each channel ID can be separately processed in parallel. This obviates the problem of waiting for error correction processing. If that channel number is zero, however, it indicates that the frame of data represents a critical command only. That data is handled in a special way, independent of the software. Otherwise, the processed data further handled using special double buffering techniques to avoid problems from overrun. When overrun does occur, the system takes action to lose only the oldest data.

  20. A packet switched communications system for GRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Shabu; Yang, Wen-Hsing; Vadlamudi, Rani; Valenti, Joseph

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the packet switched Instrumenters Communication System (ICS) that was developed for the Command Management Facility at GSFC to support the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The GRO ICS serves as a vital science data acquisition link to the GRO scientists to initiate commands for their spacecraft instruments. The system is ready to send and receive messages at any time, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. The system is based on X.25 and the International Standard Organization's (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model and has client and server components. The components of the GRO ICS are discussed along with how the Communications Subsystem for Interconnection (CSFI) and Network Control Program Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software are used in the system.

  1. A packet switched communications system for GRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, Shabu; Yang, Wen-Hsing; Vadlamudi, Rani; Valenti, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the packet switched Instrumenters Communication System (ICS) that was developed for the Command Management Facility at GSFC to support the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The GRO ICS serves as a vital science data acquisition link to the GRO scientists to initiate commands for their spacecraft instruments. The system is ready to send and receive messages at any time, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. The system is based on X.25 and the International Standard Organization's (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model and has client and server components. The components of the GRO ICS are discussed along with how the Communications Subsystem for Interconnection (CSFI) and Network Control Program Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software are used in the system.

  2. National Security/Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery Communications Via ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasqualino, Christopher R.; Abbe, Brian S.; Dixon, Frank

    1996-01-01

    During the period from early 1993 through 1994, the U.S. National Communication System, a government agency, sponsored the development and execution of several fixed and mobile experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)...The results of these experiments are described in this paper.

  3. MMIC technology for advanced space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, A. N.; Connolly, D. J.; Anzic, G.

    1984-01-01

    The current NASA program for 20 and 30 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is reviewed. The advantages of MMIC are discussed. Millimeter wavelength MMIC applications and technology for communications systems are discussed. Passive and active MMIC compatible components for millimeter wavelength applications are investigated. The cost of a millimeter wavelength MMIC's is projected.

  4. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111...

  5. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1111...

  7. Communications and Tracking Distributed Systems Evolution Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William

    1990-01-01

    The Communications and Tracking (C & T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts are used to derive the results to date. A description of the C & T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the hooks and scars currently identified to support future growth.

  8. Strategic Choices for Data Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Robert G.; Urban, Patricia A.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in determining how to develop a data communications system at colleges and universities are discussed including; technical requirements; cost; implications for coordination and (de)centralization of hardware/software; deciding when to create a data network; data security, information integrity, and organizational development. (Author/MLW)

  9. DCS/FTS Commercial Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, T.; Rosner, R.; Pearsall, C.

    In order to control the rising costs of telephonic services and meeting the increasing demand for wideband video and data services within U.S. Federal Government agencies, the Defense Communications Agency and the General Services Administration have begun the implementation of a leased Commercial Satellite Communications System. Service volume demand, commonality of service requirements, and common geographic communities of interest facilitate economies of scale in the course of meeting DOD and other Federal agencies' objectives. The service, which incorporates the Federal Telecommunications Service and is therefore designated DCS/FTS, is presently studied with respect to military and national objectives.

  10. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises.

  11. EM Talk: communication skills training for emergency medicine patients with serious illness.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Emlet, Lillian L; Kuntz, Joanne; Shreves, Ashley; Zimny, Erin; Gang, Maureen; Schaulis, Monique; Schmidt, Scott; Isaacs, Eric; Arnold, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The emergency department visit for a patient with serious illness represents a sentinel event, signalling a change in the illness trajectory. By better understanding patient and family wishes, emergency physicians can reinforce advance care plans and ensure the hospital care provided matches the patient's values. Despite their importance in care at the end of life, emergency physicians have received little training on how to talk to seriously ill patients and their families about goals of care. To expand communication skills training to emergency medicine, we developed a programme to give emergency medicine physicians the ability to empathically deliver serious news and to talk about goals of care. We have built on lessons from prior studies to design an intervention employing the most effective pedagogical techniques, including the use of simulated patients/families, role-playing and small group learning with constructive feedback from master clinicians. Here, we describe our evidence-based communication skills training course EM Talk using simulation, reflective feedback and deliberate practice. PMID:26762163

  12. Energy efficiency in wireless communication systems

    DOEpatents

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Palmer, Joseph McRae

    2012-12-11

    Wireless communication systems and methods utilize one or more remote terminals, one or more base terminals, and a communication channel between the remote terminal(s) and base terminal(s). The remote terminal applies a direct sequence spreading code to a data signal at a spreading factor to provide a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal. The DSSS signal is transmitted over the communication channel to the base terminal which can be configured to despread the received DSSS signal by a spreading factor matching the spreading factor utilized to spread the data signal. The remote terminal and base terminal can dynamically vary the matching spreading factors to adjust the data rate based on an estimation of operating quality over time between the remote terminal and base terminal such that the amount of data being transmitted is substantially maximized while providing a specified quality of service.

  13. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  14. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and the iPad™ for Communication of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…

  15. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: description and design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.P.; Chapman, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  16. Low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications. Description and design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.P.; Chapman, P.D.; Lewison, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    A low-power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp-hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous no-sun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  17. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: Description and design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Chapman, P. D.; Lewison, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  18. Emergent behavior in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, David

    2016-09-01

    I describe early work on strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) from the perspective of a theoretical physicist who, while a participant in their reductionist top-down beginnings, is now part of the paradigm change to a bottom-up ‘emergent’ approach with its focus on using phenomenology to find the organizing principles responsible for their emergent behavior disclosed by experiment—and only then constructing microscopic models that incorporate these. After considering the organizing principles responsible for the emergence of plasmons, quasiparticles, and conventional superconductivity in SCES, I consider their application to three of SCES’s sister systems, the helium liquids, nuclei, and the nuclear matter found in neutron stars. I note some recent applications of the random phase approximation and examine briefly the role that paradigm change is playing in two central problems in our field: understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials; and finding the mechanism for the unconventional superconductivity found in heavy electron, organic, cuprate, and iron-based materials.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site communications system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. Communication and tracking system evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William

    1990-01-01

    The communications and tracking (C&T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts were used in the analysis to derive the results to date. A description of the C&T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the 'hooks and scars' currently identified to support the future growth. Technology transparency and impact of growth on other systems are also addressed.

  1. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Martin, T.J.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Stoops, L.R.; Tzemos, S.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  2. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings

    PubMed Central

    Schiavo, Renata; Leung, May May; Brown, Mason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention’s impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. Conclusions The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the

  3. My revolutionary adventures in the development of modern emergency medical systems in our country.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe my exciting adventures in the development of the emergency medical systems in our country. After my training in plastic surgery at the University of Virginia, I accepted the position of Acting Director of the Emergency Room at the University of Virginia Health Science Center. Working with gifted physicians, basic scientists, nurses, and students, we coordinated the development of an emergency medical system that has been replicated throughout our country. Our system included the following: State legislation for the sexual assault victim, public access by the 9-1-1 telephone number, training of rescue squads, emergency radio communication system, trauma centers, poison control centers, emergency medical plan for the President of the United States, national telecommunications system for the deaf, and the first air medical transportation system in Virginia. PMID:18226870

  4. Emerging Security Mechanisms for Medical Cyber Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Ovunc; Soyata, Tolga; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2016-01-01

    The following decade will witness a surge in remote health-monitoring systems that are based on body-worn monitoring devices. These Medical Cyber Physical Systems (MCPS) will be capable of transmitting the acquired data to a private or public cloud for storage and processing. Machine learning algorithms running in the cloud and processing this data can provide decision support to healthcare professionals. There is no doubt that the security and privacy of the medical data is one of the most important concerns in designing an MCPS. In this paper, we depict the general architecture of an MCPS consisting of four layers: data acquisition, data aggregation, cloud processing, and action. Due to the differences in hardware and communication capabilities of each layer, different encryption schemes must be used to guarantee data privacy within that layer. We survey conventional and emerging encryption schemes based on their ability to provide secure storage, data sharing, and secure computation. Our detailed experimental evaluation of each scheme shows that while the emerging encryption schemes enable exciting new features such as secure sharing and secure computation, they introduce several orders-of-magnitude computational and storage overhead. We conclude our paper by outlining future research directions to improve the usability of the emerging encryption schemes in an MCPS. PMID:26812732

  5. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, II, Louis Peter; Cooper, John F.

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  6. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  7. Security aspects of RFID communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîndar, Valericǎ; Popescu, Mircea; Bǎrtuşicǎ, Rǎzvan; Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of basic technical elements and security risks of RFID communication systems and to analyze the possible threats arising from the use of RFID systems. A number of measurements are performed on a communication system including RFID transponder and the tag reader, and it has been determined that the uplink signal level is 62 dB larger than the average value of the noise at the distance of 1m from the tag, therefore the shielding effectiveness has to exceed this threshold. Next, the card has been covered with several shielding materials and measurements were carried, under similar conditions to test the recovery of compromising signals. A very simple protection measure to prevent unauthorized reading of the data stored on the card has been proposed, and some electromagnetic shielding materials have been proposed and tested.

  8. Automatic gisting systems for voice communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, A. T.

    It is pointed out that the detection of a limited number of key words in voice communications, combined with nonlinguistic cues and situation knowledge, holds out the promise for automatic extraction of the general content or gist of the transmitted messages. A systems-level description of an end-to-end automatic gisting system for screening voice communications is presented. The emphasis is on identifying information which can usefully supplement the detected key words in the gisting process. Principal subsystems are identified, and their functions are discussed in the context of an overall system architecture. The example of automatic determination of aircraft takeoffs and landings at an airport, based on monitoring conversations between pilots and air traffic controllers, is used for illustrative purposes.

  9. 47 CFR 95.143 - Managing a GMRS system in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing a GMRS system in an emergency. 95.143 Section 95.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.143 Managing a GMRS system in...

  10. 47 CFR 95.143 - Managing a GMRS system in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing a GMRS system in an emergency. 95.143 Section 95.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.143 Managing a GMRS system in...

  11. 47 CFR 95.143 - Managing a GMRS system in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing a GMRS system in an emergency. 95.143 Section 95.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.143 Managing a GMRS system in...

  12. 47 CFR 95.143 - Managing a GMRS system in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing a GMRS system in an emergency. 95.143 Section 95.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.143 Managing a GMRS system in...

  13. 47 CFR 95.143 - Managing a GMRS system in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing a GMRS system in an emergency. 95.143 Section 95.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.143 Managing a GMRS system in...

  14. Communications and control for electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Goettsche, A.; Niebur, D.; Friend, H.; Johnston, A.

    1991-01-01

    The first section of the report describes the AbNET system, a hardware and software communications system designed for distribution automation (it can also find application in substation monitoring and control). The topology of the power system fixes the topology of the communications network, which can therefore be expected to include a larger number of branch points, tap points, and interconnections. These features make this communications network unlike any other. The network operating software has to solve the problem of communicating to all the nodes of a very complex network in as reliable a way as possible even if the network is damaged, and it has to do so with minimum transmission delays and at minimum cost. The design of the operating protocols is described within the framework of the seven-layer Open System Interconnection hierarchy of the International Standards Organization. Section 2 of the report describes the development and testing of a high voltage sensor based on an electro-optic polymer. The theory of operation is reviewed. Bulk fabrication of the polymer is discussed, as well as results of testing of the electro-optic coefficient of the material. Fabrication of a complete prototype sensor suitable for use in the range 1-20 kV is described. The electro-optic polymer is shown to be an important material for fiber optic sensing applications. Appendix A is theoretical support for this work. The third section of the report presents the application of an artificial neural network, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, for the classification of power system states. This classifier maps vectors of an N-dimensional space to a 2-dimensional neural net in a nonlinear way preserving the topological order of the input vectors. These mappings are studied using a nonlinear power system model.

  15. Health systems, communicable diseases and integration.

    PubMed

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Atun, Rifat; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    The HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria pandemics pose substantial challenges globally and to health systems in the countries they affect. This demands an institutional approach that can integrate disease control programmes within health and social care systems. Whilst integration is intuitively appealing, evidence of its benefits remains uncertain and evaluation is beset by lack of a common understanding of what it involves. The aim of this paper is to better define integration in health systems relevant to communicable disease control. We conducted a critical review of published literature on concepts, definitions, and analytical and methodological approaches to integration as applied to health system responses to communicable disease. We found that integration is understood and pursued in many ways in different health systems. We identified a variety of typologies that relate to three fundamental questions associated with integration: (1) why is integration a goal (that is, what are the driving forces for integration); (2) what structures and/or functions at different levels of health system are affected by integration (or the lack of); and (3) how does integration influence interactions between health system components or stakeholders. The frameworks identified were evaluated in terms of these questions, as well as the extent to which they took account of health system characteristics, the wider contextual environment in which health systems sit, and the roles of key stakeholders. We did not find any one framework that explicitly addressed all of these three questions and therefore propose an analytical framework to help address these questions, building upon existing frameworks and extending our conceptualization of the 'how' of integration to identify a continuum of interactions that extends from no interactions, to partial integration that includes linkage and coordination, and ultimately to integration. We hope that our framework may provide a basis for

  16. Proceedings of the Military Communications System Control Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S.; Heller, J.

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Perspective on Communications System Control, Navy Force Coordination and the Requirements for Communications Network Management, On the Functions of a Network Management Agency, Improved Control and Technical Management of DCS Theater Assets Under Crisis and Wartime Conditions, Survivability Performance of MX Communication System, System Control for the Tactical/Strategic Interface, Tactical Circuit-Switched Network Control, Systems Control in Tactical Digital Communications Systems - a Study in Distributed Control, the NATO III Satellite Communications Control System, Network Control in NATO Integrated Communications Systems - Stage I, Evolution of Control in the Defense Satellite Communication System, System Control Considerations for Next Generation DCS Switches, Evolving Approaches to System control in the Defense Communications Systems(DCS), and Network control and the CRM Make Possible Automated Digital Patching.

  17. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose

    2015-01-01

    Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries. Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search. PMID:26834976

  18. Space shuttle slidewire emergency egress system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, G. B.; Stephan, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The slidewire emergency egress system is designed to provide a fast and safe egress means for the shuttle flight crew, passengers, and ground closeout crew in the event of imminent danger while the space vehicle is still on the launch pad. Egress is from the 195 ft. level of the fixed service structure (FSS) to a ground landing area 1200 ft. away from the launch site. The slidewire design is such that the flight crew and passengers can be evacuated to a safe area within two minutes with winds as high as 34 knots from any direction.

  19. Orbiter Interface Unit and Early Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobbs, Ronald M.; Cooke, Michael P.; Cox, Gary L.; Ellenberger, Richard; Fink, Patrick W.; Haynes, Dena S.; Hyams, Buddy; Ling, Robert Y.; Neighbors, Helen M.; Phan, Chau T.; Prendergast, Kelly M.; Siekierski, James D.; Wade, Randall S.; Weisskopf, George A.; Yim, Hester J.; Adkins, Antha A.; Carl, James R..; Loh, Y. C.; Roberts, Charles; Steele, Douglas J.; DeSilva, Buveneka Kanishka; Killenb, Harold B.; Williams, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Orbiter Interface Unit (OIU) and the Early Communication System (ECOMM), which are systems of electronic hardware and software that serve as the primary communication links for the International Space Station (ISS). When a space shuttle is at or near the ISS during assembly and resupply missions, the OIU sends groundor crew-initiated commands from the space shuttle to the ISS and relays telemetry from the ISS to the space shuttle s payload data systems. The shuttle then forwards the telemetry to the ground. In the absence of a space shuttle, the ECOMM handles communications between the ISS and Johnson Space Center via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Innovative features described in the report include (1) a "smart data-buffering algorithm that helps to preserve synchronization (and thereby minimize loss) of telemetric data between the OIU and the space-shuttle payload data interleaver; (2) an ECOMM antenna-autotracking algorithm that selects whichever of two phased-array antennas gives the best TDRSS signal and electronically steers that antenna to track the TDRSS source; and (3) an ECOMM radiation-latchup controller, which detects an abrupt increase in current indicative of radiation-induced latchup and temporarily turns off power to clear the latchup, restoring power after the charge dissipates.

  20. Integrated communications and optical navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J.; Pajer, G.; Paluszek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Integrated Communications and Optical Navigation System (ICONS) is a flexible navigation system for spacecraft that does not require global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) that can accept any combination of range, range-rate, planet chord width, landmark, and angle measurements using any celestial object. Both absolute and relative orbit determination is supported. The UKF employs a full nonlinear dynamical model of the orbit including gravity models and disturbance models. The ICONS package also includes attitude determination algorithms using the UKF algorithm with the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The IMU is used as the dynamical base for the attitude determination algorithms. This makes the sensor a more capable plug-in replacement for a star tracker, thus reducing the integration and test cost of adding this sensor to a spacecraft. Recent additions include an integrated optical communications system which adds communications, and integrated range and range rate measurement and timing. The paper includes test results from trajectories based on the NASA New Horizons spacecraft.

  1. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, C.R. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure.

  2. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  3. Multi-access laser communications transceiver system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Monte (Inventor); Lokerson, Donald C. (Inventor); Fitzmaurice, Michael W. (Inventor); Meyer, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite system for optical communications such as a multi-access laser transceiver system. Up to six low Earth orbiting satellites send satellite data to a geosynchronous satellite. The data is relayed to a ground station at the Earth's surface. The earth pointing geosynchronous satellite terminal has no gimbal but has a separate tracking mechanism for tracking each low Earth orbiting satellite. The tracking mechanism has a ring assembly rotatable about an axis coaxial with the axis of the field of view of the geosynchronous satellite and a pivotable arm mounted for pivotal movement on the ring assembly. An optical pickup mechanism at the end of each arm is positioned for optical communication with one of the orbiting satellites by rotation of the ring.

  4. Radio propagation for space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the most recent information on the effects of the earth's atmosphere on space communications systems. Models and techniques used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission are discussed. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of precipitation on the earth-space path, including rain attenuation, and rain and ice-particle depolarization. Sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence are also discussed. The impact of the various propagation factors on communications system design criteria is presented. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contributions, modulation and polarization factors, channel crosstalk, error-rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  5. The 'INMARSAT' international maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atserov, Iu. S.

    1982-12-01

    The history, design, operating characteristics, achievements, and prospects of INMARSAT are discussed. More than 1300 ships are presently equipped to operate within the system, and this number is expected to rise to about 5000 by 1986. The principle of operation involves single coordinating earth stations allocating telephone channels in their zones between other earth stations. The messages reach a common signalling channel with which all ship stations keep in touch. The ship stations are connected to the international telex network. The INMARSAT system enables ships in the automated mode of operation to establish telephone and telegraph comunication with any subscriber on the shore of any country. The quality of the communication is practically independent of the distance between ship and shore at any time of year and under any meteorological conditions. Estimates indicate that the use of satellite communication with ships reduces losses from accidents by 10 percent per year.

  6. Developing an active emergency medical service system based on WiMAX technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Shing-Han; Cheng, Kai-An; Lu, Wen-Hui; Lin, Te-Chang

    2012-10-01

    The population structure has changed with the aging of population. In the present, elders account for 10.63% of the domestic population and the percentage is still gradually climbing. In other words, the demand for emergency services among elders in home environment is expected to grow in the future. In order to improve the efficiency and quality of emergency care, information technology should be effectively utilized to integrate medical systems and facilities, strengthen human-centered operation designs, and maximize the overall performance. The improvement in the quality and survival rate of emergency care is an important basis for better life and health of all people. Through integrated application of medical information systems and information communication technology, this study proposes a WiMAX-based emergency care system addressing the public demands for convenience, speed, safety, and human-centered operation of emergency care. This system consists of a healthcare service center, emergency medical service hospitals, and emergency ambulances. Using the wireless transmission capability of WiMAX, patients' physiological data can be transmitted from medical measurement facilities to the emergency room and emergency room doctors can provide immediate online instructions on emergency treatment via video and audio transmission. WiMAX technology enables the establishment of active emergency medical services. PMID:22109672

  7. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard. PMID:18272277

  8. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  9. Risk management: application of early warning systems to emergency plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C.; Sterlacchini, S.; Pasuto, A.; de Amicis, M.

    2009-04-01

    Warning System and emergency plans are two fundamental elements of risk management and governance, but unfortunately, most of the times, they are developed independently one from the other, as sequential steps not necessary linked. The main goal of this research is to develop a methodology for applying Early Warning Systems - Community Based to the emergency plan using the results of social surveys and quantitative risk assessment, taking into account the administrative structure and the planning system of the study area, as well as the legislative obligations of each entity involved in the risk governance and emergency management. Using a integrative scientific and social approach to natural hazards the research aim to contribute to fill the gap between scientists, policy makers, stakeholders and community. Initially applied in Comunità Montana Valtellina di Tirano, Italy, the methodology involves the application of two comprehensive surveys. The first is addressed to stakeholders (including policy makers, emergency managers, emergency volunteers, consultants and scientists) in order to determine their needs, points of view, concerns and constraints. The second survey is addressed specifically to local community to assess risk perception, awareness, needs, capacity and level of trust towards stakeholders, besides asking for their willingness to participate in future risk communication activities. The Early Warning System developed includes all the stages of the early warning process (hazard evaluation and forecasting; warning and dissemination and public response) and would be based on a multidisciplinary partnership that takes into account the different actors involved in the risk management in order to accomplish a more reliable and credible result, including an emergency plan specifically designed for each study area. After evaluating the results of the surveys, information and education campaigns will be developed with the objective of reducing vulnerability

  10. 46 CFR 184.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.602 Internal communications systems. (a) A vessel equipped with pilothouse control must have... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 184.602 Section...

  11. Tackling Communication Barriers Between Long-Term Care Facility and Emergency Department Transfers to Improve Medication Safety in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Callinan, Stephanie M; Brandt, Nicole J

    2015-07-01

    In 2013, the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine created geriatric emergency department guidelines, making recommendations for staffing/administration, follow up and transitions of care, education, quality improvement, equipment/supplies, and other policies, procedures, and protocols to be implemented. Awareness of these guidelines, as well as communication barriers, can help improve the delivery of care for older adults during transitions in care, particularly regarding medication safety. PMID:26126025

  12. Organizational Culture and the Design of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems: Issues for Organizational Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Kenneth L.; And Others

    The study of computer mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is necessary for a complete examination and explanation of organizational culture and communication. Research has shown that the effects of CMC systems have been both positive and negative. Positively, they have helped to augment oral communication. Negatively, they have…

  13. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Manually Controlled Emergency Systems Having a Storage Battery or a Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Generator...

  14. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Manually Controlled Emergency Systems Having a Storage Battery or a Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Generator...

  15. 46 CFR 169.829 - Emergency lighting and power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems. 169.829 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.829 Emergency lighting and power systems. (a) Where fitted, the master shall have the emergency lighting and power systems operated...

  16. 46 CFR 169.829 - Emergency lighting and power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems. 169.829 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.829 Emergency lighting and power systems. (a) Where fitted, the master shall have the emergency lighting and power systems operated...

  17. 46 CFR 169.829 - Emergency lighting and power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems. 169.829 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.829 Emergency lighting and power systems. (a) Where fitted, the master shall have the emergency lighting and power systems operated...

  18. 46 CFR 169.829 - Emergency lighting and power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems. 169.829 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.829 Emergency lighting and power systems. (a) Where fitted, the master shall have the emergency lighting and power systems operated...

  19. 46 CFR 169.829 - Emergency lighting and power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems. 169.829 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.829 Emergency lighting and power systems. (a) Where fitted, the master shall have the emergency lighting and power systems operated...

  20. Multi-frequency communication system and method

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-06-01

    A multi-frequency RFID remote communication system is provided that includes a plurality of RFID tags configured to receive a first signal and to return a second signal, the second signal having a first frequency component and a second frequency component, the second frequency component including data unique to each remote RFID tag. The system further includes a reader configured to transmit an interrogation signal and to receive remote signals from the tags. A first signal processor, preferably a mixer, removes an intermediate frequency component from the received signal, and a second processor, preferably a second mixer, analyzes the IF frequency component to output data that is unique to each remote tag.

  1. Evolution of the Defense Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, W. T.

    Concepts for the next generation of the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) are outlined. The approach is to improve the 7/8 GHz capability rather than evolve directly to extremely high frequency (EHF) (either 30/20 or 44/20 GHz). This approach eases transition problems, extends the useful life of the super high frequency (SHF) ground segment, and simultaneously improves system endurance and connectivity. The basic approach is to introduce dual polarization and extend frequency coverage of military terminals to the commercial Ku band.

  2. Pilot-Tone System for Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    In mobile communication system called tone-calibrated technique, pilot tone provides phase- and amplitude-calibration reference to enable coherent demodulation of signal at receiver despite fading. Signal received by or from mobile terminal faded due to motion of terminal and propagation of signal along multiple paths. Fading introduces random amplitude modulation and phase modulation with bandwidth of twice Doppler frequency shift. Degrading effects of multipath fading reduced. Tonecalibrated technique for use with phase-modulated data or telephony systems using Manchester digital pulse-code modulation.

  3. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide, version 1.4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication, data distribution, and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment. The UNIX server provides an Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) services, ARC/INFO GIS (optional) capabilities, and basic file management services. PNNL developed utilities that reside on the server include the Notification Service, the Command Service that executes the evacuation model, and AutoRecovery. To operate FEMIS, the Application Software must have access to a site specific FEMIS emergency management database. Data that pertains to an individual EOC`s jurisdiction is stored on the EOC`s local server. Information that needs to be accessible to all EOCs is automatically distributed by the FEMIS

  4. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  7. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform

  8. Mine safety: Communication and position finding systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning monitoring, miner locating, and communication systems and equipment for mine and emergency operation. Safety standards, regulations, mine ventilation, warning systems, rescue training and facilities, and mine disaster management are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Mine safety: Communication and position finding systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning monitoring, miner locating, and communication systems and equipment for mine and emergency operation. Safety standards, regulations, mine ventilation, warning systems, rescue training and facilities, and mine disaster management are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Yuichi; Choh, Toshio; Yamazaki, Ichiro; Kosaka, Katsuhiko; Iguchi, Masaaki; Nakajima, Isao

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electro-cardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electro-cardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.

  11. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Y; Choh, T; Yamazaki, I; Kosaka, K; Iguchi, M; Nakajima, I

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20 GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electrocardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electrocardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20 GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz. PMID:11542833

  12. The emergence of modularity in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-06-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks.

  13. Human Communication, Semiotics, and General Systems: Personal and Social Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    Questions as to the nature of sign and symbol processes and the functions and behavioral consequences of human significant phenomena are of central concern in semiotics and communication. These matters continue to be of critical importance and are still largely unresolved. Scholars in both areas of inquiry have sought unification of scientific…

  14. Exploring Parent-Adolescent Communication About Gender: Results from Adolescent and Emerging Adult Samples

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2011-01-01

    Although parents are assumed to be children’s primary models of socialization when it comes to gender, little is known about direct communication of gendered values in the family. Accordingly, this study assessed the amount and content of recalled parental gender socialization messages using data from 291 U.S. college undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university and 259 U.S. adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the Midwest. The study examined the amount and content of parental communications of five gendered discourses and then tested for connections to current gender beliefs. Findings indicate that gender socialization may be quite similar for sons and daughters, with some evidence of gender typing in patterns of communication. No significant age differences emerged in the patterns of socialization, although high school students reported receiving greater amounts of communication than college students on two of the five discourses. In general, receiving messages promoting traditional gender roles was associated with more traditional gender beliefs (and vice versa), although interpretation of some messages appeared to vary by gender. PMID:21712963

  15. A novel communications network for the provision of medical care in disaster and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dembeyiotis, S; Konnis, G; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    We have designed and developed a novel data communications network targeted at the provision of Emergency Medical Care in disaster situations over wide areas. The network nodes can transmit essential biosignals and in addition, support video and diagnostic quality sound (auscultation) broadcasting for teleconsultation purposes, by using a variety of wireless transports. The medical data acquisition stations are networked dynamically and on demand, with no requirement for an existing communications infrastructure at the disaster sites. The network design allows for limited transmitting station mobility and support for software-based Voice over IP during station roaming. Initial test results, following the hardware and software integration, indicate that the chosen network design meets specifications, and a full-scale field test, utilizing a large number of wireless stations operating under realistic conditions is to take place. PMID:17271008

  16. The limits of public communication coordination in a nuclear emergency: lessons from media reporting on the Fukushima case.

    PubMed

    Prezelj, Iztok; Perko, Tanja; Cantone, Marie C; Gallego, Eduardo; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    Coordination of public communication has become a key issue in management of complex emergencies, and is a matter of debate between nuclear emergency management professionals. A particular problem is when inconsistent information is sent to the media and public by official sources from different levels, which has led to calls for a more coordinated approach. The IAEA created guidelines recommending a one-voice communication approach that provides clear, consistent and coordinated information by relevant stakeholders. The reviewed theory on the emergency communication coordination and the empirical results in this paper demonstrate some challenges regarding the feasibility of the above stated goal. This paper explores the communication process in the two-month period of the Fukushima nuclear emergency by using a quantitative comparative content and discourse analysis of 1340 printed media articles on the Fukushima nuclear disaster from two major newspapers in Spain ('El País' and 'El Mundo'), Italy ('Corriere della Sera' and 'La Repubblica'), Norway ('Aftenposten' and 'Dagsavisen'), Slovenia ('Delo' and 'Večer'), Belgium ('Le Soir' and 'De Standaard') and Russia ('Komsomolskaya Pravda' and 'Izvestiya'). The results show that it will be difficult to achieve a truly coordinated approach and one-voice communication in severe nuclear and radiological emergency due to the communication difficulties created by the dispersion of information sources, a broad and dispersed focus of the reported information, partially subjective and conflicting media reporting. The paper suggests ways to improve public communication coordination in nuclear and radiological disasters. PMID:27270489

  17. Rube Goldberg Salad System: Teaching Systems Theory in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linabary, Jasmine R.; Long, Ziyu; Mouton, Ashton; Rao, Ranjani L.; Buzzanell, Patrice M.

    2016-01-01

    Systems theory has been a staple in organizational communication textbooks since the field's inception (Miller, 2015; Poole, 2014). Nevertheless, the authors' classroom experiences have revealed that systems theory may not seem applicable to students due to its complicated nature. While examples and cases can help students make sense of the…

  18. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  19. Photodiodes for ten micrometer laser communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The performance is discussed of 10-micron mercury-cadmiumtelluride and lead-tin-telluride photodiodes in laser heterodyne communication systems. The dependence of detector quantum efficiency, resistance, frequency response, and signal-to-noise ratio on temperature, bias, and local oscillator power are examined. Included in the discussion is an analysis of the feasibility of high temperature operation, and ability of the detector to dissipate power to a heat sink is explored. Some aspects of direct detection response are considered and figures showing flux levels from a blackbody presented.

  20. Antenna technology for advanced mobile communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammos, Emmanuel; Roederer, Antoine; Rogard, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The onboard antenna front end is the key subsystem conditioning configuration and performance of mobile communication satellites. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate this key role and to review L-band satellite antenna technology for earth coverage and regional applications. Multibeam arrays are first discussed, then unfurlable and inflatable reflector antennas are described. These technologies are now qualified in Europe for future mobile systems, for which the optimum choice of antenna technology has been found to be the key to efficient use of spectrum and power resources.

  1. Disaster training for emergency physicians in the United States: a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, B D; Gallery, M E; Sanner, P H; Page, J R

    1985-01-01

    Disaster strikes more frequently and with greater impact than ever before, and the demand for improved community disaster preparedness rises. The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), in collaboration with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), has responded by developing a 16-hour course that prepares emergency physicians and other emergency providers to serve as knowledgeable members of their community's disaster team. The course was developed using a standard instructional design system to cover the basic components of disaster planning and emergency medical operations, including: disaster elements, general planning and organization, victim flow, communication, evacuation modalities, field and hospital management, documentation, public relations, and application to the local community. The 35 national faculty members present the course on a geographic basis across the United States. Further considerations for emergency medicine in the disaster domain include questions of education, research and the formation of a network to coordinate with other medical, health, and nonhealth care sectors nationally and internationally. PMID:3965002

  2. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  3. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  4. Efficacy of patient discharge instructions: A pointer toward caregiver friendly communication methods from pediatric emergency personnel

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harthy, Nesrin; Sudersanadas, Kavita M.; Al-Mutairi, Mohammed; Vasudevan, Senthilvel; Bin Saleh, Ghada; Al-Mutairi, Malak; Hussain, Lenna W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discharge instructions are vital in postemergency patient care to help the caregiver understand the diagnosis and identify symptoms which require prompt readmission. In general, oral or written instructions are provided on discharge. However, there is a dearth of information on the efficacy of discharge instructions provided by physicians in KSA. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of discharge instructions for postpediatrics emergency visit. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional survey conducted in the Department of Paediatric Emergency at King Abdul Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, KSA, included 173 literate adult caregivers who had given their consent. Those who had been on admission earlier and been discharged from the emergency department were excluded. Demographic data and variables like knowledge of medicine and treatment follow-up were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Verbal only, written only, or both verbal and written discharge instructions were provided. Written and verbal instructions, when provided together, were the most effective modes of communication with caregivers. The majority of the respondents were unaware of the follow-up plan (64.16%), unable to identify problems that would necessitate a follow-up (58.96%), and unable to identify the signs and symptoms that would require a revisit (62.43%) irrespective of the mode of instruction. However, more attention is necessary because of the 34.68% of the subjects who left the hospital without discharge instructions. Conclusions: Instructions given both verbally and in writing were observed to be more effective than verbal only or written only. The effectiveness of discharge instructions was highly influenced by the level of education of the caregivers. Improved caregiver friendly methods of communication from the pediatric emergency health-care team are necessary for the delivery of discharge instructions. PMID:27625582

  5. Random digital encryption secure communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The design of a secure communication system is described. A product code, formed from two pseudorandom sequences of digital bits, is used to encipher or scramble data prior to transmission. The two pseudorandom sequences are periodically changed at intervals before they have had time to repeat. One of the two sequences is transmitted continuously with the scrambled data for synchronization. In the receiver portion of the system, the incoming signal is compared with one of two locally generated pseudorandom sequences until correspondence between the sequences is obtained. At this time, the two locally generated sequences are formed into a product code which deciphers the data from the incoming signal. Provision is made to ensure synchronization of the transmitting and receiving portions of the system.

  6. An advanced domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated traffic projection for U.S. domestic satellite communications service covering a period of 15 years; mid-1980 to mid-1995 was prepared. This model takes into account expected technology advances and reductions in transmission costs, legislative and regulatory changes permitting increased competition, and rising energy costs which will encourage more extensive substitution of telecommunications for travel. The historical development and current status of satellite systems are discussed as well as the characteristics of follow-on systems. Orbital arc utilization, spacecraft configuration for single shuttle launch, Earth station configuration, and system costs are examined. Areas which require technology development include multiple beam frequency reuse antennas, on-board switching, intersatellite links, and ka-band operation. Packing and deployment schemes for enclosing the satellite within the shuttle orbiter bay must also be devised.

  7. ECS - The European Communication Satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, C. B.

    1981-09-01

    The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

  8. Preliminary benefits study for a public service communications satellite system: Task order 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic and social benefits to accrue from an operational public service communications satellite system are estimated for the following applications: teleradiology, emergency medical services, teleconferencing for both civilian and defense agencies, data transfer, remote cardiac monitoring, teleconsultation, continuing education for professionals, and severe storm warning. The potential impact of improved communication on the cost and quality of services are assessed for various agencies, professions, and industries.

  9. Passive monitoring for automated MMPP communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, N. G.

    1994-07-01

    A recently completed study of passive sensing techniques for hf communication systems has shown that these sensing techniques can yield data which may be of use in the control of adaptive hf communication systems. The aim of this paper is to review work carried out to date on these techniques and to examine the feasibility of applying similar techniques to radio systems utilizing higher carrier frequencies, up to around 200MHz, where many propagation modes other than ionospheric skywave may exist. Whilst inputs for the control of adaptive radio systems may be derived from a number of sources, many techniques, such as pilot-tone soundings and the transmission of training sequences, involve radiation of signals which may be undesirable in a tactical situation. System control information may also be derived by monitoring other signals which are already present in related parts of the radio spectrum, allowing more covert operation and avoiding unnecessary pollution of the radio spectrum. Derivation of such control information for use in hf systems has been studied in some detail, utilizing the following types of radio signals existing in the hf band: swept frequency sounder signals radiated by other uses of the hf spectrum, broadcast signals, standard time signals, meteorological data signals (RTTY), and overall statistical occupancy measurements of the spectrum. Some of these techniques would also be applicable to the multimechanism case, provided that the more complex propagation inversion, which is due to the greater range of propagation mechanisms available, can be taken into account. Additional, higher frequency, sources of RF energy which may provide data through passive monitoring, include aeronautical navigation beacons, amateur beacons and various types of radar signals. Use may also be made of low-orbiting satellite signals, although these present tracking problems in terms of doppler shift and give data mainly related to ionospheric scintillation and hence

  10. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  11. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathorn, S.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Thin Route satellite telecommunication project is presented. Thin Route employs applications technology satellites (ATS) in place of more costly commercial multi- transponder telecommunications satellites. This system allows remote and underdeveloped areas to communicate with the outside world for purposes of obtaining medical assistance among other things. The system represents a substantial cost saving over commercial systems.

  12. 47 CFR 90.465 - Control of systems of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of systems of communication. 90.465 Section 90.465 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control § 90.465 Control of systems of communication. (a) Depending on design...

  13. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. An extremely statistically significant increasing trend was observed for EPS system unreliability for an 8-hour mission. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for EPS system start-only unreliability.

  14. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 1: Final report. [onboard computerized communications system for spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques, methods, and system requirements are reported for an onboard computerized communications system that provides on-line computing capability during manned space exploration. Communications between man and computer take place by sequential execution of each discrete step of a procedure, by interactive progression through a tree-type structure to initiate tasks or by interactive optimization of a task requiring man to furnish a set of parameters. Effective communication between astronaut and computer utilizes structured vocabulary techniques and a word recognition system.

  15. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  16. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  17. [Skilled communication as "intervention" : Models for systematic communication in the healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Weinert, M; Mayer, H; Zojer, E

    2015-02-01

    Specific communication training is currently not integrated into anesthesiology curricula. At the same time communication is an important key factor when working with colleagues, in the physician-patient relationship, during management of emergencies and in avoiding or reducing the legal consequences of adverse medical events. Therefore, focused attention should be brought to this area. In other high risk industries, specific communication training has been standard for a long time and in medicine there is an approach to teach and train these soft skills by simulation. Systematic communication training, however, is rarely an established component of specialist training. It is impossible not to communicate whereby nonverbal indications, such as gestures, mimic expression, posture and tone play an important part. Miscommunication, however, is common and leads to unproductive behavior. The cause of this is not always obvious. This article provides an overview of the communication models of Shannon, Watzlawick et al. and Schulz von Thun et al. and describes their limitations. The "Process Communication Model®" (PCM) is also introduced. An overview is provided with examples of how this tool can be used to look at the communication process from a systematic point of view. People have different psychological needs. Not taking care of these needs will result in individual stress behavior, which can be graded into first, second and third degrees of severity (driver behavior, mask behavior and desperation). These behavior patterns become exposed in predictable sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, successful communication can be established while unproductive behavior that occurs during stress can be dealt with appropriately. Because of the importance of communication in all areas of medical care, opportunities exist to focus research on the influence of targeted communication on patient outcome, complications and management of emergencies. PMID:25519190

  18. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  19. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  20. An Analysis of WhatsApp Usage for Communication Between Consulting and Emergency Physicians.

    PubMed

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Polat, Haci

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate WhatsApp messenger usage for communication between consulting and emergency physicians. A retrospective, observational study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care university hospital between January 2014 and June 2014. A total of 614 consultations requested by using the WhatsApp application were evaluated, and 519 eligible consultations were included in the study. The WhatsApp messages that were transferred to consultant physicians consisted of 510 (98.3 %) photographic images, 517 (99.6 %) text messages, 59 (11.3 %) videos, and 10 (1.9 %) voice messages. Consultation was most frequently requested from the orthopedics clinic (n = 160, 30.8 %). The majority of requested consultations were terminated only by evaluation via WhatsApp messages. (n = 311, 59.9 %). Most of the consulting physicians were outside of the hospital or were mobile at the time of the consultation (n = 292, 56.3 %). The outside consultation request rate was significantly higher for night shifts than for day shifts (p = .004), and the majority of outside consultation request were concluded by only WhatsApp application (p < .001). WhatsApp is useful a communication tool between physicians, especially for ED consultants who are outside the hospital, because of the ability to transfer large amounts of clinical and radiological data during a short period of time. PMID:27083574

  1. Lights and siren: a review of emergency vehicle warning systems.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, R A; Eilers, M A

    1991-12-01

    Emergency medical services providers routinely respond to emergencies using lights and siren. This practice is not without risk of collision. Audible and visual warning devices and vehicle markings are integral to efficient negotiation of traffic and reduction of collision risk. An understanding of warning system characteristics is necessary to implement appropriate guidelines for prehospital transportation systems. The pertinent literature on emergency vehicle warning systems is reviewed, with emphasis on potential health hazards associated with these techniques. Important findings inferred from the literature are 1) red flashing lights alone may not be as effective as other color combinations, 2) there are no data to support a seizure risk with strobe lights, 3) lime-yellow is probably superior to traditional emergency vehicle colors, 4) the siren is an extremely limited warning device, and 5) exposure to siren noise can cause hearing loss. Emergency physicians must ensure that emergency medical services transportation systems consider the pertinent literature on emergency vehicle warning systems. PMID:1746737

  2. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  3. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  4. Wireless sensor systems for sense/decide/act/communicate.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Cushner, Adam; Baker, James A.; Davis, Jesse Zehring; Stark, Douglas P.; Ko, Teresa H.; Kyker, Ronald D.; Stinnett, Regan White; Pate, Ronald C.; Van Dyke, Colin; Kyckelhahn, Brian

    2003-12-01

    After 9/11, the United States (U.S.) was suddenly pushed into challenging situations they could no longer ignore as simple spectators. The War on Terrorism (WoT) was suddenly ignited and no one knows when this war will end. While the government is exploring many existing and potential technologies, the area of wireless Sensor networks (WSN) has emerged as a foundation for establish future national security. Unlike other technologies, WSN could provide virtual presence capabilities needed for precision awareness and response in military, intelligence, and homeland security applications. The Advance Concept Group (ACG) vision of Sense/Decide/Act/Communicate (SDAC) sensor system is an instantiation of the WSN concept that takes a 'systems of systems' view. Each sensing nodes will exhibit the ability to: Sense the environment around them, Decide as a collective what the situation of their environment is, Act in an intelligent and coordinated manner in response to this situational determination, and Communicate their actions amongst each other and to a human command. This LDRD report provides a review of the research and development done to bring the SDAC vision closer to reality.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Communication Software Systems for Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoohi, Rod

    1996-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in object-oriented distributed computing since it is better quipped to deal with complex systems while providing extensibility, maintainability, and reusability. At the same time, several new high-speed network technologies have emerged for local and wide area networks. However, the performance of networking software is not improving as fast as the networking hardware and the workstation microprocessors. This paper gives an overview and evaluates the performance of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) standard in a distributed computing environment at NASA Ames Research Center. The environment consists of two testbeds of SGI workstations connected by four networks: Ethernet, FDDI, HiPPI, and ATM. The performance results for three communication software systems are presented, analyzed and compared. These systems are: BSD socket programming interface, IONA's Orbix, an implementation of the CORBA specification, and the PVM message passing library. The results show that high-level communication interfaces, such as CORBA and PVM, can achieve reasonable performance under certain conditions.

  6. Panoramic alignment system for optical wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Thomas C.; Drost, Robert J.; Rzasa, John; Sadler, Brian M.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2015-03-01

    Free space optical communication may provide a viable adjunct to radio frequency (RF) technology for mobile communications, especially in "RF-denied" settings in which RF-based communication may be prohibited or impractical. These settings may include military tactical environments or settings which suffer from RF jamming or interference. Unlike many RF communication systems, point-to-point optical communications between mobile nodes typically require establishing and maintaining alignment, which requires each node to have awareness of the locations of neighboring nodes. We propose a method to create this situational awareness between nodes using purely optical means. This method uses a camera that is focused on a hyperboloidal mirror, thus providing a 360-degree view of the surrounding environment. The camera and mirror are used to detect light emitted from the beacon transmitters from neighboring nodes, with the location of the beacon image in the sensor plane of the camera yielding elevation and azimuth information of the beacon. The beacon transmitter itself is modulated, allowing it to be distinguished from the environment. In discussing our experimental realization of this system, we assess its performance.

  7. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  8. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  9. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry in developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, 'bent pipe' transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km.

  10. Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored. PMID:15588058

  11. Palliative and end of life care communication as emerging priorities in postgraduate medical education

    PubMed Central

    des Ordons, Amanda Roze; Ajjawi, Rola; Macdonald, John; Sarti, Aimee; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Reliance on surveys and qualitative studies of trainees to guide postgraduate education about palliative and end of life (EOL) communication may lead to gaps in the curriculum. We aimed to develop a deeper understanding of internal medicine trainees’ educational needs for a palliative and EOL communication curriculum and how these needs could be met. Methods Mixed methods, including a survey and focus groups with trainees, and interviews with clinical faculty and medical educators, were applied to develop a broader perspective on current experiences and needs for further education. Quantitative descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Surveyed trainees were least confident and least satisfied with teaching in counseling about the emotional impact of emergencies and discussing organ donation. Direct observation with feedback, small group discussion, and viewing videos of personal consultations were perceived as effective, yet infrequently identified as instructional methods. Focus groups and interviews identified goals of care conversations as the highest educational priority, with education adapted to learner needs and accompanied by feedback and concurrent clinical and organizational support. Conclusions Our work expands on previous research describing needs for postgraduate education in palliative and EOL communication to include the importance of support, culture change, and faculty development, and provides insight into why such needs exist. PMID:27103952

  12. Integrated Safety, Environmental, & Emergency Management Systems (ISEEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.; Langwell, G.; Thomas, C.; Coffing, S.

    1996-05-01

    Sandia`s Risk Management and NEPA Department recognized the need for hazard and environmental data analysis and management to support the line managers` need to know, understand, manage and document the hazards inherent in their facilities and activities. ISEEMS (Integrated Safety, Environmental, & Emergency Management System) was developed in response to this need. ISEEMS takes advantage of the fact that there is some information needed for the NEPA process that is also needed for the safety documentation process. The ISEEMS process enables Sandia to identify and manage hazards and environmental concerns at a level of effort commensurate with the hazards themselves by adopting a necessary and sufficient (graded) approach to compliance. The Preliminary Hazard Screening module of ISEEMS determines the facility or project activity hazard classification and facility designation. ISEEMS` geo-referenced icon allows immediate, visual integration of hazard information across geographic boundaries resulting in significant information compression. At Sandia, ISEEMS runs on the Sandia Internal Restricted Network, in an MS-Windows environment on standard PC hardware. The possibility of transporting ISEEMS to a ``WEB-like`` environment is being explored.

  13. Tone-activated, remote, alert communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.

  14. Space-to-Space Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Gaylor, Kent; Vitalpur, Sharada; Sham, Cathy

    1999-01-01

    The Space-to-Space Communications System (SSCS) is an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Time-Division-Multiple Access (TDMA) system that is designed, developed, and deployed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide voice, commands, telemetry and data services in close proximity among three space elements: International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Orbiter, and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU). The SSCS consists of a family of three radios which are, Space-to-Space Station Radio (SSSR), Space-to-Space Orbiter Radio (SSOR), and Space-to-Space Extravehicular Mobility Radio (SSER). The SSCS can support up to five such radios at a time. Each user has its own time slot within which to transmit voice and data. Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) carrier modulation with a burst data rate of 695 kbps and a frequency deviation of 486.5 kHz is employed by the system. Reed-Solomon (R-S) coding is also adopted to ensure data quality. In this paper, the SSCS system requirements, operational scenario, detailed system architecture and parameters, link acquisition strategy, and link performance analysis will be presented and discussed

  15. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-05-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  16. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-01-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  17. Laser Communication Demonstration System (LSCS) and Future Mobile Satellite Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. -C.; Lesh, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Communications Demonstration System (LCDS) is a proposed in-orbit demonstration of high data rate laser communications technology conceived jointly by NASA and U.S. industry. The program objectives are to stimulate industry development and to demonstrate the readiness of high data rate optical communications in Earth Orbit. For future global satellite communication systems using intersatellite links (ISLs), laser communications technology can offer reduced mass , reduced power requirements, and increased channel bandwidths without regulatory restraint. This paper provides comparisons with radio systems and status of the program.

  18. Modernizing School Communication Systems: Using Text Messaging to Improve Student Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Matthew Scott

    2009-01-01

    The emerging use of portable digital devices by students, parents and teachers, is forcing schools to develop real-time communication systems that integrate technology into the general operations of schools, and contemplate governing policies and procedures to sustain and guide the challenges of these new technologies. This study contributes to…

  19. Interactive multimedia systems as communication channels in color workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, Alejandra; De Ponti, Javier

    2002-06-01

    Great technological advances can help us to recover communication areas that might otherwise be lost. Media competition and visual contamination frequently appear in daily communication. A notable anonymity in human relationship has emerged as a consequence of this. Educational establishments receive an overflowing number of students. Schools and students are overwhelmed by this situation. Teachers don't know their students and students usually don't know their own classmates, with all the consequences that this implies. In front of this inadequate structure of educational institutions, technology has improved the possibilities of instant answers and the dialogue between teachers and students; the unilateral exposition pronounced by teachers in front of the anonymous mass finds an alternative in multimedia systems. The present work describes Interactive Multimedia System's utilization for teaching the chromatic circle as a system of color organization. The proposed method intends to devise a theoretical and conceptual frame and its production for multimedia systems oriented to elaborate, represent, store, interact with and access to knowledge Its relevance comes from the potential contribution to build up knowledge systems that value cultural codes and at the same time make creative and motivating interactive experiences. This work concerns the realization and understanding of the chromatic circle, selection of different color systems, logical strategies for playing and studying theory and multimedia. Levels of visualization: theory, practice, developing skills, works and evaluation. Levels to study: teaching chromatic circle, multimedia supports, quality, application and linking screens, help, theory, etc; without losing the interdisciplinary nature of the work, specialist participation, and Multimedia Systems in the steps of its realization.

  20. [The anesthesiologist's role in the French emergency medical system].

    PubMed

    Katoh, K; Marukawa, S

    1990-11-01

    The present system of French emergency medicine and its philosophy were described from my experience at SAMU (service d'aide medicale urgente). Three factors of emergency medicine; pre-hospital care, emergency transport and emergency information service are managed by anesthesiologists. Anesthesiologists on duty at the tele-medicine center give medical team instructions to start at once. The team is composed of an anesthesiologist, a nurse and an ambulancier. They start to give intensive care medicine to critically ill patients on the spot. The philosophy of SAMU is that doctors should go out of the hospital. Anesthesiologists in the area organize the emergency medical system in France. PMID:2273552

  1. Code orange: Towards transformational leadership of emergency management systems.

    PubMed

    Caro, Denis H J

    2015-09-01

    The 21(st) century calls upon health leaders to recognize and respond to emerging threats and systemic emergency management challenges through transformative processes inherent in the LEADS in a caring environment framework. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study explores key informant perspectives of leaders in emergency management across Canada on pressing needs for relevant systemic transformation. The emerging model points to eight specific attributes of transformational leadership central to emergency management and suggests that contextualization of health leadership is of particular import. PMID:26135294

  2. The Purinergic System and Glial Cells: Emerging Costars in Nociception

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is now well established that glial cells not only provide mechanical and trophic support to neurons but can directly contribute to neurotransmission, for example, by release and uptake of neurotransmitters and by secreting pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. This has greatly changed our attitude towards acute and chronic disorders, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches targeting activated glial cells to indirectly modulate and/or restore neuronal functions. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia communication that can be pharmacologically targeted is therefore a mandatory step toward the success of this new healing strategy. This holds true also in the field of pain transmission, where the key involvement of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glial cells in peripheral ganglia has been clearly demonstrated, and literally hundreds of signaling molecules have been identified. Here, we shall focus on one emerging signaling system involved in the cross talk between neurons and glial cells, the purinergic system, consisting of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their membrane receptors. Specifically, we shall summarize existing evidence of novel “druggable” glial purinergic targets, which could help in the development of innovative analgesic approaches to chronic pain states. PMID:25276794

  3. Method and system for pipeline communication

    DOEpatents

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  4. A Fault Tree Approach to Analysis of Organizational Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth; Stephens, Kent G.

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method of examing communication in an organization by focusing on: (1) the complex interrelationships in human systems, particularly in communication systems; (2) interactions across subsystems and system boundaries; and (3) the need to select and "prioritize" channels which will eliminate noise in the system and…

  5. Application of the Iridium Satellite System to Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Meza, Mike; Gupta, Om

    2008-01-01

    The next generation air transportation system will require greater air-ground communications capacity to accommodate more air traffic with increased safety and efficiency. Communications will remain primarily terrestrially based, but satellite communications will have an increased role. Inmarsat s aeronautical services have been approved and are in use for aeronautical safety communications provided by geostationary satellites. More recently the approval process for the Iridium low earth orbit constellation is nearing completion. The current Iridium system will be able to provide basic air traffic services communications suitable for oceanic, remote and polar regions. The planned second generation of the Iridium system, called Iridium NEXT, will provide enhanced capabilities and enable a greater role in the future of aeronautical communications. This paper will review the potential role of satellite communications in the future of air transportation, the Iridium approval process and relevant system testing, and the potential role of Iridium NEXT.

  6. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  7. NPOESS McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciaroni, J.; Higgins, C.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dept. of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather/environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). NPOESS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data of the earth, atmosphere and space. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS), NPOESS’ prime contractor, provides the Space Segment (SS). The NPOESS command & data distribution part known as the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems, manages the overall mission from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high-quality data from the SS to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). A C3S data-delivery system key feature is SafetyNetTM (a NGAS trademark), 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon. These antennae will collect up to 5X as much environmental data about 4X faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. These data will then be forwarded nearly at once to US weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing & production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Antarctica is a significant SafetyNetTM antenna site due to its high-latitude location. C3S, working with the National Science Foundation to upgrade & expand the existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link at McMurdo, will provide 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound from McMurdo and 20 Mbps inbound to those missions. The 1st major upgrade milestone (2008) increased the bandwidth from 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps. Additionally, Raytheon’s C3S is upgrading the

  8. Discharge Communication in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Chest Pain: Defining the Ideal Content.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Selina; Heierle, Anette; Bingisser, Martina-Barbara; Hertwig, Ralph; Padiyath, Rakesh; Nickel, Christian Hans; Langewitz, Wolf; Bingisser, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In an emergency department (ED), discharge communication represents a crucial step in medical care. In theory, it fosters patient satisfaction and adherence to medication, reduces anxiety, and ultimately promotes better outcomes. In practice, little is known about the extent to which patients receiving discharge information understand their medical condition and are able to memorize and retrieve instructions. Even less is known about the ideal content of these instructions. Focusing on patients with chest pain, we systematically assessed physicians' and patients' informational preferences and created a memory aid to support both the provision of information (physicians) and its retrieval (patients). In an iterative process, physicians of different specialties (N = 47) first chose which of 81 items to include in an ED discharge communication for patients with acute chest pain. A condensed list of 34 items was then presented to 51 such patients to gauge patients' preferences. Patients' and physicians' ratings of importance converged in 32 of the 34 items. Finally, three experts grouped the 34 items into five categories: (1) information on diagnosis; (2) follow-up suggestions; (3) advice on self-care; (4) red flags; and (5) complete treatment, from which we generated the mnemonic acronym "InFARcT." Defining and structuring the content of discharge information seems especially important for ED physicians and patients, as stress and time constraints jeopardize effective communication in this context. Chest pain accounts for up to 10% of all patient presentations in emergency departments (EDs) (Konkelberg & Esterman, 2003). The majority of these patients will usually be discharged within hours, after exclusion of serious conditions such as myocardial infarction (Goodacre et al., 2011). A comprehensive workup of low- to intermediate-risk patients is not feasible in the ED (Reichlin et al., 2009). Yet many of these patients go on to suffer from repeated episodes of chest

  9. EDECS: the Emergency Department Expert Charting System.

    PubMed

    Schriger, D L; Baraff, L J; Hassanvand, M; Nagda, S

    1995-01-01

    EDECS, the Emergency Department Expert Charting System, integrates clinical guidelines into the everyday practice of medicine. By generating the medical record and patient aftercare instructions, it facilitates patient care. For this reason, doctors are willing to use it. While using it, the doctors are continually presented with advice regarding documentation, testing, and treatment. Unlike guidelines that attempt to modify behavior through traditional educational methods, these computerized guidelines are seen by the physician every time she sees a patient. We have demonstrated this by directly integrating the guidelines into the process of patient care; we can increase compliance with the guidelines [1]. At present EDECS exists for the chief complaints of occupational exposure to body fluids, acute low back pain, recurrent seizure, fever in children, and males with penile discharge or dysuria. Upon examining the patient, the physician proceeds to the computer, which prompts him for essential information regarding the history and physical examination. Certain items are required for all patients with the chief complaint, others are required based on the answers to these items. Data is analyzed by the computer, which provides advice regarding testing and treatment. Once testing is completed, the system suggests a probable diagnosis and aids in patient disposition and discharge planning. Finally, EDECS prints the medical record as well as patient-specific aftercare instructions. EDECS is a user friendly system; most data is entered via mouse. It is written in the OS-based expert system shell AM(TM) and can be run on an IBM compatible PC or PC network. Rules are generally written in an "if...then" format, but more sophisticated rule structures, including Bayesian models, are used when needed. Each module contains separate subroutines for the history, physical, laboratory ordering, treatment, and disposition. These modules call each other in a dynamic fashion. The

  10. Nationwide mobile communication systems. Volume 2, chapter 5: Appendix A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schworer, William Joseph, III

    1990-06-01

    Previous chapters discussed nationwide mobile communication system technologies and modeled user costs and benefits. This chapter provides a brief overview of mobile communication system economics, the projected U.S. market for nationwide mobile communications, and the potential revenues. The basic cost structure of satellite and meteor-burst systems are also modeled. A combination of all these factors will ultimately govern which systems will be commercially successful. Because of improvements in technology, communication system costs and user terminal costs (A) per unit of capacity tend to decline over time. However, inflation tends to drive the price of an identical product upward over time.

  11. Using Sequence Diagrams to Detect Communication Problems Between Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Kresser, Jan; Godfrey, Sally H.; Knodel, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is both mission-critical and error-prone. Such communication problems ideally would be detected before deployment. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we show that problems in the communication between two systems can be detected by using sequence diagrams to model the planned communication and by comparing the planned sequence to the actual sequence. We identify different kinds of problems that can be addressed by modeling the planned sequence using different level of abstractions.

  12. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. A statistically significant increasing trend was identified for unreliability (8 hour model) as a function of fiscal year. No statistically significant decreasing trend was identified in the EPS results.

  13. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the EPS results.

  14. A Shuttle based laser system for space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    A key element of NASA-Goddard's plan for future laser space communications is the Space Shuttle-based Laser Technology Experiments Facility (LTEF), which will be designed to communicate with a cooperative laser system under development for the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and will conduct a comprehensive set of acquisition, tracking, and communication experiments. Attention is presently given to the challenges faced by designers in achieving LTEF acquisition of the ACTS downlink beacon laser.

  15. Architecting Communication Network of Networks for Space System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are planning Space System of Systems (SoS) to address the new challenges of space exploration, defense, communications, navigation, Earth observation, and science. In addition, these complex systems must provide interoperability, enhanced reliability, common interfaces, dynamic operations, and autonomy in system management. Both NASA and the DoD have chosen to meet the new demands with high data rate communication systems and space Internet technologies that bring Internet Protocols (IP), routers, servers, software, and interfaces to space networks to enable as much autonomous operation of those networks as possible. These technologies reduce the cost of operations and, with higher bandwidths, support the expected voice, video, and data needed to coordinate activities at each stage of an exploration mission. In this paper, we discuss, in a generic fashion, how the architectural approaches and processes are being developed and used for defining a hypothetical communication and navigation networks infrastructure to support lunar exploration. Examples are given of the products generated by the architecture development process.

  16. The Emergence of Modularity in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks. There once were two watchmakers, named Hora and Tempus, who manufactured very fine watches. Both of them were highly regarded, and the phones in their workshops rang frequently — new customers were constantly calling them. However, Hora prospered, while Tempus became poorer and poorer and finally lost his shop. What was the reason? The watches the men made consisted of about 1,000 parts each. Tempus had so constructed his that if he had one partly assembled and had to put it down — to answer the phone say— it immediately fell to pieces and had to be reassembled from the elements. The better the customers liked his watches, the more they phoned him, the more difficult it became for him to find enough uninterrupted time to finish a watch. The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each. Ten of these subassemblies, again, could be put together into a larger subassembly; and a system of ten of the latter sub

  17. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  18. National transportable telecommunications capability - Commercial satellite and cellular communications for emergency preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Council, Ronald J.

    1992-03-01

    A quick-reaction emergency satellite, cellular and microwave communications package known as the National Transportable Telecommunications Capability (NTTC) is discussed. The NTTC is designed to restore 'last mile' connectivity to remote or isolated areas in the U.S. or abroad that have been devastated by hurricanes, earthquakes, or other natural or manmade disasters. The NTTC is self-contained for rapid airlift in a single C-130 military transport, or may be transported by land or sea as appropriate. The NTTC operates over a Ku-band domestic satellite back into a gateway station and into the Public Switched Network, FTS-2000, and other military networks. Built with commercial off-the-shelf components, the NTTC is designed to respond to the telecommunication needs of critical NS/EP functions and users.

  19. Identification of Communication and Coordination Issues in the US Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2001-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system is approaching the point of saturation, as evidenced by increasing delays across the National Airspace System (NAS). There exists an opportunity to enhance NAS efficiency and reduce delays by improving strategic communication throughout the ATC system. Although several measures have been taken to improve communication (e.g., Collaborative Decision Making tools), communication issues between ATC facilities remain. It is hypothesized that by identifying the key issues plaguing inter-facility strategic communication, steps can be taken to enhance these communications, and therefore ATC system efficiency. In this report, a series of site visits were performed at Boston and New York ATC facilities as well as at the Air Traffic Control System Command Center. The results from these site visits were used to determine the current communication and coordination structure of Traffic Management Coordinators, who hold a pivotal role in inter-facility communications. Several themes emerged from the study, including: ambiguity of organizational structure in the current ATC system, awkward coordination between ATC facilities, information flow issues, organizational culture issues, and negotiation behaviors used to cope with organizational culture issues.

  20. Advanced integrated WDM system for POF communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer Optical Fibres (POFs) show clear advantages compared to copper and glass fibres. In essence, POFs are inexpensive, space-saving and not susceptible to electromagnetic interference. Thus, the usage of POFs have become a reasonable alternative in short distance data communication. Today, POFs are applied in a wide number of applications due to these specific advantages. These applications include automotive communication systems and in-house-networks. State-of-the-art is to transmit data with only one channel over POF, this limits the bandwidth. To solve this problem, an integrated MUX/DEMUX-element for WDM over POF is designed and developed to use multiple channels. This integration leads to low costs, therefore this component is suitable for mass market applications. The fundamental idea is to separate the chromatic parts of the light in its monochromatic components by means of a grating based on an aspheric mirror. Due to the high NA of the POF the setup has to be designed in a 3D-approach. Therefore this setup cannot be compared with the planar solutions available on market, they would result high losses in the 3rd dimension. To achieve a fast and optimized design an optical simulation program is used. Particular attention has to be paid to the design of the POF as a light source in the simulation program and the optimisation of the grating. The following realization of the demultiplexer is planed to be done with injection molding. This technology offers easy and very economical processing. These advantages make this technology first choice for optical components in the low-cost array.

  1. Vehicle-mounted real-time digital voice communication system based on visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiurong; Gu, Xiuxiu; Chen, Du; Wang, Hui; Huang, Hua; Chen, Xuxin; Cao, Qingshan; Liu, Hongqing

    2015-11-01

    Based on the phenomenon that more and more cars use LED for lighting and the current rise of visible light communication technology, this paper proposes a vehicle real-time voice communication system with high reliability on the basis of visible light communication for verification. The paper introduces the design of digital audio collection and output module, On-Off Keying (OOK) modulation and demodulation, Reed-Solomon encoding and decoding module, array LEDs emission and the module of PIN receiving signals. The LED lamp frequency response, communication distance, error rate and other parameters are tested and calibrated. The digital audio real-time communication system's receiving speed is 500Kbps when the communication distance is 3.9 meters.

  2. Use of an emergency medical pictorial communication book during simulated disaster conditions.

    PubMed

    Behar, Solomon; Benson Ii, Richard; Kurzweil, Ami; Azen, Colleen; Nager, Alan L

    2013-10-01

    During disasters, the needs of victims outstrip available resources. Rapid assessment of patients must be performed; however, language barriers can be an impediment to efficient patient assessment, especially if interpreter resources are limited. Dependency on interpretive services requiring technology such a telephones, cell phones, and video conferencing may be inefficient, as they may be unavailable during disaster conditions. A low-tech, portable tool that aids in communication with non-English speakers would be beneficial. The medical emergency communication (MEC) book, developed at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has the potential to be a useful tool in this capacity. The goal of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed disaster-focused medical history obtained from Spanish-speaking patients or caregivers using the MEC book, compared to a control group with whom no book was used. Our hypothesis was that use of the MEC book improves accuracy of medical history taking between English-only speaking health care workers and Spanish-speaking patients better than a monolingual clinician trying to take a medical history without it. We anticipated a higher overall score in the group of subjects whose histories were taken using the MEC book than in the control group. Patient satisfaction with the MEC book also was measured. PMID:24274127

  3. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineroom communication system. 169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication system....

  4. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineroom communication system. 169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication system....

  5. A System for Inter-Library Communication (SILC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, R. M.

    A study was made of the use of time-sharing computer systems as a means of communication, accounting, message switching, and referral in a System for Inter-Library Communication (SILC). The purpose of the study was to develop data on which to evaluate the feasibility of such a system; the results are reported in terms of four issues: technical…

  6. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  7. The Study of Human Communication from Three Systems Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge, Peter R.

    There are three general scientific methods for studying the communication process: mechanistic, organic, and systemic. After reviewing the characteristics and research implications of each method, it can be concluded that the systems paradigm is most appropriate to the logic of communication theory. The systems method is defined as a process of…

  8. Structural and Process Models of Human Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stech, Ernest L.

    It is argued that the structural and process models of human communication systems can be derived from the same data, and that communication systems can be described in terms of certain basic parameters; these parameters, in turn, provide a taxonomy of system types. The applicable empirical research data is reviewed to make statements about the…

  9. 46 CFR 121.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.602 Internal... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 121.602 Section...

  10. Non-communicable diseases: is their emergence in industrialized societies related to changes in neuroendocrine function?

    PubMed

    Bickler, S W

    2000-05-01

    This hypothesis suggests that industrialization alters the human neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine changes come about because of changes in environmental stimuli. It is further proposed that changes in neuroendocrine function can account for the contrasting pattern of non-communicable diseases in traditional and industrialized societies. The hypothesis is based on subtle clinical differences in traditional and industrialized societies, and the evolving concept of neuroendocrine regulation of physiological processes. Compared to traditional societies, individuals from industrialized communities tend to have lower pain tolerance, slower gastrointestinal transit-time, and a greater chance of having a calcified pineal gland. These changes parallel the increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases in industrialized societies. There is sufficient reason to suspect the variations in pain tolerance, gastrointestinal transit-time and pineal gland calcification represent changes in neuroendocrine function. Programming of the neuroendocrine system by environmental events early in life is one possible mechanism whereby these changes might be effected. Understanding the physiological changes that occur with industrialization, and how environmental stimuli interact with the developing neuroendocrine system might lead to new strategies for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. PMID:10859694

  11. The Emergency Smoke Response System (a prototype)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahm, P.; Larkin, N.; Brown, T. J.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; Sullivan, D.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Emergency Smoke Response System (ESRS) prototype was first launched during the Santa Ana wildfire event of southern California (fall 2007) and after further refinement it was again launched during the lightening wildfire event of northing California (summer 2008). During both wildfire events smoke plumes from the fires caused significant impacts on the air quality in both urban and rural communities, transportation corridors, and aviation landing strips. The ESRS, called up by U.S.F.S. headquarters, is used to provide enhanced information and data on air quality impacts and smoke transport to fire management and the public. The prototype U.S.F.S. ESRS is a combination of efforts that supplement the ongoing smoke and fire modeling information with a high resolution meteorological and smoke modeling domain placed over the wildfire event location. This domain is used to look at fine-scale fire meteorology and smoke transport and air quality impacts. At the same time, additional smoke monitors (EBAMS) are deployed in the area with real-time reporting capabilities. The monitors supplement the existing network to provide air quality information in communities without monitors or in remote (i.e. locations along transportation corridors). The data from the modeling efforts and air quality monitoring are presented to fire managers and air quality regulators through websites, which show the latest available information. To ensure maximum utility of the modeling and monitoring information, an experienced air quality forecast produces daily forecast summaries by region, providing text forecast guidance and model output discussion. The forecaster is available for the daily fire calls that fire managers use to coordinate efforts across the region. Fire managers can request modifications or new graphics which they find useful for dissemination of the information. Fire is a natural ecological process. Policy, climate, and ecological shifts can change the

  12. Communications and control for electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.

    1992-01-01

    A long-term strategy for the integration of new control technologies for power generation and delivery is proposed: the industry would benefit from an evolutionary approach that would adapt to its needs future technologies as well as those that it has so far not heeded. The integrated operation of the entire system, including the distribution system, was proposed as a future goal. The AbNET communication protocols are reviewed, and additions that were made in 1991 are described. In the original network, traffic was controlled by polling at the master station, located at the substation, and routed by a flooding algorithm. In a revised version, the polling and flooding are modified. The question of interfacing low-energy measurement transducers or instrument transformers is considered. There is presently little or no agreement on what the output of optical current transducers (CT's) should be. Appendices deal with the calibration of current transducers; with Delta modulation, a simple means of serially encoding the output of an OCT; and with noise shaping, a method of digital signal processing that trades off the number of bits in a digital sample for a higher number of samples.

  13. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS).

    PubMed

    Honeyman, J C; Frost, M M; Huda, W; Loeffler, W; Ott, M; Staab, E V

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been a recent increase in interest in picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) topics, little has been published to assist the non-technical person in understanding the complexities of the technologies required for a PACS implementation. This issue of Current Problems in Radiology defines each PACS component and explains why each is important in a system design. PACS installations at the University of Florida are used as examples to tie the concepts together. The infrastructure required for PACS consists of the information system interfaces, networks, and databases. Information system interfaces guarantee consistent patient data across all platforms and reduce labor requirements by eliminating duplicate data entry. Data networks move information from the originating location to users around the hospital, clinic, campus, city, or world. In the PACS environment, the data consist of patient and study information as well as images and information about these images. Databases organize the data from multiple sources into a coherent package that can be queried for many different purposes, such as retrieving images, reviewing patient and study information, studying practice statistics, and performing outcomes analysis. PACS components consist of acquisition nodes, archives, and output devices. Acquisition nodes may include "digital modalities" such as CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, and computed radiography (CR), along with devices to convert from analog to digital, such as digitizers and frame grabbers. Options for archives are discussed along with configuration schemes. Output devices include both hard copy (film and paper prints) and soft copy (workstations for display and diagnosis). Finally, a description of the PACS installations at the University of Florida is presented, with comments on some of the difficulties and complexities encountered. A discussion of the cost and benefits of PACS is included, along with a forecast of the future of

  14. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  15. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  16. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... the emergency system to supply its connected loads....

  17. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... the emergency system to supply its connected loads....

  18. Emergent Systems Energy Laws for Predicting Myosin Ensemble Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  19. Apollo experience report: Communications system flight evaluation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, D.; Royston, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Flight tests of the synergetic operation of the spacecraft and earth based communications equipment were accomplished during Apollo missions AS-202 through Apollo 12. The primary goals of these tests were to verify that the communications system would adequately support lunar landing missions and to establish the inflight communications system performance characteristics. To attain these goals, a communications system flight verification and evaluation team was established. The concept of the team operations, the evolution of the evaluation processes, synopses of the team activities associated with each mission, and major conclusions and recommendations resulting from the performance evaluation are represented.

  20. Suitability of ANSI standards for quantifying communication satellite system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cass, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    A study on the application of American National Standards X3.102 and X3.141 to various classes of communication satellite systems from the simple analog bent-pipe to NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is discussed. These standards are proposed as means for quantifying the end-to-end communication system performance of communication satellite systems. An introductory overview of the two standards are given followed by a review of the characteristics, applications, and advantages of using X3.102 and X3.141 to quantify with a description of the application of these standards to ACTS.

  1. MSFC Skylab instrumentation and communication system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, B. M.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the in-orbit performance of the instrumentation and communications systems installed on Skylab is presented. Performance is compared with functional requirements and the fidelity of communications. In-orbit performance includes processing engineering, scientific, experiment, and biomedical data, implementing ground-generated commands, audio and video communication, generating rendezvous ranging information, and radio frequency transmission and reception. A history of the system evolution based on the functional requirements and a physical description of the launch configuration is included. The report affirms that the instrumentation and communication system satisfied all imposed requirements.

  2. National Communication Systems; Some Policy Issues and Options. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerlad, E. Lloyd

    To assist policy-makers with the establishment of national communications policies and the harmonization of institutional policies as part of national development planning, policy issues and options are identified and discussed. The functions of communication in society are defined and the structure of the system detailed, with descriptions of…

  3. Introduction to Communication Science and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    This book is designed to serve as a textbook for a three quarter or two semester upper division or graduate course for beginners interested in the wide range of topics essential to communication systems. It covers antennas and transmission, thermal noise and its consequences, Fourier transforms, modulation and noise, sample and pulse code modulation, autocorrelation and power spectrum, optimum filtering, gaussian noise and errors in digital transmission, data transmission limits on data rate, and source encoding.The book is divided into 13 chapters, each of which is divided into about 10 sections, and each section is followed by a list of about three problems on the material in that section. A list of further reading is included for each chapter as is a comprehensive index. The book is written for students of electrical engineering, but the authors state in their introduction that physicists, earth scientists, and astronomers who must detect signals in their work can use this book to learn about the limits of detectability of signals. I would agree with the authors and say there is more than that. I found many examples of techniques that I had heard of over the years and wondered at how they worked but had never delved into, such as convolutional coding (and decoding), which is used to reduce the number of bit errors in satellite transmissions.

  4. Designing Energy Efficient Communication Runtime Systems: A View from PGAS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Song, Shuaiwen; Marquez, Andres; Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Cameron, Kirk; Balaji, Pavan

    2011-10-06

    As the march to the Exascale computing gains momentum, energy consumption of supercomputers has emerged to be the critical roadblock. While architectural innovations are imperative in achieving computing of this scale, it is largely dependent on the systems software to leverage the architectural innovations. Parallel applications in many computationally intensive domains have been designed to leverage these supercomputers, with legacy two-sided communication semantics using Message Passing Interface. At the same time, Partitioned Global Address Space Models are being designed which provide global address space abstractions and one-sided communication for exploiting data locality and communication optimizations. PGAS models rely on one-sided communication runtime systems for leveraging high-speed networks to achieve best possible performance. In this paper, we present a design for Power Aware One-Sided Communication Library - PASCoL. The proposed design detects communication slack, leverages Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) and Interrupt driven execution to exploit the detected slack for energy efficiency. We implement our design and evaluate it using synthetic benchmarks for one-sided communication primitives, Put, Get and Accumulate and uniformly non-contiguous data transfers. Our performance evaluation indicates that we can achieve significant reduction in energy consumption without performance loss on multiple one-sided communication primitives. The achieved results are close to the theoretical peak available with the experimental test bed.

  5. Resource Sharing in the Systemic Context of Scholarly Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grycz, Czeslaw Jan

    1997-01-01

    Surveys resource sharing among libraries in the cycle of scholarly communication. Highlights include emergence of digital technologies; coherence within disciplines; collection development and innovative solutions; digital works for world knowledge; National Periodicals Center; subscription cancellations; electronic documents; new research areas;…

  6. A wireless diabetes management and communication system.

    PubMed

    Vigersky, Robert A; Hanson, Eric; McDonough, Edward; Rapp, Timothy; Pajak, John; Galen, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Current diabetes management requires the collection of a large volume of data by the patient for analysis by his or her provider. There are numerous practical and technical barriers to doing this effectively and efficiently. In addition, the calculation of the correct insulin dose is complex because it requires considering anticipated carbohydrate consumption and exercise in addition to the current blood glucose level. A Diabetes Management and Communication System (DMCS) has been developed using a Compaq iPAQ Pocket PC with a Sprint PCS wireless AirCard. This system circumvents the problem of multiple proprietary programs for each brand of meter and permits the accurate determination of the proper insulin dose. Privacy is maintained by using only the iPAQ serial number as the patient identifier with access to the website protected by unique patient and provider passwords. The iPAQ was programmed with formulas that included: insulin sensitivity factor, current glucose level, amount of carbohydrates, appropriate carbohydrate:insulin ratio for that meal, and duration/intensity of exercise. Once the information is entered, an insulin dose is calculated, although an alternative dose can be selected. The data are downloaded to http://www.HealthSentry.net, where they are displayed in both tabular and graphic form. The patient may view the glucose data in both tabular and graphic form on the iPAQ. Thus a DMCS has been developed to assist patients and providers in improving glycemic control. A proof-of-concept study is underway to determine the effectiveness of the DMCS in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who are currently using insulin pumps. PMID:14511424

  7. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS), Installation Guide for FEMIS 1.4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Dunkle, J.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gackle, P.P.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Stephan, A.J.; Millard, W.D.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  8. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Data Management Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, L.K.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Hoza, M.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  9. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Response to a Community-Based Information and Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtman, Leon E.; And Others

    A study investigated the introduction of an experimental school-centered and neighborhood-oriented communication system in a small midwestern town. It was anticipated that normal parent-teacher-school communication would be enhanced by the electronic messaging potential of the system. Researchers observed the entire adoption process from the…

  11. Intra- and Intercellular Communication Systems in Ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görtz, H.-D.; Kuhlmann, H.-W.; Möllenbeck, M.; Tiedtke, A.; Kusch, J.; Schmidt, H. J.; Miyake, A.

    Intracellular signaling and cell-cell interactions are basic features of living organisms. Ciliated protozoa show complex mechanisms of intracellular signaling, as is demonstrated for the phagosomal pathway. Although unicellular, ciliates also communicate with other cells, for example, with invading or symbiotic micro-organisms, some of which are dwelling in the nuclei. In predator-prey interactions chemical signals (kairomones) released by certain predators induce defensive morphological or behavioral changes in the prey ciliates. In intercellular communication sensu strictu ciliate cells communicate with each other, for example, in sexual propagation. A variety of sexual signals have been found to function in preconjugant interaction. Many phenomena of cellular communication in ciliates appear to be similar to those found in multicellular organisms.

  12. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy.

    PubMed

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  13. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  14. Technology Assessment for the Future Aeronautical Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    To address emerging saturation in the VHF aeronautical bands allocated internationally for air traffic management communications, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has requested development of a common global solution through its Aeronautical Communications Panel (ACP). In response, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Eurocontrol initiated a joint study, with the support of NASA and U.S. and European contractors, to provide major findings on alternatives and recommendations to the ICAO ACP Working Group C (WG-C). Under an FAA/Eurocontrol cooperative research and development agreement, ACP WG-C Action Plan 17 (AP-17), commonly referred to as the Future Communications Study (FCS), NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the investigation of potential communications technologies that support the long-term mobile communication operational concepts of the FCS. This report documents the results of the first phase of the technology assessment and recommendations referred to in the Technology Pre-Screening Task 3.1 of AP-17. The prescreening identifies potential technologies that are under development in the industry and provides an initial assessment against a harmonized set of evaluation criteria that address high level capabilities, projected maturity for the time frame for usage in aviation, and potential applicability to aviation. A wide variety of candidate technologies were evaluated from several communications service categories including: cellular telephony; IEEE-802.xx standards; public safety radio; satellite and over-the-horizon communications; custom narrowband VHF; custom wideband; and military communications.

  15. Space Shuttle program communication and tracking systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R. S.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Sampaio, D. R.; Udalov, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program Communications and Tracking Systems Interface Analysis began April 18, 1983. During this time, the shuttle communication and tracking systems began flight testing. Two areas of analysis documented were a result of observations made during flight tests. These analyses involved the Ku-band communication system. First, there was a detailed analysis of the interface between the solar max data format and the Ku-band communication system including the TDRSS ground station. The second analysis involving the Ku-band communication system was an analysis of the frequency lock loop of the Gunn oscillator used to generate the transmit frequency. The stability of the frequency lock loop was investigated and changes to the design were reviewed to alleviate the potential loss of data due the loop losing lock and entering the reacquisition mode. Other areas of investigation were the S-band antenna analysis and RF coverage analysis.

  16. a System Design and Analysis for Satellite Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae-Jin; Eun, Jong-Won

    2000-12-01

    A satellite RF communication link is analyzed based on a simple fundamental equations by systematic approach in this paper. The number of variables related to a design and analysis of satellite RF link is often a dozen or more, thus it is a tedious and time-consuming task. With the given input data, the important parameters are calculated step by step and three communication characteristics such as communication channel capacity, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the satellite and ground station are analyzed. It gives very useful information to the system engineers for designing and analyzing the overall satellite communication system in the conceptual design phase.

  17. Mexican Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Method: Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention…

  18. Integrating Emerging Topics through Online Team Design in a Hybrid Communication Networks Course: Interaction Patterns and Impact of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisslein, Jana; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge in the introductory communication networks course in electrical and computer engineering curricula is to integrate emerging topics, such as wireless Internet access and network security, into the already content-intensive course. At the same time it is essential to provide students with experiences in online collaboration,…

  19. Exploring the Relation between Memory, Gestural Communication, and the Emergence of Language in Infancy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimann, Mikael; Strid, Karin; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between recall memory, visual recognition memory, social communication, and the emergence of language skills was measured in a longitudinal study. Thirty typically developing Swedish children were tested at 6, 9 and 14 months. The result showed that, in combination, visual recognition memory at 6 months, deferred imitation at 9…

  20. Emergency health risk communication during the 2007 San Diego wildfires: comprehension, compliance, and recall.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, David E; Keir, Jane M; Dee, Deborah L; Lipman, Harvey; Waterman, Stephen H; Ginsberg, Michele; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    In October 2007, wildfires burned nearly 300,000 acres in San Diego County, California. Emergency risk communication messages were broadcast to reduce community exposure to air pollution caused by the fires. The objective of this investigation was to determine residents' exposure to, understanding of, and compliance with these messages. From March to June 2008, the authors surveyed San Diego County residents using a 40-question instrument and random digit dialing. The 1,802 respondents sampled were predominantly 35-64 years old (65.9%), White (65.5%), and educated past high school (79.0%). Most (82.5%) lived more than 1 mile away from the fires, although many were exposed to smoky air for 5-7 days (60.7%) inside and outside their homes. Most persons surveyed reported hearing fire-related health messages (87.9%) and nearly all (97.9%) understood the messages they heard. Respondents complied with most to all of the nontechnical health messages, including staying inside the home (58.7%), avoiding outdoor exercise (88.4%), keeping windows and doors closed (75.8%), and wetting ash before cleanup (75.6%). In contrast, few (<5%) recalled hearing technical messages to place air conditioners on recirculate, use High-Efficiency Particulate Air filters, or use N-95 respirators during ash cleanup, and less than 10% of all respondents followed these specific recommendations. The authors found that nontechnical message recall, understanding, and compliance were high during the wildfires, and reported recall and compliance with technical messages were much lower. Future disaster health communication should further explore barriers to recall and compliance with technical recommendations. PMID:22494384