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Sample records for emergency communications prior

  1. Disaster and emergency communications prior to computers/Internet: a review.

    PubMed

    Farnham, John W

    2006-02-01

    When communications are needed the most desperately and most urgently, the difficulty of effecting the desired communications increases exponentially. Recent natural disasters in different parts of the world have provided eloquent testament to this. The history of disaster or emergency communications can provide us with a foundation for understanding the problems encountered today, and can offer us insight into how we might improve the systems and processes for communications. The first applications of communication technology that allowed messages to be sent more rapidly than the fastest form of transportation were mainly military in origin. This review takes us from the days of optical or visual telegraphy, through the early development of mobile and radio communications, and up to the current sophisticated technologies. We pay particular attention to the use of amateur radio operators in times of emergency, and relate their activities to those of the most effective military communications. The germane assumption made in this discussion is that any emergency or disaster communications would necessarily be involved in response and resolution of medical aspects of those emergencies. PMID:16420649

  2. Disaster and emergency communications prior to computers/Internet: a review

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, John W

    2006-01-01

    When communications are needed the most desperately and most urgently, the difficulty of effecting the desired communications increases exponentially. Recent natural disasters in different parts of the world have provided eloquent testament to this. The history of disaster or emergency communications can provide us with a foundation for understanding the problems encountered today, and can offer us insight into how we might improve the systems and processes for communications. The first applications of communication technology that allowed messages to be sent more rapidly than the fastest form of transportation were mainly military in origin. This review takes us from the days of optical or visual telegraphy, through the early development of mobile and radio communications, and up to the current sophisticated technologies. We pay particular attention to the use of amateur radio operators in times of emergency, and relate their activities to those of the most effective military communications. The germane assumption made in this discussion is that any emergency or disaster communications would necessarily be involved in response and resolution of medical aspects of those emergencies. PMID:16420649

  3. Integrating Emerging Topics through Online Team Design in a Hybrid Communication Networks Course: Interaction Patterns and Impact of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisslein, Jana; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge in the introductory communication networks course in electrical and computer engineering curricula is to integrate emerging topics, such as wireless Internet access and network security, into the already content-intensive course. At the same time it is essential to provide students with experiences in online collaboration,…

  4. Emergency Communications Console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA has applied its communications equipment expertise to development of a communications console that provides, in a compact package only slightly larger than an electric typewriter, all the emergency medical services communications functions needed for a regional hospital. A prototype unit, built by Johnson Space Center, has been installed in the Odessa (Texas) Medical Center Hospital. The hospital is the medical control center for the 17-county Permian Basin Emergency Medical System in west Texas. The console project originated in response to a request to NASA from the Texas governor's office, which sought a better way of providing emergency medical care in rural areas. Because ambulance travel time is frequently long in remote areas of west Texas, it is important that treatment begin at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital emergency room. A radio and telephone system linking ambulance emergency technicians and hospital staff makes this possible. But earlier equipment was complex, requiring specialized operators. A highly reliable system was needed to minimize breakdowns and provide controls of utmost simplicity, so that the system could be operated by physicians and nurses rather than by communications specialists. The resulting console has both radio and telephone sections. With the radio equipment, hospital personnel can communicate with ambulance drivers and paramedics, receive incoming electrocardiagrams, consult with other hospitals, page hospital staff and set up a radio-to-telephone "patch." The telephone portion of the system includes a hotline from the Permian Basin Emergency Medical Service's resource control center, an automatic dialer for contacting special care facilities in the Permian Basin network, a hospital intercom terminal and a means of relaying cardioscope displays and other data between hospitals. The integrated system also provides links with local disaster and civil defense organizations and with emergency "Dial 911

  5. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  6. How do communication systems emerge?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a theoretical perspective why this should be the case, nor if there are any other routes to communication. Here, we develop an analytical model to examine how communication can emerge. We show that: (i) a state of non-interaction is evolutionarily stable, and so communication will not necessarily emerge even when it is in both parties' interest; (ii) the conditions for sensory manipulation are more stringent than for ritualization, and hence ritualization is likely to be more common; and (iii) communication can arise by a third route, when the intention to communicate can itself be communicated, but this may be limited to humans. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of a functional approach to communication. PMID:22217724

  7. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  8. 47 CFR 90.407 - Emergency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency communications. 90.407 Section 90.407... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.407 Emergency communications. The licensee of any station authorized under this part may, during a period of emergency in which the normal...

  9. 49 CFR 238.121 - Emergency communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency communication. 238.121 Section 238.121... § 238.121 Emergency communication. (a) PA system (public address system). (1) Existing Tier I passenger... emergency situation. (2) New Tier I and all Tier II passenger cars. Each Tier I passenger car ordered on...

  10. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  11. 47 CFR 90.407 - Emergency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency communications. 90.407 Section 90.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... station authorized under this part may, during a period of emergency in which the normal...

  12. 49 CFR 238.121 - Emergency communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency communication. 238.121 Section 238.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.121 Emergency communication....

  13. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  14. Communication Between Professionals During Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana, Carmen; Spiller, Claire

    2007-07-01

    Successful communication between scientists, officials, media, and the public is imperative during a volcanic crisis. Misunderstanding can lead to confusion and distrust, and it ultimately can transform an emergency into a disaster.

  15. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 4 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG), and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures on a 24/7 basis. ECT is a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. This is the fourth year of the project.

  16. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  17. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  18. Emergence of Leadership in Communication.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2016-01-01

    We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well-e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents-in particular, on their inertia against state changes. PMID:27532484

  19. Emergence of Leadership in Communication

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2016-01-01

    We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well—e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents—in particular, on their inertia against state changes. PMID:27532484

  20. Evolutionary Conditions for the Emergence of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, Sara; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    Communication plays a central role in the biology of most organisms, particularly social species. Although the neurophysiological processes of signal production and perception are well understood, the conditions conducive to the evolution of reliable systems of communication remain largely unknown. This is a particularly challenging problem because efficient communication requires tight coevolution between the signal emitted and the response elicited. We conducted experimental evolution with robots that could produce visual signals to provide information on food location. We found that communication readily evolves when colonies consist of genetically similar individuals and when selection acts at the colony level. We identified several distinct communication systems that differed in their efficiency. Once a given system of communication was well established, it constrained the evolution of more efficient communication systems. Under individual selection, the ability to produce visual signals resulted in the evolution of deceptive communication strategies in colonies of unrelated robots and a concomitant decrease in colony performance. This study generates predictions about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of communication and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous communication.

  1. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To... preparedness communications between pipeline operators and emergency responders. To ensure a prompt,...

  2. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. PMID:22084861

  3. Emerging technologies for communication satellite payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüceer, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in payload designs will allow more flexible and efficient use of telecommunication satellites. Important modifications in repeater designs, antenna structures and spectrum policies open up exciting opportunities for GEO satellites to support a variety of emerging applications, ranging from telemedicine to real-time data transfer between LEO satellite and ground station. This study gives information about the emerging technologies in the design of communication satellites' transceiver subsystem and demonstrates the feasibility of using fiber optic links for the local oscillator distribution in future satellite payloads together with the optical inter-satellite link.

  4. 30 CFR 57.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18013 Emergency communications system. A suitable communication system shall be provided at the mine to obtain assistance in the event of an emergency. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency communications system....

  5. Astronauts Grissom and Young discuss test plan prior to communications test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (left), the command pilot, and John W. Young, the co-pilot, are shown discussing test plan prior to entering the Gemini Spacecraft 3 for communications test at the Merritt Island Test area.

  6. Directional navigation improves opportunistic communication for emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kokuti, Andras; Gelenbe, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  7. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Kokuti, Andras.; Gelenbe, Erol.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  8. Achieving reliable communication in dynamic emergency responses.

    PubMed

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  9. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  10. 76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Register on April 20, 2011, at 76 FR 22114, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no comments... SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1701 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mine shall establish and maintain a communication system from the mine to the nearest point of medical assistance for use in an emergency. (b) The emergency communication system required to be... any other means of prompt communication to any facility (for example, the local sheriff, the...

  12. 30 CFR 56.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs § 56.18013 Emergency communications system. A suitable communication system shall be provided at... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 56.18013 Section 56.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1713-2 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain a communication system from the mine to the nearest point of medical assistance for use in an emergency. (b) The emergency communication system required to be maintained under paragraph (a) of this § 75... communication to any facility (for example, the local sheriff, the State highway patrol, or local...

  14. 30 CFR 56.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 56.18013 Section 56.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18013 Emergency communications...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1713-2 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications; requirements. 75.1713-2 Section 75.1713-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-2 Emergency communications; requirements. (a)...

  16. 23 CFR 636.406 - Are communications allowed prior to establishing the competitive range?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are communications allowed prior to establishing the competitive range? 636.406 Section 636.406 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Exchanges § 636.406 Are...

  17. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  18. Communication Support System in Emergency Considering Dynamic Connection of Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yasumasa; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    It is frequently observed in emergent situation that important information does not reach to an right person or department in the organization because of the confusion after the emergency or in some case because of lack of knowledge on contact address. This phenomenon happens especially when different organizations are connected dynamically in emergency and it is very important to support communication in emergent situations. This paper deals with a communication support system considering dynamic organizational connection in emergency. The system is based on the communication model that considers human related factors such as “competence", “duty", “responsibility" and “knowledge" in organization. On the basis of the model, a communication support system to give contact address depending on the situation is designed and a prototype system with GUI is developed.

  19. Relevant priors prefetching algorithm performance for a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Andriole, K P; Avrin, D E; Yin, L; Gould, R G; Luth, D M; Arenson, R L

    2000-05-01

    Proper prefetching of relevant prior examinations from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive, when a patient is scheduled for a new imaging study, and sending the historic images to the display station where the new examination is expected to be routed and subsequently read out, can greatly facilitate interpretation and review, as well as enhance radiology departmental workflow and PACS performance. In practice, it has proven extremely difficult to implement an automatic prefetch as successful as the experienced fileroom clerk. An algorithm based on defined metagroup categories for examination type mnemonics has been designed and implemented as one possible solution to the prefetch problem. The metagroups such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract, abdomen, chest, etc, can represent, in a small number of categories, the several hundreds of examination types performed by a typical radiology department. These metagroups can be defined in a table of examination mnemonics that maps a particular mnemonic to a metagroup or groups, and vice versa. This table is used to effect the prefetch rules of relevance. A given examination may relate to several prefetch categories, and preferences are easily configurable for a particular site. The prefetch algorithm metatable was implemented in database structured query language (SQL) using a many-to-many fetch category strategy. Algorithm performance was measured by analyzing the appropriateness of the priors fetched based on the examination type of the current study. Fetched relevant priors, missed relevant priors, fetched priors that were not relevant to the current examination, and priors not fetched that were not relevant were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity for the prefetch method. The time required for real-time requesting of priors not previously prefetched was also measured. The sensitivity of the prefetch algorithm was determined to be 98.3% and the specificity 100%. Time required for on

  20. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  1. DETECTION OF THE HORIZONTAL DIVERGENT FLOW PRIOR TO THE SOLAR FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that solar active regions including sunspots are formed by the emerging magnetic flux from the deep convection zone. In previous numerical simulations, we found that the horizontal divergent flow (HDF) occurs before the flux emergence at the photospheric height. This paper reports the HDF detection prior to the flux emergence of NOAA AR 11081, which is located away from the disk center. We use SDO/HMI data to study the temporal changes of the Doppler and magnetic patterns from those of the reference quiet Sun. As a result, the HDF appearance is found to come before the flux emergence by about 100 minutes. Also, the horizontal speed of the HDF during this time gap is estimated to be 0.6-1.5 km s{sup -1}, up to 2.3 km s{sup -1}. The HDF is caused by the plasma escaping horizontally from the rising magnetic flux. And the interval between the HDF and the flux emergence may reflect the latency during which the magnetic flux beneath the solar surface is waiting for the instability onset to the further emergence. Moreover, SMART H{alpha} images show that the chromospheric plages appear about 14 minutes later, located cospatial with the photospheric pores. This indicates that the plages are caused by plasma flowing down along the magnetic fields that connect the pores at their footpoints. One important result of observing the HDF may be the possibility of predicting the sunspot appearances that occur in several hours.

  2. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  3. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION:...

  4. 76 FR 22114 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments; New Information...

  5. An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were…

  6. An Emerging Interactional Theory of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Martin J.

    An interactional model of communication can be based on Erving Goffman's concept of the "interaction order" and the conversation analytic focus on meaning. Three sets of related ideas provide the intellectual foundations for this approach: actions are designed for recipients; talk is multi-functional; and self presentation is semiotic. These…

  7. STS-41 crewmembers don LESs prior to emergency egress training in JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers don launch and entry suits (LESs) prior to emergency egress training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). Left to right, in their thermal underwear, are Commander Richard N. Richards, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce E. Melnick, MS William M. Shepherd, and MS Thomas D. Akers. Training personnel assist crewmembers with LES donning and oversee suit donning activity. Richards is covering his hair with a cap which will facilitate pulling the LES neck dam over his head.

  8. Cerebral coherence between communicators marks the emergence of meaning.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Verhagen, Lennart; Volman, Inge; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Oostenveld, Robert; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-12-23

    How can we understand each other during communicative interactions? An influential suggestion holds that communicators are primed by each other's behaviors, with associative mechanisms automatically coordinating the production of communicative signals and the comprehension of their meanings. An alternative suggestion posits that mutual understanding requires shared conceptualizations of a signal's use, i.e., "conceptual pacts" that are abstracted away from specific experiences. Both accounts predict coherent neural dynamics across communicators, aligned either to the occurrence of a signal or to the dynamics of conceptual pacts. Using coherence spectral-density analysis of cerebral activity simultaneously measured in pairs of communicators, this study shows that establishing mutual understanding of novel signals synchronizes cerebral dynamics across communicators' right temporal lobes. This interpersonal cerebral coherence occurred only within pairs with a shared communicative history, and at temporal scales independent from signals' occurrences. These findings favor the notion that meaning emerges from shared conceptualizations of a signal's use. PMID:25489093

  9. Signalling Signalhood and the Emergence of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Kirby, Simon; Ritchie, Graham R. S.

    2009-01-01

    A unique hallmark of human language is that it uses signals that are both learnt and symbolic. The emergence of such signals was therefore a defining event in human cognitive evolution, yet very little is known about how such a process occurs. Previous work provides some insights on how meaning can become attached to form, but a more foundational…

  10. Efficient implementation of bipartite nonlocal unitary gates using prior entanglement and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Li; Griffiths, Robert B.; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-06-15

    Any bipartite nonlocal unitary operation can be carried out by teleporting a quantum state from one party to the other, performing the unitary gate locally, and teleporting a state back again. This paper investigates unitaries which can be carried out using less prior entanglement and classical communication than are needed for teleportation. Large families of such unitaries are constructed using (projective) representations of finite groups. Among the tools employed are: a diagrammatic approach for representing entangled states, a theorem on the necessary absence of information at certain times and locations, and a representation of bipartite unitaries based on a group Fourier transform.

  11. Communicating the threat of emerging infections to the public.

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, V.; Linnan, H. W.; Potter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Communication theory and techniques, aided by the electronic revolution, provide new opportunities and challenges for the effective transfer of laboratory, epidemiologic, surveillance, and other public health data to the public who funds them. We review the applicability of communication theory, particularly the audience-source-message-channel meta-model, to emerging infectious disease issues. Emergence of new infectious organisms, microbial resistance to therapeutic drugs, and increased emphasis on prevention have expanded the role of communication as a vital component of public health practice. In the absence of cure, as in AIDS and many other public health problems, an effectively crafted and disseminated prevention message is the key control measure. Applying communication theory to disease prevention messages can increase the effectiveness of the messages and improve public health. PMID:10905966

  12. Resuscitation Prior to Emergency Endotracheal Intubation: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Green, Robert S.; Fergusson, Dean A.; Turgeon, Alexis F.; McIntyre, Lauralyn A.; Kovacs, George J.; Griesdale, Donald E.; Zarychanski, Ryan; Butler, Michael B.; Kureshi, Nelofar; Erdogan, Mete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory failure is a common problem in emergency medicine (EM) and critical care medicine (CCM). However, little is known about the resuscitation of critically ill patients prior to emergency endotracheal intubation (EETI). Our aim was to describe the resuscitation practices of EM and CCM physicians prior to EETI. Methods A cross-sectional survey was developed and tested for content validity and retest reliability by members of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. The questionnaire was distributed to all EM and CCM physician members of three national organizations. Using three clinical scenarios (trauma, pneumonia, congestive heart failure), we assessed physician preferences for use and types of fluid and vasopressor medication in pre-EETI resuscitation of critically ill patients. Results In total, 1,758 physicians were surveyed (response rate 50.2%, 882/1,758). Overall, physicians would perform pre-EETI resuscitation using either fluids or vasopressors in 54% (1,193/2,203) of cases. Most physicians would “always/often” administer intravenous fluid pre-EETI in the three clinical scenarios (81%, 1,484/1,830). Crystalloids were the most common fluid physicians would “always/often” administer in congestive heart failure (EM 43%; CCM 44%), pneumonia (EM 97%; CCM 95%) and trauma (EM 96%; CCM 96%). Pre-EETI resuscitation using vasopressors was uncommon (4.9%). Training in CCM was associated with performing pre-EETI resuscitation (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, [1.44–3.36], p<0.001). Conclusion Pre-EETI resuscitation is common among Canadian EM and CCM physicians. Most physicians use crystalloids pre-EETI as a resuscitation fluid, while few would give vasopressors. Physicians with CCM training were more likely to perform pre-EETI resuscitation. PMID:27625717

  13. Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time. PMID:23521890

  14. 30 CFR 77.1701 - Emergency communications; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications; requirements. 77.1701 Section 77.1701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  15. 30 CFR 57.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 57.18013 Section 57.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs Surface and Underground §...

  16. The application of mobile satellite services to emergency response communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freibaum, J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of an integrated satellite/terrestrial emergency response communications system in disaster relief operations is discussed. Large area coverage communications capability, full-time availability, a high degree of mobility, plus reliability, are pointed out as criteria for an effective emergency communications system. Response time is seen as a major factor determining the possible survival and/or protection of property. These criteria, can not be met by existing communications systems and complete blackouts were experienced during the past decades caused by either interruption or destruction of existing power lines, and overload or inadequacy of remaining lines. Several emergency cases, caused by either hurricanes, tornados, or floods, during which communication via satellite was instrumental to inform rescue and relief teams, are described in detail. Seismic Risk Maps and charts of Major Tectonic Plates Earthquake Epicenters are given, and it is noted that, 35 percent of the U.S. population is living in critical areas. National and international agreements for the implementation of a satellite-aided global Search and Rescue Program is mentioned. Technological and economic breakthroughs are still needed in large multibeam antennas, switching circuits, and low cost mobile ground terminals. A pending plan of NASA to initiate a multiservice program in 1982/83, with a Land Mobile Satellite capability operating in the 806 - 890 MHz band as a major element, may help to accelerate the needed breakthroughs.

  17. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns1

    PubMed Central

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:21625405

  18. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the greater challenges the Army faces is effectively dealing with the concerns of the public, local officials and the news media on the disposal of aging chemical agents. This paper describes the method developed for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). The purpose was to provide a fairly comprehensive document on risk communication research and recommended practices as they related to the CSEPP. Using the communications perspective suggested by Covello and colleagues, the existing practices of communicating risk information about chemical weapons and the associated efforts in emergency planning, storage and eventual disposal are described. Risk communication problems specific to the CSEPP are then examined and described via scenarios. A framework is developed that distinguishes between the major components of risk communication, flow and intent. Within this framework, the research and recommendations are summarized as to direction of flow -- dialogue, or two-way interaction, versus monologue, or one-way communication -- and that of intent -- exchange versus persuasion. The findings and recommendations are synthesized and related to risk events for the CSEPP as posited in the scenarios.

  19. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  20. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  1. [Ethics in pediatric emergencies: Care access, communication, and confidentiality].

    PubMed

    Benoit, J; Berdah, L; Carlier-Gonod, A; Guillou, T; Kouche, C; Patte, M; Schneider, M; Talcone, S; Chappuy, H

    2015-05-01

    Children suffer most from today's increasing precariousness. In France, access to care is available for all children through various structures and existing measures. The support for foreign children is overseen by specific legislation often unfamiliar to caregivers. Pediatric emergencies, their location, organization, actors, and patient flow are a particular environment that is not always suitable to communication and may lead to situations of abuse. Communication should not be forgotten because of the urgency of the situation. The place of the child in the dialogue is often forgotten. Considering the triangular relationship, listening to the child and involving the parents in care are the basis for a good therapeutic alliance. Privacy and medical confidentiality in pediatric emergencies are governed by law. However, changes in treatments and medical practices along with the variety of actors involved imply both individual and collective limitations, to the detriment of medical confidentiality. PMID:25840466

  2. Cerebral coherence between communicators marks the emergence of meaning

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Verhagen, Lennart; Volman, Inge; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Oostenveld, Robert; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    How can we understand each other during communicative interactions? An influential suggestion holds that communicators are primed by each other’s behaviors, with associative mechanisms automatically coordinating the production of communicative signals and the comprehension of their meanings. An alternative suggestion posits that mutual understanding requires shared conceptualizations of a signal’s use, i.e., “conceptual pacts” that are abstracted away from specific experiences. Both accounts predict coherent neural dynamics across communicators, aligned either to the occurrence of a signal or to the dynamics of conceptual pacts. Using coherence spectral-density analysis of cerebral activity simultaneously measured in pairs of communicators, this study shows that establishing mutual understanding of novel signals synchronizes cerebral dynamics across communicators’ right temporal lobes. This interpersonal cerebral coherence occurred only within pairs with a shared communicative history, and at temporal scales independent from signals’ occurrences. These findings favor the notion that meaning emerges from shared conceptualizations of a signal’s use. PMID:25489093

  3. Emerging Definition of Next-Generation of Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Aviation continues to experience rapid growth. In regions such as the United States and Europe air traffic congestion is constraining operations, leading to major new efforts to develop methodologies and infrastructures to enable continued aviation growth through transformational air traffic management systems. Such a transformation requires better communications linking airborne and ground-based elements. Technologies for next-generation communications, the required capacities, frequency spectrum of operation, network interconnectivity, and global interoperability are now receiving increased attention. A number of major planning and development efforts have taken place or are in process now to define the transformed airspace of the future. These activities include government and industry led efforts in the United States and Europe, and by international organizations. This paper will review the features, approaches, and activities of several representative planning and development efforts, and identify the emerging global consensus on requirements of next generation aeronautical communications systems for air traffic control.

  4. EM Talk: communication skills training for emergency medicine patients with serious illness.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Emlet, Lillian L; Kuntz, Joanne; Shreves, Ashley; Zimny, Erin; Gang, Maureen; Schaulis, Monique; Schmidt, Scott; Isaacs, Eric; Arnold, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The emergency department visit for a patient with serious illness represents a sentinel event, signalling a change in the illness trajectory. By better understanding patient and family wishes, emergency physicians can reinforce advance care plans and ensure the hospital care provided matches the patient's values. Despite their importance in care at the end of life, emergency physicians have received little training on how to talk to seriously ill patients and their families about goals of care. To expand communication skills training to emergency medicine, we developed a programme to give emergency medicine physicians the ability to empathically deliver serious news and to talk about goals of care. We have built on lessons from prior studies to design an intervention employing the most effective pedagogical techniques, including the use of simulated patients/families, role-playing and small group learning with constructive feedback from master clinicians. Here, we describe our evidence-based communication skills training course EM Talk using simulation, reflective feedback and deliberate practice. PMID:26762163

  5. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... on the role of DACA, the communication service architecture and various DACA platform...

  6. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552

  7. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letertre, Thierry; Monebhurrun, Vikass; Toffano, Zeno

    2013-04-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  8. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module XV. Telemetry and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on telemetry and communications is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Two units of study are presented: (1) emergency medical services communications systems (items of equipment and such radio communications concepts as frequency allocation,…

  9. Emerging, Photonic Based Technologies for NASA Space Communications Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Levi, Anthony; Bos, Philip; Titus, Charles; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An objective of NASA's Computing, Information, and Communications Technology program is to support the development of technologies that could potentially lower the cost of the Earth science and space exploration missions, and result in greater scientific returns. NASA-supported photonic activities which will impact space communications will be described. The objective of the RF microphotonic research is to develop a Ka-band receiver that will enable the microwaves detected by an antenna to modulate a 1.55- micron optical carrier. A key element is the high-Q, microphotonic modulator that employs a lithium niobate microdisk. The technical approach could lead to new receivers that utilize ultra-fast, photonic signal processing techniques, and are low cost, compact, low weight and power efficient. The progress in the liquid crystal (LC) beam steering research will also be reported. The predicted benefits of an LC-based device on board a spacecraft include non-mechanical, submicroradian laser-beam pointing, milliradian scanning ranges, and wave-front correction. The potential applications of these emerging technologies to the various NASA missions will be presented.

  10. STS-48 crewmembers don their LES boots prior to JSC emergency egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot Kenneth D. Reightler, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) sit while technicians help them don their boots. The crewmembers are donning the LES attire in preparation for post-landing emergency egress exercises. When suited the crewmembers will board JSC's Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), a space shuttle mockup, for the simulation. The FFT is located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  11. Communicating College Learning through Noncourse Matching: An Approach to Writing the Prior Learning Assessment Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) brings students into active and reflective engagement with significant life experiences at the nexus of academic and nonacademic cultures. When done successfully, PLA orients students to academic ways of thinking and writing while encouraging self-exploration. Often students feel a sense of empowerment and…

  12. Optimizing local protocols for implementing bipartite nonlocal unitary gates using prior entanglement and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-06-15

    We present a method of optimizing recently designed protocols for implementing an arbitrary nonlocal unitary gate acting on a bipartite system. These protocols use only local operations and classical communication with the assistance of entanglement, and they are deterministic while also being 'one-shot', in that they use only one copy of an entangled resource state. The optimization minimizes the amount of entanglement needed, and also the amount of classical communication, and it is often the case that less of each of these resources is needed than with an alternative protocol using two-way teleportation.

  13. STS-48 crewmembers don their LESs prior to JSC emergency egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot Kenneth D. Reightler stand while technicians zip up the backs of their launch and entry suits (LESs). Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar (far right), with his legs in the LES pants, prepares to pull the upper portion over his head. The crewmembers are donning the LESs in preparation for post-landing emergency egress exercises. When suited the crewmembers will board JSC's Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), a space shuttle mockup, for the simulation. The FFT is located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  14. Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic Spread▿

    PubMed Central

    Metzgar, David; Baynes, Darcie; Myers, Christopher A.; Kammerer, Peter; Unabia, Michelle; Faix, Dennis J.; Blair, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of febrile respiratory illness associated with untypeable influenza A virus were identified in Southern California in March 2009. One was initially detected as influenza virus using an experimental diagnostic device in a clinical trial, while the other was detected at a local reference lab using a diagnostic PCR assay. In both cases, analyses yielded negative results for strain-specific tests targeting circulating strains of influenza A virus (seasonal H1 and H3). These two samples became the first reported cases of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza virus. The first reportable characterization was made from the second collected specimen on 15 April 2009 at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention central lab using traditional culture and sequencing methods. The novel nature of the strain and its apparent zoonotic origins were initially characterized using the first collected specimen at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, CA, on 13 April using an experimental molecular analysis tool, PCR electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS), designed to amplify PCR products from any strain of influenza virus and to generate informative (phylogenetic) strain identifications through mass spectrometry of PCR amplicons. The ability of this high-throughput tool to correctly identify both well-characterized and novel influenza strains offers the possibility to integrate surveillance for emerging strains with on-site rapid diagnosis used for patient management, shortening the times between the emergence of new strains, their detection and identification, and appropriate public health response activities. Here we describe the initial characterization of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza strain and discuss the possible roles of diagnostic tools with discovery potential. PMID:20861338

  15. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. PMID:26575785

  16. Self-Reported Usual Care for Self-Directed Violence during the Six Months Prior to Emergency Department Admission

    PubMed Central

    Comtois, Katherine Anne; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Atkins, David C.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Katon, Wayne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature describing the health services individuals receive prior to and following self-directed violence is limited. Objectives This study examines services received for the six months preceding admission to an urban county medical center emergency department for self-directed violence. We predicted that individuals with at least one prior act of self-directed violence in the past six months would have received more services than those for whom the index admission was their only recent act. Method Participants were recruited from emergency department admissions during shifts selected to maximize representativeness. Participants (n=202) were interviewed using the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview, Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Count, Treatment History Interview, MINI, Brief Symptom Index, and SF-12. Results The majority of index acts of self-directed violence (79%) were suicide attempts. The participants were characterized by low socio-economic status, substantial symptomatology, low physical and mental health functioning, and multiple psychiatric diagnoses. In the preceding six months, 34% were admitted to a hospital and 56% received crisis services (including 44% in the ED). While three quarters (76%) had seen an outpatient medical provider and most (70%) received psychotropic medications, less than half of the sample received psychiatric services (40%) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (48%). As predicted, utilization for most types of usual care was higher for those engaging in self-directed violence in the six months preceding the index admission. Conclusions Individuals admitted to this emergency department for self-directed violence received inadequate outpatient psychosocial and psychiatric services despite severe illness and disability. PMID:25494233

  17. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  18. Research in Corporate Communication: An Overview of an Emerging Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Riel, Cees B. M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature in both communication and business school disciplines. Gives three key concepts in such research: corporate identity, corporate reputation, and orchestration of communication. Advocates an interdisciplinary approach…

  19. The Opportunities of Crises and Emergency Risk Communication in Activities of Serbian Public Health Workforce in Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Radović, V; Ćurčić, L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was a recommendation and establishment the concept of the appropriate communication between public health, other competent services and population in emergency as the corner stone which guarantee that all goals which are important for community life will be achieved. Methods: We used methodology appropriate for social science: analyses of documents, historical approach and comparative analysis. Results: The finding shows the urgent need for accepting of crises and emergency risk communication principles, or some similar concepts, in Serbia, and implementing effective two way communication especially in multiethnic region. The pragmatic value of the paper lays in information about the recent improvement of health workforce and emergency services in emergencies using new concept of communication and as source of numerous useful documents published in USA and few recent Serbian examples. Conclusion: Health workforce has significant role in the process of protection of population in emergencies. Policy makers should work on finding a way to improve their coordination and communication, creating new academic programs, providing of adequate training, and financial means in order to give them different role in society and provide visibility. From other side health workforce should build back to the citizen trust in what they are doing for society welfare using all their skills and abilities. PMID:23308348

  20. Emergence of Zipf's law in the evolution of communication.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-03-01

    Zipf's law seems to be ubiquitous in human languages and appears to be a universal property of complex communicating systems. Following the early proposal made by Zipf concerning the presence of a tension between the efforts of speaker and hearer in a communication system, we introduce evolution by means of a variational approach to the problem based on Kullback's Minimum Discrimination of Information Principle. Therefore, using a formalism fully embedded in the framework of information theory, we demonstrate that Zipf's law is the only expected outcome of an evolving communicative system under a rigorous definition of the communicative tension described by Zipf. PMID:21517566

  1. Business E-Mail Communication: Some Emerging Tendencies in Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Julio C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the spoken nature of electronic mail messages has already started to affect business written communication. Examines register and context of the language as well as the style used in commercial electronic mail. (Author/VWL)

  2. Emergence of Linguistic Communication: Studies on Grey Parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    Most studies on the evolution of communication systems concentrate on the primate lineage, ignoring the concept of parallel lines of evolution. Although phylogenetically remote from humans, some birds—particularly Grey parrots—share many cognitive and communicative abilities with humans. On certain tasks, they demonstrate processing abilities comparable to 5-6 year-old humans; they learn very simple vocal syntactic patterns and referential elements of human communication, but only through social interaction and in a manner that proceeds in ways similar to those of humans. Given this knowledge of vocal learning in birds, of the effects of social interaction on such learning, and of birds' complex cognitive abilities, we should not ignore the avian line if we wish to determine the evolutionary pressures that purportedly affected the evolution of complex communication systems—particularly vocal systems—and develop theories and models that can be tested.

  3. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day notice...

  4. 78 FR 69310 - Hazardous Materials Table, Special Provisions, Hazardous Materials Communications, Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 Hazardous Materials Table, Special Provisions, Hazardous Materials Communications, Emergency Response Information, Training Requirements,...

  5. Emergency management communication on university Web sites: A 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly L; Holguin, Gina; Scott, Tara Halbrook

    2016-01-01

    In the last several years, disasters-both manmade and natural-have taken their toll on college campuses. Extant research shows that college campuses have greatly increased their emergency management efforts. One area in which colleges and universities have made strides is emergency management communication. There has been some research examining emergency management communication across campuses, but there is still much to learn. This research fills a gap in this area by investigating the use of university Web sites to disseminate emergency management information to the university stakeholders. Data were gathered in 2007 and 2014 from the Web sites of public, 4-year universities in Indiana. The results show that universities are using the Internet to communicate emergency management information to their stakeholders. Among the most common categories of information available on the Web sites are links to other agencies, university response information, and threat levels. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27575641

  6. The Communication Model: An Emerging Systems Analysis Technique for Continuing Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, H. Griffin

    Continuing educators can gain knowledge about their programs' environments, as well as predict the outcomes of change processes, by utilizing an emerging systems concept called the communication model. Utilization of the communication model involves three steps: (1) diagramming the perceived reality of the organizational system, (2) using the…

  7. 33 CFR 149.325 - What emergency communications equipment must be on a manned deepwater port?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION..., telephone, or other means of emergency communication with the shore, vessels, and facilities in the vicinity in the event the primary communications system outlined in § 149.140 fails. This...

  8. Tumultuous Atmosphere (Physical, Mental), the Main Barrier to Emergency Department Inter-Professional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Varjoshani, Nasrin Jafari; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. Methodology & Methods: This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. Results: In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Conclusion: Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction. PMID:25560351

  9. Collaborative Design in a Networked Multimedia Environment: Emerging Communication Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geri; Grosz-Ngate, Maria

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the activities of engineering students working on a collaborative design project in a distributed multimedia environment. Topics discussed include learning as a social process; face-to-face and video communication; problem-solving techniques; use of interactive media; the construction of knowledge; and group…

  10. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk. PMID:25323463

  11. Three Types of Memory in Emergency Medical Services Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines memory and distributed cognition involved in the writing practices of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Results from a 16-month study indicate that EMS professionals rely on distributed cognition and three kinds of memory: individual, collaborative, and professional. Distributed cognition and the three types of…

  12. Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

  13. The Multi-Dimensional Nature of Emergency Communications Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staman, E. Michael; Katsouros, Mark; Hach, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Within an incredibly short period--perhaps less than twenty-four months--the need for emergency preparedness has risen to a higher level of urgency than at any other time in the history of academe. Large or small, public or private, higher education institutions are seriously considering the dual problems of notification and communications…

  14. Communicating bad news: a model for emergency mental health helpers.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Thomas J; Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the concerns of the messenger/helper who must convey tragic news to individuals and families. It offers a model to be used as a guide to ease the stress on both the deliverer and receiver of bad news. The model uses the mnemonic, PEWTER (Prepare, Evaluate, Warn, Tell, Emotional Response, Regroup), to represent the six components of the communication process. PMID:16944793

  15. Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

    2006-07-01

    Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

  16. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Teaching Communication to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    The new developmental stage of emerging adulthood (age 18-25) offers a framework for thinking about younger millennials in our classrooms. Smith, Christoffersen, Davidson, and Herzog's (2011) profile of emerging adults, based on longitudinal study of over 3200 emerging adults and culminating in 230 in-depth interviews, parallels research of the…

  17. Prior individual training and self-organized queuing during group emergency escape of mice from water pool.

    PubMed

    Saloma, Caesar; Perez, Gay Jane; Gavile, Catherine Ann; Ick-Joson, Jacqueline Judith; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of prior individual training during group emergency evacuation using mice that escape from an enclosed water pool to a dry platform via any of two possible exits. Experimenting with mice avoids serious ethical and legal issues that arise when dealing with unwitting human participants while minimizing concerns regarding the reliability of results obtained from simulated experiments using 'actors'. First, mice were trained separately and their individual escape times measured over several trials. Mice learned quickly to swim towards an exit-they achieved their fastest escape times within the first four trials. The trained mice were then placed together in the pool and allowed to escape. No two mice were permitted in the pool beforehand and only one could pass through an exit opening at any given time. At first trial, groups of trained mice escaped seven and five times faster than their corresponding control groups of untrained mice at pool occupancy rate ρ of 11.9% and 4%, respectively. Faster evacuation happened because trained mice: (a) had better recognition of the available pool space and took shorter escape routes to an exit, (b) were less likely to form arches that blocked an exit opening, and (c) utilized the two exits efficiently without preference. Trained groups achieved continuous egress without an apparent leader-coordinator (self-organized queuing)-a collective behavior not experienced during individual training. Queuing was unobserved in untrained groups where mice were prone to wall seeking, aimless swimming and/or blind copying that produced circuitous escape routes, biased exit use and clogging. The experiments also reveal that faster and less costly group training at ρ = 4%, yielded an average individual escape time that is comparable with individualized training. However, group training in a more crowded pool (ρ = 11.9%) produced a longer average individual escape time. PMID:25693170

  18. Prior Individual Training and Self-Organized Queuing during Group Emergency Escape of Mice from Water Pool

    PubMed Central

    Saloma, Caesar; Perez, Gay Jane; Gavile, Catherine Ann; Ick-Joson, Jacqueline Judith; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of prior individual training during group emergency evacuation using mice that escape from an enclosed water pool to a dry platform via any of two possible exits. Experimenting with mice avoids serious ethical and legal issues that arise when dealing with unwitting human participants while minimizing concerns regarding the reliability of results obtained from simulated experiments using ‘actors’. First, mice were trained separately and their individual escape times measured over several trials. Mice learned quickly to swim towards an exit–they achieved their fastest escape times within the first four trials. The trained mice were then placed together in the pool and allowed to escape. No two mice were permitted in the pool beforehand and only one could pass through an exit opening at any given time. At first trial, groups of trained mice escaped seven and five times faster than their corresponding control groups of untrained mice at pool occupancy rate ρ of 11.9% and 4%, respectively. Faster evacuation happened because trained mice: (a) had better recognition of the available pool space and took shorter escape routes to an exit, (b) were less likely to form arches that blocked an exit opening, and (c) utilized the two exits efficiently without preference. Trained groups achieved continuous egress without an apparent leader-coordinator (self-organized queuing)—a collective behavior not experienced during individual training. Queuing was unobserved in untrained groups where mice were prone to wall seeking, aimless swimming and/or blind copying that produced circuitous escape routes, biased exit use and clogging. The experiments also reveal that faster and less costly group training at ρ = 4%, yielded an average individual escape time that is comparable with individualized training. However, group training in a more crowded pool (ρ = 11.9%) produced a longer average individual escape time. PMID:25693170

  19. Real-time multimedia communications in medical emergency - the CONCERTO project solution.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Iacobelli, Lorenzo; Bergeron, Cyril; Hewage, Chaminda T; Panza, Gianmarco; Piri, Esa; Vehkapera, Janne; Amon, Peter; Mazzotti, Matteo; Savino, Ketty; Bokor, Laszlo

    2015-08-01

    The management of medical emergency, in particular cardiac emergency, requests prompt intervention and the possibility to communicate in real time from the emergency area / ambulance to the hospital as much diagnostic information as possible about the patient. This would enable a prompt emergency diagnosis and operation and the possibility to prepare the appropriate actions in the suitable hospital department. To address this scenario, the CONCERTO European project proposed a wireless communication system based on a novel cross-layer architecture, including the integration of building blocks for medical media content fusion, delivery and access. This paper describes the proposed system architecture, outlining the developed components and mechanisms, and the evaluation of the proposed system, carried out in a hospital with the support of medical staff. The technical results and the feedback received highlight the impact of the CONCERTO approach in the healthcare domain, in particular in enabling a prompt and reliable diagnosis in challenging medical emergency scenarios. PMID:26737983

  20. Software-Defined Ultra-wideband Radio Communications: A New RF Technology for Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2009-10-19

    Reliable wireless communication links for local-area (short-range) and regional (long-range) reach capabilities are crucial for emergency response to disasters. Lack of a dependable communication system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. To date, all wireless communications systems such as cell phones and walkie-talkies use narrowband radio frequency (RF) signaling for data communication. However, the hostile radio propagation environment caused by collapsed structures and rubble in various disaster sites results in significant degradation and attenuation of narrowband RF signals, which ends up in frequent communication breakdowns. To address the challenges of reliable radio communication in disaster fields, we propose an approach to use ultra-wideband (UWB) or wideband RF waveforms for implementation on Software Defined Radio (SDR) platforms. Ultra-wideband communications has been proven by many research groups to be effective in addressing many of the limitations faced by conventional narrowband radio technologies. In addition, LLNL's radio and wireless team have shown significant success in field deployment of various UWB communications system for harsh environments based on LLNL's patented UWB modulation and equalization techniques. Furthermore, using software defined radio platform for UWB communications offers a great deal of flexibility in operational parameters and helps the radio system to dynamically adapt itself to its environment for optimal performance.

  1. Emerging applications of high temperature superconductors for space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed space missions require longevity of communications system components, high input power levels, and high speed digital logic devices. The complexity of these missions calls for a high data bandwidth capacity. Incorporation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films into some of these communications system components may provide a means of meeting these requirements. Space applications of superconducting technology has previously been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. Development of HTS materials with transition temperatures above 77 K along with the natural cooling ability of space suggest that space applications may lead the way in the applications of high temperature superconductivity. In order for HTS materials to be incorporated into microwave and millimeter wave devices, the material properties such as electrical conductivity, current density, surface resistivity and others as a function of temperature and frequency must be well characterized and understood. The millimeter wave conductivity and surface resistivity were well characterized, and at 77 K are better than copper. Basic microwave circuits such as ring resonators were used to determine transmission line losses. Higher Q values than those of gold resonator circuits were observed below the transition temperature. Several key HTS circuits including filters, oscillators, phase shifters and phased array antenna feeds are feasible in the near future. For technology to improve further, good quality, large area films must be reproducibly grown on low dielectric constant, low loss microwave substrates.

  2. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication. PMID:20574880

  3. Emerging markets for satellite data communications in the public service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.

  4. When all else fails: 21st century Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium.

    PubMed

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century demand for radio spectrum continues to increase with the explosive growth of wireless devices, but authorities reserve slices of the spectrum for licensed Amateur Radio operators, recognizing their value to the public, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. Blood banking and transfusion medicine are among the specialties that should also recognize the value of Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium, because blood collection, testing, processing, storage, and transfusion are life-saving activities that in modern times can be separated by considerable distance. PMID:24041739

  5. Emergency Communication: A Unique Work in Progress for Those with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Clear communication in the best of human circumstances is often a work in progress, a goal yet to be attained. Efforts to make it happen in an emergency may be thwarted by the shock and distress of people involved or the need to get to a safe place fast. Unique complications may arise for people with limited, if any, natural speech and who are…

  6. Potential applications of cable television (CATV) to the FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) communications mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, D. D.; Abtahi, H.; Becker, J. R., Jr.; Frantz, S. W.

    1983-07-01

    The history, technology, economics, regulation and vulnerability to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects of cable television are examined. Recommendations are made concerning FEMA integration of cable television systems into the FEMA emergency communications system and the protection of cable television systems for EMP effects.

  7. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  8. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to…

  9. EMERGING AIR QUALITY MODELING TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To demonstrate applications of the HPCC technologies in air quality models, we organized the Specialty Evening Session 1, "Emerging Air Quality Modeling Technologies for High Performance Computing and Communication Environment" as a part of the Twenty First NATO/CCMS Internationa...

  10. Dynamic Emergence of Situational Willingness to Communicate in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that shows how situational willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language (L2) can dynamically emerge and fluctuate during a conversation situation. From inductive analysis of data from interviews, videotaped conversations, and stimulated recalls, it was found that situational WTC in L2 emerged…

  11. Constructing a Collaborative, Emergent Syllabus of Communicative Performances in a Nursing English Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Joel F.; Reddad, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum development research on nursing English in Taiwan has tended to end at needs analysis, offering little guidance on how to design and implement a course. Our objective was to examine how a course on workplace communication in English for nursing students in Taiwan would emerge in the classroom if teachers and students collaboratively…

  12. Situational Awareness in Mass Emergency: A Behavioral and Linguistic Analysis of Microblogged Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieweg, Sarah Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In times of mass emergency, users of Twitter (a popular microblogging service) often communicate information about the event, some of which contributes to situational awareness. Situational awareness refers to a state of understanding the "big picture" in time- and safety-critical situations. The more situational awareness people have,…

  13. 76 FR 22115 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Register on January 14, 2011, at 75 FR 2700, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY:...

  14. An Emergency Department Intervention to Increase Parent-Child Tobacco Communication: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…

  15. Effects of Gender and Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Katherine W.

    A study examined the role played by gender and communication content in the leadership emergence process in small, task-oriented groups. Six hours of transcribed group interaction from a sample of the group deliberations of 6 mixed-sex groups of college students (n=27) engaged in a 4-month-long decision-making project served as the database for…

  16. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  17. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  18. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  19. Toll free mobile communication: overcoming barriers in maternal and neonatal emergencies in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Toll free mobile telephone intervention to support mothers in pregnancy and delivery period was tested in one sub district of Bangladesh. Qualitative research was conducted to measure the changes of mobile phone use in increasing communication for maternal and neonatal complications. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted among twelve Community Skilled Birth Attendants and fourteen mothers along with their husbands prior to intervention. At intervention end, six Community Skilled Birth Attendants were purposively selected for in-depth interview. Semi structured interviews were conducted among all 27 Community Skilled Birth Attendants engaged in the intervention. One Focus Group Discussion was conducted with 10 recently delivered mothers. Thematic analysis and triangulation of different responses were conducted. Results Prior to intervention, Community Skilled Birth Attendants reported that mobile communication was not a norm. It was also revealed that poor mothers had poor accessibility to mobile services. Mothers, who communicated through mobile phone with providers noted irritability from Community Skilled Birth Attendants and sometimes found phones switched off. At the end of the project, 85% of mothers who had attended orientation sessions of the intervention communicated with Community Skilled Birth Attendants through mobile phones during maternal health complications. Once a complication is reported or anticipated over phone, Community Skilled Birth Attendants either made a prompt visit to mothers or advised for direct referral. More than 80% Community Skilled Birth Attendants communicated with Solution Linked Group for guidance on maternal health management. Prior to intervention, Solution Linked Group was not used to receive phone call from Community Skilled Birth Attendants. Community Skilled Birth Attendants were valued by the mothers. Mothers viewed that Community Skilled Birth Attendants are becoming confident in managing complication due

  20. Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was…

  1. Class I β-1,3-Glucanase and Chitinase Are Expressed in the Micropylar Endosperm of Tomato Seeds Prior to Radicle Emergence1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun-Ta; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Meins, Frederick; Bradford, Kent J.

    2001-01-01

    β-1,3-Glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) mRNAs, proteins, and enzyme activities were expressed specifically in the micropylar tissues of imbibed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds prior to radicle emergence. RNA hybridization and immunoblotting demonstrated that both enzymes were class I basic isoforms. β-1,3-Glucanase was expressed exclusively in the endosperm cap tissue, whereas chitinase localized to both endosperm cap and radicle tip tissues. β-1,3-Glucanase and chitinase appeared in the micropylar tissues of gibberellin-deficient gib-1 tomato seeds only when supplied with gibberellin. Accumulation of β-1,3-glucanase mRNA, protein and enzyme activity was reduced by 100 μM abscisic acid, which delayed or prevented radicle emergence but not endosperm cap weakening. In contrast, expression of chitinase mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity was not affected by abscisic acid. Neither of these enzymes significantly hydrolyzed isolated tomato endosperm cap cell walls. Although both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase were expressed in tomato endosperm cap tissue prior to radicle emergence, we found no evidence that they were directly involved in cell wall modification or tissue weakening. Possible functions of these hydrolases during tomato seed germination are discussed. PMID:11457981

  2. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Communications with Health Care Providers: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care providers (HCPs) play an important role in public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) so need to be aware of public health threats and emergencies. To inform HCPs, public health issues PHEPR messages that provide guidelines and updates, and facilitate surveillance so HCPs will recognize and control communicable diseases, prevent excess deaths and mitigate suffering. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. We conducted a literature review to investigate the systems and tools used by public health to generate PHEPR communications to HCPs, and to identify specific characteristics of message delivery mechanisms and formats that may be associated with effective PHEPR communications. Methods A systematic review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed literature focused on the following questions: 1) What public health systems exist for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs? 2) Have these systems been evaluated and, if yes, what criteria were used to evaluate these systems? 3) What have these evaluations discovered about characterizations of the most effective ways for public health agencies to communicate PHEPR messages to HCPs? Results We identified 25 systems or tools for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs. Few articles assessed PHEPR communication systems or messaging methods or outcomes. Only one study compared the effectiveness of the delivery format, device or message itself. We also discovered that the potential is high for HCPs to experience "message overload" given redundancy of PHEPR messaging in multiple formats and/or through different delivery systems. Conclusions We found that detailed descriptions of PHEPR messaging from public health to HCPs

  3. Tackling Communication Barriers Between Long-Term Care Facility and Emergency Department Transfers to Improve Medication Safety in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Callinan, Stephanie M; Brandt, Nicole J

    2015-07-01

    In 2013, the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine created geriatric emergency department guidelines, making recommendations for staffing/administration, follow up and transitions of care, education, quality improvement, equipment/supplies, and other policies, procedures, and protocols to be implemented. Awareness of these guidelines, as well as communication barriers, can help improve the delivery of care for older adults during transitions in care, particularly regarding medication safety. PMID:26126025

  4. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. PMID:26402649

  5. Exploring Parent-Adolescent Communication About Gender: Results from Adolescent and Emerging Adult Samples

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2011-01-01

    Although parents are assumed to be children’s primary models of socialization when it comes to gender, little is known about direct communication of gendered values in the family. Accordingly, this study assessed the amount and content of recalled parental gender socialization messages using data from 291 U.S. college undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university and 259 U.S. adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the Midwest. The study examined the amount and content of parental communications of five gendered discourses and then tested for connections to current gender beliefs. Findings indicate that gender socialization may be quite similar for sons and daughters, with some evidence of gender typing in patterns of communication. No significant age differences emerged in the patterns of socialization, although high school students reported receiving greater amounts of communication than college students on two of the five discourses. In general, receiving messages promoting traditional gender roles was associated with more traditional gender beliefs (and vice versa), although interpretation of some messages appeared to vary by gender. PMID:21712963

  6. A novel communications network for the provision of medical care in disaster and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dembeyiotis, S; Konnis, G; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    We have designed and developed a novel data communications network targeted at the provision of Emergency Medical Care in disaster situations over wide areas. The network nodes can transmit essential biosignals and in addition, support video and diagnostic quality sound (auscultation) broadcasting for teleconsultation purposes, by using a variety of wireless transports. The medical data acquisition stations are networked dynamically and on demand, with no requirement for an existing communications infrastructure at the disaster sites. The network design allows for limited transmitting station mobility and support for software-based Voice over IP during station roaming. Initial test results, following the hardware and software integration, indicate that the chosen network design meets specifications, and a full-scale field test, utilizing a large number of wireless stations operating under realistic conditions is to take place. PMID:17271008

  7. The limits of public communication coordination in a nuclear emergency: lessons from media reporting on the Fukushima case.

    PubMed

    Prezelj, Iztok; Perko, Tanja; Cantone, Marie C; Gallego, Eduardo; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    Coordination of public communication has become a key issue in management of complex emergencies, and is a matter of debate between nuclear emergency management professionals. A particular problem is when inconsistent information is sent to the media and public by official sources from different levels, which has led to calls for a more coordinated approach. The IAEA created guidelines recommending a one-voice communication approach that provides clear, consistent and coordinated information by relevant stakeholders. The reviewed theory on the emergency communication coordination and the empirical results in this paper demonstrate some challenges regarding the feasibility of the above stated goal. This paper explores the communication process in the two-month period of the Fukushima nuclear emergency by using a quantitative comparative content and discourse analysis of 1340 printed media articles on the Fukushima nuclear disaster from two major newspapers in Spain ('El País' and 'El Mundo'), Italy ('Corriere della Sera' and 'La Repubblica'), Norway ('Aftenposten' and 'Dagsavisen'), Slovenia ('Delo' and 'Večer'), Belgium ('Le Soir' and 'De Standaard') and Russia ('Komsomolskaya Pravda' and 'Izvestiya'). The results show that it will be difficult to achieve a truly coordinated approach and one-voice communication in severe nuclear and radiological emergency due to the communication difficulties created by the dispersion of information sources, a broad and dispersed focus of the reported information, partially subjective and conflicting media reporting. The paper suggests ways to improve public communication coordination in nuclear and radiological disasters. PMID:27270489

  8. Information Requirements for Health Information Exchange Supported Communication between Emergency Departments and Poison Control Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Mollie R.; Crouch, Barbara I.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Mateos, Brenda; Muthukutty, Anusha; Wyckoff, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed audio recordings of telephone calls between emergency departments (EDs) and poison control centers (PCCs) in order to describe the information requirements for health information exchange. Analysis included a random sample of 120 poison exposure cases involving ED-PCC communication that occurred during 2009. We identified 52 information types characterized as patient or provider information, exposure information, ED assessment and treatment/ management, or PCC consultation. These information types constitute a focused subset of information that should be shared in the context of emergency treatment for poison exposure. Up to 60% of the information types identified in the analysis of call recordings can be represented using existing clinical terminology. In order to accomplish standards-based health information exchange between EDs and PCCs using data coded according to a standard clinical terminology system, it is necessary to define appropriate terms, information models and value sets. PMID:25954349

  9. Efficacy of patient discharge instructions: A pointer toward caregiver friendly communication methods from pediatric emergency personnel

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harthy, Nesrin; Sudersanadas, Kavita M.; Al-Mutairi, Mohammed; Vasudevan, Senthilvel; Bin Saleh, Ghada; Al-Mutairi, Malak; Hussain, Lenna W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discharge instructions are vital in postemergency patient care to help the caregiver understand the diagnosis and identify symptoms which require prompt readmission. In general, oral or written instructions are provided on discharge. However, there is a dearth of information on the efficacy of discharge instructions provided by physicians in KSA. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of discharge instructions for postpediatrics emergency visit. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional survey conducted in the Department of Paediatric Emergency at King Abdul Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, KSA, included 173 literate adult caregivers who had given their consent. Those who had been on admission earlier and been discharged from the emergency department were excluded. Demographic data and variables like knowledge of medicine and treatment follow-up were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Verbal only, written only, or both verbal and written discharge instructions were provided. Written and verbal instructions, when provided together, were the most effective modes of communication with caregivers. The majority of the respondents were unaware of the follow-up plan (64.16%), unable to identify problems that would necessitate a follow-up (58.96%), and unable to identify the signs and symptoms that would require a revisit (62.43%) irrespective of the mode of instruction. However, more attention is necessary because of the 34.68% of the subjects who left the hospital without discharge instructions. Conclusions: Instructions given both verbally and in writing were observed to be more effective than verbal only or written only. The effectiveness of discharge instructions was highly influenced by the level of education of the caregivers. Improved caregiver friendly methods of communication from the pediatric emergency health-care team are necessary for the delivery of discharge instructions. PMID:27625582

  10. Exosomes: emerging roles in communication between blood cells and vascular tissues during atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heinrich J.; Holvoet, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Microvesicles, in general, and exosomes together with their delivered content in particular, are now being widely recognized as key players in atherosclerosis. We have previously reviewed the role of microvesicles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy. Here, we focus on the roles of exosomes and discuss their emergent role in mediating activation and response to inflammation, vessel infiltration and induction of coagulation. We will finally give an outlook to discuss novel detection techniques and systems biology based data analyses to investigate exosome-mediated cell-to-cell communication. Recent findings Recent research points to a role of exosomes in delivering apoptotic and inflammatory content between blood cells and vascular cells, with a potential contribution of exosomes secreted by adipose tissue. An atheroprotective role of exosomes in response to coagulation that may contrast with the procoagulatory role of platelet-derived larger microvesicles is envisaged. New detection and separation methods and systems biology techniques are emerging. Conclusion We project that the development of novel detection, separation and analysis mechanism and systems-based analysis methods will further unravel the paracrine and endocrine ‘communication protocol’ between cellular players in atherosclerosis, mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:26309202

  11. An Analysis of WhatsApp Usage for Communication Between Consulting and Emergency Physicians.

    PubMed

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Polat, Haci

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate WhatsApp messenger usage for communication between consulting and emergency physicians. A retrospective, observational study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care university hospital between January 2014 and June 2014. A total of 614 consultations requested by using the WhatsApp application were evaluated, and 519 eligible consultations were included in the study. The WhatsApp messages that were transferred to consultant physicians consisted of 510 (98.3 %) photographic images, 517 (99.6 %) text messages, 59 (11.3 %) videos, and 10 (1.9 %) voice messages. Consultation was most frequently requested from the orthopedics clinic (n = 160, 30.8 %). The majority of requested consultations were terminated only by evaluation via WhatsApp messages. (n = 311, 59.9 %). Most of the consulting physicians were outside of the hospital or were mobile at the time of the consultation (n = 292, 56.3 %). The outside consultation request rate was significantly higher for night shifts than for day shifts (p = .004), and the majority of outside consultation request were concluded by only WhatsApp application (p < .001). WhatsApp is useful a communication tool between physicians, especially for ED consultants who are outside the hospital, because of the ability to transfer large amounts of clinical and radiological data during a short period of time. PMID:27083574

  12. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  13. An emergency system to improve ambulance dispatching, ambulance diversion and clinical handover communication-a proposed model.

    PubMed

    El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2012-12-01

    Effective communication in healthcare is important and especially critical in emergency situations. In this paper we propose a new comprehensive emergency system which facilitates the communication process in emergency cases from ambulance dispatch to the patient's arrival and handover in the hospital. The proposed system has been designed to facilitate and computerize all the processes involved in an accident from finding the nearest ambulance through to accessing a patient's online health record which can assist in pre-hospital treatments. The proposed system also locates the nearest hospital specializing in the patient's condition and will communicate patient identification to the emergency department. The components of the proposed system and the technologies used in building this system are outlined in this paper as well as the challenges expected and proposed solutions to these challenges. PMID:22673893

  14. Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored. PMID:15588058

  15. Palliative and end of life care communication as emerging priorities in postgraduate medical education

    PubMed Central

    des Ordons, Amanda Roze; Ajjawi, Rola; Macdonald, John; Sarti, Aimee; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Reliance on surveys and qualitative studies of trainees to guide postgraduate education about palliative and end of life (EOL) communication may lead to gaps in the curriculum. We aimed to develop a deeper understanding of internal medicine trainees’ educational needs for a palliative and EOL communication curriculum and how these needs could be met. Methods Mixed methods, including a survey and focus groups with trainees, and interviews with clinical faculty and medical educators, were applied to develop a broader perspective on current experiences and needs for further education. Quantitative descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Surveyed trainees were least confident and least satisfied with teaching in counseling about the emotional impact of emergencies and discussing organ donation. Direct observation with feedback, small group discussion, and viewing videos of personal consultations were perceived as effective, yet infrequently identified as instructional methods. Focus groups and interviews identified goals of care conversations as the highest educational priority, with education adapted to learner needs and accompanied by feedback and concurrent clinical and organizational support. Conclusions Our work expands on previous research describing needs for postgraduate education in palliative and EOL communication to include the importance of support, culture change, and faculty development, and provides insight into why such needs exist. PMID:27103952

  16. Communications between local health departments and the public during emergencies: the importance of standardized web sites.

    PubMed

    Fallon, L Fleming; Schmalzried, Hans D; Hasan, Nausheen

    2011-01-01

    Of the 2790 local health departments (LHDs) in the United States, Internet homepages were located for 1986. We reviewed each homepage to document the presence of 9 elements deemed to be critical for effective communications during emergency or disaster situations. LHD Web site homepages had a mean of 4.1 (±1.4) elements. Among the findings, this review revealed that 4 of 5 (80.5%) of the LHDs included the agency phone number, half (49.4%) provided links to emergency information, and about 1 in 5 (19.6%) listed an agency e-mail address. Fewer than 1 in 20 (4.3%) of the LHD homepages reviewed allowed visitors to sign up for automatic alerts or notifications. We suggest that these results be used as a starting point in developing a standardized template containing the 9 homepage elements. Such a template complements National Incident Management System protocols and can provide a recognizable source of consistent and reliable information for people during a public health emergency or disaster. PMID:21135649

  17. Discharge Communication in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Chest Pain: Defining the Ideal Content.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Selina; Heierle, Anette; Bingisser, Martina-Barbara; Hertwig, Ralph; Padiyath, Rakesh; Nickel, Christian Hans; Langewitz, Wolf; Bingisser, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In an emergency department (ED), discharge communication represents a crucial step in medical care. In theory, it fosters patient satisfaction and adherence to medication, reduces anxiety, and ultimately promotes better outcomes. In practice, little is known about the extent to which patients receiving discharge information understand their medical condition and are able to memorize and retrieve instructions. Even less is known about the ideal content of these instructions. Focusing on patients with chest pain, we systematically assessed physicians' and patients' informational preferences and created a memory aid to support both the provision of information (physicians) and its retrieval (patients). In an iterative process, physicians of different specialties (N = 47) first chose which of 81 items to include in an ED discharge communication for patients with acute chest pain. A condensed list of 34 items was then presented to 51 such patients to gauge patients' preferences. Patients' and physicians' ratings of importance converged in 32 of the 34 items. Finally, three experts grouped the 34 items into five categories: (1) information on diagnosis; (2) follow-up suggestions; (3) advice on self-care; (4) red flags; and (5) complete treatment, from which we generated the mnemonic acronym "InFARcT." Defining and structuring the content of discharge information seems especially important for ED physicians and patients, as stress and time constraints jeopardize effective communication in this context. Chest pain accounts for up to 10% of all patient presentations in emergency departments (EDs) (Konkelberg & Esterman, 2003). The majority of these patients will usually be discharged within hours, after exclusion of serious conditions such as myocardial infarction (Goodacre et al., 2011). A comprehensive workup of low- to intermediate-risk patients is not feasible in the ED (Reichlin et al., 2009). Yet many of these patients go on to suffer from repeated episodes of chest

  18. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  19. National transportable telecommunications capability - Commercial satellite and cellular communications for emergency preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Council, Ronald J.

    1992-03-01

    A quick-reaction emergency satellite, cellular and microwave communications package known as the National Transportable Telecommunications Capability (NTTC) is discussed. The NTTC is designed to restore 'last mile' connectivity to remote or isolated areas in the U.S. or abroad that have been devastated by hurricanes, earthquakes, or other natural or manmade disasters. The NTTC is self-contained for rapid airlift in a single C-130 military transport, or may be transported by land or sea as appropriate. The NTTC operates over a Ku-band domestic satellite back into a gateway station and into the Public Switched Network, FTS-2000, and other military networks. Built with commercial off-the-shelf components, the NTTC is designed to respond to the telecommunication needs of critical NS/EP functions and users.

  20. Use of an emergency medical pictorial communication book during simulated disaster conditions.

    PubMed

    Behar, Solomon; Benson Ii, Richard; Kurzweil, Ami; Azen, Colleen; Nager, Alan L

    2013-10-01

    During disasters, the needs of victims outstrip available resources. Rapid assessment of patients must be performed; however, language barriers can be an impediment to efficient patient assessment, especially if interpreter resources are limited. Dependency on interpretive services requiring technology such a telephones, cell phones, and video conferencing may be inefficient, as they may be unavailable during disaster conditions. A low-tech, portable tool that aids in communication with non-English speakers would be beneficial. The medical emergency communication (MEC) book, developed at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has the potential to be a useful tool in this capacity. The goal of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed disaster-focused medical history obtained from Spanish-speaking patients or caregivers using the MEC book, compared to a control group with whom no book was used. Our hypothesis was that use of the MEC book improves accuracy of medical history taking between English-only speaking health care workers and Spanish-speaking patients better than a monolingual clinician trying to take a medical history without it. We anticipated a higher overall score in the group of subjects whose histories were taken using the MEC book than in the control group. Patient satisfaction with the MEC book also was measured. PMID:24274127

  1. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  2. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.S. ); Sorensen, J.H. )

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  4. German critical incident reporting system database of prehospital emergency medicine: Analysis of reported communication and medication errors between 2005–2015

    PubMed Central

    Hohenstein, Christian; Fleischmann, Thomas; Rupp, Peter; Hempel, Dorothea; Wilk, Sophia; Winning, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Communication failure in prehospital emergency medicine can affect patient safety as it does in other areas of medicine as well. We analyzed the database of the critical incident reporting system for prehospital emergency medicine in Germany retrospectively regarding communication errors. METHODS: Experts of prehospital emergency medicine and risk management screened the database for verbal communication failure, non-verbal communication failure and missing communication at all. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, 845 reports were analyzed, of which 247 reports were considered to be related to communication failure. An arbitrary classification resulted in six different kinds: 1) no acknowledgement of a suggestion; 2) medication error; 3) miscommunication with dispatcher; 4) utterance heard/understood improperly; 5) missing information transfer between two persons; and 6) other communication failure. CONCLUSION: Communication deficits can lead to critical incidents in prehospital emergency medicine and are a very important aspect in patient safety. PMID:27313802

  5. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia. PMID:24702569

  6. Predictors of emergency room visits or acute hospital admissions prior to death among hospice palliative care clients in Ontario: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospice palliative care (HPC) is a philosophy of care that aims to relieve suffering and improve the quality of life for clients with life-threatening illnesses or end of life issues. The goals of HPC are not only to ameliorate clients’ symptoms but also to reduce unneeded or unwanted medical interventions such as emergency room visits or hospitalizations (ERVH). Hospitals are considered a setting ill-prepared for end of life issues; therefore, use of such acute care services has to be considered an indicator of poor quality end of life care. This study examines predictors of ERVH prior to death among HPC home care clients. Methods A retrospective cohort study of a sample of 764 HPC home care clients who received services from a community care access centre (CCAC) in southern Ontario, Canada. All clients were assessed using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Palliative Care (interRAI PC) as part of normal clinical practice between April 2008 and July 2010. The Andersen-Newman framework for health service utilization was used as a conceptual model for the basis of this study. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were carried out to identify predictors of ERVH. Results Half of the HPC clients had at least one or more ERVH (n = 399, 52.2%). Wish to die at home (OR = 0.54) and advanced care directives (OR = 0.39) were protective against ERVH. Unstable health (OR = 0.70) was also associated with reduced probability, while infections such as prior urinary tract infections (OR = 2.54) increased the likelihood of ERVH. Clients with increased use of formal services had reduced probability of ERVH (OR = 0.55). Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that predisposing characteristics are nearly as important as need variables in determining ERVH among HPC clients, which challenges the assumption that need variables are the most important determinants of ERVH. Ongoing assessment of HPC clients is essential in reducing ERVH

  7. Mexican Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Method: Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention…

  8. Exploring the Relation between Memory, Gestural Communication, and the Emergence of Language in Infancy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimann, Mikael; Strid, Karin; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between recall memory, visual recognition memory, social communication, and the emergence of language skills was measured in a longitudinal study. Thirty typically developing Swedish children were tested at 6, 9 and 14 months. The result showed that, in combination, visual recognition memory at 6 months, deferred imitation at 9…

  9. Emergency health risk communication during the 2007 San Diego wildfires: comprehension, compliance, and recall.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, David E; Keir, Jane M; Dee, Deborah L; Lipman, Harvey; Waterman, Stephen H; Ginsberg, Michele; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    In October 2007, wildfires burned nearly 300,000 acres in San Diego County, California. Emergency risk communication messages were broadcast to reduce community exposure to air pollution caused by the fires. The objective of this investigation was to determine residents' exposure to, understanding of, and compliance with these messages. From March to June 2008, the authors surveyed San Diego County residents using a 40-question instrument and random digit dialing. The 1,802 respondents sampled were predominantly 35-64 years old (65.9%), White (65.5%), and educated past high school (79.0%). Most (82.5%) lived more than 1 mile away from the fires, although many were exposed to smoky air for 5-7 days (60.7%) inside and outside their homes. Most persons surveyed reported hearing fire-related health messages (87.9%) and nearly all (97.9%) understood the messages they heard. Respondents complied with most to all of the nontechnical health messages, including staying inside the home (58.7%), avoiding outdoor exercise (88.4%), keeping windows and doors closed (75.8%), and wetting ash before cleanup (75.6%). In contrast, few (<5%) recalled hearing technical messages to place air conditioners on recirculate, use High-Efficiency Particulate Air filters, or use N-95 respirators during ash cleanup, and less than 10% of all respondents followed these specific recommendations. The authors found that nontechnical message recall, understanding, and compliance were high during the wildfires, and reported recall and compliance with technical messages were much lower. Future disaster health communication should further explore barriers to recall and compliance with technical recommendations. PMID:22494384

  10. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings

    PubMed Central

    Schiavo, Renata; Leung, May May; Brown, Mason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention’s impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. Conclusions The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the

  11. Communicating With the Public About Emerging Health Threats: Lessons From the Pre-Event Message Development Project

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Steven M.; Henderson, Neil; Glik, Deborah; Jupka, Keri; Middleton, Sarah; Henderson, Carson; Drury, Allison; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better understand the challenges of communicating with the public about emerging health threats, particularly threats involving toxic chemicals, biological agents, and radioactive materials. Methods. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we formed an interdisciplinary consortium of investigative teams from 4 schools of public health. Over 2 years, the investigative teams conducted 79 focus group interviews with 884 participants and individual cognitive response interviews with 129 respondents, for a total sample of 1013 individuals. The investigative teams systematically compared their results with other published research in public health, risk communication, and emergency preparedness. Results. We found limited public understanding of emerging biological, chemical, and radioactive materials threats and of the differences between them; demand for concrete, accurate, and consistent information about actions needed for protection of self and family; active information seeking from media, local authorities, and selected national sources; and areas in which current emergency messaging can be improved. Conclusions. The public will respond to a threat situation by seeking protective information and taking self-protective action, underlining the critical role of effective communication in public health emergencies. PMID:18382011

  12. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Vasel W.

    1971-01-01

    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  13. Emerging Tuberculosis Pathogen Hijacks Social Communication Behavior in the Group-Living Banded Mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Claire E.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Williams, Mark C.; Palmer, Mitchell V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) pathogen, M. mungi, infects wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. This MTC pathogen did not appear to be transmitted through a primary aerosol or oral route. We utilized histopathology, spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and molecular markers (regions of difference [RDs] from various MTC members, including region of difference 1 [RD1] from M. bovis BCG [RD1BCG], M. microti [RD1mic], and M. pinnipedii [RD1seal], genes Rv1510 [RD4], Rv1970 [RD7], Rv3877/8 [RD1], and Rv3120 [RD12], insertion element IS1561, the 16S RNA gene, and gene Rv0577 [cfp32]), including the newly characterized mongoose-specific deletion in RD1 (RD1mon), in order to demonstrate the presence of M. mungi DNA in infected mongooses and investigate pathogen invasion and exposure mechanisms. M. mungi DNA was identified in 29% of nasal planum samples (n = 52), 56% of nasal rinses and swabs (n = 9), 53% of oral swabs (n = 19), 22% of urine samples (n = 23), 33% of anal gland tissue (n = 18), and 39% of anal gland secretions (n = 44). The occurrence of extremely low cycle threshold values obtained with qPCR in anal gland and nasal planum samples indicates that high levels of M. mungi can be found in these tissue types. Histological data were consistent with these results, suggesting that pathogen invasion occurs through breaks in the nasal planum and/or skin of the mongoose host, which are in frequent contact with anal gland secretions and urine during olfactory communication behavior. Lesions in the lung, when present, occurred only with disseminated disease. No environmental sources of M. mungi DNA could be found. We report primary environmental transmission of an MTC pathogen that occurs in association with social communication behavior. PMID:27165798

  14. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose

    2015-01-01

    Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries. Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search. PMID:26834976

  15. Communicating with the Workforce During Emergencies: Developing an Employee Text Messaging Program in a Local Public Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health – Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction. PMID:25355976

  16. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G.V. Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. Methods: A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. Results: 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. Conclusion: This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.  PMID:27551654

  17. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  18. Propagation issues for emerging mobile and portable communications: A systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1993-01-01

    The viewpoint of a system engineer regarding the format of propagation information and models suitable for the design of mobile and portable satellite communications systems for the following services: audio broadcast, two way voice, and packet data is presented. Topics covered include: propagation impairments for portable indoor reception in satellite communications systems; propagation impairments and mitigation techniques for mobile satellite communications systems; characterization of mobile satellite communications channels in the presence of roadside blockage when interleaving and FEC coding are implemented; characterization of short-term mobile satellite signal variations; and characterization of long-term signal variations.

  19. Oral Communication Instruction in the U.S.A.: Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieb-Brilhart, Barbara

    This review of the status of speech instruction is divided into five parts, each addressing a separate issue. The first part describes the context for a change in approaches to communication instruction. The second part lists those ingredients essential to a good program, including the communication functions of controlling, feeling, informing,…

  20. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  1. National Security/Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery Communications Via ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasqualino, Christopher R.; Abbe, Brian S.; Dixon, Frank

    1996-01-01

    During the period from early 1993 through 1994, the U.S. National Communication System, a government agency, sponsored the development and execution of several fixed and mobile experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)...The results of these experiments are described in this paper.

  2. The Emerging Role of Online Communication Between Patients and Their Providers

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Steven J; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2004-01-01

    Despite the explosion of online communication in the community, its use between patients and their health care providers remains low. However, rapidly growing patient and provider interest in using online communication has motivated organizations to consider options for deploying these new tools in clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the barriers and challenges health care providers and their organizations must address in developing and deploying these new tools. We formulate lessons from early experiences with e-mail and web-based communication in clinical settings. Finally, we provide a roadmap for developing and deploying these new tools in clinical practice. Health care providers and their organizations will need to consider issues related to technology, data management, operations, communication management, and financial support in order to successfully deploy online services and communication for patients in clinical settings. PMID:15333064

  3. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part II: moving from resuscitative to end-of-life or palliative treatment.

    PubMed

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-11-01

    The model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events addresses decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps. Part II concerns communications moving from resuscitative to palliative and end-of-life treatments. After completing the steps involved in determining decision-making, emergency physicians (EPs) should consider starting palliative measures versus continuing resuscitative treatment. As communications related to these end-of-life decisions increasingly fall within the scope of emergency medicine (EM) practice, we need to become educated about and comfortable with them. PMID:23167864

  4. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  5. Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of H1 Influenza Viruses from United States Swine Prior to the Emergence of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine play a role for the evolution of influenza A viruses. Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in U.S. swine. Viruses from the classical H1N1 swine lineage...

  6. Organizational Communication in Emergencies: Using Multiple Channels and Sources to Combat Noise and Capture Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Keri K.; Barrett, Ashley K.; Mahometa, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This study relies on information theory, social presence, and source credibility to uncover what best helps people grasp the urgency of an emergency. We surveyed a random sample of 1,318 organizational members who received multiple notifications about a large-scale emergency. We found that people who received 3 redundant messages coming through at…

  7. EMERGENCE OF POLYCENTRIC URBAN CONFIGURATIONS FROM COMBINATION OF COMMUNICATION EXTERNALITY AND SPATIAL COMPETITION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Yuki; Akamatsu, Takashi

    It is believed in urban economics that a polycentric urban configuration emerges only when the multiple-types of agents compete for land (Fujita and Thisse, 2002, p.209). This paper discloses that the polycentric urban configuration emerges in a single-type agent model. We also show that the dispersion force with a spill-over effect and its distance decay property are necessary for the emergence of the polycentric configuration. To show this, we compare two types of social interaction models, SI model and SISC model, each of which has a different dispersion force: the former model's dispersion force consists of land rent, and the latter consists of spatial competition. The analysis of two models proves that the polycentric configuration emerges in the SISC model, while this configuration never emerges in the SI model.

  8. "Bill is now singing": joint engagement and the emergence of social communication of three young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J

    2015-01-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the children's performance through three phases of intervention: focus on faces, response to joint attention, and initiation of joint attention. A complimentary qualitative analysis of teacher and parent experiences allowed for an in-depth understanding of the role of social environment in supporting emerging social communication skills among three children. As all children showed improvement in joint attention and actions of social engagement, this study bears evidence on the potential of music therapy as a promising intervention for promoting social skills of young children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24254638

  9. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)

  10. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  11. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  12. Linguistic structure emerges through the interaction of memory constraints and communicative pressures.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Molly L; Frank, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    If memory constraints were the only limitation on language processing, the best possible language would be one with only one word. But to explain the rich structure of language, we need to posit a second constraint: the pressure to communicate informatively. Many aspects of linguistic structure can be accounted for by appealing to equilibria that result from these two pressures. PMID:27562423

  13. The School Leader Communication Model: An Emerging Method for Bridging School Leader Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders make countless decisions but do not receive adequate preparation for communicating their decisions to parents, students, and teachers. Building on the need to prepare school leaders for a variety of complex professional situations, this article introduces the medical education pedagogy of standardized patients to the field of school…

  14. The Emergence of Marketing and Communications Strategy in South African Further Education and Training Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    South African further education and training (FET) colleges have been enjoined to become more responsive to their external environment, in keeping with international trends in public vocational education and training (VET) reform. One mechanism for achieving this goal is to market colleges and communicate more effectively to future students,…

  15. 77 FR 40779 - Assignment of National Security and Emergency Preparedness Communications Functions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    .... [FR Doc. 2012-17022 Filed 7-10-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... process, on enhancing the survivability, resilience, and future architecture of NS/EP communications..., Telecommunications Service Priority program, Next Generation Network Priority program, the Executive Committee...

  16. Examining Parent-Teacher Communication in School Systems through the Use of Emergent Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a part of the fabric of the lives of people, whether it be communicating with a loved one on the other side of the world or paying a utility bill via the Internet. Most people have experienced some level of technology integration into their life. An inescapable rite of passage for most people in developed countries is the…

  17. Parents' Perceptions of Their Preschoolers' Experiences with Information Communication Technologies and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parents' perception of preschool children's early Information Communication Technologies (ICT) experiences in the home on the dimensions of parent attitude toward the benefits of ICT use, frequency of ICT use, parent attitude toward ICT use, quality of interaction with ICT, and…

  18. Brief Communication: The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle in a rockfall emergency scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Facello, A.; Baldo, M.; dell'Anese, F.; Allasia, P.; Dutto, F.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in civilian/commercial contexts are becoming increasingly common, as well as for applications concerning anthropic and natural disasters. In this paper, we present the first results of a research project aimed at defining a possible methodology for the use of micro-UAVs in emergency scenarios relevant to rockfall phenomena. To develop and support the method presented herein, the results relevant to a rockfall emergency occurred on 7 March 2014 in the San Germano municipality (north-western Italy) are presented and discussed.

  19. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Yuichi; Choh, Toshio; Yamazaki, Ichiro; Kosaka, Katsuhiko; Iguchi, Masaaki; Nakajima, Isao

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electro-cardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electro-cardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.

  20. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Y; Choh, T; Yamazaki, I; Kosaka, K; Iguchi, M; Nakajima, I

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20 GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electrocardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electrocardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20 GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz. PMID:11542833

  1. A Strategy of Dialogue for Communicating Hazard and Risk Information Between the Science and Emergency Management Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will describe a collaborative dialogue process between earth scientists and emergency management officials that focused on translation of science into policy, building long term trust based relationships between sectors and unified presentation of hazards, risks and consequence management to public officials and the general public. The author will describe the structure and process of the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) in assessing the credibility of long and short term earthquake predictions, assessment of risk, and the formulation of public communication strategies and preparatory actions by government agencies. For nearly 4 decades, earth scientists, politically appointed state officials and emergency managers have engaged in ongoing discussions of the policy implications of research on potential seismic risk. Some discussions were scheduled and occurred over months, and others were ad hoc and occurred in the minutes between potential precursory incidents and possible large events. The effectiveness of this process was dependent on building respect for ones counterparts expertise, bias and responsibilities, clear communication of data, uncertainty and knowledge of the physical models assumed, history and probabilities; and the physical and political consequences of possible events; and the costs and economic and social disruption of alternative preparedness actions. But, the dialogue included political and social scientists, representatives of the print and broadcast media, political and management officials from federal, state and local governments. The presentation will provide an assessment of the effectiveness of the collaborative dialogue process and lessons on sustaining a long term partnership among the participating federal, state and local officials.

  2. ‘The Words Will Pass with the Blowing Wind’: Staff and Parent Views of the Deferred Consent Process, with Prior Assent, Used in an Emergency Fluids Trial in Two African Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Sassy; Njue, Maureen; Boga, Mwanamvua; Akello, Lilian; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document and explore the views and experiences of key stakeholders regarding the consent procedures of an emergency research clinical trial examining immediate fluid resuscitation strategies, and to discuss the implications for similar trials in future. Methods A social science sub-study of the FEAST (Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy) trial. Interviews were held with trial team members (n = 30), health workers (n = 15) and parents (n = 51) from two purposively selected hospitals in Soroti, Uganda, and Kilifi, Kenya. Findings Overall, deferred consent with prior assent was seen by staff and parents as having the potential to protect the interests of both patients and researchers, and to avoid delays in starting treatment. An important challenge is that the validity of verbal assent is undermined when inadequate initial information is poorly understood. This concern needs to be balanced against the possibility that full prior consent on admission potentially causes harm through introducing delays. Full prior consent also potentially imposes worries on parents that clinicians are uncertain about how to proceed and that clinicians want to absolve themselves of any responsibility for the child’s outcome (some parents’ interpretation of the need for signed consent). Voluntariness is clearly compromised for both verbal assent and full prior consent in a context of such vulnerability and stress. Further challenges in obtaining verbal assent were: what to do in the absence of the household decision-maker (often the father); and how medical staff handle parents not giving a clear agreement or refusal. Conclusion While the challenges identified are faced in all research in low-income settings, they are magnified for emergency trials by the urgency of decision making and treatment needs. Consent options will need to be tailored to particular studies and settings, and might best be informed by consultation with staff members and community

  3. Emerging tuberculosis pathogen hijacks social communication behavior in the group-living banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium mungi, a novel M. tuberculosis complex pathogen (MtbC), has emerged in wild banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. Unlike other members of the MtbC, M. mungi is not transmitted through a primary aerosol route. Rather, pathogen invasion occur...

  4. Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in Distance Education: Communication, Pedagogy, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan, Ed.; Eby, Gulsun, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of distance education in the post-modern world, progressive research on the best methods, tools, and technologies in the field is necessary to continue to take advantage of the pedagogical opportunities and improvements offered through remote learning platforms. The "Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in…

  5. Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

    Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

  6. Case report of ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn pregnancy: an acute emergency.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Che Hasnura Che; Karim, Abdul Kadir Abdul; Ismail, Nor Azlin Mohamed; Omar, Mohd Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Ruptured pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of women who have had a vaginal delivery is rare and unpredictable. However, when undiagnosed, this condition could lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a pregnancy at 19 weeks gestation presented with acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock. She was initially thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy with the provisional diagnosis of a ruptured uterus. Intraoperatively, a ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn with ex utero pregnancy was discovered. PMID:22250483

  7. Non-communicable diseases: is their emergence in industrialized societies related to changes in neuroendocrine function?

    PubMed

    Bickler, S W

    2000-05-01

    This hypothesis suggests that industrialization alters the human neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine changes come about because of changes in environmental stimuli. It is further proposed that changes in neuroendocrine function can account for the contrasting pattern of non-communicable diseases in traditional and industrialized societies. The hypothesis is based on subtle clinical differences in traditional and industrialized societies, and the evolving concept of neuroendocrine regulation of physiological processes. Compared to traditional societies, individuals from industrialized communities tend to have lower pain tolerance, slower gastrointestinal transit-time, and a greater chance of having a calcified pineal gland. These changes parallel the increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases in industrialized societies. There is sufficient reason to suspect the variations in pain tolerance, gastrointestinal transit-time and pineal gland calcification represent changes in neuroendocrine function. Programming of the neuroendocrine system by environmental events early in life is one possible mechanism whereby these changes might be effected. Understanding the physiological changes that occur with industrialization, and how environmental stimuli interact with the developing neuroendocrine system might lead to new strategies for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. PMID:10859694

  8. Communication and empathy in an emergency setting involving persons in crisis

    PubMed Central

    Nordby, Halvor; Nøhr, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a study of the interaction between paramedics and parents in cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). We have sought to understand how the parents perceived the paramedics ability to communicate as well as empathise and deal with practical aspects of the situation. We have also sought to understand how the paramedics view their role as professional health workers, and how they think they should interact with persons in crisis. The method used in this study is qualitative and involves semi-structured interview schemes. We conducted twelve interviews – six with parents and six with paramedics. One of our primary findings is that many of the parents interviewed were not satisfied with the paramedics' communication, empathy and ability to take care of the practical aspects of the situation. The interviews have also revealed that there is significant disagreement among paramedics about the interpersonal role of health workers in situations involving people in crisis. The final part of this article includes a discussion of these and other findings. We argue that guidelines that specify threshold conditions for communication and care should be implemented in education and training. The aim of such guidelines should be to make sure that parents of lifeless children are secured a minimum of relevant explanations, information and care. PMID:18957067

  9. Effects of communication media choice on the quality and efficacy of emergency calls assisted by a mobile nursing protocol tool.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luis A; Favela, Jesus; Garcia-Peña, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    The transition from paper to electronic-based records in the healthcare industry has posed several challenges to conventional medical practices. The introduction of technology in day-to-day medical and nursing practices deserves careful consideration. In this work, we report the results of a controlled experiment to compare nurses' consultation in emergency calls in six different conditions. We studied the effect that the type of communication media (face-to-face, telephone, videoconference) and type of nursing protocol media (paper-based, electronic-based) can have on consultation time, mistakes made, pauses during consultation, eye contact, and efficacy of the consultation. We found that the type of communication media has an effect on consultation time; on average, fewer mistakes were made during telephone-based consultations; for eye contact, there were significantly fewer eye contacts during face-to-face than during videoconference consultations; finally, the type of communication media or protocol media did not have any effect in the efficacy of the consultation. PMID:25251859

  10. Development of a mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system based on CDMA-1X EVDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Keon Ho; Jung, Haijo; Kang, Won-Suk; Jang, Bong Mun; Kim, Joong Il; Han, Dong Hoon; Yoo, Sun-Kook; Yoo, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2006-03-01

    The wireless mobile service with a high bit rate using CDMA-1X EVDO is now widely used in Korea. Mobile devices are also increasingly being used as the conventional communication mechanism. We have developed a web-based mobile system that communicates patient information and images, using CDMA-1X EVDO for emergency diagnosis. It is composed of a Mobile web application system using the Microsoft Windows 2003 server and an internet information service. Also, a mobile web PACS used for a database managing patient information and images was developed by using Microsoft access 2003. A wireless mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system is developed by using Microsoft Visual Studio.NET, and JPEG 2000 ActiveX control for PDA phone was developed by using the Microsoft Embedded Visual C++. Also, the CDMA-1X EVDO is used for connections between mobile web servers and the PDA phone. This system allows fast access to the patient information database, storing both medical images and patient information anytime and anywhere. Especially, images were compressed into a JPEG2000 format and transmitted from a mobile web PACS inside the hospital to the radiologist using a PDA phone located outside the hospital. Also, this system shows radiological images as well as physiological signal data, including blood pressure, vital signs and so on, in the web browser of the PDA phone so radiologists can diagnose more effectively. Also, we acquired good results using an RW-6100 PDA phone used in the university hospital system of the Sinchon Severance Hospital in Korea.

  11. Communicating radiation risk to patients and referring physicians in the emergency department setting.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Jeffrey Y; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-05-01

    Heightened awareness about the radiation risks associated with CT imaging has increased patients' wishes to be informed of these risks, and has motivated efforts to reduce radiation dose and eliminate unnecessary imaging. However, many ordering providers, including emergency physicians, are ill prepared to have an informed discussion with patients about the cancer risks related to medical imaging. Radiologists, who generally have greater training in radiation biology and the risks of radiation, often do not have a face-to-face relationship with the patients who are being imaged. A collaborative approach between emergency physicians and radiologists is suggested to help explain these risks to patients who may have concerns about getting medical imaging. PMID:26647958

  12. Personal Emergency Response Systems--Communication Technology Aids Elderly and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibner, Andrew S.

    Personal response systems (PRS) bring immediate help to aged and disabled persons at home at the touch of a button. The PRS user wears a tiny radio transmitter as a pendant or a bracelet and can send a telephone signal from any part of the home to a 24-hour emergency center when help is needed. This study examined research on the Lifeline system,…

  13. An emergency packet forwarding scheme for V2V communication networks.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Faika; Kwon, Sungoh

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective warning message forwarding scheme for cooperative collision avoidance. In an emergency situation, an emergency-detecting vehicle warns the neighbor vehicles via an emergency warning message. Since the transmission range is limited, the warning message is broadcast in a multihop manner. Broadcast packets lead two challenges to forward the warning message in the vehicular network: redundancy of warning messages and competition with nonemergency transmissions. In this paper, we study and address the two major challenges to achieve low latency in delivery of the warning message. To reduce the intervehicle latency and end-to-end latency, which cause chain collisions, we propose a two-way intelligent broadcasting method with an adaptable distance-dependent backoff algorithm. Considering locations of vehicles, the proposed algorithm controls the broadcast of a warning message to reduce redundant EWM messages and adaptively chooses the contention window to compete with nonemergency transmission. Via simulations, we show that our proposed algorithm reduces the probability of rear-end crashes by 70% compared to previous algorithms by reducing the intervehicle delay. We also show that the end-to-end propagation delay of the warning message is reduced by 55%. PMID:25054181

  14. An Emergency Packet Forwarding Scheme for V2V Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective warning message forwarding scheme for cooperative collision avoidance. In an emergency situation, an emergency-detecting vehicle warns the neighbor vehicles via an emergency warning message. Since the transmission range is limited, the warning message is broadcast in a multihop manner. Broadcast packets lead two challenges to forward the warning message in the vehicular network: redundancy of warning messages and competition with nonemergency transmissions. In this paper, we study and address the two major challenges to achieve low latency in delivery of the warning message. To reduce the intervehicle latency and end-to-end latency, which cause chain collisions, we propose a two-way intelligent broadcasting method with an adaptable distance-dependent backoff algorithm. Considering locations of vehicles, the proposed algorithm controls the broadcast of a warning message to reduce redundant EWM messages and adaptively chooses the contention window to compete with nonemergency transmission. Via simulations, we show that our proposed algorithm reduces the probability of rear-end crashes by 70% compared to previous algorithms by reducing the intervehicle delay. We also show that the end-to-end propagation delay of the warning message is reduced by 55%. PMID:25054181

  15. Communicating Emerging Issues in Ocean Hypoxia (or Suffocating in Your Own Home)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, F. A.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Diaz, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Some large regions of our interior oceans are losing oxygen both from the impacts of human uses of coastal margins and the impacts that climate change is having on ocean circulation. As oxygen minimum zones expand, impacts are especially noticed along the edges of continents. Ecosystems are being affected in ways that result in habitat compression or forced migrations. Looking into the future, we foresee large scale disruptions to habitat that, in some cases, will dramatically impact fish productivity. As waters become more hypoxic, energy fixed by marine plants will be less available to support higher trophic levels (e.g. fish and marine mammals). Communicating concern about hypoxia has its challenges: the word itself is poorly know to those on land who live in an oxygen-rich world. Thus, crucial factors in effective communication include illustrating: i) how many ocean animals live “on the edge”, ii) how ocean organisms respond to hypoxia iii) the long-term effects on ocean ecosystems and iv) causes and mitigation. For media that respond to visual stimulation, good graphics, evocative analogies and focussed examples are important.

  16. Mobile Satellite Communications for Disaster Emergency Relief , Education, Sustainable Development, and Land Mine Detection: Youth Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    2002-01-01

    Policy and technical issues associated with the use of satellite communications for disaster mitigation and relief, sustainable development, education, and land mine detection were discussed at the Space Generation Forum (SGF), at UNISPACE-III. The youth perspective on this topic is being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) which shall unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11-13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the work of the SGS delegates relating to Satellite communication and Global Information Infrastructure. This international team of young people has been working to support the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) on their Action Teams for the implementation of disaster mitigation, planetary defense, sustainable development, and education recommendations from UNISPACE III. Results of work to date will be presented.

  17. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  18. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathorn, S.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Thin Route satellite telecommunication project is presented. Thin Route employs applications technology satellites (ATS) in place of more costly commercial multi- transponder telecommunications satellites. This system allows remote and underdeveloped areas to communicate with the outside world for purposes of obtaining medical assistance among other things. The system represents a substantial cost saving over commercial systems.

  19. Star on the horizon: The emergence of the direct broadcast satellite in American mass communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. H.

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the concept of broadcasting from satellites directly to the viewer equipped with a small, inexpensive receiving antenna, and the evolution of this technology as a means of commercial broadcast. Emphasis is placed on the problems of developing a regulatory framework for DBS by the Federal Communications Commission. The opposition of the existing broadcasters to the unregulated development of direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is explored in light of the possible effect that DBS may have on the economic base, audience, and advertising revenue of existing broadcasters. The information for this study was obtained from government documents, legal journals, books and the popular press. Two basic conclusions are drawn from this study: First, that the existing broadcasters have opposed the marketplace development of DBS, and second, that DBS does not pose as great a threat, at least in the near term, as the broadcasters fear.

  20. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  1. Content Characteristics Driving the Diffusion of Antismoking Messages: Implications for Cancer Prevention in the Emerging Public Communication Environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how content characteristics of antitobacco messages affect smokers’ selective exposure to and social sharing of those messages. Results from an experiment revealed that content features predicting smokers’ selection of antismoking messages are different from those predicting whether those messages are shared. Antismoking messages smokers tend to select are characterized by strong arguments (odds ratio = 2.02, P = .02) and positive sentiments (odds ratio = 3.08, P = .03). Once selected, the messages more likely to be retransmitted by smokers were those with novel arguments (B = .83, P = .002) and positive sentiments (B = 1.65, P = .005). This research adds to the literature about the content characteristics driving the social diffusion of antitobacco messages and contributes to our understanding of the role of persuasive messages about smoking cessation in the emerging public communication environment. PMID:24395989

  2. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  3. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  4. Short Communication: Emergence of Novel A/G Recombinant HIV-1 Strains in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María F.; Golemba, Marcelo D.; Terrones, Carmen; Paradiso, Patricia; Nassif, Juan C.; Bologna, Rosa; Mangano, Andrea; Sen, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The predominant circulating HIV-1 strains in South America are subtype B and B/F recombinants with different distributions among countries. However, the emergence of other subtypes is a matter of concern and needs continuous monitoring. We identified three different A/G recombinants in Argentina, two of them in vertically infected children from unlinked mothers and one in an adult female. HIV-1 pol sequences from the children showed novel A/G recombination patterns and no phylogenetic relationship with previously reported South American A/G sequences. The third A/G recombinant was a CRF06_cpx with African origin. The detection of new or unusual subtypes is important to avoid false-negative PCR HIV-1 early diagnosis due to detection failures and for future vaccine development. PMID:25417788

  5. Assessment of RF exposures from emerging wireless communication technologies in different environments.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Gönter; Martens, Luc

    2012-02-01

    In situ electromagnetic (EM) radio frequency (RF) exposure to base stations of emerging wireless technologies is assessed at 311 locations, 68 indoor and 243 outdoor, spread over 35 areas in three European countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, and Sweden) by performing narrowband spectrum analyzer measurements. The locations are selected to characterize six different environmental categories (rural, residential, urban, suburban, office, and industrial). The maximal total field value was measured in a residential environment and equal to 3.9 V m(-1), mainly due to GSM900 signals. Exposure ratios for maximal electric field values, with respect to ICNIRP reference levels, range from 0.5% (WiMAX) to 9.3% (GSM900) for the 311 measurement locations. Exposure ratios for total field values vary from 3.1% for rural environments to 9.4% for residential environments. Exposures are lognormally distributed and are the lowest in rural environments and the highest in urban environments. Highest median exposures were obtained in urban environments (0.74 V m(-1)), followed by office (0.51 V m(-1)), industrial (0.49 V m(-1)), suburban (0.46 V m(-1)), residential (0.40 V m(-1)), and rural (0.09 V m(-1)) environments. The average contribution to the total electric field is more than 60% for GSM. Except for the rural environment, average contributions of UMTS-HSPA are more than 3%. Contributions of the emerging technologies LTE and WiMAX are on average less than 1%. The dominating outdoor source is GSM900 (95 percentile of 1.9 V m(-1)), indoor DECT dominates (95 percentile of 1.5 V m(-1)). PMID:22217589

  6. Training the powerful: issues that emerged during the evaluation of a communication skills training programme for senior cancer care professionals.

    PubMed

    Bibila, S; Rabiee, F

    2014-07-01

    'Connected' is the name of the national advanced communication skills training programme developed in 2008 for cancer care professionals in the NHS. A 3-day training course combining didactic and experiential learning elements is run by two facilitators with course participants expected to engage fully in simulated consultations with trained actors. In 2011, and as a result of participant feedback on the length of the course and increasing pressures on budgets and clinical time, the Connected team developed and piloted an alternative 2-day training course. Before its roll-out in 2012, Birmingham City University was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness and quality of the 2-day course vis-à-vis the 'traditional' 3-day one. This article is written by the two evaluators and it discusses some of the issues that emerged during the evaluation. We broadly grouped these issues into two overlapping categories: the mandatory nature of the course and the different professional background and seniority of participants. In our discussion we consider the implications these issues have for communication skills training policy and practice and put forward suggestions for further research. PMID:24373021

  7. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel at...) storage capacity must have an emergency communication system that provides for verbal communications... operation of safety equipment in time of emergency. The emergency communication system must be...

  8. Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611

  9. Brief Communication: On the rapid and efficient monitoring results dissemination in landslide emergency scenarios: the Mont de La Saxe case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Allasia, P.; Bertolo, D.

    2015-04-01

    Straightforward communication of monitoring results is of major importance in emergency scenarios relevant to large slope instabilities. Here we describe the communication strategy developed for the Mont de La Saxe case study, a large rockslide threatening La Palud and Entrèves hamlets in the Courmayeur municipality (Aosta Valley, Italy). Starting from the definition of actions and needs of the Landslide Management Team, including scientists, technicians, civil protection operators, decision makers, and politicians, we show that sharing and disseminating ad hoc information simplifies the understanding of the landslide evolution, as well as the correct communication of the level of criticality.

  10. Brief Communication: On the rapid and efficient monitoring results dissemination in landslide emergency scenarios: the Mont de La Saxe case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Allasia, P.; Bertolo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Straightforward communication of monitoring results is of major importance in emergency scenarios relevant to large slope instabilities. Here we describe the communication strategy developed for the Mont de La Saxe rockslide threatening La Palud and Entrèves hamlets in the Courmayeur municipality (Aosta Valley, Italy). Starting from the definition of actions and needs of the landslide management team, including scientists, technicians, civil protection operators, decision makers, and politicians, we show that sharing and disseminating ad hoc information simplifies the understanding of the landslide evolution, as well as the correct communication of the level of criticality.

  11. Short communication routine HIV testing in the emergency department: assessment of patient perceptions.

    PubMed

    Batey, D Scott; Hogan, Victoria L; Cantor, Ryan; Hamlin, Christopher M; Ross-Davis, Kelly; Nevin, Christa; Zimmerman, Cindy; Thomas, Shakira; Mugavero, Michael J; Willig, James H

    2012-04-01

    The CDC released revised HIV testing guidelines in 2006 recommending routine, opt-out HIV testing in acute care settings including emergency departments (ED). Patient attitudes have been cited as a barrier to implementation of routine HIV testing in the ED. We assessed patients' perceptions of HIV testing in the ED through a contextual qualitative approach. The study was conducted during a 72-h period. All adults presenting to the ED without life-threatening trauma or psychiatric crisis completed a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire explored HIV testing history, knowledge of testing resources, and qualitative items addressing participant perceptions about advantages and disadvantages to ED testing. After completion of the interview, participants were offered a free, confidential, rapid HIV test. Among 329 eligible individuals approached, 288 (87.5%) completed the initial interview. Participants overwhelmingly (n=247, 85.8%) reported support for testing and identified increased knowledge (41%), prevention (12.5%), convenience (11.8%), and treatment (4.9%) among the advantages. Fear and denial about one's HIV status, reported by <5% of patients, were identified as the most significant barriers to ED testing. Bivariate analysis determined race and ethnicity differences between individuals completing the interview and those who refused (p<0.05). Among individuals consenting for testing (n=186, 64.6%), no positives were detected. Most patients support HIV testing in the ED, noting knowledge of status, prevention, convenience, and linkage to early treatment as distinct advantages. These data are of particular benefit to decision makers considering the addition of routine HIV testing in EDs. PMID:21790474

  12. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  13. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method: The study included 190…

  14. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  15. An alumni-based evaluation of graduate training in health communication: results of a survey on careers, salaries, competencies, and emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Timothy; Hyde, James N

    2005-01-01

    Published information about career options and the core competencies necessary for health communication professionals (HCPs) is limited. Although the number of graduate programs in health communication continues to grow, no formal assessment of the success of this type of training has been conducted. The current study presents the results of an evaluation of the Master's Program in Health Communication offered collaboratively by Emerson College and the Tufts University School of Medicine. The program was one of the first of its kind and has graduated more health communication students than any other in the United States. To conduct the assessment of the program, the two schools collaborated on the development of an on-line survey for the alumni. Of the 131 graduates eligible to participate, 106 completed the survey. The survey yielded detailed information on the following: (1) career options for individuals with master's degrees in health communication; (2) value of graduate coursework for developing competencies in health communication; (3) salary expectations for individuals with graduate degrees in health communication; and (4) emerging trends in the field. These findings have important implications for the development of new programs and the refinement of existing ones in health communication. PMID:15764441

  16. Assistive technology-based programs to promote communication and leisure activities by three children emerged from a minimal conscious state.

    PubMed

    Stasolla, Fabrizio; Caffò, Alessandro O; Damiani, Rita; Perilli, Viviana; Di Leone, Antonia; Albano, Vincenza

    2015-02-01

    This study proposed the use of assistive technology (AT) to promote communication and leisure opportunities by three children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Furthermore, it assessed the effects of such technology on the indices of positive participation and provided a social validation procedure. Three children emerged from a minimal conscious state and presenting extensive motor disabilities were involved. The intervention program allowed the participants to request and to choice preferred items independently and to perform literacy through a keyboard emulator. A multiple probe design across behaviors with post-intervention check was employed. Outcome measures were correct requests, understandable words, intervals with positive participation, and scores of social validation assessment. Request and choice behaviors and literacy improved significantly during intervention phases. During post-intervention check, all participants consolidated their performance. Moreover, indices of positive participation increased during intervention phases. Scores of social validation assessment showed that the combination of both behaviors was preferable to the same considered separately. AT program showed to be suitable for promoting constructive engagement and literacy behaviors by children with TBI. Future research is needed to generalize this data to a larger sample and to develop new technology for people with different levels of disabilities due to TBI. PMID:25077461

  17. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy.

    PubMed

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  18. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  19. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  20. Mobile videoconferencing for enhanced emergency medical communication - a shot in the dark or a walk in the park? ‒‒ A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Videoconferencing on mobile phones may enhance communication, but knowledge on its quality in various situations is needed before it can be used in medical emergencies. Mobile phones automatically activate loudspeaker functionality during videoconferencing, making calls particularly vulnerable to background noise. The aim of this study was to investigate if videoconferencing can be used between lay bystanders and Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) operators for initial emergency calls during medical emergencies, under suboptimal sound and light conditions. Methods Videoconferencing was tested between 90 volunteers and an emergency medical dispatcher in a standardized scenario of a medical emergency. Three different environments were used for the trials: indoors with moderate background noise, outdoors with daylight and much background noise, and outdoors during nighttime with little background noise. Thirty participants were recruited for each of the three locations. After informed consent, each participant was asked to use a video mobile phone to communicate with an EMD operator. During the video call the EMD operator gave instructions for tasks to be performed by the participant. The video quality from the caller to the EMD was evaluated by the EMD operator and rated on a five step scale ranging from "not able to see" to "good video quality". Sound quality between participants and EMD operators was assessed by a method developed for this trial. Kruskal – Wallis and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Video quality was significantly different between the groups (p <0.001), and the nighttime group had lower video quality. For most sessions in the nighttime group it was still possible to see actions done at the simulated emergency site. All participants were able to perform their tasks according to the instructions given by dispatchers, although with a need for more repetitions during sessions with much background noise. No calls

  1. Predicting a prior for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The quantum state of the universe combined with the structure of the landscape potential implies a prior that specifies predictions for observations. We compute the prior for CMB related observables given by the no-boundary wave function (NBWF) in a landscape model that includes a range of inflationary patches representative of relatively simple single-field models. In this landscape the NBWF predicts our classical cosmological background emerges from a region of eternal inflation associated with a plateau-like potential. The spectra of primordial fluctuations on observable scales are characteristic of concave potentials, in excellent agreement with the Planck data. By contrast, alternative theories of initial conditions that strongly favor inflation at high values of the potential are disfavored by observations in this landscape.

  2. Media Use and Communication Inequalities in a Public Health Emergency: A Case Study of 2009–2010 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo; McCloud, Rachel F.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies have shown that differences among individuals and social groups in accessing and using information on health and specific threats have an impact on their knowledge and behaviors. These differences, characterized as communication inequalities, may hamper the strength of a society's response to a public health emergency. Such inequalities not only make vulnerable populations subject to a disproportionate burden of adversity, but also compromise the public health system's efforts to prevent and respond to pandemic influenza outbreaks. We investigated the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and health communication behaviors (including barriers) on people's knowledge and misconceptions about pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) and adoption of prevention behaviors. Methods The data for this study came from a survey of 1,569 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults during pH1N1. We conducted logistic regression analyses when appropriate. Results We found that (1) SES has a significant association with barriers to information access and processing, levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, and misconceptions; (2) levels of pH1N1-related knowledge are associated positively with the adoption of recommended prevention measures and negatively with the adoption of incorrect protective behaviors; and (3) people with higher SES, higher news exposure, and higher levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, as well as those who actively seek information, are less likely than their counterparts to adopt incorrect prevention behaviors. Conclusion Strategic public health communication efforts in public health preparedness and during emergencies should take into account potential communication inequalities and develop campaigns that reach across different social groups. PMID:25355975

  3. Communicating and managing change during extreme weather events: promising practices for responding to urgent and emergent climate threats.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Tim L

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale weather events in the USA such as hurricanes Sandy, Isaac and Katrina challenge traditional approaches to change communication and management (CCM) before during and after crises. A major challenge (as well as opportunity) is addressing change from the 'whole-community' perspective affecting a spectrum of people, policies, processes, behaviours and outcomes. When CCM is used effectively, one of its fundamental advantages is creating a sense of urgency. This paper looks at optimising communication during extreme weather events, engaging stakeholders, harnessing the power of social media and change, and correlating organisational and individual behaviours and actions. The strategic blend of change management and crisis communication strategies and tactics in CCM is a central feature in the response to the full range of extreme weather scenarios. PMID:23835423

  4. Academic College of Emergency Experts in India's INDO-US Joint Working Group (JWG) White Paper on the Integrated Emergency Communication Response Service in India: Much more than just a number!

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anuja; Rajhans, Prasad; Galwankar, Sagar; Arquilla, Bonnie; Swaroop, Mamta; Stawicki, Stanislaw; Das, Bidhan; Aggarwal, Praveen; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, OP

    2013-01-01

    The proposal for an integrated national emergency number for India is garnering a lot of enthusiasm and stimulating debate. This ambitious project has a two-part paradigm shift to set in; the first being the integration into a single number and the infrastructure required for setting up and operating this number such that a call can be received and identified. The second is the submerged part of the iceberg: That of the ability to respond to a call and deliver the appropriate emergency service. The first part is more technical and has potential precedents like the 911 phone hotline, for example, to emulate. The main premise of this paper is that the second part is a rather subjective exercise largely determined by the realities of existing public infrastructure in a specific geographical area with respect to emergency services management, especially medical care. Consequently, we highlight the key areas of both precall preparedness and postcall execution that need to be reviewed prior to going live with an integrated number on a national scale. PMID:23960382

  5. Over the Horizon: Potential Impact of Emerging Trends in Information and Communication Technology on Disability Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    This policy paper explores key trends in information and communication technology, highlights the potential opportunities and problems these trends present for people with disabilities, and suggests some strategies to maximize opportunities and avoid potential problems and barriers. Specifically, this paper discusses technology trends that present…

  6. "Bill Is Now Singing": Joint Engagement and the Emergence of Social Communication of Three Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the…

  7. Teaching on the Foam of Discourse: Genealogical Perspectives on the Emergence of Speech and Communication as Academic Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macke, Frank J.

    This essay examines and explicates the nature and pattern of epistemic transformations undergone by the United States academic discipline known as "speech communication." The system of examination and explication employed in the paper follows Michel Foucault's genealogical method of inquiry and, as such, offers a postmodern critical "history" of…

  8. Making the Most of Alert Notification Systems: Eleven Tips for Using Emergency Communication Solutions in Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Districts are finding that alert notification systems that deliver automated phone messages are an effective way to reach parents and employees. Implementing the technology is one thing and getting the most out of it is another. This article presents the Districts' goal to get in touch with parents and employees in emergency situations. Andy…

  9. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    PubMed

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies. PMID:23832561

  10. Harnessing complex emergent metaphors for effective communication in palliative care: a multimodal perceptual analysis of hospice patients' reports of transcendence experiences.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Bruce L; Lloyd, Linda S

    2014-05-01

    Terminally ill patients can have unexpected, enigmatic, and profound cognitive shifts that significantly alter their perception of themselves, thereby eliminating their fear of death and dying. However, there are no systematic studies into these remarkable yet ineffable transcendence experiences. They therefore remain easily overlooked or viewed as isolated anomalies and therefore excluded from quality-of-life patient considerations. We use a multimodal methodology for identifying the prevalence and thematic properties of complex emergent metaphors patients use to report these experiences. Although previous research has pioneered the importance of understanding conventional or primary metaphors at the end of life, our findings indicate the considerable potential of more complex metaphors for reducing barriers to effective communication in palliative care. PMID:23713131

  11. Headaches prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.

    1988-06-01

    In two surveys of headaches it was noted that their incidence had increased significantly within 48 h prior to earthquakes from an incidence of 17% to 58% in the first survey using correlated samples and from 20.4% to 44% in the second survey using independent samples. It is suggested that an increase in positive air ions from rock compression may trigger head pain via a decrease in brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The findings are presented as preliminary, with the hope of generating further research efforts in areas more prone to earthquakes.

  12. S. 335, the Emerging Telecommunications Technologies Act of 1993. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    A hearing was held on Senate Bill 335, the Emerging Telecommunications Technologies Act of 1993, a bill that requires the federal government to transfer 200 megahertz of spectrum to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for new technologies. Integral to this measure, a bipartisan effort, is a provision that will allow the FCC to use…

  13. Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  14. STS-39 MS Hieb prepares for emergency egress exercises in JSC's WETF Bldg 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), parachute pack, and communications carrier assembly (CCA), listens to instructions prior to emergency egress bailout exercises in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. The WETF's 25 ft deep pool will simulate the ocean. Crewmembers will practice procedures necessary in the event of an emergency onboard the Space Shuttle requiring a water landing.

  15. Unconsciously elicited perceptual prior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Raymond; Baria, Alexis T.; Flounders, Matthew W.; He, Biyu J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence over the past decade suggests that vision is not simply a passive, feed-forward process in which cortical areas relay progressively more abstract information to those higher up in the visual hierarchy, but rather an inferential process with top-down processes actively guiding and shaping perception. However, one major question that persists is whether such processes can be influenced by unconsciously perceived stimuli. Recent psychophysics and neuroimaging studies have revealed that while consciously perceived stimuli elicit stronger responses in higher visual and frontoparietal areas than those that fail to reach conscious awareness, the latter can still drive high-level brain and behavioral responses. We investigated whether unconscious processing of a masked natural image could facilitate subsequent conscious recognition of its degraded counterpart (a black-and-white “Mooney” image) presented many seconds later. We found that this is indeed the case, suggesting that conscious vision may be influenced by priors established by unconscious processing of a fleeting image.

  16. Impact of Prior Seasonal H3N2 Influenza Vaccination or Infection on Protection and Transmission of Emerging Variants of Influenza A(H3N2)v Virus in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine V.; Pearce, Melissa B.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza H3N2 A viruses continue to circulate in swine and occasionally infect humans, resulting in outbreaks of variant influenza H3N2 [A(H3N2)v] virus. It has been previously demonstrated in ferrets that A(H3N2)v viruses transmit as efficiently as seasonal influenza viruses, raising concern over the pandemic potential of these viruses. However, A(H3N2)v viruses have not acquired the ability to transmit efficiently among humans, which may be due in part to existing cross-reactive immunity to A(H3N2)v viruses. Although current seasonal H3N2 and A(H3N2)v viruses are antigenically distinct from one another, historical H3N2 viruses have some antigenic similarity to A(H3N2)v viruses and previous exposure to these viruses may provide a measure of immune protection sufficient to dampen A(H3N2)v virus transmission. Here, we evaluated whether prior seasonal H3N2 influenza virus vaccination or infection affects virus replication and transmission of A(H3N2)v virus in the ferret animal model. We found that the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) or a monovalent vaccine prepared from an antigenically related 1992 seasonal influenza H3N2 (A/Beijing/32/1992) virus failed to substantially reduce A(H3N2)v (A/Indiana/08/2011) virus shedding and subsequent transmission to naive hosts. Conversely, ferrets primed by seasonal H3N2 virus infection displayed reduced A(H3N2)v virus shedding following challenge, which blunted transmission to naive ferrets. A higher level of specific IgG and IgA antibody titers detected among infected versus vaccinated ferrets was associated with the degree of protection offered by seasonal H3N2 virus infection. The data demonstrate in ferrets that the efficiency of A(H3N2)v transmission is disrupted by preexisting immunity induced by seasonal H3N2 virus infection. PMID:24089569

  17. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Setting Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. Participants 640 women aged 15−49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. Interventions IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Primary outcome measures Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). Results The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health

  18. Infodemiology and Infoveillance: Framework for an Emerging Set of Public Health Informatics Methods to Analyze Search, Communication and Publication Behavior on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include: the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza); monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance; detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability; identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports); automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized. PMID:19329408

  19. Infodemiology and infoveillance: framework for an emerging set of public health informatics methods to analyze search, communication and publication behavior on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza), monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance, detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability, identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports), automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized. PMID:19329408

  20. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  1. Menarche: Prior Knowledge and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandhan, K. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Recorded menstruation information among 305 young women in India, assessing the differences between those who did and did not have knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. Those with prior knowledge considered menarche to be a normal physiological function and had a higher rate of regularity, lower rate of dysmenorrhea, and earlier onset of…

  2. Buoyant Magnetic Flux Ropes and Convection: Evolution Prior to Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2003-10-01

    We have performed detailed numerical 3-d simulations of the interaction of buoyantly ascending twisted magnetic flux ropes and solar-like stratified convection (with surface cells similar to solar supergranules in size). Results are presented for three different cases -- corresponding to different amounts of initial field line twist -- that represents fundamentally different types of instabilities: the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in which case the flux rope disrupts and network patches are formed at surface cell boundaries; the kink instability that has been proposed as a mechanism for forming tightly packed δ-type spots; a stable flux rope where neither of the former instabilities arise, and the behavior of which is similar to classical text book flux tubes, except from a flux-loss due to the advective action of the convective flows. The simulations thus support the idea that the magnetic flux observed at the surface in bipolar regions are smaller, ceteris paribus, than that of the dynamo generated flux ropes near the bottom of the convection zone. Please note that this material is also available as an online htmladdnormallink{web-talk}{http://www.astro.su.se/ dorch/talks/01_CS12/}

  3. Briefcase Communicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo at bottom right, a U.S. Park Police officer is demonstrating a battery-powered communications system, sufficiently compact to be packed in a briefcase-size container, which can send and receive signals over great distances by means of satellite relay. Key to the system's efficacy is the high-powered transmitting and receiving equipment aboard such NASA satellites as the Applications Technology Satellite6 (ATS-6) and the joint U.S.-Canadian Communications Technology Satellite (CTS); this enables the briefcase communicator to pick up satellite-relayed signals by means of the small hook-on antenna shown instead of the more elaborate-ground equipment customarily needed. Developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the communicator is intended for use in emergency situations. It has utility, for example, in disasters, such as floods and hurricanes, where power failure disrupts conventional communications; for on-the-spot transmissions from major accident sites; or in remote areas where no other means of communication exists

  4. 47 CFR 87.397 - Emergency operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency operations. 87.397 Section 87.397... Emergency Communications § 87.397 Emergency operations. (a) The licensee of any land station in the Aviation services, during a local emergency involving the safety of life and property may communicate in a...

  5. 47 CFR 87.397 - Emergency operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency operations. 87.397 Section 87.397... Emergency Communications § 87.397 Emergency operations. (a) The licensee of any land station in the Aviation services, during a local emergency involving the safety of life and property may communicate in a...

  6. Speak no evil: The promotional heritage of nuclear risk communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gwin, L.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Gwin addresses the critically important problem of nuclear risk communication. His research suggests that while an orderly evacuation of the population actually at risk may be workable in theory, the more likely occurrence is widespread panic and gridlock. Gwin's research suggests that existing programs of nuclear risk communication actually make this problem worse. He found that those who had received no prior information on what to do in an emergency were significantly more likely to do the right thing (e.g., await further instructions) than those who had received instructions. With utilities themselves retaining the ultimate responsibility for developing communication programs, it is not surprising that they have been reluctant; to issue instructions on what to do in the event of a nuclear accident is to acknowledge that such accidents can and do occur. Gwin makes no attempt to protray the nuclear industry as purposefully dishonest or evil. The bottom line is that programs that combine the communication of emergency plans with a latent desire to reassure the public fail in their primary purpose. As Gwin observes the key issue is one of trust. People see such communications as little more than propaganda put out by industry for its own purposes and do not trust the utilities to tell them what to do in the event of an accident. It will be every man for himself, with potentially disastrous consequences. How do we restore trust in nuclear risk communications Gwin offers a number of valuable suggestions such as placing communication responsibility in state or local agencies or in FEMA, and to ensure some form of public participation in the development and communication of emergency plans. This is an excellent study of an important and timely subject. It provides a much needed picture of just how badly our plans are likely to work in the next nuclear emergency. Gwin's warning should be heeded by policymakers now, while there is still time.

  7. An implementation-independent threat model for group communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Jason; Yurcik, William; Campbell, Roy

    2006-04-01

    The importance of group communications and the need to efficiently and reliably support it across a network is an issue of growing importance for the next decade. New group communication services are emerging such as multimedia conferencing/groupware, distributed interactive simulations, sensor fusion systems, command and control centers, and network-centric military applications. While a succession of point-to-point unicast routes could provide group communications, this approach is inherently inefficient and unlikely to support the increased resource requirements of these new services. There is the lack of a comprehensive process to designing security into group communications schemes. Designing such protection for group communications is best done by utilizing proactive system engineering rather than reacting with ad hoc countermeasures to the latest attack du jour. Threat modeling is the foundation for secure system engineering processes because it organizes system threats and vulnerabilities into general classes so they can be addressed with known protection techniques. Although there has been prior work on threat modeling primarily for software applications, however, to our knowledge this is the first attempt at implementation-independent threat modeling for group communications. We discuss protection challenges unique to group communications and propose a process to create a threat model for group communication systems independent of underlying implementation based on classical security principles (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Authentication, or CIAA). It is our hope that this work will lead to better designs for protection solutions against threats to group communication systems.

  8. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  9. Why Communicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    "Half the world is composed of people who have something to say and can't, and the other half who have nothing to say and keep on saying it." - Robert Frost In this age of digital soap boxes and half-truths, the importance of geoscientists as communicators cannot be underestimated, nor has there been a more important time for researchers to stand up and demand to be heard. So why is there still such an overwhelming public perception that scientists are poor communicators, and what can we do to change this? In this work I will present an overview of a number of successful initiatives that have been developed at Manchester Metropolitan University, and beyond, to ensure that science is communicated to a large variety of people, from policy makers to members of the local community. I will also present an overview of the emerging field of Science Communication, how it has changed in the past few decades from a one-way diatribe to a two-way discussion, and how this represents a possible new direction and career path for geoscientists. Anne Roe, the noted American psychologist, told us, "nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." As geoscientists, we have a professional and moral obligation to ensure that we not only research the facts, but that we also present them in an informative and engaging manner, so that the rest of humanity can benefit from the fruits of our labour.

  10. Emergency Medical Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Lewis Research Center helped design the complex EMS Communication System, originating from space operated telemetry, including the telemetry link between ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services. In emergency medical use telemetry links ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services and allows transmission of physiological data -- an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital emergency room where a physician reads the telemetered message and prescribes emergency procedures to ambulance attendants.

  11. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  12. Recognising Health Care Assistants' Prior Learning through a Caring Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This article critically appraises a process of recognising prior learning (RPL) using analytical tools from Habermas' theory of communicative action. The RPL process is part of an in-service training program for health care assistants where the goal is to become a licensed practical nurse. Data about the RPL process were collected using interviews…

  13. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    McGough, Marty; Frank, Loreeta Leer; Tipton, Stacia; Tinker, Tim L; Vaughan, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    In the event that terrorists use air, water, or food to deliver destructive agents to civilian populations, some groups and populations may be disproportionately at risk and have unique communications needs. Bioterrorism represents an even greater national public health threat if the nation's preparedness and readiness plans do not address the needs and perspectives of, for example, low-income residents, racially and ethnically diverse communities, and other "special populations". The objective of this study was to develop communications strategies to reach special populations in North Dakota before, during, and after a bioterrorism attack or other crisis. To achieve the study objectives, the investigators used telephone interviews and telephone focus groups with organizations that represented special populations. Areas of inquiry included attitudes and concerns about crises, sources of information used and those identified as most credible, methods to reach people during a crisis event, and awareness of and attitudes about the agencies and organizations that affect risk communications. PMID:16181046

  14. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  15. Physical priors in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaz, Hassan; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Liang, Jianming

    2009-02-01

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) aims to remove the contrast agent from the CT abdominal images so that a virtual model of the colon can be constructed. Virtual colonoscopy requires either liquid or solid preparation of the colon before CT imaging. This paper has two parts to address ECC in both preparation methods. In the first part, meniscus removal in the liquid preparation is studied. The meniscus is the curve seen at the top of a liquid in response to its container. Left on the colon wall, the meniscus can decrease the sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy. We state the differential equation that governs the profile of the meniscus and propose an algorithm for calculating the boundary of the contrast agent. We compute the surface tension of the liquid-colon wall contact using in-vivo CT data. Our results show that the surface tension can be estimated with an acceptable degree of uncertainty. Such an estimate, along with the meniscus profile differential equation will be used as an a priori knowledge to aid meniscus segmentation. In the second part, we study ECC in solid preparation of colon. Since the colon is pressurized with air before acquisition of the CT images, a prior on the shape of the colon wall can be obtained. We present such prior and investigate it using patient data. We show the shape prior is held in certain parts of the colon and propose a method that uses this prior to ease pseudoenhancement correction.

  16. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  17. Communication and Collaboration During Natural Disasters: The Lessons Learned From Past Experience. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on the response and recovery efforts to wildfires by the San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE) and its school and community partners. Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes,…

  18. Millimeter Wave Communication through Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Millimeter wave communication through plasma at frequencies of 35 GHz or higher shows promise in maintaining communications connectivity during rocket launch and re-entry, critical events which are typically plagued with communication dropouts. Extensive prior research into plasmas has characterized the plasma frequency at these events, and research at the Kennedy Space Center is investigating the feasibility of millimeter communication through these plasma frequencies.

  19. The Survey on Near Field Communication.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem. PMID:26057043

  20. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem. PMID:26057043

  1. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  2. 45 CFR 1626.8 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergencies. 1626.8 Section 1626.8 Public Welfare... TO ALIENS § 1626.8 Emergencies. In an emergency, legal services may be provided prior to compliance... by the emergency, and the applicant provides oral information to establish eligibility which...

  3. 45 CFR 1626.8 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergencies. 1626.8 Section 1626.8 Public Welfare... TO ALIENS § 1626.8 Emergencies. In an emergency, legal services may be provided prior to compliance... by the emergency, and the applicant provides oral information to establish eligibility which...

  4. 44 CFR 16.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 16.160... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  5. 44 CFR 16.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 16.160... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  6. 44 CFR 16.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 16.160... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  7. 47 CFR 1.2113 - Construction prior to grant of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction prior to grant of application. 1.2113 Section 1.2113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2113 Construction prior to grant of application. Subject to the provisions of this...

  8. 5 CFR 3901.102 - Prior approval for practice of a profession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... profession is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by statute or Federal regulation, including 5 CFR... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION § 3901.102 Prior approval for practice of a profession. (a) Prior approval requirement. A professional employee of the...

  9. Emergency Operation Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinea, Anoushka Z.

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Operation Center (EOC) is a site from which NASA LaRC Emergency Preparedness Officials exercise control and direction in an emergency. Research was conducted in order to determine what makes an effective EOC. Specifically information concerning the various types of equipment and communication capability that an efficient EOC should contain (i.e., computers, software, telephone systems, radio systems, etc.) was documented. With this information a requirements document was written stating a brief description of the equipment and required quantity to be used in an EOC and then compared to current capabilities at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  10. Exercise physiologists emerge as allied healthcare professionals in the era of non-communicable disease pandemics: a report from Australia, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Birinder S; Robergs, Robert A; Askew, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Exercise can be prescribed to prevent, manage, and treat many leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and underlying risk factors. However, surprisingly, Australia is one of only a few countries where allied healthcare professionals with specialized university education and training in exercise prescription and delivery provide services within a government-run healthcare system (Medicare). This article presents data on Medicare-funded services provided by accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs) from the inclusion of the profession in the allied healthcare model (January, 2006) to the end of 2012. We conceptualize these data in relation to current NCD trends, and outline recommendations that can potentially help curtail the current chronic disease burden through the further integration of exercise professionals into the healthcare system in Australia, and internationally. From 2006 to 2012, the number of AEPs in Australia has increased 563 %. This rise in AEPs has been paralleled by increased delivery of services for eligible patients with a chronic medical condition (+614 %), type 2 diabetes mellitus (+211 to 230 %), and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent (+343 %). These trends, which were developed through the "early years" of the profession, are encouraging and suggest that AEPs have taken up a vital position within the healthcare system. However, the total number of services provided by AEPs currently remains very low in relation to the prevalence of overweight-obesity and type 2 diabetes in Australia. Furthermore, services for Aboriginal Australians are very low considering the extreme burden of chronic diseases in these vulnerable populations. We provide some recommendations that may help the exercise physiology profession play a greater role in tackling the NCD burden and shift the healthcare model in a direction that is more proactive and focused on disease prevention and health, including the early identification and treatment of major

  11. Advanced Communications Technology: Mobile Communications Requirements Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    The Coast Guard's mobile communications requirements will outstrip existing system capabilities, available capacity, and affordability by the late 1990s. This will require changes in the mix of mobile communications equipment and services used by operational units. New commercial mobile satellite services are available now, with many others arriving on the market between 1998 and 2003. These new services present unique opportunities to satisfy mission requirements, reduce investment in communications infrastructure, and realize more costeffective communications services. The Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) has undertaken an effort to identify and evaluate current and emerging satellite services that may be used to satisfy Coast Guard mobile communications requirements. As part of this effort, Anteon Corporation has been tasked by R&DC to collect the mobile communications functional requirements that have been identified by program managers. Anteon analysts have reviewed the Government Furnished Information (GFI) and researched other related documentation to identify and collect the requirements that may be used to describe the needed operating environment. Anteon analysts assessed the functional requirements to develop system requirements that describe the features that a communications system must provide to support the functional requirements. This report presents the current and projected Coast Guard mobile communications system requirements.

  12. Electric power emergency handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  13. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ... Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be Red Cross Ready Mobile Apps Workplaces & Organizations Resources For ...

  14. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  15. Technicians assist STS-41 Pilot Cabana his parachute prior to egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technicians (training personnel) assist STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Robert D. Cabana with his launch and entry suit (LES) parachute prior to emergency egress training exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  16. Optical wireless communication in sensor networks: data harvesting for disaster recovery operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

    2007-09-01

    Networks of sensors are an emerging technology for real-time data gathering in applications such as pollution monitoring, home security, surveillance, industrial control, etc. Many miniature nodes with sensing, computing and wireless communication capabilities are randomly deployed in an area or volume to be probed. One of the possible communication modalities for sensor networks is optical wireless communication (OWC). Initially, the sensor population must be mapped prior to interrogation by the base station and data communication from the sensor node. In this paper we review some theoretical and experimental work in this area and underline some of the challenges and possible solutions. The specific scenario of wireless sensor networks in a disaster recovery operation is modeled.

  17. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  18. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency ship-to-shore communication system. (b) Each ship-to-shore communication system must be a dedicated system that allows voice communication between the person in charge of transfer operations on the vessel, the person in charge...

  19. Enhanced, Partially Redundant Emergency Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, Clark D.

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Emergency Notification System (JENS) software utilizes pre-existing computation and communication infrastructure to augment a prior variable-tone, siren-based, outdoor alarm system, in order to enhance the ability to give notice of emergencies to employees working in multiple buildings. The JENS software includes a component that implements an administrative Web site. Administrators can grant and deny access to the administrative site and to an originator Web site that enables authorized individuals to quickly compose and issue alarms. The originator site also facilitates maintenance and review of alarms already issued. A custom client/server application program enables an originator to notify every user who is logged in on a Microsoft Windows-based desktop computer by means of a pop-up message that interrupts, but does not disrupt, the user s work. Alternatively or in addition, the originator can send an alarm message to recipients on an e-mail distribution list and/or can post the notice on an internal Web site. An alarm message can consist of (1) text describing the emergency and suggesting a course of action and (2) a replica of the corresponding audible outdoor alarm.

  20. Technology and Communication in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochen, Manfred

    1981-01-01

    Postulates that a new technology which may amplify cognition, regulate affect, and improve communication and control in social interactions is emerging from the convergence of computers and communications. Thirty-two references are cited. (FM)

  1. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  2. Image-Specific Prior Adaptation for Denoising.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Lin, Zhe; Jin, Hailin; Yang, Jianchao; Wang, James Z

    2015-12-01

    Image priors are essential to many image restoration applications, including denoising, deblurring, and inpainting. Existing methods use either priors from the given image (internal) or priors from a separate collection of images (external). We find through statistical analysis that unifying the internal and external patch priors may yield a better patch prior. We propose a novel prior learning algorithm that combines the strength of both internal and external priors. In particular, we first learn a generic Gaussian mixture model from a collection of training images and then adapt the model to the given image by simultaneously adding additional components and refining the component parameters. We apply this image-specific prior to image denoising. The experimental results show that our approach yields better or competitive denoising results in terms of both the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity. PMID:26316129

  3. Atypical Attentional Networks and the Emergence of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Keehn, Brandon; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Townsend, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The sociocommunicative impairments that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not present at birth but emerge gradually over the first two years of life. In typical development, basic attentional processes may provide a critical foundation for sociocommunicative abilities. Therefore early attentional dysfunction in ASD may result in atypical development of social communication. Prior research has demonstrated that persons with ASD exhibit early and lifelong impairments in attention. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a review of the extant research on attention in ASD using a framework of functionally independent attentional networks as conceptualized by Posner and colleagues: the alerting, orienting and executive control networks (Posner and Petersen, 1990; Petersen & Posner, 2012). The neural substrates and typical development of each attentional network is briefly discussed, a review of the ASD attention literature is presented, and a hypothesis is proposed that links aberrant attentional mechanisms, specifically impaired disengagement of attention, with the emergence of core ASD symptoms. PMID:23206665

  4. [Time in pediatric emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Fruchart, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In paediatric emergency departments, the notion of time is felt differently by children, parents and the caregivers. Within this specific context revolve management of the emergency, waitingtime, care and communication, with the aim of offering quality care for the young patient and the family. PMID:23789178

  5. Recognition of Prior Vocational Learning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas; Ahn, Song-Ee

    2004-01-01

    Initiatives in the recognition of prior learning (RPL) have been taken in Sweden in recent years, mainly focusing on prior vocational learning among immigrants. The government started different projects to find methods for recognising a person's prior learning in the field of vocational competence. This article presents a study of how these…

  6. Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup: 2014 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2011 required the Washington Student Achievement Council (WSAC) to convene a Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup. The workgroup was tasked with coordinating and implementing seven goals, described in statute, to promote the award of college credit for prior learning. Awarding college credit for prior learning increases access…

  7. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss of revenue finally calculated by CBP shall result in denial of the prior disclosure. (d) Effective... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs... disclosure. (a) In general—(1) A prior disclosure is made if the person concerned discloses the...

  8. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order of the United States Board of Parole entered prior to May 14, 1976, including, but not limited to,...

  9. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order of the United States Board of Parole entered prior to May 14, 1976, including, but not limited to,...

  10. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  11. Health communication in primary health care -A case study of ICT development for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health

  12. Minimally Informative Prior Distributions for PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Robert W. Youngblood; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-06-01

    A salient feature of Bayesian inference is its ability to incorporate information from a variety of sources into the inference model, via the prior distribution (hereafter simply “the prior”). However, over-reliance on old information can lead to priors that dominate new data. Some analysts seek to avoid this by trying to work with a minimally informative prior distribution. Another reason for choosing a minimally informative prior is to avoid the often-voiced criticism of subjectivity in the choice of prior. Minimally informative priors fall into two broad classes: 1) so-called noninformative priors, which attempt to be completely objective, in that the posterior distribution is determined as completely as possible by the observed data, the most well known example in this class being the Jeffreys prior, and 2) priors that are diffuse over the region where the likelihood function is nonnegligible, but that incorporate some information about the parameters being estimated, such as a mean value. In this paper, we compare four approaches in the second class, with respect to their practical implications for Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The most commonly used such prior, the so-called constrained noninformative prior, is a special case of the maximum entropy prior. This is formulated as a conjugate distribution for the most commonly encountered aleatory models in PSA, and is correspondingly mathematically convenient; however, it has a relatively light tail and this can cause the posterior mean to be overly influenced by the prior in updates with sparse data. A more informative prior that is capable, in principle, of dealing more effectively with sparse data is a mixture of conjugate priors. A particular diffuse nonconjugate prior, the logistic-normal, is shown to behave similarly for some purposes. Finally, we review the so-called robust prior. Rather than relying on the mathematical abstraction of entropy, as does the constrained

  13. [Emergency departments - 2016 update].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A

    2016-04-01

    Acute medical care in hospital emergency departments has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency departments in Germany. Care in emergency departments is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency department by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency departments are described. PMID:26952123

  14. The power prior: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-12-10

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A-to-Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Frequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established, and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials. PMID:26346180

  15. 47 CFR 11.13 - Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT). 11.13 Section 11.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.13 Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and...

  16. Simulating the Real Origins of Communication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    How communication systems emerge is a topic of relevance to several academic disciplines. Numerous existing models, both mathematical and computational, study this emergence. However, with few exceptions, these models all build some form of communication into their initial specification. Consequently, what these models study is how communication systems transition from one form to another, and not how communication itself emerges in the first place. Here we present a new computational model of the emergence of communication which, unlike previous models, does not pre-specify the existence of communication. We conduct two experiments using this model, in order to derive general statements about how communication systems emerge. The two main routes to communication that we identify correspond with findings from the empirical literature on the evolution of animal signals. We use this finding to explain when and why we should expect communication to emerge in nature. We also compare our model to experimental research on the origins of human communication systems, and hence show that humans are an important exception to the general trends we observe. We argue that this is because humans, and probably only humans, are able to ‘signal signalhood’, i.e. to express communicative intentions. PMID:25426990

  17. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  18. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  19. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... day from sources such as sunlight. A radiation emergency would involve larger amounts of radiation and could ... are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  20. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  1. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  2. Robust Timing Synchronization for Aviation Communications, and Efficient Modulation and Coding Study for Quantum Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fugin

    2003-01-01

    One half of Professor Xiong's effort will investigate robust timing synchronization schemes for dynamically varying characteristics of aviation communication channels. The other half of his time will focus on efficient modulation and coding study for the emerging quantum communications.

  3. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  4. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  5. Childhood Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Tracker Save Your Life in the ER? Abdominal Pain Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring Book Download the Coloring Book » Emergency Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians 2016 Privacy Policy Terms of Use

  6. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Philip A.

    A review of the economic and technological status of the satellite communications industry is presented. The history of satellite communications is outlined, focusing on the launching of Syncom III in 1963. The basic operation of communication satellites is explained. The differences between C and Ku frequency bands are examined. Economic issues related to satellite communications are discussed in detail.

  7. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, M. K.

    1982-11-01

    The paper describes the basic principles and the historial development of satellite communications. Various satellite systems for global communications are discused and compared. Some typical operational communication satellite systems summary including geostationary systems are presented. Considerations leading to the system design including the link design for various multiple access techniques and the future trends in satellite communications systems are also discussed.

  8. Transracial Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur L.

    This book explores and explains communication among different racial groups within the scope of existing communication theory. Following a brief introduction, chapters cover "Directions in Transracial Communication" (definitions, process, structurization, and purpose); "Culture and Transracial Communication" (a viewpoint on culture, time, family,…

  9. An Alternative for Emergency Preemption of Traffic Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Conrad; Bachelder, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    An electronic communication-and-control system has been developed as a prototype of advanced means of automatically modifying the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. This system could be used alternatively or in addition to other emergency traffic-light-preemption systems, including a variety of systems now in use as well as two proposed systems described in "Systems Would Preempt Traffic Lights for Emergency Vehicles" (NPO-30573), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 36. Unlike those prior systems that depend on detection of sounds and/or lights emitted by emergency vehicles, this system is not subject to severe range limitations. This system can be retrofitted into any pre-existing traffic-light-control system, without need to modify that system other than to make a minimal number of wire connections between the two systems. This system comprises several subsystems, including a transponder and interface circuitry on each emergency vehicle, a monitoring and control unit at each intersection equipped with traffic lights, and a wide-area two-way radio communication network that connects the emergency vehicles and intersection units. Computers in the various intersections and vehicle units run special-purpose software that implements the traffic- light-preemption scheme. The operations of the intersection and vehicle units are synchronized by use of Global Positioning System (GPS) timing signals. The transponder in each vehicle estimates its own position and velocity by use of GPS signals, deductive ("dead") reckoning, data from the onboard diagnostic (OBD) computer of the vehicle, and/or triangulation of beacon signals. When the operator of an emergency vehicle turns on its flashing lights and sirens in response to a request for an emergency response, the transponder unit goes into action, reading the OBD data to determine speed and acceleration, and reading and gathering further navigational data as described above

  10. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  11. 49 CFR 220.13 - Reporting emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting emergencies. 220.13 Section 220.13..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS General § 220.13 Reporting emergencies. (a) Employees..., damage to property or serious disruption of railroad operations. (b) In reporting emergencies,...

  12. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  13. Prior Computer Experience and Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in…

  14. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior disclosure. (a) In general—(1) A...

  15. 45 CFR 77.6 - Emergency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LETTER OF CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 77.6 Emergency procedures. (a) Should the Department determine that it... its letter of credit without taking remedial action prior to the procedures specified in § 77.5,...

  16. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by...

  17. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by...

  18. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by...

  19. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by...

  20. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by...

  1. 47 CFR 5.219 - Broadcasting emergency information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Broadcasting emergency information. 5.219 Section 5.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE Broadcast Experimental Licenses § 5.219 Broadcasting emergency information. (a) In an emergency where normal communication facilities have been...

  2. Quantifying Information Flow During Emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Song, Chaoming; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P.; Wang, Dashun

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics.

  3. Quantifying information flow during emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Song, Chaoming; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P; Wang, Dashun

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics. PMID:24499738

  4. Neural mechanisms of communicative innovation.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Oostenveld, Robert; Blokpoel, Mark; Hagoort, Peter; van Rooij, Iris; Toni, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Human referential communication is often thought as coding-decoding a set of symbols, neglecting that establishing shared meanings requires a computational mechanism powerful enough to mutually negotiate them. Sharing the meaning of a novel symbol might rely on similar conceptual inferences across communicators or on statistical similarities in their sensorimotor behaviors. Using magnetoencephalography, we assess spectral, temporal, and spatial characteristics of neural activity evoked when people generate and understand novel shared symbols during live communicative interactions. Solving those communicative problems induced comparable changes in the spectral profile of neural activity of both communicators and addressees. This shared neuronal up-regulation was spatially localized to the right temporal lobe and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and emerged already before the occurrence of a specific communicative problem. Communicative innovation relies on neuronal computations that are shared across generating and understanding novel shared symbols, operating over temporal scales independent from transient sensorimotor behavior. PMID:23959895

  5. Conceptualising "Communication" in Foreign Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenchlas, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of communicative language teaching as the dominant paradigm in foreign language pedagogy cast "communication" in a central role in language acquisition, both as an aim and as a medium of instruction. Despite its centrality, the concept of "communication" is generally taken as widely understood and is seldom defined. This paper…

  6. The Impact of Technology on Superintendent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Victoria L.

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances have revolutionized the communication patterns and behaviors of district leaders. In this information-based society, the ability of the leader to select the form of communication most appropriate to the context and situation qualifies his or her effectiveness at communication. The findings emerging from this study highlight…

  7. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  8. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  9. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  10. Optimizing Inequality Constrained Priors in Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Dawn E.

    2005-11-01

    Intelligent systems based on Bayesian networks have been successful in medical diagnosis, finance and many other areas. Updating probabilities in Bayesian networks relies on algorithms that require complete causal information. Sensitivity analysis now strongly indicates that probabilities in Bayesian networks are not robust and this reinforces the view that a sound theoretical model for finding a minimally prejudiced estimate of the prior distribution is desirable. In this paper we are concerned with how to find the optimum prior distribution, given all and only the knowledge available. In particular, we show how to integrate prior knowledge expressed in terms of inequality constraints, into a Bayesian network based intelligent system.

  11. Data communications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  12. Clear communication.

    PubMed

    Gurden, Dean

    2016-02-10

    In health care, effective communication can directly affect positive outcomes. Ineffective or poor communication can cost lives, be it by a missed diagnosis, a medication error or treatment delay. PMID:26860179

  13. Communicating Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, Gaye S.

    2005-01-01

    For science to have an impact, it must be communicated and easily accessible. The USGS National Wetlands Research Center communicates its research findings through several ways: publishing, the Web, the library, and education and outreach.

  14. Lightwave Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Describes simple and inexpensive labs for introducing students to fiber optic communications. Students investigate light as a carrier wave; look into the difficulties associated with "light" communication; and learn about modulation, optical fibers, and critical angles. (PR)

  15. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  16. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  17. Communication (action with communicative content).

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas. PMID:20499038

  18. Fiber optic communication links

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Fiber optics is a new, emerging technology which offers relief from many of the problems which limited past communications links. Its inherent noise immunity and high bandwidth open the door for new designs with greater capabilities. Being a new technology, certain problems can be encountered in specifying and installing a fiber optic link. A general fiber optic system is discussed with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages. It is not intended to be technical in nature, but a general discussion. Finally, a general purpose prototype Sandia communications link is presented.

  19. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  20. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  1. Stereotypes Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  2. Existential Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social setting, and…

  3. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  4. 34 CFR 642.32 - Prior experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... points to be awarded each eligible applicant, the Secretary considers the applicant's prior experience of..., based on the applicant's success in meeting the administrative requirements and programmatic objectives... participants, project evaluation reports, the previously funded application, the negotiated program...

  5. Proportion estimation using prior cluster purities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The prior distribution of CLASSY component purities is studied, and this information incorporated into maximum likelihood crop proportion estimators. The method is tested on Transition Year spring small grain segments.

  6. On the prior distribution of extinction time.

    PubMed

    Solow, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian inference about the extinction of a species based on a record of its sightings requires the specification of a prior distribution for extinction time. Here, I critically review some specifications in the context of a specific model of the sighting record. The practical implication of the choice of prior distribution is illustrated through an application to the sighting record of the Caribbean monk seal. PMID:27277952

  7. An approach to prior austenite reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Majid; Nelson, Tracy W.; Sorensen, Carl D.; Wei Lingyun

    2012-04-15

    One area of interest in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of steels is to understand microstructural evolution during the process. Most of the deformation occurs in the austenite temperature range. Quantitative microstructural measurements of prior austenite microstructure are needed in order to understand evolution of the microstructure. Considering the fact that room temperature microstructure in ferritic steels contains very little to no retained austenite, prior austenite microstructure needs to be recovered from the room temperature ferrite. In this paper, an approach based on Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is introduced to detect Bain zones. Bain zone detection is used to reconstruct prior austenite grain structure. Additionally, a separate approach based on phase transformation orientation relationships is introduced in order to recover prior austenite orientation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This approach provides a tool to reconstruct large-scale austenite microstructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It recovers prior austenite orientation without relying on retained austenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It utilizes EBSD data from the room temperature microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher number of active variants leads to more accurate reconstructions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At least two variants are needed in order to recover prior austenite orientation.

  8. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  9. Synergy in satellite communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, D. K.

    1989-10-01

    After presenting a development history for satellite communications systems demonstrating the extent to which synergistic, efficiency-enhancing interactions between emerging technologies form the basis for much of the economic feasibility of these efforts, an evaluation is made of prospective synergisms. Among those identified as uniquely promising are the interactions of electric propulsion and Ni-H batteries, and of onboard data processing/bulk demultiplexing. An attempt is made to furnish a stimulus for system designers to actively seek out synergies rather than wait passively until they emerge.

  10. Satellite Communications: Hopes and Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirkin, Abraham M.

    1978-01-01

    The potentials of space communication, including the prospects and problems of direct broadcast TV satellites, are examined. Considered are future visions, internal and international goals, economic factors, political constraints, prior consent, U.S. and U.N. positions, and free flow of information. (LBH)

  11. 44 CFR 16.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications. 16.160 Section 16.160 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL...

  12. Mass Communication as Public Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stappers, James G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses problems with the term "mass communication." Contends that mass communication research must include the study of public communication in the sense of finding out what people do with media and what are the problems of diffusing information or public knowledge. (PD)

  13. 75 FR 7648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... forms of information technology. Mail, e-mail, or fax your comments and recommendations on the... writing to the above e-mail address. Request for Accommodation in Communication Method--0960-NEW... adequacy of the modes of communication used by SSA in its notices and other communications. Prior to...

  14. The Modular Mind and Intrapersonal Communication Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.

    Based on a prior model on modularity of the brain, a new modular model of intrapersonal communication was developed which focuses on brain processing, encompassing both the structures and the functions of those structures in the creation of messages. The modular mind is a bio-social model of communication which presupposes a relationship between…

  15. 44 CFR 1.6 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ex parte communications. 1.6 Section 1.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.6 Ex parte communications....

  16. 47 CFR 11.13 - Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergency Action Termination (EAT). 11.13 Section 11.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Action Termination (EAT). (a) The Emergency Action Notification (EAN) is the notice to all EAS... Emergency Action Termination (EAT) is the notice to all EAS Participants and to the general public that...

  17. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  18. Urologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  19. 49 CFR 238.115 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR Part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the American Public... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency lighting. 238.115 Section 238.115... § 238.115 Emergency lighting. (a) Prior to January 1, 2017, the requirements specified in paragraphs...

  20. 30 CFR 47.84 - Non-emergency disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.84 Non-emergency disclosure. Upon request, the operator must disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical in a non-emergency situation to an...

  1. 30 CFR 47.84 - Non-emergency disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.84 Non-emergency disclosure. Upon request, the operator must disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical in a non-emergency situation to an...

  2. The Relation between Prior Knowledge and Students' Collaborative Discovery Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijlers, Hannie; de Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication between students was recorded and the interaction…

  3. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management. PMID:26099604

  4. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... from an explosion, blow to the head, flying, scuba diving, falling while water skiing, or being slapped on ... Byyny RL, Shockley LW. Scuba diving and dysbarism. In: Marx JA, ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  5. Thoracic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  6. Dynamic emotion perception and prior expectancy.

    PubMed

    Dzafic, Ilvana; Martin, Andrew K; Hocking, Julia; Mowry, Bryan; Burianová, Hana

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions require the ability to rapidly perceive emotion from various incoming dynamic, multisensory cues. Prior expectations reduce incoming emotional information and direct attention to cues that are aligned with what is expected. Studies to date have investigated the prior expectancy effect using static emotional images, despite the fact that dynamic stimuli would represent greater ecological validity. The objective of the study was to create a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to examine the influence of prior expectations on naturalistic emotion perception. For this purpose, we developed a dynamic emotion perception task, which consisted of audio-visual videos that carry emotional information congruent or incongruent with prior expectations. The results show that emotional congruency was associated with activity in prefrontal regions, amygdala, and putamen, whereas emotional incongruency was associated with activity in temporoparietal junction and mid-cingulate gyrus. Supported by the behavioural results, our findings suggest that prior expectations are reinforced after repeated experience and learning, whereas unexpected emotions may rely on fast change detection processes. The results from the current study are compatible with the notion that the ability to automatically detect unexpected changes in complex dynamic environments allows for adaptive behaviours in potentially advantageous or threatening situations. PMID:27126841

  7. Emergency management: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) is an organization designed to increase communication and exchange of ideas, information, and resources among US Department of Energy contractors and DOE personnel. Oak Ridge Associated Universities, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, manages TRADE for the DOE. The Emergency Preparedness Special Interest Group (EP SIG) is a group formed within TRADE for emergency preparedness coordinators and trainers to share information about emergency preparedness training and other EP resources. This bibliography was prepared for the EP SIG as a resource for EP training and planning activities.

  8. Anorectal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  9. Anorectal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-07-14

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  10. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-01

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States. PMID:12160366

  11. Principles of Emergency Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, R. Eugene, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Steps and considerations in developing an institutional plan for emergency preparedness are discussed, including delineation of internal and external responsibilities, warning systems, a means for activating the plan, a command headquarters, medical facilities, housing and food, internal and external communications, transportation, and testing and…

  12. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; Barnes, C. W.; Bogdanov, A.; Danly, C. R.; Efimov, S.; Endres, M.; Fertman, A.; Golubev, A. A.; et al

    2016-02-18

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well asmore » the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.« less

  13. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; Barnes, C. W.; Bogdanov, A.; Danly, C. R.; Efimov, S.; Endres, M.; Fertman, A.; Golubev, A. A.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Ionita, B.; Kantsyrev, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Lang, P. M.; Lomonosov, I.; Mariam, F. G.; Markov, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Mintsev, V. B.; Nikolaev, D.; Panyushkin, V.; Rodionova, M.; Schanz, M.; Schoenberg, K.; Semennikov, A.; Shestov, L.; Skachkov, V. S.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Vasylyev, O.; Weyrich, K.; Wilde, C.; Zubareva, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5-4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This paper describes the PRIOR setup as well as the results of the first static and dynamic proton radiography experiments performed at GSI.

  14. 47 CFR 11.53 - Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53 Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. Initiation...

  15. 47 CFR 11.53 - Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53 Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. Initiation...

  16. Emergency medical services in China.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L; Clem, K J

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this article is to identify and describe Chinese emergency medical services (EMS) components. Chinese EMS system development began in the 1980s with "importing" of EMS principles from other systems. China is now attempting to unify these principles. Chinese EMS systems are absent in most rural areas. Urban ambulance dispatch or "rescue" centers provide both transport and inpatient care. Ambulances are staffed with either a physician or a driver. There is not extensive overlap between hospital emergency physicians and ambulance physicians and no out-of-hospital providers at the paramedic or emergency medical technician level exist. Access to EMS is accomplished by dialing 1-2-0. Emergency calls go directly to the rescue center and a physician is dispatched. No on-line radio communication between hospitals and ambulances typically takes place. China has assimilated both traditional and unique EMS components and is undergoing development. It remains unclear whether a systematized EMS structure will emerge. PMID:10051908

  17. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time. PMID:25831535

  18. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader–follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower–follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders’ communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time. PMID:25831535

  19. EMERGENCY RESPONSE HEALTH PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-01-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  20. 46 CFR 113.30-3 - Means of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means of communications. 113.30-3 Section 113.30-3... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Internal Communications § 113.30-3 Means of communications. (a) An emergency means of communication required by this subpart must— (1) Be comprised of either fixed or...

  1. 46 CFR 113.30-3 - Means of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Means of communications. 113.30-3 Section 113.30-3... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Internal Communications § 113.30-3 Means of communications. (a) An emergency means of communication required by this subpart must— (1) Be comprised of either fixed or...

  2. 46 CFR 113.30-3 - Means of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means of communications. 113.30-3 Section 113.30-3... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Internal Communications § 113.30-3 Means of communications. (a) An emergency means of communication required by this subpart must— (1) Be comprised of either fixed or...

  3. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent

  4. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  5. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  6. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  7. Mobile satellite communications in the Forest Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, John R.

    1988-01-01

    There are usually some places within a forest that do not have adequate communication coverage due to line-of-sight or other reasons. These areas are generally known by the foresters and radio technicians and allowances are made for that when working or traveling in those areas. However, when wildfire or other emergencies occur, communications are vital because wildfires can require hundreds of firefighters and cover thousands of acres. During these emergency operations, the existing communications are not adequate and complete radio systems are moved into the area for the conduct of fire communications. Incident command posts (ICPs) and fire camps are set up in remote locations and there is constant need for communications in the fire area and to agency headquarters and dispatch offices. Mobile satellite communications would be an ideal supplement to the Forest Service's current communications system in aiding forest fire control activities.

  8. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adulteration or the misbranding provisions of the Act. (c) All known prior sanctions shall be the subject of a... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... use of an ingredient constitutes a determination that excluded uses would result in adulteration...

  9. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statistical sampling satisfies the criteria in 19 CFR 163.11(c)(3). The prior disclosure must include an... party may use statistical sampling to “disclose the circumstances of a violation” and for calculation of...-review, are subject to CBP review and approval. In accordance with 19 CFR 163.11(c)(1), in...

  10. 7 CFR 550.27 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Program Management § 550.27 Prior approvals. (a) The budget is the financial expression of the project or... accordance with OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” (2 CFR part 220),...

  11. Accrediting Prior Learning at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Christine; Edwards, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the Assessment of Prior Learning (APL) and describes a pilot project at the Open University (United Kingdom) that introduced credit for APL in one course. Steps in the assessment process are outlined, including constructing a student portfolio; and workload, staff development, and costs are considered. (LRW)

  12. Student Models for Prior Knowledge Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj; Pelánek, Radek; Rihák, Jirí

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent behavior of adaptive educational systems is based on student models. Most research in student modeling focuses on student learning (acquisition of skills). We focus on prior knowledge, which gets much less attention in modeling and yet can be highly varied and have important consequences for the use of educational systems. We describe…

  13. Augmenting system reliability analyses with observation priors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl; Anderson-cook, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Occasionally, a system may fail a test without an obvious component being at fault. Instead, experts may know that at least one of a set of components has failed, but there is uncertainty about which members in the set were the actual failures. When no further information is available, this missing data may be imputed using standard data augmentation (DA). This process is already used in the current implementation of the JMP complex-system reliability modeling codes. In some cases when this situation arises, there may be some supplemental information about the nature of the failure that suggests which subset of components are more likely to have failed. the behavior of the system during the failure may make certain components more likely candidates, and lead the engineering experts to have certain prior beliefs about what occurred. In this case, it is still known that at least one of a set of components failed, but the experts have some idea that certain failure scenarios are more likely than others. This white paper addresses this situation by modifying the imputation process of data augmentation through the use of an observation prior. This prior is specific to particular observations, and a given outcome which is repeated several times could potentially have different observation priors associated with each occurrence.

  14. 22 CFR 129.8 - Prior notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior notification. 129.8 Section 129.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS REGISTRATION AND LICENSING OF...,000, except for sharing of basic marketing information (e.g., information that does not...

  15. Tuning Your Priors to the World

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of “tuning the prior”—widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of “ecological” tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an “ideal observer.” But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment—which there almost always is—an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors. PMID:23335572

  16. Understanding the Complexities of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the kinds of prior knowledge students bring with them from high school as it relates to the conventions of writing that they are expected to follow in ARTS 1110 Introduction to University. The research questions were "Can first-year students taking the Arts 1110 Introduction to…

  17. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... statistical sampling satisfies the criteria in 19 CFR 163.11(c)(3). The prior disclosure must include an...-review, are subject to CBP review and approval. In accordance with 19 CFR 163.11(c)(1), in circumstances... properly raise under applicable regulations, as provided in 19 CFR 163.11(c)(1). (2) If a private...

  18. [Emergency cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shoko; Amano, Kan; Unno, Nobuya; Okutomi, Toshiyuki

    2012-09-01

    There are abundant cases of obstetric emergencies demanding prompt intervention. Emergency cesarean sections are classified into stable, urgent and immediate surgeries, although there is significant overlap between three groups. Stable emergency cesarean sections are performed in patients with stable maternal and fetal physiology, but who need surgery before unstability occurs. Urgent cesarean sections refer to situations in which maternal and/or fetal physiology is unstable, whereas the immediate cesarean section is used for life-threatening condition such as sustained fetal bradycardia, maternal cardiopulmonary arrest. In most cases the key to proper management is the prompt communication between obstetricians and anesthesiologists. Anesthesiologists must have a clear understanding of certain obstetric emergencies. In the event of sustained fetal bradycardia caused by placental abruption, cord prolapse, uterine rupture etc, delivery by immediate cesarean section within 25 minutes improve long-term neonatal neurologic outcome. Although cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy is very uncommon, peripartum cesarean section should be considered within 5 minutes not only for maternal resuscitation but for neonatal survival. Only a well-coordinated teamwork of all involved specialities will guarantee optimal prognosis of mother and fetus. PMID:23012828

  19. Emerging phleboviruses☆

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  20. Nepal's communication policy then and now.

    PubMed

    Rai, L D

    1987-01-01

    An embryonic national communications policy emerged in Nepal in the 1951-61 period in response to the country's revolutionary political process. Interpersonal communications channels were strengthened and the mass media expanded in both public and private sectors. After 1961, communications policy began to orientate toward the emerging context of the Panchayat polity, with emphasis on democratization and indigenization. The new power structure perceived the relationship of communications to the national goals of stability, security, and development. A new Ministry dealing exclusively with information and broadcasting was established and Radio Nepal expanded both its reach and programming. It was not until 1971, however, that a National Communications Plan was designed. As a result of the sectoral communications policies and programs of the 3 economic 5-Year Plans between 1970-85, the infrastructure and technology of the national system of communication have been further strengthened to conform to the national need for a self-reliant economy. Computer-assisted communication and the emergence of a framework for regional cooperation have introduced new elements to Nepalese national communications policy planning. The establishment of a national communications planning commission within the National Development Council may represent a next step toward developing future communications structure and strategy. PMID:12281459

  1. Objective prior distribution of climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, S.

    2012-04-01

    The problems posed by the choice of prior distribution constitute one of the most fundamental obstacles to assign probabilities to the possible values of climate sensitivity S. The prior is the probability distribution that we assume before introducing data. In the literature about climate sensitivity, the most frequently used prior is the uniform. On first inspection, this distribution would seem to represent absence of information, but, as is well known, this assumption leads to paradoxes. This observation has led to the widespread belief that priors are inherently subjective and should be decided by expert elicitation, even though this amounts to questioning the objective value of scientific results. In general, the climate science community is unaware of the "objective Bayesian" literature, which seeks objective criteria to determine non-informative prior distributions (or reference priors). In a recent paper (Pueyo 2011) I applied an objective Bayesian approach to climate sensitivity. I described three lines of evidence indicating that the distribution that really represents absence of information about S is log-uniform, i.e. it consists of a uniform distribution of log(S) instead of S: • In the case of S, only the log-uniform distribution satisfies Jaynes' invariant groups criterion, i.e. this distribution does not change when modifying assumptions that are not explicitly included in the enunciate of the problem (I only included the definition of S). • In terms of information theory, information about S can be identified with mutual information between changes in radiative forcing and in temperature. Absence of mutual information between these variables implies a log-uniform distribution of S. • The frequency distribution of sets of parameters formally comparable to climate sensitivity is approximately log-uniform for a broad range of values. A log-uniform distribution of S is intermediate between a uniform distribution of S and a uniform distribution

  2. Prior Storm Experience Moderates Water Surge Perception and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gregory D.; Agdas, Duzgun; Masters, Forrest J.; Cook, Corey L.; Gesselman, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. Methods Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m) ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s) experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual–perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. Conclusions These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones. PMID:23737941

  3. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  4. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain. PMID:27355182

  5. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low. PMID:26416000

  6. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty

    The communications approach to teaching speech to high school students views speech as the study of the communication process in order to develop an awareness of and a sensitivity to the variables that affect human interaction. In using this approach the student is encouraged to try out as many types of messages using as many techniques and…

  7. Communicator, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolussi, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The CAG "Communicator" focus is on serving gifted students in California. This document consists of the four issues of "communicator" issued during 1997. Featured articles include: (1) "The Gifted Student At Risk. It Can't Be True" (Judy Roseberry); (2) "Tech Net-Technology and At-Risk Students" (Judy Lieb); (3) "Reviving Ophelia: Saving the…

  8. Communicating up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

  9. Models, Metaphors, and Other Scholarly Meanderings: Renovating Models of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpert, Gary; Drucker, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Argues that while prior models contribute by delineating and mapping the discrete components of the communication act, they fail to provide for an understanding of communicative acts within the context of a larger converging landscape. Proposes a model of communication convergence which is rooted in a systems analysis of face-to-face and mediated…

  10. 17 CFR 210.2-07 - Communication with audit committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communication with audit... Accountants § 210.2-07 Communication with audit committees. (a) Each registered public accounting firm that... registered investment company, annually, and if the annual communication is not within 90 days prior to...

  11. 75 FR 417 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...: Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan Implementation Report. Form: Not Applicable. OMB Number: 1670... Emergency Communications Grant Program (IECGP) (6 U.S.C. 579) comply with the Statewide...

  12. Communications spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordyce, Samuel W.

    Progress in the designs and performance capabilities of communications satellites is traced from the Echo 1 Al-coated mylar balloon in 1960 to systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The services allowed with the passive balloon concept were too limited and led to Telstar spacecraft, with 600 voice channels, being placed in elliptical orbits. Geosynchronous communications began in 1963 with the Syncom satellite, which also carried television signals. The evolution of subsequent Intelsat and ANIK satellites is described, as are features of the Marisat, Marecs, and the DBS systems. The near-term capabilities for DBS, advanced communications satellites using TDMA techniques, and mobile communications systems are summarized, along with the NASA ACTS and MSAT-X satellites for exploring the necessary technologies. The roles the Space Station and unmanned GEO platforms will play in future satellite communications are discussed.

  13. Technicians assist STS-47 MS Jemison prior to JSC bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, assisted by technicians, adjusts a strap on her launch and entry suit (LES) prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Jemison is making her first flight in space.

  14. STS-47 MS Davis dons LES with technicians' help prior to JSC bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), looks on as technicians adjust her LES parachute pack prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Davis is making her first flight in space.

  15. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  16. Patients' need for information prior to colonic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Lisbeth; Hellström, Renee; Stomberg, Margareta Warrén

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative information and communication between patients and health professionals is central to the quality of care and patient involvement for elective colon surgery. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) means that the care process is accelerated with comprehensive information and additional requirements on an individual. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses' and doctors' experience of patients' need for information before intraoperative care. Nurses (n = 39) with different specialties and professional experience were interviewed in focus groups. Ten anesthesiologists with differing professional experience were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The result shows the need to provide information to reduce anxiety, to make the patient feel safe, to explain postoperative pain management, and to provide a comprehensive care pathway. There was no difference between the informants' perception of patients' information needs. All respondents agreed that patients generally have a great need for information. The perioperative information should be repeated at different points in time. The patients' need for information on diagnosis is recurrent. Knowledge, good communication, and attitude from a multiprofessional perspective support the patient's feeling comfortable and involved in the care prior to surgery. PMID:21979401

  17. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A

    2000-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy remain a challenge for health care providers. For most sexually active adolescents, pregnancy is unintended. Emergency contraception, also called the "morning-after-pill" or postcoital contraception, is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. In the United States, three forms of emergency contraception currently are available: high-dose combination estrogen and progestin pills, high-dose progestin-only pills, and postcoital insertion of a copper intrauterine device. The postcoital intrauterine device is used infrequently. When emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, they reduce the risk of pregnancy by at least 75%. However, they are most effective if taken within 24 hours of coitus. Eleven brands of pills currently are marketed in the United States that conform to the regimens approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this indication. Recently, two prepackaged ECPs were approved by the FDA. The only medical contraindication to prescribing ECPs is pregnancy. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting, followed by menstrual disturbances, breast tenderness, abdominal cramping, dizziness, headache, and mood changes. Because vomiting can compromise the efficacy of ECPs, routine pretreatment with an antiemetic is recommended. Primary care providers can reduce unintended adolescent pregnancy by routinely counseling adolescents at all office visits about the existence of emergency contraception and by prescribing it in advance and over the telephone. PMID:10959448

  18. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  19. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... over a short period can cause burns or radiation sickness. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  20. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... agents such as sarin and VX. Many hazardous chemicals are used in industry - for example, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene. Some can be made from everyday items such as household cleaners. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  1. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The accuracy of genomic prediction is highly dependent on the size of the reference population. For small populations, including information from other populations could improve this accuracy. The usual strategy is to pool data from different populations; however, this has not proven as successful as hoped for with distantly related breeds. BayesRS is a novel approach to share information across populations for genomic predictions. The approach allows information to be captured even where the phase of SNP alleles and casuative mutation alleles are reversed across populations, or the actual casuative mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects for the target population. The model was tested using dairy cattle populations of different breeds: 540 Australian Jersey bulls, 2297 Australian Holstein bulls and 5214 Nordic Holstein bulls. The traits studied were protein-, fat- and milk yield. Genotypic data was Illumina 777K SNPs, real or imputed. Results Results showed an increase in accuracy of up to 3.5% for the Jersey population when using BayesRS with a prior derived from Australian Holstein compared to a model without location specific priors. The increase in accuracy was however lower than was achieved when reference populations were combined to estimate SNP effects, except in the case of fat yield. The small size of the Jersey validation set meant that these improvements in accuracy were not significant using a Hotelling-Williams t-test at the 5% level. An increase in accuracy of 1-2% for all traits was observed in the Australian Holstein population when using a prior derived from the Nordic Holstein population compared to using no prior information. These improvements were significant (P<0.05) using the Hotelling

  2. Space Shuttle Hot Cabin Emergency Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, P.; Effenhauser, R. K.; McCluskey, R.; Gillis, D. B.; Hamilton, D.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Human thermal tolerance, countermeasures, and thermal model data were reviewed and compared to existing shuttle ECS failure temperature and humidity profiles for each failure mode. Increases in core temperature associated with cognitive impairment was identified, as was metabolic heat generation of crewmembers, temperature monitoring, and communication capabilities after partial power-down and other limiting factors. Orbiter landing strategies and a hydration and salt replacement protocol were developed to put wheels on deck in each failure mode prior to development of significant cognitive impairment or collapse of crewmembers. Thermal tradeoffs for use of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Liquid Cooling Garment, integrated G-suit and Quick Don Mask were examined. candidate solutions involved trade-offs or conflicts with cabin oxygen partial pressure limits, system power-downs to limit heat generation, risks of alternate and emergency landing sites or compromise of Mode V-VIII scenarios. Results: Rehydration and minimized cabin workloads are required in all failure modes. Temperature/humidity profiles increase rapidly in two failure modes, and deorbit is recommended without the ACES, ICU and g-suit. This latter configuration limits several shuttle approach and landing escape modes and requires communication modifications. Additional data requirements were identified and engineering simulations were recommended to develop more current shuttle temperature and humidity profiles. Discussion: After failure of the shuttle ECS, there is insufficient cooling capacity of the ACES to protect crewmembers from rising cabin temperature and humidity. The LCG is inadequate for cabin temperatures above 76 F. Current shuttle future life policy makes it unlikely that major engineering upgrades necessary to address this problem will occur.

  3. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  4. Communication models in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action. PMID:23898914

  5. The Canterbury Tales: Lessons from the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence to Inform Better Public Communication Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, S.; Tilley, E. N.; Johnston, D. M.; Becker, J.; Orchiston, C.

    2015-12-01

    This research evaluates the public education earthquake information prior to the Canterbury Earthquake sequence (2010-present), and examines communication learnings to create recommendations for improvement in implementation for these types of campaigns in future. The research comes from a practitioner perspective of someone who worked on these campaigns in Canterbury prior to the Earthquake Sequence and who also was the Public Information Manager Second in Command during the earthquake response in February 2011. Documents, specifically those addressing seismic risk, that were created prior to the earthquake sequence, were analyzed, using a "best practice matrix" created by the researcher, for how closely these aligned to best practice academic research. Readability tests and word counts are also employed to assist with triangulation of the data as was practitioner involvement. This research also outlines the lessons learned by practitioners and explores their experiences in regards to creating these materials and how they perceive these now, given all that has happened since the inception of the booklets. The findings from the research showed these documents lacked many of the attributes of best practice. The overly long, jargon filled text had little positive outcome expectancy messages. This probably would have failed to persuade anyone that earthquakes were a real threat in Canterbury. Paradoxically, it is likely these booklets may have created fatalism in publics who read the booklets. While the overall intention was positive, for scientists to explain earthquakes, tsunami, landslides and other risks to encourage the public to prepare for these events, the implementation could be greatly improved. This final component of the research highlights points of improvement for implementation for more successful campaigns in future. The importance of preparedness and science information campaigns can be not only in preparing the population but also into development of

  6. Prior Exercise of Freedom and Reactance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Melvin L.; Wicklund, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    A communication that contains a particularly strong intent to influence can easily lose persuasive impact or even bring about a "boomerang" effect. Such "boomerang" phenomena have often been attributed to "psychological reactance," a motivational state created when freedoms are threatened or usurped. Two factors that inhibited reactance were…

  7. Community detection with and without prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Ver Steeg, G.; Galstyan, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the problem of graph partitioning, or clustering, in sparse networks with prior information about the clusters. Specifically, we assume that for a fraction ρ of the nodes their true cluster assignments are known in advance. This can be understood as a semi-supervised version of clustering, in contrast to unsupervised clustering where the only available information is the graph structure. In the unsupervised case, it is known that there is a threshold of the inter-cluster connectivity beyond which clusters cannot be detected. Here we study the impact of the prior information on the detection threshold, and show that even minute (but generic) values of ρ>0 shift the threshold downwards to its lowest possible value. For weighted graphs we show that a small semi-supervising can be used for a non-trivial definition of communities.

  8. Distance priors from Planck 2015 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Ke; Wang, Sai

    2015-12-01

    We update the distance priors by adopting Planck TT,TE,EE+lowP data released in 2015, and our results impose at least 30% tighter constraints than those from Planck TT+lowP. Combining the distance priors with the combination of supernova Union 2.1 compilation of 580 SNe (Union 2.1) and low redshift Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data, we constrain the cosmological parameters in the freely binned dark energy (FBDE) and FBDE+Ωk models respectively, and find that the equations of state of dark energy in both models are consistent with w=-1. Furthermore, we show that the tension with the BAO data at z=2.34 from Lyα forest (LyαF) auto-correlation and Combined LyαF cannot be relaxed in the FBDE and FBDE+Ωk models.

  9. Knowledge Modeling in Prior Art Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Erik; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Keith

    This study explores the benefits of integrating knowledge representations in prior art patent retrieval. Key to the introduced approach is the utilization of human judgment available in the form of classifications assigned to patent documents. The paper first outlines in detail how a methodology for the extraction of knowledge from such an hierarchical classification system can be established. Further potential ways of integrating this knowledge with existing Information Retrieval paradigms in a scalable and flexible manner are investigated. Finally based on these integration strategies the effectiveness in terms of recall and precision is evaluated in the context of a prior art search task for European patents. As a result of this evaluation it can be established that in general the proposed knowledge expansion techniques are particularly beneficial to recall and, with respect to optimizing field retrieval settings, further result in significant precision gains.

  10. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  11. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  12. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  13. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  14. Transformational Learning through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Karen; Gerber, Dan; Hendra, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Upon graduation from University Without Walls (UWW), Robin said, "During first semester you told us that if we allowed it to, this experience [writing a prior learning portfolio] would change us. I was so angry with you for saying that because I liked who I was and didn't want to change. But you were right. And I'm glad." For the past 39 years the…

  15. 46 CFR 133.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Each OSV must carry a category 1 406 MHz satellite EPIRB meeting the requirements of 47 CFR part 80. (2... communication. (d) Emergency position indicating radiobeacon alternative. OSVs, as an alternative to...

  16. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil...

  17. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil...

  18. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil...

  19. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil...

  20. Diversity priors for learning early visual features.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hanchen; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how utilizing diversity priors can discover early visual features that resemble their biological counterparts. The study is mainly motivated by the sparsity and selectivity of activations of visual neurons in area V1. Most previous work on computational modeling emphasizes selectivity or sparsity independently. However, we argue that selectivity and sparsity are just two epiphenomena of the diversity of receptive fields, which has been rarely exploited in learning. In this paper, to verify our hypothesis, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are employed to learn early visual features by modeling the statistics of natural images. Considering RBMs as neural networks, the receptive fields of neurons are formed by the inter-weights between hidden and visible nodes. Due to the conditional independence in RBMs, there is no mechanism to coordinate the activations of individual neurons or the whole population. A diversity prior is introduced in this paper for training RBMs. We find that the diversity prior indeed can assure simultaneously sparsity and selectivity of neuron activations. The learned receptive fields yield a high degree of biological similarity in comparison to physiological data. Also, corresponding visual features display a good generative capability in image reconstruction. PMID:26321941

  1. Diversity priors for learning early visual features

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hanchen; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how utilizing diversity priors can discover early visual features that resemble their biological counterparts. The study is mainly motivated by the sparsity and selectivity of activations of visual neurons in area V1. Most previous work on computational modeling emphasizes selectivity or sparsity independently. However, we argue that selectivity and sparsity are just two epiphenomena of the diversity of receptive fields, which has been rarely exploited in learning. In this paper, to verify our hypothesis, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are employed to learn early visual features by modeling the statistics of natural images. Considering RBMs as neural networks, the receptive fields of neurons are formed by the inter-weights between hidden and visible nodes. Due to the conditional independence in RBMs, there is no mechanism to coordinate the activations of individual neurons or the whole population. A diversity prior is introduced in this paper for training RBMs. We find that the diversity prior indeed can assure simultaneously sparsity and selectivity of neuron activations. The learned receptive fields yield a high degree of biological similarity in comparison to physiological data. Also, corresponding visual features display a good generative capability in image reconstruction. PMID:26321941

  2. Entropic Priors and Bayesian Model Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Francis, Matthew J.

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate that the principle of maximum relative entropy (ME), used judiciously, can ease the specification of priors in model selection problems. The resulting effect is that models that make sharp predictions are disfavoured, weakening the usual Bayesian ``Occam's Razor.'' This is illustrated with a simple example involving what Jaynes called a ``sure thing'' hypothesis. Jaynes' resolution of the situation involved introducing a large number of alternative ``sure thing'' hypotheses that were possible before we observed the data. However, in more complex situations, it may not be possible to explicitly enumerate large numbers of alternatives. The entropic priors formalism produces the desired result without modifying the hypothesis space or requiring explicit enumeration of alternatives; all that is required is a good model for the prior predictive distribution for the data. This idea is illustrated with a simple rigged-lottery example, and we outline how this idea may help to resolve a recent debate amongst cosmologists: is dark energy a cosmological constant, or has it evolved with time in some way? And how shall we decide, when the data are in?

  3. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istepanian, Robert; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Pattichis, Constantinos S.

    M-health can be defined as the "emerging mobile communications and network technologies for healthcare systems.' This book paves the path toward understanding the future of m-health technologies and services and also introducing the impact of mobility on existing e-health and commercial telemedical systems. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems presents a new and forward-looking source of information that explores the present and future trends in the applications of current and emerging wireless communication and network technologies for different healthcare scenaria.

  4. Emergency cooling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

    1994-01-04

    An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

  5. Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Judy; Calder, Neil

    2007-11-01

    Few would dispute that the science of particle physics in the United States has reached a crossroads. Policies, decisions, and events of the coming decade will be critical in determining whether the United States continues to carry out a competitive program of leadership in this field of fundamental science. The field of particle physics has responded to this reality by fundamentally changing its model of communication from “business as usual” to a strategic and collaborative method that is clearly focused on achieving a healthy future for the science. Over the past half-dozen years, the particle physics community has gone from being an oft-cited example of how not to communicate effectively, to a frequently cited—and emulated—model for science communication. This review outlines the new approach toward communication in particle physics and then goes into detail about three case studies.

  6. Communication fail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  7. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  8. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  9. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  10. Police Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  11. Communicating Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

    2007-08-01

    Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

  12. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C

    1995-11-01

    Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon and physiologically diverse. Consequently, it is difficult for most physicians to develop a familiarity with all the different hypertensive crises and with all drugs available for treating them (Table 4). Clinicians should not agonize over which is the perfect therapeutic agent for a particular emergency, but instead, they should focus on scrupulous monitoring and familiarize themselves with a few agents that will serve in most situations. Generally, these agents will be sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Vigilant neurologic monitoring is mandatory in all hypertensive emergencies. The early symptoms and signs of cerebral hypoperfusion can be vague and subtle, but if recognized, serious complications of therapy can be avoided. Remember, the patient may still be hypertensive. Avoid acute (during the first hour) reductions in MAP of more than 20% whenever possible; subsequent reductions should be gradual. In patients known to have markedly elevated ICP and who need acute reductions in their BP, serious consideration should be given to direct monitoring of the ICP so that CPP can be maintained within safe limits. In general, oral agents should not be used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Intravenous Labetalol and intravenous nicardipine are not suitable for general use in hypertensive emergencies. In special situations (e.g., perioperative hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage), however, they may be employed. Their role may expand with further study. Trimethaphan may be superior to nitroprusside for hypertension complicated by elevated ICP or cerebral dysfunction. Realistically, most physicians will continue to use nitroprusside. Intense neurologic monitoring is more important than the specific agent used. Nitroglycerin is the agent of choice for acute ischemic heart disease complicated by severe hypertension; if it fails, use nitroprusside. For aortic dissection, the combination of nitroprusside and IV

  13. Use of communications. [satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the field of satellite communications is reviewed, and useful services which may be provided by future satellite communications systems are considered. Recommendations are made with regard to mobile communications for use on land and at sea, position determination, mineral and energy exploration, the possibility of using electronic means to assist in main delivery, education and health-care experiments, and the use of satellite telecommunications to enhance the quality of life in rural areas by making available a full range of educational and entertainment programs. The needs of the amateur radio community are also considered.

  14. Virtual Reality, Combat, and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Emily Austin; Bodary, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents a brief examination of the evolution of virtual reality devices that illustrates how the development of this new medium is influenced by emerging technologies and by marketing pressures. Notes that understanding these influences may help prepare for the role of technical communicators in building virtual reality applications for education…

  15. 46 CFR 199.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of 47 CFR part 80. (b) Emergency position indicating radiobeacons (EPIRB) and search and rescue... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 199.60 Section 199.60 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.60 Communications. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 133.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.60 Communications. (a) Emergency position indicating radiobeacons (EPIRB). (1) Each OSV must carry a category 1 406 MHz satellite EPIRB meeting the requirements of 47 CFR part 80. (2... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 133.60 Section 133.60 Shipping...

  17. The Development of the Communication of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornall, Lynne; Thomas, Brychan

    1998-01-01

    Examines the history of the "Public Understanding of Science" movement, including some of the wider debates articulated by key figures and groups in the field. Discusses the re-emergence of the issue of science communication in the 1990s as well as the development in universities of the new field of science communication. (PVD)

  18. Near Field Communication: Introduction and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Sheli; Yarmey, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Near field communication is an emerging technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. Though primarily associated with mobile payment, near field communication has many different potential commercial applications, ranging from marketing to nutrition,…

  19. Development Decision-Makers' Perspectives of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, John L.

    Presented to a United Nations seminar on the role of information in the development of emerging nations, this document presents effective communication as the achievement of results--a change in attitude, practice, and knowledge. Elements of the SMCRE (sender-message-channel-receiver-effect) communications model are used in analyzing communication…

  20. Teaching Spirituality in the Interpersonal Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Carolyn

    Attention to teaching and developing spirituality in interpersonal communication is timely. Today's technology usurps the "human" in human being. Humankind is displaced by computers, e-mail, and various websites which substitute for the "person" in interpersonal communication. This technology, combined with the emergence of widespread cultural…

  1. 46 CFR 133.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Each OSV must carry a category 1 406 MHz satellite EPIRB meeting the requirements of 47 CFR part 80. (2... flares on or near the OSV's navigating bridge. (c) Onboard communications and alarm systems. Each OSV must meet the requirements for onboard communications between emergency control stations, muster...

  2. 46 CFR 133.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Each OSV must carry a category 1 406 MHz satellite EPIRB meeting the requirements of 47 CFR part 80. (2... flares on or near the OSV's navigating bridge. (c) Onboard communications and alarm systems. Each OSV must meet the requirements for onboard communications between emergency control stations, muster...

  3. 46 CFR 199.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of 47 CFR part 80. (b) Emergency position indicating radiobeacons (EPIRB) and search and rescue... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 199.60 Section 199.60 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.60 Communications. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 199.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of 47 CFR part 80. (b) Emergency position indicating radiobeacons (EPIRB) and search and rescue... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications. 199.60 Section 199.60 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.60 Communications. (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 199.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of 47 CFR part 80. (b) Emergency position indicating radiobeacons (EPIRB) and search and rescue... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications. 199.60 Section 199.60 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.60 Communications. (a)...

  6. Digital Controller For Emergency Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Prototype digital controller intended for use in 406-MHz emergency beacon. Undergoing development according to international specifications, 406-MHz emergency beacon system includes satellites providing worldwide monitoring of beacons, with Doppler tracking to locate each beacon within 5 km. Controller turns beacon on and off and generates binary codes identifying source (e.g., ship, aircraft, person, or vehicle on land). Codes transmitted by phase modulation. Knowing code, monitor attempts to communicate with user, monitor uses code information to dispatch rescue team appropriate to type and locations of carrier.

  7. Psychiatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Santina; Dschida, Dorothy; Talen, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are acute disturbances in thought, behavior, mood, or social relationship that require immediate intervention as defined by the patient, family, or social unit to save the patient and/or others from imminent danger. Ensuring the safety of the patient, surrounding persons, and the medical team is the first step of evaluation. Treatment focuses on stabilization of the patient, then on specific symptoms and ultimately the cause of symptoms. There are important legal considerations, particularly regarding involuntary admissions. It is important to debrief with the patient, surrounding family, and the health care team to ensure a continued therapeutic alliance and the emotional health of all involved. PMID:27262012

  8. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  9. Information and communication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of U.S. experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members traveled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information firsthand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 in Japan, and 4 in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated research and development facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of U.S. industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to U.S. activities.

  10. Wireless Headset Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  11. Movement speed is biased by prior experience

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Nada; Greenwood, Richard; Rothwell, John C.; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    How does the motor system choose the speed for any given movement? Many current models assume a process that finds the optimal balance between the costs of moving fast and the rewards of achieving the goal. Here, we show that such models also need to take into account a prior representation of preferred movement speed, which can be changed by prolonged practice. In a time-constrained reaching task, human participants made 25-cm reaching movements within 300, 500, 700, or 900 ms. They were then trained for 3 days to execute the movement at either the slowest (900-ms) or fastest (300-ms) speed. When retested on the 4th day, movements executed under all four time constraints were biased toward the speed of the trained movement. In addition, trial-to-trial variation in speed of the trained movement was significantly reduced. These findings are indicative of a use-dependent mechanism that biases the selection of speed. Reduced speed variability was also associated with reduced errors in movement amplitude for the fast training group, which generalized nearly fully to a new movement direction. In contrast, changes in perpendicular error were specific to the trained direction. In sum, our results suggest the existence of a relatively stable but modifiable prior of preferred movement speed that influences the choice of movement speed under a range of task constraints. PMID:24133220

  12. Receptive Field Inference with Localized Priors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Pillow, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    The linear receptive field describes a mapping from sensory stimuli to a one-dimensional variable governing a neuron's spike response. However, traditional receptive field estimators such as the spike-triggered average converge slowly and often require large amounts of data. Bayesian methods seek to overcome this problem by biasing estimates towards solutions that are more likely a priori, typically those with small, smooth, or sparse coefficients. Here we introduce a novel Bayesian receptive field estimator designed to incorporate locality, a powerful form of prior information about receptive field structure. The key to our approach is a hierarchical receptive field model that flexibly adapts to localized structure in both spacetime and spatiotemporal frequency, using an inference method known as empirical Bayes. We refer to our method as automatic locality determination (ALD), and show that it can accurately recover various types of smooth, sparse, and localized receptive fields. We apply ALD to neural data from retinal ganglion cells and V1 simple cells, and find it achieves error rates several times lower than standard estimators. Thus, estimates of comparable accuracy can be achieved with substantially less data. Finally, we introduce a computationally efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for fully Bayesian inference under the ALD prior, yielding accurate Bayesian confidence intervals for small or noisy datasets. PMID:22046110

  13. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung

    2015-03-01

    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  14. How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation. PMID:26419391

  15. Reconstructing the prior probabilities of allelic phylogenies.

    PubMed Central

    Golding, G Brian

    2002-01-01

    In general when a phylogeny is reconstructed from DNA or protein sequence data, it makes use only of the probabilities of obtaining some phylogeny given a collection of data. It is also possible to determine the prior probabilities of different phylogenies. This information can be of use in analyzing the biological causes for the observed divergence of sampled taxa. Unusually "rare" topologies for a given data set may be indicative of different biological forces acting. A recursive algorithm is presented that calculates the prior probabilities of a phylogeny for different allelic samples and for different phylogenies. This method is a straightforward extension of Ewens' sample distribution. The probability of obtaining each possible sample according to Ewens' distribution is further subdivided into each of the possible phylogenetic topologies. These probabilities depend not only on the identity of the alleles and on 4N(mu) (four times the effective population size times the neutral mutation rate) but also on the phylogenetic relationships among the alleles. Illustrations of the algorithm are given to demonstrate how different phylogenies are favored under different conditions. PMID:12072482

  16. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a communications controller for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a Code 3 situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a communications controller which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection.

  17. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  18. STS-48 MS Gemar dons EMU with technicians' assistance prior to JSC WETF dive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and communications carrier assembly (CCA), smiles as he watches technicians adjust his sleeves prior to donning his EMU gloves. Gemar is preparing for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Once underwater, Gemar will practice contingency EVA operations for his upcoming mission aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  19. 13 CFR 400.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 400.106 Section 400.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.106 Ex parte communications. Oral or written...

  20. 13 CFR 400.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 400.106 Section 400.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.106 Ex parte communications. Oral or written...

  1. 13 CFR 400.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 400.106 Section 400.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.106 Ex parte communications. Oral or written...

  2. 13 CFR 500.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 500.106 Section 500.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL... communication, not on the public record, between the Board, or any member of the Board, and any party or...

  3. 13 CFR 400.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 400.106 Section 400.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.106 Ex parte communications. Oral or written...

  4. 13 CFR 500.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 500.106 Section 500.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL... communication, not on the public record, between the Board, or any member of the Board, and any party or...

  5. 13 CFR 400.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 400.106 Section 400.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.106 Ex parte communications. Oral or written...

  6. 13 CFR 500.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 500.106 Section 500.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL... communication, not on the public record, between the Board, or any member of the Board, and any party or...

  7. 13 CFR 500.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 500.106 Section 500.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL... communication, not on the public record, between the Board, or any member of the Board, and any party or...

  8. 13 CFR 500.106 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 500.106 Section 500.106 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL... communication, not on the public record, between the Board, or any member of the Board, and any party or...

  9. Safety on a Rural Community College Campus via Integrated Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnage, Marie Foster; Dziagwa, Connie; White, Dave

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia University at Parkersburg uses a two-way emergency system as a baseline for emergency communications. The college has found that such a system, a key component of its safety and crisis management plan, can be integrated with other communication initiatives to provide focused security on the campus.

  10. Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Multi-Compatible Network Interface Unit (MCNIU) is intended to connect the space station's communications and tracking, guidance and navigation, life support, electric power, payload data, hand controls, display consoles and other systems, and also communicate with diverse processors. Honeywell is now marketing MCNIU commercially. It has applicability in certain military operations or civil control centers. It has nongovernment utility among large companies, universities and research organizations that transfer large amounts of data among workstations and computers. *This product is no longer commercially available.

  11. Communicating Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Edsko; Koutavas, Vasileios; Hennessy, Matthew

    We propose a novel language construct called communicating transactions, obtained by dropping the isolation requirement from classical transactions, which can be used to model automatic error recovery in distributed systems. We extend CCS with this construct and give a simple semantics for the extended calculus, called TransCCS. We develop a behavioural theory which is sound and complete with respect to the may-testing preorder, and use it to prove interesting laws and reason compositionally about example systems. Finally, we prove that communicating transactions do not increase the observational power of processes; thus CCS equivalences are preserved in the extended language.

  12. Communicating science in social settings.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  13. 47 CFR 74.21 - Broadcasting emergency information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcasting emergency information. 74.21 Section 74.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.21 Broadcasting emergency information. (a) In an emergency...

  14. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  15. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  16. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  17. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  18. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  19. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  20. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....