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1

Quantify uncertain emergency search techniques (QUEST) -- Theory and user`s guide  

SciTech Connect

As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to the national security. Sandia National laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Bechtel Nevada, Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response for various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables, including source type, search location and structure geometry (including shielding), search dynamics (path and speed), and detector type and size. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used as a tool to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training.

Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Porter, T.L.; West, T.H.; Wilcox, W.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Studies Dept.; Hensley, W.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry Section

1998-01-01

2

QUEST: A model to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques, theory and application  

SciTech Connect

As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to our national security. Sandia National Laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response fro various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training.

Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Wilcox, W.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hensley, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-01

3

Computational models to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques -- A comparison of measured and synthetic gamma-ray detector response functions  

SciTech Connect

As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories have developed quantitative models to simulate the response of detection equipment when looking for lost or stolen nuclear material. SYNTH, a code written to synthesize typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments, and QUEST, a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques, calculate the response functions of gamma-ray detectors for arbitrary source types and shielding configurations. In addition, QUEST provides an interactive, three-dimensional user interface supporting the virtual quest for nuclear materials, making possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and inspection methodologies. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during an inspection is a function of many different variables, including source type, structure geometry (including shielding), inspection dynamics (path and speed), detector (type, size, and resolution), and analysis algorithms. The authors present the results of their study comparing the synthetic Sodium Iodide (NaI) and Germanium (Ge) detector responses generated by both SYNTH and QUEST with those generated by real detectors deployed in the field. Quantitative models, such as the ones presented here, are important since they, (1) allow inspection teams to maximize the probability of finding materials of interest, (2) aid in the development of new instruments and detection techniques, and (3) support other diverse applications including environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and radiation safety responder training.

Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Wilcox, W.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hensley, W.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.G. [Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Remote Sensing Lab.

1997-11-01

4

Improved Search Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills...

C. R. Albornoz

2012-01-01

5

Emerging Imaging Techniques  

PubMed Central

This article reviews recent developments in selected imaging technologies focused on the cardiovascular system. The techniques covered are: ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), microSPECT, microPET, near infrared imaging, and quantum dots. For each technique, the basic physical principles are explained and recent example applications demonstrated.

McVeigh, Elliot R.

2007-01-01

6

Lidar techniques for search and rescue  

SciTech Connect

Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the uv. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

Cabral, W.L.

1985-01-01

7

Lidar techniques for search and rescue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the UV. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

Cabral, W. L.

1985-03-01

8

Emergency local searching approach for job shop scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing methods of local search mostly focus on how to reach optimal solution. However, in some emergency situations, search time is the hard constraint for job shop scheduling problem while optimal solution is not necessary. In this situation, the existing method of local search is not fast enough. This paper presents an emergency local search(ELS) approach which can reach feasible and nearly optimal solution in limited search time. The ELS approach is desirable for the aforementioned emergency situations where search time is limited and a nearly optimal solution is sufficient, which consists of three phases. Firstly, in order to reach a feasible and nearly optimal solution, infeasible solutions are repaired and a repair technique named group repair is proposed. Secondly, in order to save time, the amount of local search moves need to be reduced and this is achieved by a quickly search method named critical path search(CPS). Finally, CPS sometimes stops at a solution far from the optimal one. In order to jump out the search dilemma of CPS, a jump technique based on critical part is used to improve CPS. Furthermore, the schedule system based on ELS has been developed and experiments based on this system completed on the computer of Intel Pentium(R) 2.93 GHz. The experimental result shows that the optimal solutions of small scale instances are reached in 2 s, and the nearly optimal solutions of large scale instances are reached in 4 s. The proposed ELS approach can stably reach nearly optimal solutions with manageable search time, and can be applied on some emergency situations.

Zhao, Ning; Chen, Siyu; Du, Yanhua

2013-09-01

9

Space transformation search: a new evolutionary technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new evolutionary technique is proposed, namely space transformation search (STS), which transforms current search space to a new search space. By simultaneously evaluating solutions in current search space and transformed space, we can provide more chances to find solutions more closely to the global optimum and finally accelerate convergence speed. The proposed STS method can be

Hui Wang; Zhijian Wu; Yong Liu; Jing Wang; Dazhi Jiang; Lili Chen

2009-01-01

10

A new Coast Guard search technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

For three years the US Coast Guard Research and Development Center has been developing a novel airborne search technique. It shows promise of detecting liferafts with a 95% probability at a search rate of 250 nmi2\\/hr. An experimental design is presented in which the Naval Air Development Center modifies a high-performance IR (infrared) scanner to record on magnetic tape. The

1988-01-01

11

Factors Associated with Emergency Food Recipient's Information Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a survey of emergency food recipients conducted in a northwestern state were used to identify factors associated with recipient's information search behavior when they sought emergency food help. Results from logistic and general linear multiple regressions indicated that age, phone possession, family income, and household size influenced the use of interpersonal communication as information sources. Age, number of

Jing J. Xiao; Lakshmi Malroutu; Geraldine I. Olson

1995-01-01

12

Emerging techniques in aesthetic plastic surgery.  

PubMed

This article outlines the experience of authorities on emerging techniques in plastic surgery that are discussed within this issue, such as mesotherapy and lipodissolve, Russian threads, radiofrequency, and "laser lipo." Readers are invited to analyze the findings and determine whether there is something that could apply to their practices. PMID:19309640

Toledo, Luiz S

2009-04-01

13

Searching for Glider Guns in Cellular Automata: Exploring Evolutionary and Other Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to construct an automatic system for the discov- ery of collision-based universal cellular automata that simulate Turing machines in their space-time dynamics using gliders and glider guns. In this paper, an evolutionary search for glider guns with different pa- rameters is described and other search techniques are also presented as benchmark. We demonstrate the sponstaneous emergence of an

Emmanuel Sapin; Larry Bull

2007-01-01

14

Identification of Randomized Controlled Trials From the Emergency Medicine Literature: Comparison of Hand Searching Versus MEDLINE Searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: As part of an ongoing project to identify all the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the emergency medicine literature, in association with the Cochrane Collaboration, 2 discrete studies were undertaken; the first, to compare motives for active participation in hand searching of the literature by emergency medicine professionals, and the second, to compare hand searching with MEDLINE searching

Julia Langham; Elizabeth Thompson; Kathy Rowan

1999-01-01

15

A Search for Helioseismic Signature of Emerging Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using SOHO/MDI and GONG observations we present time-distance deep-focusing measurements to examine the deeper layers of the solar convective zone. The constructed travel-time maps show 10 - 15 second perturbations at depths of 40 - 75 Mm around active region locations before their emergence to the solar surface. The majority of the active regions used in this study were the same as those used in the recent work published by Ilonidis, Zhao, and Kosovichev ( Science 333, 993, 2011). In order to confirm the capability of time-distance measurements to detect emerging active regions, we used a technique similar to their time-distance scheme. Our measurements only in some cases show a similar travel-time anomaly. Additionally, we have shown that the technique utilized in our study can provide more spatial details of the emerging flux configurations.

Kholikov, S.

2013-10-01

16

Programming Techniques: Regular expression search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for locating specific character strings embedded in character text is described and an implementation of this method in the form of a compiler is discussed. The compiler accepts a regular expression as source language and produces an IBM 7094 program as object language. The object program then accepts the text to be searched as input and produces a

Ken Thompson

1968-01-01

17

Modern Techniques for Searching the Chemical Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chemists' information needs are for current awareness, selective dissemination, and retrospective search services, of research, development, engineering, production, and marketing information located internally or externally, and contained in journals, patents, theses, reports, data files, information services, and from people. This paper is…

Holm, Bart E.

18

Search techniques for near-earth asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the near-earth asteroids (Apollo, Amor, and Aten groups) has increased enormously over the last 10 to 15 years. This has been due in large part to the success of programs that have systematically searched for these objects. These programs have been motivated by the apparent relationships of the near-earth asteroids to terrestrial impact cratering, meteorites, and comets, and

E. F. Helin; R. S. Dunbar

1990-01-01

19

Automatic search of geospatial features for disaster and emergency management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the fast development of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) WFS (Web Feature Service) technologies has undoubtedly improved the sharing and synchronization of feature-level geospatial information across diverse resources, literature shows that there are still apparent limitations in the current implementation of OGC WFSs. Currently, the implementation of OGC WFSs only emphasizes syntactic data interoperability via standard interfaces and cannot resolve semantic heterogeneity problems in geospatial data sharing. To help emergency responders and disaster managers find new ways of efficiently searching for needed geospatial information at the feature level, this paper aims to propose a framework for automatic search of geospatial features using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies and natural language interfaces. We focus on two major tasks: (1) intelligent geospatial feature retrieval using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies; (2) a natural language interface to a geospatial knowledge base and web feature services over the Semantic Web. Based on the proposed framework we implemented a prototype. Results show that it is practical to directly discover desirable geospatial features from multiple semantically heterogeneous sources using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies and natural language interfaces.

Zhang, Chuanrong; Zhao, Tian; Li, Weidong

2010-12-01

20

Building Domain-Specific Search Engines with Machine Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domain-specific search engines are growing in popu- larity because they offer increased accuracy and extra functionality not possible with the general, Web-wide search engines. For example, www.campsearch.com allows complex queries by age-group, size, location and cost over .summer camps. Unfortunately these domain-specific search engines are difficult and time- consuming to maintain. This paper proposes the use of machine learning techniques

Andrew McCallum; Kamal Nigam; Jason Rennie; Kristie Seymore

1999-01-01

21

Two Techniques to Improve Finite Model Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces two techniques to improve the prop- agation eciency of CSP based finite model generation methods. One approach consists in statically rewriting some selected clauses so as to trigger added constraint propagations. The other approach uses a dy- namic lookahead strategy to both filter out inconsistent domain values and select the most appropriate branching variable according to a

Gilles Audemard; Belaid Benhamou; Laurent Henocque

2000-01-01

22

A Flexible Motif Search Technique Based on Generalized Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible motif search technique is presented which has two major components: (1) a generalized profile syntax serving as a motif definition language; and (2) a motif search method specifically adapted to the problem of finding multiple instances of a motif in the same sequence. The new profile structure, which is the core of the generalized profile syntax, combines the

Philipp Bucher; Kevin Karplus; Nicolas Moeri; Kay Hofmann

1996-01-01

23

Teaching Web Search Skills: Techniques and Strategies of Top Trainers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Here is a unique and practical reference for anyone who teaches Web searching. Greg Notess shares his own techniques and strategies along with expert tips and advice from a virtual "who's who" of Web search training: Joe Barker, Paul Barron, Phil Bradley, John Ferguson, Alice Fulbright, Ran Hock, Jeff Humphrey, Diane Kovacs, Gary Price, Danny…

Notess, Greg R.

2006-01-01

24

Generation of transfer functions with stochastic search techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach to assist the user in exploring appropriate transfer functions for the visualization of volumetric datasets. The search for a transfer function is treated as a parameter optimization problem and addressed with stochastic search techniques. Starting from an initial popula- tion of (random or pre-defined)transferfunctions,the evolution of the stochasticalgorithmsis controlledby either direct user selection of

Taosong He; Lichan Hong; Arie E. Kaufman; Hanspeter Pfister

1996-01-01

25

GENETIC ALGORITHMS: A Search Technique Applied to Behavior Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms are powerful generalized search techniques. This paper shows that genetic algorithms can solve a difficult class of problems in general systems theory quickly and efficiently. Genetic algorithms appear to be ideally suited to solving the combinatorially complex problem of behavior analysis. The search space of behavior analysis experiences exponential growth as a function of the number of variables.

MARY K. DOBRANSKY; MARK J. WIERMAN

1996-01-01

26

Search for the top quark using multivariate analysis techniques  

SciTech Connect

The D0 collaboration is developing top search strategies using multivariate analysis techniques. We report here on applications of the H-matrix method to the e{mu} channel and neural networks to the e+jets channel.

Bhat, P.C.; D0 Collaboration

1994-08-01

27

Search technique for calculating critical and subcritical configurations with MCNP  

SciTech Connect

The {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Guide{close_quotes} includes graphs of critical and subcritical configurations of mixtures of fissile material and water for three different geometric shapes. The curves shown in these graphs were generated with MCNP using continuous-energy cross sections. Because the current version of MCNP does not have {open_quotes}search{close_quotes} capabilities, a search technique had to be developed to accomplish this task.

Rombough, C.T.; Martonak, S.H. [CTR Technical Services, Inc., Arlington, TX (United States); Pruvost, N.L. [Galaxy Computer Serv., Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

28

Techniques and Tools for Local Search Landscape Visualization and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their high dimensionality, combinatorial optimization problems are often difficult to analyze, and the researcher’s intuition is insufficient to grasp the relevant features. In this paper we present and discuss a set of techniques for the visualization of search landscapes aimed at supporting the researcher’s intuition on the behavior of a Stochastic Local Search algorithm applied to a combinatorial optimization problem.

Mascia, Franco; Brunato, Mauro

29

Emerging behavior as binary search trees are symmetrically updated  

Microsoft Academic Search

When repeated updates are made to a binary search tree, the expected search cost tends to improve, as observed by Knott. For the case in which the updates use an asymmetric deletion algorithm, the Knott effect is swamped by the behavior discovered by Eppinger. The Knott effect applies also to updates using symmetric deletion algorithms, and it remains unexplained, along

Stephen Taylor; Marianne Durand

2003-01-01

30

The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered.

McGlone, B; Balan, K

2001-01-01

31

Emerging Behavior as Binary Search Trees Are Symmetrically Updated  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When repeated updates are made to a binary search tree, the expected search cost tends to improve, as observed by Knott. For\\u000a the case in which the updates use an asymmetric deletion algorithm, the Knott effect is swamped by the behavior discovered\\u000a by Eppinger. The Knott effect applies also to updates using symmetric deletion algorithms, and it remains unexplained, along

Stephen Taylor

2000-01-01

32

The emergence of scaling laws search dynamics in a particle swarm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the search dynamics of a fundamental particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm via gathering and analyzing the data of the search area during the optimization process. The PSO algorithm exhibits a distinct performance when optimizing different functions, which induces the emergence of different search dynamics during the optimization process. The simulation results show that the performance is tightly related to the search dynamics which results from the interaction between the PSO algorithm and the landscape of the solved problems. The Lévy type scaling laws search dynamics emerges from the process in which the PSO algorithm shows good performance, while the Brownian dynamics appears after the algorithm has stagnated due to the premature convergence. The Lévy dynamics characterized by a large number of intensive local searches punctuated by long-range transfers is an indicator of good performance, which allows the algorithm to achieve an efficient balance between exploration and exploitation so as to improve the search efficiency.

Qi, Jie; Rong, Zhihai

2013-03-01

33

Search for chameleon particles using a photon-regeneration technique.  

PubMed

We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons. PMID:19257328

Chou, A S; Wester, W; Baumbaugh, A; Gustafson, H R; Irizarry-Valle, Y; Mazur, P O; Steffen, J H; Tomlin, R; Upadhye, A; Weltman, A; Yang, X; Yoo, J

2009-01-22

34

Search for Chameleon Particles Using a Photon-Regeneration Technique  

SciTech Connect

We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.

Chou, A. S. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Wester, W.; Baumbaugh, A.; Irizarry-Valle, Y.; Mazur, P. O.; Steffen, J. H.; Tomlin, R.; Yang, X.; Yoo, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Gustafson, H. R. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Upadhye, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Weltman, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge CB2 0WA (United Kingdom); Cosmology and Gravity Group, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Private Bag, 7700 (South Africa)

2009-01-23

35

A New Multiple Path Search Technique for Residual Vector Quantizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple path searching can provide varying degrees of joint search optimization of residual vector quantizer encoder stages. A short coming of the conventional multiple path M-search algorithm, however, is that joint search optimization of encoder stages is limited to consecutive stages. A new iterated multipath (IM)-search algorithm is introduced that is not subject to any particular ordering of the residual

Christopher F. Barnes

1994-01-01

36

New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.  

PubMed

Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future. PMID:22265377

Burgess, J Grant

2012-01-19

37

Optimizing constrained-environment redirected walking instructions using search techniques.  

PubMed

A goal of redirected walking (RDW) is to allow large virtual worlds to be explored within small tracking areas. Generalized steering algorithms, such as steer-to-center, simply move the user toward locations that are considered to be collision free in most cases. The algorithm developed here, FORCE, identifies collision-free paths by using a map of the tracking area's shape and obstacles, in addition to a multistep, probabilistic prediction of the user's virtual path through a known virtual environment. In the present implementation, the path predictions describe a user's possible movements through a virtual store with aisles. Based on both the user's physical and virtual location / orientation, a search-based optimization technique identifies the optimal steering instruction given the possible user paths. Path prediction uses the map of the virtual world; consequently, the search may propose steering instructions that put the user close to walls if the user's future actions eventually lead away from the wall. Results from both simulated and real users are presented. FORCE identifies collision-free paths in 55.0 percent of the starting conditions compared to 46.1 percent for generalized methods. When considering only the conditions that result in different outcomes, redirection based on FORCE produces collision-free path 94.5 percent of the time. PMID:24029907

Zmuda, Michael A; Wonser, Joshua L; Bachmann, Eric R; Hodgson, Eric

2013-11-01

38

Hierarchical Object Category Recognition Technique for Image Based Search System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an object category recognition method for an information search system which is queried by camera of mobile phone or by servers of internet services. In such a system, processing speed is an important requirement. To improve processing speed, the hierarchical object category recognition technique proposed by Serre(23) is modified using Haar-Like features, vector quantization of feature models, and reduction of processing area. In addition, by retaining the information of each feature's position, it compensates the accuracy which is a little reduced in exchange of processing speed. We implemented this method to web server, and proved this system can work in practical processing time. Through the experiment for Caltech-101 image database and natural scene category images, we also confirm the accuracy of our approach.

Minagawa, Takuya; Saito, Hideo

39

Cathodoluminescence : an imaging technique for the search of extraterrestrial life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solids irradiated by a 10-20 keV electron beam emit ligth in the UV-visible range, which is called cathodoluminescence (CL). CL imagery is a powerful tool for visualizing minerals and their internal structures (lattice defects, zoning). For example, terrestrial calcite, either of sedimentary or biogenic origin, often display a bright orange CL, as a result of the incorporation of trace Mn2+ in its lattice. Aragonite can also be discriminated from calcite by its green CL. Carbonates are a major target for the search of life on Mars, and CL imagery could contribute to reveal carbonates in situ. Thomas et al. [1] have validated the concept of an electron lamp to make CL imagery of a rock surface placed in a martian CO2 atmosphere. We present 2 examples of terrestrial bacterial microstructures that are revealed by CL. (1) In Sinemurian sediments from the Montmiral borehole (Valence Basin, France), banded wavy calcite in contact with pyrite represents fossilized biofilms of sulfato-reducing bacteria, as confirmed by the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite ~+36 %0 PDB. (2) At l'Ile Crémieux, north of the Valence basin, a dense filamentous microbial/fungal community with a bright orange CL signature is embedded in vuggy calcite from a tectonic vein. The mat is anchored 1-2 mm deep in the oolitic veinwall and emerges at right angle in the 'open' fracture space. Finally, carbonate vesicles and exhalite crusts from the Svalbard basalt in Groendland, with orange CL, are shown as analogues to carbonates from the martian ALH84001 igneous meteorite. [1]Thomas et al. (2009) in A. Gucsik (Ed.) "Cathodoluminescence and Its Application in the Planetary Sciences"

Ramboz, C.; Rubert, Y.; Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Lerouge, C.

2012-04-01

40

Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.

2011-01-01

41

Optimization of Online Searching by Pre-Recording the Search Statements: A Technique for the HP-2645A Terminal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the terminal's capabilities, ways to store and call up lines of statements, cassette tapes needed during searches, and master tape's use for login storage. Advantages of the technique and two sources are listed. (RBF)|

Oberhauser, O. C.; Stebegg, K.

1982-01-01

42

Position Search Technique for Unknown Wave Sources Using Spherical Wave Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of wave source position is important technique for searching unknown noise source in electromagnetic compatibility measurement. In this article, a new position search technique for unknown wave sources is proposed by using the spherical vector wave function and point-matching method. In this technique, a few virtual boundaries are placed on surrounding areas, which includes the unknown wave sources. In

Kuniyuki Motojima; Hiroyuki Sutou

2011-01-01

43

Applying the branch and bound technique to document similarity search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new mechanism for document similarity search, which uses the indexing structure called signature tables. The mechanism of signature tables is originally invented for similarity search of market basket data, and in this paper we apply it to document data. Since the characteristics of document data is definitely different from that of market basket data, the performance

K. Furuse; T. Miura; M. Ishikawa; H. Chen; N. Ohbo

2001-01-01

44

Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.  

PubMed

The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

2012-08-01

45

Techniques for Searching the CINAHL Database Using the EBSCO Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

•THE CUMULATIVE INDEX to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) is a useful research tool for accessing articles of interest to nurses and health care professionals.•MORE THAN 2,800 JOURNALS are indexed by CINAHL and can be searched easily using assigned subject headings.•DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS about conducting, combining, and saving searches in CINAHL are provided in this article.•ESTABLISHING AN ACCOUNT at EBSCO

Janna C. Lawrence

2007-01-01

46

Techniques for Conducting Effective Search Interviews with Thesis and Dissertation Candidates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses interviewing techniques in two steps: determining user's knowledge of and expectations for computerized literature searching, including beginning the interview and dealing with misconceptions, and the search strategy. The figure provided illustrates four stages of a thesis proposal and the related literature search purposes as aids in…

Dommer, Jan M.; McCaghy, M. Dawn

1982-01-01

47

An approximate method for capacitor placement in distribution system using heuristics and greedy search technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method based on heuristics and greedy search technique has been reported in this paper for the placement of capacitors in radial distribution system. Heuristic rules have been developed to determine the probable capacitor locations in a distribution network. A greedy search technique then determines the optimum capacitor locations from these probable locations and the size of capacitors at

S. K. Goswami; T. Ghose; S. K. Basu

1999-01-01

48

A survey of very large-scale neighborhood search techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many optimization problems of practical interest are computationally intractable. Therefore, a practical approach for solving such problems is to employ heuristic (approximation) algorithms that can find nearly optimal solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. An improvement algorithm is a heuristic algorithm that generally starts with a feasible solution and iteratively tries to obtain a better solution. Neighborhood search

Ravindra K. Ahuja; Özlem Ergun; James B. Orlin; Abraham P. Punnen

2002-01-01

49

Comments on the Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We comment on the paper "The co-emergence of machine techniques, paper-and-pencil techniques, and theoretical reflection: A study of CAS use in secondary school algebra" by Carolyn Kieran and Paul Drijvers. We look at aspects of Kieran and Drijvers' analysis with regard to "task-technique-theory" in the light of a model of abstraction in context…

Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

2006-01-01

50

Search-based software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper claims that a new field of Software Engineering research and practice is emerging: Search-Based Software Engineering. The paper argues that Software Engineering is ideal for the application of metaheuristic search techniques, such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and tabu search. Such search-based techniques could provide solutions to the difficult problems of balancing competing (and sometimes inconsistent) constraints and

Mark Harman; Bryan F. Jones

2001-01-01

51

Traditional and Molecular Techniques for the Study of Emerging Bacterial Diseases: One Laboratory's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving micros- copy, serology, molecular tools, and culture. Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture. The key steps that led to the discovery of emerging bacteria have been reviewed to determine the real contribution

Pierre Houpikian; Didier Raoult

52

High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

Juan D. Deaton

2008-05-01

53

The Emergence of Pattern Discovery Techniques in Computational Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, pattern discovery has been emerging as a generic tool of choice for tackling problems from the computational biology domain. In this presentation, and after defining the problem in its generality, we review some of the algorithms that have appeared in the literature and describe several applications of pattern discovery to problems from computational biology.

Isidore Rigoutsos; Aris Floratos; Laxmi Parida; Yuan Gao; Daniel Platt

2000-01-01

54

Genetic Algorithms Vs. Classical Search Techniques For Identification Of Fuzzy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been established as a viable technique for search problemsacross diverse disciplines of science and engineering. In this paper, different genetic algorithms are reportedthat have been implemented and applied to optimization problems in general system theory. The identificationof qualitative models in Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR) is a complex search problem of behavior analysis. Astudy of GAs\\

Antoni Jerez; Angela Nebot

55

Search-Based Techniques Applied to Optimization of Project Planning for a Massive Maintenance Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the use of three different search- based techniques, namely genetic algorithms, hill climbing and simulated annealing, and two problem representations, for planning resource allocation in large massive mainte- nance projects. In particular, the search-based approach aims to find an optimal or near optimal order in which to allocate work packages to programming teams, in order to minimize

Giuliano Antoniol; Massimiliano Di Penta; Mark Harman

2005-01-01

56

Planning Graph as a (Dynamic) CSP: Exploiting EBL, DDB and other CSP Search Techniques in Graphplan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the connections between Graphplan's planning-graph and the dynamic constraint satisfaction problem and motivates the need for adapting CSP search techniques to the Graphplan algorithm. It then describes how explanation based learning, dependency directed back- tracking, dynamic variable ordering, forward checking, sticky values and random-restart search strategies can be adapted to Graphplan. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate

Subbarao Kambhampati

2000-01-01

57

Search Interview Techniques, Information Gain, and User Satisfaction with Online Bibliographic Retrieval Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research study involved a systematic investigation into the relationships among: (1) the techniques used by search analysts during preliminary interviews with users before engaging in online retrieval of bibliographic citations; (2) the amount of new information gained by the user as a result of the search; and (3) the user's ultimate…

Auster, Ethel; Lawton, Stephen B.

58

Application of Lean Manufacturing Techniques in the Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: “Lean” is a set of principles and techniques that drive organizations to continually add value to the product they deliver by enhancing process steps that are necessary, relevant, and valuable while eliminating those that fail to add value. Lean has been used in manufacturing for decades and has been associated with enhanced product quality and overall corporate success. Objectives:

Eric W. Dickson; Sabi Singh; Dickson S. Cheung; Christopher C. Wyatt; Andrew S. Nugent

2009-01-01

59

Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: review and assessment of an emerging technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several recent reports have affirmed the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach for radical prostatectomy. In this review, we discuss the morbidities associated with this technique and compare outcomes and convalescence withstandard open radical prostatectomy. Methods: We reviewed all currently published data on laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and our series of 45 robotic-assisted radical prostatectomies and compared them to several landmark

J. B. Basillote; T. E. Ahlering; D. W. Skarecky; D. I. Lee; R. V. Clayman

2004-01-01

60

Emerging role of radiolabeled nanoparticles as an effective diagnostic technique  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising approach for diagnostic applications. Nanoparticles are structures in the nanometer size range, which can present different shapes, compositions, charges, surface modifications, in vitro and in vivo stabilities, and in vivo performances. Nanoparticles can be made of materials of diverse chemical nature, the most common being metals, metal oxides, silicates, polymers, carbon, lipids, and biomolecules. Nanoparticles exist in various morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, platelets, and tubes. Radiolabeled nanoparticles represent a new class of agent with great potential for clinical applications. This is partly due to their long blood circulation time and plasma stability. In addition, because of the high sensitivity of imaging with radiolabeled compounds, their use has promise of achieving accurate and early diagnosis. This review article focuses on the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in detecting diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also presents an overview about the formulation, stability, and biological properties of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes.

2012-01-01

61

Beyond dialysis: current and emerging blood purification techniques.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal blood purification using various techniques and hardware is a major part of the modern day practice of clinical nephrology. Although the various modalities of hemodialysis and hemofiltration are the most commonly used extracorporeal therapies in clinical nephrology, blood purification using other techniques have become necessary to remove pathogenic, toxic, or waste substances not easily cleared by hemodialysis or hemofiltration due to factors such as molecular size, protein binding, and lipid solubility. The following review is an up to date summary of extracorporeal therapies, beyond hemodialysis and hemofiltration, in current clinical use as practiced by nephrologists and others in the United States and beyond. This comprises therapeutic apheresis (plasma exchange and cytapheresis), plasma adsorption, hemoperfusion, and the bio-artificial devices. PMID:22428812

Stegmayr, Bernd; Ramlow, Wolfgang; Balogun, Rasheed A

62

Techniques for Preparing Flowchart-Format Emergency Operating Procedures: Background (Sections 1.0-9.0).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two-volume report describes the activities, findings, and recommendations of a project entitled 'Techniques for Presenting Flowchart-Format Emergency Operating Procedures.' The project team surveyed the literature pertaining to flowcharts, reviewed ex...

V. E. Barnes C. J. Moore D. R. Wieringa C. S. Isakson B. K. Kono

1989-01-01

63

A search for improved technique factors in paediatric fluoroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo computational model of a fluoroscopic imaging chain was used for deriving optimal technique factors for paediatric fluoroscopy. The optimal technique was defined as the one that minimizes the absorbed dose (or dose rate) in the patient with a constraint of constant image quality. Image quality was assessed for the task of detecting a detail in the image of a patient-simulating phantom, and was expressed in terms of the ideal observer's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for static images and in terms of the accumulating rate of the square of SNR for dynamic imaging. The entrance air kerma (or air kerma rate) and the mean absorbed dose (or dose rate) in the phantom quantified radiation detriment. The calculations were made for homogeneous phantoms simulating newborn, 3-, 10- and 15-year-old patients, barium and iodine contrast material details, several x-ray spectra, and for imaging with or without an antiscatter grid. The image receptor was modelled as a CsI x-ray image intensifier (XRII). For the task of detecting low- or moderate-contrast iodine details, the optimal spectrum can be obtained by using an x-ray tube potential near 50 kV and filtering the x-ray beam heavily. The optimal tube potential is near 60 kV for low- or moderate-contrast barium details, and 80-100 kV for high-contrast details. The low-potential spectra above require a high tube load, but this should be acceptable in paediatric fluoroscopy. A reasonable choice of filtration is the use of an additional 0.25 mm Cu, or a suitable K-edge filter. No increase in the optimal tube potential was found as phantom thickness increased. With the constraint of constant low-contrast detail detectability, the mean absorbed doses obtained with the above spectra are approximately 50% lower than those obtained with the reference conditions of 70 kV and 2.7 mm Al filter. For the smallest patient and x-ray field size, not using a grid was slightly more dose-efficient than using a grid, but when the patient size and field size were increased a fibre interspaced grid resulted in lower doses than imaging without a grid. For a 15-year-old patient the mean absorbed doses were up to 40% lower with this grid than without the grid.

Tapiovaara, Markku J.; Sandborg, Michael; Dance, David R.

1999-02-01

64

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Emerging Techniques for Nuclear Reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction of four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, can successfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES)-like cells. These cells, which are referred to as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, closely resemble embryonic stem cells in genomic, cell biologic, and phenotypic characteristics, and the creation of these special cells was a major triumph in cell biology. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells generated by somatic cell nuclear-transfer (SCNT) or ES cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, direct reprogramming provides a convenient and reliable means of generating pluripotent stem cells. iPS cells have already shown incredible potential for research and for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine within just a few years of their discovery. In this review, current techniques of generating iPS cells and mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are reviewed, and the potential for therapeutic applications is discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1799–1820.

Han, Ji Woong

2011-01-01

65

Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are recorded by a microphone and constitute the PAS signal. The major advantage of this method is that it is suitable for highly absorbing solid samples such as soils without any special pretreatment. This method has been applied successfully to soil classification and to quantitative determination of soil properties such as available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter or calcium carbonate content [2-4]. 3. FTIR-based determination of ion concentration using ion-exchange membranes In addition to the previous direct methods, mid-infrared spectroscopy can also be used to estimate nutrient availability or ion availability indirectly by combining FTIR with ion-exchange membranes. Such membranes are commonly used in studies dealing with nutrient availability, in which standard chemical methods are used to determine the amount of nutrients sorbed onto the membranes. Chemical analysis can be replaced by mid-IR spectroscopy of the loaded membrane, using either the transmittance or photo-acoustic technique depending on the type of membrane [9, 11]. The present work reviews these techniques and the chemometrics tools required for accurate interpretation of the spectra and discusses the potentials and limitations of each method. References 1. Borenstein A., R. Linker, I. Shmulevich and A. Shaviv (2006). Determination of soil nitrate and water content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 60: 1267-1272. 2. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2007). Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 61: 1063-1067. 3. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2008). Identification of agricultural Mediterranean soils using mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Geoderma, 143: 85-90. 4. Du, C., J. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Chen, A. Zhu and J. Zhang (2008). Determiantion of soil properties using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy (In press). 5. Du, C., R. Linker, A. Shaviv and Z. Jianmin. In situ evaluation of net nitrification rate in Terra rossa soil using FTIR-ATR

Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.

2009-04-01

66

The search for extra-solar terrestrial planets: techniques and technology. Proceedings. Conference, Boulder, CO (USA), 14 - 17 May 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics were dealt with: search for extrasolar terrestrial planets, techniques, technology, planetary atmosphere evolution, solar system evolution, photometric search, radial velocity searches, photon-noise limit, astrometric searches, OSI mission, GAIA mission, ground-based interferometry, FRESIP mission, DARWIN project, and public involvement in extrasolar planet detection.

J. M. Shull; H. A. Thronson Jr.; S. A. Stern

1996-01-01

67

Context-dependent interaction leads to emergent search behavior in social aggregates  

PubMed Central

Locating the source of an advected chemical signal is a common challenge facing many living organisms. When the advecting medium is characterized by either high Reynolds number or high Peclet number, the task becomes highly nontrivial due to the generation of heterogeneous, dynamically changing filamental concentrations that do not decrease monotonically with distance to the source. Defining search strategies that are effective in these environments has important implications for the understanding of animal behavior and for the design of biologically inspired technology. Here we present a strategy that is able to solve this task without the higher intelligence required to assess spatial gradient direction, measure the diffusive properties of the flow field, or perform complex calculations. Instead, our method is based on the collective behavior of autonomous individuals following simple social interaction rules which are modified according to the local conditions they are experiencing. Through these context-dependent interactions, the group is able to locate the source of a chemical signal and in doing so displays an awareness of the environment not present at the individual level. This behavior illustrates an alternative pathway to the evolution of higher cognitive capacity via the emergent, group-level intelligence that can result from local interactions.

Torney, Colin; Neufeld, Zoltan; Couzin, Iain D.

2009-01-01

68

Model-Based Inversion Technique Using Element-Free Galerkin Method and State Space Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a signal inversion technique in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) application for defect profile reconstruction using the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method and state space search. The advantage of EFG method is that it relies only on a set of nodes, instead of a complex mesh to discretize the solution domain. In the inversion procedure, remeshing is avoided to increase

Xin Liu; Yiming Deng; Zhiwei Zeng; Lalita Udpa; Satish S. Udpa

2009-01-01

69

Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Osteopathic Manipulation Techniques in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Background: Osteopathic Manipulation Techniques (OMT) have been shown to be effective therapeutic modalities in various clinical settings, but appear to be underutilized in the emergency department (ED) setting. Objective: To examine barriers to the use of OMT in the ED and provide suggestions to ameliorate these barriers. Methods: Literature review Results: While the medical literature cites numerous obstacles to the use of OMT in the ED setting, most can be positively addressed through education, careful planning, and ongoing research into use of these techniques. Recent prospective clinical trials of OMT have demonstrated the utility of these modalities. Conclusion: Osteopathic Manipulation Techniques are useful therapeutic modalities that could be utilized to a greater degree in the ED. As the number of osteopathic emergency physicians increases, the opportunity to employ these techniques should increase.

Roberge, Raymond J.; Roberge, Marc R.

2009-01-01

70

GraphFind: enhancing graph searching by low support data mining techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Biomedical and chemical databases are large and rapidly growing in size. Graphs naturally model such kinds of data. To fully exploit the wealth of information in these graph databases, a key role is played by systems that search for all exact or approximate occurrences of a query graph. To deal efficiently with graph searching, advanced methods for indexing, representation and matching of graphs have been proposed. Results This paper presents GraphFind. The system implements efficient graph searching algorithms together with advanced filtering techniques that allow approximate search. It allows users to select candidate subgraphs rather than entire graphs. It implements an effective data storage based also on low-support data mining. Conclusions GraphFind is compared with Frowns, GraphGrep and gIndex. Experiments show that GraphFind outperforms the compared systems on a very large collection of small graphs. The proposed low-support mining technique which applies to any searching system also allows a significant index space reduction.

Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Mongiovi, Misael; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Skripin, Dmitry; Shasha, Dennis

2008-01-01

71

Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles Using an Automated Millikan Oil Drop Technique  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Halyo, V.; Kim, P.; Lee, E. R.; Lee, I. T.; Loomba, D.; Perl, M. L.

2000-03-20

72

The First View Concept: introduction of industrial flow techniques into emergency medicine organization.  

PubMed

The number of patients seeking treatment in emergency departments is rising, although many governments are seeking to reduce expenditure on health. Emergency departments must achieve more with the same resources or perform the same functions with fewer resources. Patients demand higher emergency clinical care quality, with low waiting times viewed as a key quality criterion by many patients. The objective of this study was to create an improved working system in emergency departments that cuts patient waiting times for first specialty physician contact. Techniques from industrial flow management were applied to the working process of an emergency department and the concept was named 'First View.' A total of 3269 patient contacts using the First View Concept during a treatment month showed statistical significance. Before introduction, a total 3230 patients in a comparative treatment month had a median waiting time before the first doctor contact of 47.6 min, a first quartile waiting time of 36.1 min, and a third quartile waiting time of 62.7 min. After introduction, 3269 patients had a median waiting time before first specialty physician contact of 11.2 min, a first quartile waiting time of 9.1 min, and a third quartile waiting time of 15.2 min. Industrial flow concepts can achieve significant improvements in emergency department workflows in countries in which sufficient numbers of specialty physicians are available. More attention to the organization of emergency department working processes is needed, especially involving lean management. PMID:22186149

Hogan, Barbara; Rasche, Christoph; von Reinersdorff, Andrea Braun

2012-06-01

73

Emergencies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Go to: -. Information for Consumers and Industry. Floods, Hurricanes & Power Outages; Radiation Safety; Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. -. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/emergencies

74

ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

2009-08-05

75

Artificial intelligence search techniques for the optimization of cold source geometry  

SciTech Connect

Most optimization studies of cold neutron sources have concentrated on the numerical prediction or experimental measurement of the cold moderator optimum thickness that produces the largest cold neutron leakage for a given thermal neutron source. Optimizing the geometric shape of the cold source, however, is a more difficult problem because the optimized quantity, the cold neutron leakage, is an implicit function of the shape, which is the unknown in such a study. An analogy is drawn between this problem and a state space search, then a simple artificial intelligence (AI) search technique is used to determine the optimum cold source shape based on a two-group, r-z diffusion model. This AI design concept was implemented in the computer program AID, which consists of two modules, a physical model module, and a search module, which can be independently modified, improved, or made more sophisticated.

Azmy, Y.Y. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1988-01-01

76

Artificial intelligence search techniques for optimization of the cold source geometry  

SciTech Connect

Most optimization studies of cold neutron sources have concentrated on the numerical prediction or experimental measurement of the cold moderator optimum thickness which produces the largest cold neutron leakage for a given thermal neutron source. Optimizing the geometrical shape of the cold source, however, is a more difficult problem because the optimized quantity, the cold neutron leakage, is an implicit function of the shape which is the unknown in such a study. We draw an analogy between this problem and a state space search, then we use a simple Artificial Intelligence (AI) search technique to determine the optimum cold source shape based on a two-group, r-z diffusion model. We implemented this AI design concept in the computer program AID which consists of two modules, a physical model module and a search module, which can be independently modified, improved, or made more sophisticated. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Azmy, Y.Y.

1988-01-01

77

Techniques for preparing flowchart-format emergency operating procedures: Background (Sections 1. 0-9. 0)  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume report describes the activities, findings, and recommendations of a project entitled ''Techniques for Presenting Flowchart-Format Emergency Operating Procedures.'' The project team surveyed the literature pertaining to flowcharts, reviewed existing flowchart emergency operating procedures (EOPs), interviewed consultants who produced flowcharts, and interviewed reactor operator licensing examiners about the use of flowcharts in nuclear power plants. This document, and Volume 1 of this report, discusses the use of flowchart-format EOPs in nuclear power plants and presents issue to be addressed in the design and implementation of flowchart EOPs. 66 refs., 76 figs., 2 tabs.

Barnes, V.E.; Moore, C.J.; Wieringa, D.R.; Isakson, C.S.; Kono, B.K.; Gruel, R.L.

1989-01-01

78

Asteroid Families: Search of a 12,487Asteroid Sample Using Two Different Clustering Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of over 12,487 asteroid proper element triplets, computed by A. Milani and Z. Kneževi? (1994, Icarus 107, 219-254), has been searched for statistically significant and robust families by both the hierarchical clustering (HCM) and the wavelet analysis (WAM) automated techniques. The current sample includes almost 8000 unnumbered objects with relatively well-determined orbits, which allow us to extend the

V. Zappalà; Ph. Bendjoya; A. Cellino; P. Farinella; C. Froeschle

1995-01-01

79

Sound localization by the barn owl ( Tyto alba ) measured with the search coil technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The dynamics and accuracy of sound localization by the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by exploiting the natural head-orienting response of the owl to novel sound stimuli. Head orientation and movement were measured using an adaptation of the search coil technique which provided continous high resolution azimuthal and elevational information during the behavior.2.The owls responded to sound sources with

Eric I. Knudsen; Gary G. Blasdel; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

80

Emergencies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Go to: -. Information for Consumers and Industry. Floods, Hurricanes & Power Outages; Radiation Safety; Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. -. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/emergencies

81

Evaluation of "no touch" extubation technique on airway-related complications during emergence from general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Awake “no touch” extubation requires performing extubations only when the patient spontaneously wakes up without any kind of stimulation during emergence from general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolutely awake extubation “no touch” technique in adult patients, scheduled for elective nasal and paranasal sinus surgeries under general anesthesia as regard to emergence airway complications. Methods: A total of 60 adult patients were randomly allocated into one of two equal groups according to the method of extubation: Group I: Standard fully awake, Group II: Absolutely “no touch” awake extubation (absolutely no stimulation no touch was allowed until patients were able to open their eyes). The incidence of laryngospasm and its grade according to a four-point scale was reported. Occurrence of airway events (excessive secretions, breath-holding, coughing, hoarseness, biting, as well as the number and severity of any desaturation episodes), oozing from the wound, and postoperative sore throat were also recorded. The heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measured at the end of surgery served as baseline values, and subsequent measurements were taken within 30 minutes after the end of surgery. Results: There was absolutely no case of laryngeal spasm or episode of desaturation among patients who were extubated with the “no touch” technique. On the other hand, there were 3 cases of laryngeal spasm in standard fully awake group. Severity of coughing, excessive secretions and breath holding, hoarseness, biting, and occurrence of non-purposeful movements of the limbs were significantly less in the absolutely “no touch” technique awake technique. The changes in HR, SBP, and DBP during emergence extubation were significantly less in “no touch” technique technique group. However, oozing from the wound was significantly higher with standard fully awake extubation. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the incidence of postoperative sore throat (39 and 36%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that awake “no touch” technique technique for tracheal extubation produces less airway-related complications, as well as minimal hemodynamic response during emergence from general anesthesia in nasal and paranasal surgeries. It could be a safe alternative for tracheal extubation in airway surgery.

Sheta, Saad A.; Abdelhalim, Ashraf A.; Nada, Eman

2011-01-01

82

A rapid technique to assess the resting states of the eyes and other threshold phenomena: The Modified Binary Search (MOBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique was developed to automate subjective measurement of the resting states of the eyes. This technique, the Modified\\u000a Binary Search (MOBS), evolved from the binary search and a commonly used manual bracketing technique. The procedure is mathematically\\u000a and logically simple, and it requires minimal storage and computation capabilities. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that\\u000a the MOBS procedure provides more precise

Richard A. Tyrrell; D. Alfred Owens

1988-01-01

83

A coherent acceleration search of the Parkes multibeam pulsar survey - techniques and the discovery and timing of 16 pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully coherent acceleration search algorithm has been applied to the Parkes multibeam pulsar survey of the Galactic plane to search for previously undiscovered relativistic binary pulsars. The search has resulted in the discovery of 16 pulsars including a binary millisecond pulsar and an intermittent pulsar. Despite a number of promising candidates there have been no new discoveries of relativistic binary pulsars. Here, we detail the acceleration search performed in our analysis and present coherent timing solutions for each of the pulsars discovered. In light of the lack of discoveries of relativistic binary pulsars, we also discuss the technique of acceleration searching and its effectiveness in finding these systems.

Eatough, R. P.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Keith, M. J.

2013-05-01

84

Search for Axionlike Particles Using a Variable-Baseline Photon-Regeneration Technique  

SciTech Connect

We report the first results of the GammeV experiment, a search for milli-eV mass particles with axionlike couplings to two photons. The search is performed using a ''light shining through a wall'' technique where incident photons oscillate into new weakly interacting particles that are able to pass through the wall and subsequently regenerate back into detectable photons. The oscillation baseline of the apparatus is variable, thus allowing probes of different values of particle mass. We find no excess of events above background and are able to constrain the two-photon couplings of possible new scalar (pseudoscalar) particles to be less than 3.1x10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1} (3.5x10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1}) in the limit of massless particles.

Chou, A. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Wester, W.; Baumbaugh, A.; Irizarry-Valle, Y.; Mazur, P. O.; Steffen, J. H.; Tomlin, R.; Yang, X.; Yoo, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Gustafson, H. R. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2008-02-29

85

Search for axion-like particles using a variable baseline photon regeneration technique  

SciTech Connect

We report the first results of the GammeV experiment, a search for milli-eV mass particles with axion-like couplings to two photons. The search is performed using a 'light shining through a wall' technique where incident photons oscillate into new weakly interacting particles that are able to pass through the wall and subsequently regenerate back into detectable photons. The oscillation baseline of the apparatus is variable, thus allowing probes of different values of particle mass. We find no excess of events above background and are able to constrain the two-photon couplings of possible new scalar (pseudoscalar) particles to be less than 3.1 x 10 {sup -7} GeV {sup -1} (3.5 x 10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1}) in the limit of massless particles.

Chou, A.S.; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York U.; Wester, William Carl, III; Baumbaugh, A.; /Fermilab; Gustafson, D.; /Michigan U.; Irizarry-Valle, Y.; Mazur, P.O.; Steffen, Jason H.; Tomlin, R.; Yang, X.; Yoo, J.; /Fermilab

2007-10-01

86

FastChi: A Fast Chi-squared Technique For Period Search of Irregularly Sampled Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fast Chi-Squared Algorithm is a fast, powerful technique for detecting periodicity. It was developed for analyzing variable stars, but is applicable to many of the other applications where the Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) or other periodograms (such as Lomb-Scargle) are currently used. The Fast Chi-squared technique takes a data set (e.g. the brightness of a star measured at many different times during a series of observations) and finds the periodic function that has the best frequency and shape (to an arbitrary number of harmonics) to fit the data. Among its advantages are: Statistical efficiency: all of the data are used, weighted by their individual error bars, giving a result with a significance calibrated in well-understood Chi-squared statistics. Sensitivity to harmonic content: many conventional techniques look only at the significance (or the amplitude) of the fundamental sinusoid and discard the power of the higher harmonics. Insensitivity to the sample timing: you won't find a period of 24 hours just because you take your observations at night. You do not need to window your data. The frequency search is gridded more tightly than the traditional "integer number of cycles over the span of observations", eliminating power loss from peaks that fall between the grid points. Computational speed: The complexity of the algorithm is O(NlogN), where N is the number of frequencies searched, due to its use of the FFT.

Palmer, David M.

2010-10-01

87

New international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components. The goals of PARENT are to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks and apply the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

2013-01-01

88

Searching efficient plans for emergency rescue through simulation: the case of a metro fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the way we modelled and simulated a metro system in the case of a tunnel fire, and discuss the ways this simulation may support the search for efficient rescue plans. The metro system was modelled as a complex adaptive system, comprising four interacting and co-evolving subsystems: (i) the fire and the released smoke, (ii) the

Nikos Zarboutis; Nicolas Marmaras

2004-01-01

89

Unburied Higgs boson: Jet substructure techniques for searching for Higgs' decay into gluons  

SciTech Connect

Many models of physics beyond the standard model yield exotic Higgs decays. Some of these, particularly those in which the Higgs decays to light quarks or gluons, can be very difficult to discover experimentally. Here we introduce a new set of jet substructure techniques designed to search for such a Higgs when its dominant decay is into gluons via light, uncolored resonances. We study this scenario in both V+h and tt+h production channels, and find both channels lead to discovery at the LHC with > or approx. 5{sigma} at L{approx}100 fb{sup -1}.

Falkowski, Adam; Krohn, David; Wang Liantao; Shelton, Jessie; Thalapillil, Arun [NHETC and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2011-10-01

90

Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light cystoscopy: photodynamic diagnosis, narrow-band imaging and optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search was performed for all articles on bladder cancer and photodynamic diagnosis, narrow-band imaging, and optical coherence tomography. Relevant papers on the working mechanism or clinical performance of the techniques were selected. Results: Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow-band imaging both aim to improve the visualization of bladder cancer. Both techniques have demonstrated an improved detection rate of bladder cancer. For photodynamic diagnosis, decreased residual tumor rates and increased recurrence free survival after photodynamic diagnosis-assisted transurethral resection have been shown. Both techniques have a relatively high false positive rate. Optical coherence tomography is a technique aiming at real-time noninvasive pathological diagnosis. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography can accurately discriminate bladder cancer from normal bladder mucosa, and even suggest that a reliable estimation of the stage of a bladder tumor can be made. Conclusions: Photodynamic diagnosis is the technique with most evidence of clinical effectiveness to date, but low specificity is limiting a widespread use. For the novelties, narrow-band imaging, and optical coherence tomography, more evidence is needed before these techniques can be implemented in daily urological practice.

Cauberg Evelyne, C.C.; de la Rosette, Jean J.M.C.H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

2011-01-01

91

Emergence of an optimal search strategy from a simple random walk.  

PubMed

In reports addressing animal foraging strategies, it has been stated that Lévy-like algorithms represent an optimal search strategy in an unknown environment, because of their super-diffusion properties and power-law-distributed step lengths. Here, starting with a simple random walk algorithm, which offers the agent a randomly determined direction at each time step with a fixed move length, we investigated how flexible exploration is achieved if an agent alters its randomly determined next step forward and the rule that controls its random movement based on its own directional moving experiences. We showed that our algorithm led to an effective food-searching performance compared with a simple random walk algorithm and exhibited super-diffusion properties, despite the uniform step lengths. Moreover, our algorithm exhibited a power-law distribution independent of uniform step lengths. PMID:23804445

Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2013-06-26

92

In Search of a Country Specific Development Model for a Emerging Economy - The Case of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire world is now focusing on the Emerging Economy of India. With 1\\/6 th of population of the world (over 100 million) India reached a GDP growth rate of 9% in 2007-08 and even after the economic downturn following the sub-prime crisis in USA, the growth rate continued to remain 6% in 2008-09 and is likely to be 6.5%

Subir Chowdhury

93

How Does Gas Discharge Visualization Technique Assess a Body? Emerging Models of Energy and Control in Biophysics and Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents emerging models of physiological control and energy economies in biophysics and biochemistry, to explore possible mechanisms by which gas discharge visualization technique can assess physiological states in conventional and complementary medical analysis, and to propose research questions focused on such possible mechanisms. A central concept in these emerging models is the storage of coherent energy as both

Berney Williams

2005-01-01

94

Current trends in obesity: body composition assessment, weight regulation, and emerging techniques in managing severe obesity  

PubMed Central

The global obesity epidemic is an ever-growing concern, with approximately a third of North Americans fitting the criteria for obesity. It is therefore important to assess obesity and be able to classify its severity. The Body Mass Index (BMI) classification is the most widely used tool for assessing obesity. However, due to inaccuracies in BMI in measuring body composition in the obese population, other tools like anthropometry, bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance (QMR), are being evaluated. The regulation of obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach, which combines diet, lifestyle, and pharmaceutical regimens. However in the morbidly obese population, bariatric surgery is the only proven treatment modality, with an average excess weight-loss of over 60%. The specific types of bariatric surgeries place different emphasis on restriction of oral intake of nutrients versus reducing the absorption of those nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. While these procedures do achieve clinically significant weight-loss and comorbid resolution, their lack of availability, cost and potential morbid complications have led to other procedures, specifically endoluminal techniques, emerging as possible candidates for the regulation of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we review the assessment of body composition in the obese population, the regulation of this obesity with bariatric surgery and emerging techniques in the field of bariatrics.

Switzer, Noah J; Mangat, Harshdeep S

2013-01-01

95

Designing a Broadband Visible Antireflection Coating by Flip-Flop Tuning Search Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design procedure of a broadband multiplayer antireflection coating is proposed. The design algorithm based on the flip-flop operation of the indices of layers is used first, and the tuning operation of the thickness of layers is applied afterward to improve the performance and to simplify the structure of the final solution. The final design, obtained by the flip-flop tuning search technique of a three-material 100-layer system starting with low indices for all ayers, is a nine-layer structure, and the average reflectivity over the visible spectral region is reduced to lower than 0.16%. It is shown that the structure designed by three-material flip-flop tuning is much simpler and its performance is better compared with the AR coating design obtained by the flip-flop synthesis method.

Liou, Yeuh-Yeong

2003-11-01

96

Personalisation of eSearch Services - Concepts, Techniques, and Market Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of information in today's society is still growing and information search has become an essential task in both the workplace and in private life. eSearch services provide access to the abundance of information available on the Internet by means of search engine technology. However, conventional search engines have certain limitations in dealing with the typical information overload problems.

Kai Riemer; Fabian Brüggemann

97

Techniques for preparing flowchart-format emergency operating procedures: User's manual (Sections 10. 0--17. 0)  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume report describes the activities, findings, and recommendations of a project entitled ''Techniques for Presenting Flowchart-Format Emergency Operating Procedures.'' The project team surveyed the literature pertaining to flowcharts, reviewed existing flowchart emergency operating procedures (EOPs), interviewed consultants who produced flowcharts, and interviewed reactor operator licensing examiners about the use of flowcharts in nuclear power plants. This document, Volume 2, presents techniques for preparing flowchart EOPs that were derived from the information discussed in Volume 1 and from NUREG-0899, Guidelines for the Preparation of Emergency Operating Procedures (USNRC, 1982). 38 figs.

Barnes, V.E.; Moore, C.J.; Wieringa, D.R.; Isakson, C.S.; Kono, B.K.; Gruel, R.L.

1989-01-01

98

In Search of "Anything That Would Help": Parent Perspectives on Emerging Neurotechnologies.  

PubMed

Objective: This qualitative study explores parents' perceptions about the future clinical translation of neurotechnologies-neuroimaging and genetic testing separately and together-for instrumentalization in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood ADHD. Method: We conducted in-person, semi-structured interviews with parents of minor children diagnosed with ADHD (N = 26) and analyzed 11.75 hr of data using constant comparative analysis. Results: Receptivity to technology and anticipation of potential benefits overshadowed discussion of risks or concerns. Four key areas of potential impact on parent experience are (a) insight and acceptance, (b) treatment and adherence, (c) stigma and blame, and (d) the endeavor to access resources. Conclusion: The findings highlight high receptivity to emerging neurotechnologies for ADHD, key areas for which parents anticipate support from these technologies, and ethics challenges to clinical translation in light of parents' salient hope and minimal consideration of risk in their pursuit of "anything that would help." (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22617864

Borgelt, Emily L; Buchman, Daniel Z; Weiss, Margaret; Illes, Judy

2012-05-22

99

Efficient Keyword Search over Virtual XML Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging applications such as personalized portals, enter- prise search and web integration systems often require key- word search over semi-structured views. However, tradi- tional information retrieval techniques are likely to be ex- pensive in this context because they rely on the assumption that the set of documents being searched is materialized. In this paper, we present a system architecture and

Feng Shao; Lin Guo; Chavdar Botev; Anand Bhaskar; Muthiah M. Muthiah Chettiar; Fan Yang; Jayavel Shanmugasundaram

2007-01-01

100

In search of the neurobiological basis of decision making: explanation, reduction and emergence.  

PubMed

In recent years, the study of decision making has provided a paradigmatic case of "crossbreeding" of different disciplines. The integration of economics, psychology and neurosciences within neuroeconomics calls for more accurate and comprehensive models of human rationality, which may be obtained by combining diverse theoretical approaches and experimental techniques. In this respect, neuroeconomics contributes to a naturalistic, brain-based, explanation of human agency. However, although contemporary naturalism insists on the unitary aspect of reality, we stress that supporting unitary study of nature is not the same as supporting a single, fundamental discipline to which all higher-order analyses could (or should) be reduced. We argue for integration, rather than reduction, as the best approach to a naturalistic explanation of human decision making, and we claim that supporting epistemological pluralism does not mean being committed to any specific ontological position. However, we suggest that an "emergentist" ontology is the best candidate to integrate the epistemological analysis here endorsed. PMID:18182126

Di Francesco, Michele; Motterlini, Matteo; Colombo, Maurizio

101

Indexing the Solution Space: A New Technique for Nearest Neighbor Search in High-Dimensional Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarity search in multimedia databases requires an efficient support of nearest-neighbor search on a large set of high- dimensional points as a basic operation for query processing. As recent theoretical results show, state of the art approaches to nearest-neighbor search are not efficient in higher dimensions. In our new approach, we therefore precompute the result of any nearest-neighbor search which

Stefan Berchtold; Daniel A. Keim; Hans-peter Kriegel; Thomas Seidl

2000-01-01

102

Finding Rural Development Resources on the World Wide Web: Tips and Techniques for Efficient Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents basic information on searching the World Wide Web and lists selected Web sites and links to resources that contain information on rural development. The guide describes and differentiates among search engines, Web directories, metacrawlers, and mutations. Searching tips include: using quotation marks around phrases; using plus…

Stierman, Jeanne Koekkoek

103

A prospective observational study of techniques to remove corneal foreign body in the emergency department.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Patients  with corneal foreign bodies (CFBs) often present to the emergency department (ED). However, removal techniques vary among emergency physicians (EPs). A prospective, single-blinded, observational study was performed to compare slit-lamp-aided (SLA) versus non-slit-lamp-aided (NSLA) CFB removal by EPs. METHODS: Five EPs enrolled consecutive patients with a CFB over 3 months. One blinded EP reviewed patients after 3 days. The study end points were: change in visual acuity; visual analogue pain scale (VAS) score at 12 and 24 h; satisfaction rating; symptoms at follow-up; and rate of complications. RESULTS: 54 patients were enrolled: 28 had SLA removal and 26 NSLA removal; 52 were male; 22 had undergone previous CFB removal; six were wearing eye protection at the time of injury. Forty-three patients were reviewed: 26 by attendance and 18 by telephone. There was no difference in any end points at review. However, patients in the SLA group had median VAS scores that were 1.5 cm lower after 24 h than patients in the NSLA group (p=0.43, 95% CI -2.0 to 1.0). One patient in the SLA group developed keratitis. CONCLUSIONS: We show that patient satisfaction ratings, complications and visual acuity were similar for the two methods. There was a trend for increased pain in the NSLA group at 12 and 24 h. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and the use of magnification to remove CFBs remains the gold standard of care, and more intensive training should be given to EPs at the departmental level, particularly in EDs that receive patients with eye injuries. PMID:23543227

Quirke, Michael; Mullarkey, Caitriona; Askoorum, Shakti; Coffey, Norma; Binchy, James

2013-03-29

104

The Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection: A Study of CAS Use in Secondary School Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the dialectical relation between theoretical thinking and technique, as they co-emerge in a combined computer algebra (CAS) and paper-and-pencil environment. The theoretical framework in this ongoing study consists of the instrumental approach to tool use and an adaptation of Chevallard's anthropological theory. The main aim…

Kieran, Carolyn; Drijvers, Paul

2006-01-01

105

A search for small solar-system bodies near the earth using a ground-based telescope - Technique and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large, previously undetected flux of small bodies near earth is identified by employing the standard technique of detection of an individual object in two consecutive frames. The observational periods and viewing coordinates for the search for small bodies are presented. A null test is performed in order to further demonstrate that the signatures in the images are not due

L. A. Frank; J. B. Sigwarth; C. M. Yeates

1990-01-01

106

Scapular manipulation technique for reduction of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations: experiences of an academic emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background: Shoulder dislocations account for almost 50% of all joint dislocations, which are most commonly anterior (90–98%) and occur due to trauma. This prospective study was conducted to report our experiences of using the scapular manipulation technique (SMT) to reduce traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. Methods: Between March 2002 and March 2003, SMT was applied to 41 patients who presented with traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation to the Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Emergency Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, which is a level 1 trauma centre with an annual attendance of 85 000 patients. The technique was applied to patients in the prone position by a single operator. Where necessary, a procedural sedation/analgesia (PSA) protocol was followed. Results: The study population consisted of 26 (63.4%) male patients aged between 17 and 76 years (SD 15.6). History of recurrent shoulder dislocations at the same site were taken from seven (17.1%) of the patients. Mean (SD) trauma to reduction time was approximately 61.5 (72) minutes (range 10–480). Five patients (12%) had a greater tuberosity fracture. SMT was attempted twice to only four (9.8%) patients by a standard PSA protocol. We experienced a success rate of 90.2% at the first attempt and 100% overall. None of the patients encountered any complication. Conclusions: We report the successful use of SMT in the prone position for the reduction of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations, mainly without requirement of any sedatives or opiate analgesics. We believe that SMT may also be applied by inexperienced physicians, as it is simple, applicable, and easily understood. As no single method has a 100% success rate, SMT is a useful one to know.

Baykal, B; Sener, S; Turkan, H

2005-01-01

107

Effectiveness of capture techniques for rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reliable and effective technique for capturing rails would improve researchers' ability to study these secretive marsh birds. The time effectiveness and capture success of four methods for capturing rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands in southern Louisiana and Texas were evaluated during winter and breeding seasons. Methods were hand and net capture from an airboat at night, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) at night, an ATV during daylight rice harvest and passive capture using drop-door traps with drift fencing. Five hundred and twenty rails were captured (and 21 recaptures): 192 King Rails (Rallus elegans), 74 Clapper Rails (R. longirostris), 110 Virginia Rails (R. limicola), 125 Sora (Porzana Carolina) and 40 Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Methods used at night were effective at capturing rails: capture from airboats yielded 2.13 rails per hour each airboat was operated and capture from ATVs yielded 1.80 rails per hour each ATV was operated. During daylight, captures from ATVs during rice harvest (0.25 rails per hour each ATV was operated) and passive drop-door traps with drift fencing (0.0054 rails per trap hour) were both inefficient.

Perkins, M.; King, S. L.; Linscombe, J.

2010-01-01

108

Internet Browsing and Searching: User Evaluations of Category Map and Concept Space Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study found that a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm for browsing can categorize a large and eclectic Internet-information space into manageable sub-spaces that users can navigate to find relevant home pages. An automatically generated concept-space algorithm for searching was shown to enhance keyword-based Internet searching.…

Chen, Hsinchun; Houston, Andrea L.; Sewell, Robin R.; Schatz, Bruce R.

1998-01-01

109

Improper inhaler technique is associated with poor asthma control and frequent emergency department visits  

PubMed Central

Background Uncontrolled asthma remains a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions. Improper asthma inhaler device use is most likely one of the major causes associated with uncontrolled asthma and frequent ED visits. Objectives To evaluate the inhaler technique among asthmatic patients seen in ED, and to investigate the characteristics of these patients and factors associated with improper use of inhaler devices and its relationship with asthma control and ED visits. Methods A cross-sectional study of all the patients who visited the ED with bronchial asthma attacks over a 9-month period was undertaken at two major academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Information was collected about demographic data and asthma management and we assessed the inhaler techniques for each patient using an inhaler technique checklist. Results A total of 450 asthma patients were included in the study. Of these, 176(39.1%) were males with a mean age of 42.3 ±16.7 years and the mean duration of asthma was 155.9 ± 127.1 weeks. The improper use of asthma inhaler devices was observed in 203(45%) of the patients and was associated with irregular clinic follow-ups (p = 0.0001), lack of asthma education (p = 0.0009), uncontrolled asthma ACT (score ? 15) (p = 0.001), three or more ED visits (p = 0.0497), and duration of asthma of less than 52 weeks (p = 0.005). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that a lack of education about asthma disease (OR =1.65; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) or a lack of regular follow-up (OR =1.73; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.76) was more likely to lead to the improper use of an asthma inhaler device. Conclusion Improper asthma inhaler device use is associated with poor asthma control and more frequent ED visits. We also identified many avoidable risk factors leading to the improper use of inhaler devices among asthma patients visiting the ED.

2013-01-01

110

Search and ye shall find: practical literature review techniques for health educators.  

PubMed

Through a perusal of current published literature, health educators can locate resources for theses, dissertations, or manuscripts for scholarly publication or plan/develop health promotion programs or disease prevention interventions. Reviewing the literature, however, may be viewed as a nebulous or intimidating process. This article presents six steps intended to assist health educators to efficiently search the literature. The processes of assessing information needs, planning the search, choosing where to search, getting full-text articles, assessing the articles, and applying the evidence are outlined. PMID:22496460

Smith, Matthew Lee; Shurtz, Suzanne

2012-04-11

111

A novel short-term generation scheduling technique of thermal units using ant colony search algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel co-operative agents approach, ant colony search algorithm (ACSA)-based scheme, for solving a short-term generation scheduling problem of thermal power systems. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of an alternative intelligent search method in power system optimisation, particularly in short-term generation scheduling problems. The ACSA is derived from the theoretical biology

I. K Yu; Y. H Song

2001-01-01

112

Searching for emission line and OB stars in Cl 1806-20 using a NIR narrow-band technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the environment of Cl 1806-20 using near-infrared narrow-band imaging to search for Brgamma features indicative of evolved massive stars. Using this technique, we successfully detect previously identified massive stars in the cluster. We detect no new emission line stars, establishing a firm upper limit on the number of Wolf Rayets and Luminous Blue Variables; however, we do find

Michelle L. Edwards; Reba M. Bandyopadhyay; Stephen S. Eikenberry; Valerie J. Mikles; Dae-Sik Moon

2011-01-01

113

Development of the Technique and Systems for the Emergency Monitoring and Prediction Calculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains papers on emergency research carried out under Subcommittee for the Monitoring and Prediction of Radionuclides Accidentally Released to the Atmosphere organized by JAERI from 1980 through 1985. According to subjects ten papers are cla...

1986-01-01

114

Predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST): enhancing block-based motion estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion Estimation (ME) is an important part of most video encoding systems, since it could significantly affect the output quality of an encoded sequence. Unfortunately this feature requires a significant part of the encoding time especially when using the straightforward Full Search (FS) algorithm. In this paper a new algorithm is presented named as the Predictive Motion Vector Field Adaptive

Alexis M. Tourapis; Oscar C. Au; Ming L. Liou

2001-01-01

115

3RIP Evaluation of the Performance of the Search System Using a Realtime Simulation Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a real-time simulation experiment to evaluate the performance of the search and editing system 3RIP, an interactive system written in the language BLISS on a DEC-10 computer. The test vehicle, preliminary test runs, and capacity test are detailed, and the following conclusions are reported: (1) 3RIP performs well up to the…

Lofstrom, Mats

116

Effective Heuristics for the GPS Survey Network of Malta: Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GPS network can be defined as a set of stations, co-ordinated by a series of sessions formed by placing receivers on the stations. This paper shows how to search for the best order in which to observe these sessions giving the cheapest schedule. The complexity of observing GPS networks increases with their size and become highly difficult to solve

Hussain Aziz Saleh; Peter Dare

2001-01-01

117

A Technique for Measuring the Relative Size and Overlap of Public Web Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines are among the most useful and popular services on the Web. Users are eager to know how they compare. Which one has the largest coverage? Have they indexed the same portion of the Web? How many pages are out there? Although these questions have been debated in the popular and technical press, no objective evaluation methodology has been

Krishna Bharat; Andrei Z. Broder

1998-01-01

118

Exploiting Text Content in Image Search by Semi-supervised Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the explosive growth of the Web, Web image search has become a more and more popular application which helps users digest the large amount of online visual information. Previous research mainly exploits visual information between images while rarely uses the text information surrounding the images on the Web pages. In this paper, we consider the relevance feedback as

Chen Shen; Bin Wang; Yahui Yang

2009-01-01

119

Fast likelihood computation techniques in nearest-neighbor based search for continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two effective algorithms that reduce the computational complexity of state likelihood computation in mixture-based Gaussian speech recognition systems. We consider a baseline recognition system that uses nearest-neighbor search and partial distance elimination (PDE) to compute state likelihoods. The first algorithm exploits the high dependence exhibited among subsequent feature vectors to predict the best scoring mixture for each

Bryan L. Pellom; Ruhi Sarikaya; John H. L. Hansen

2001-01-01

120

3RIP Evaluation of the Performance of the Search System Using a Realtime Simulation Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a real-time simulation experiment to evaluate the performance of the search and editing system 3RIP, an interactive system written in the language BLISS on a DEC-10 computer. The test vehicle, preliminary test runs, and capacity test...

M. Lofstrom

1979-01-01

121

A {gamma} dose distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve the {gamma} calculation time for 2D and 3D dose distributions. Methods: The {gamma} calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of dose distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable dose and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation dose distributions. The {gamma} value indicates the acceptability. In regions where {gamma}{<=}1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naieve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a maximum radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional dose distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O(log N) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the dose points, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the {gamma} evaluation in this work. Results: In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference point is O(log N), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation point is proportional to O(N{sup 1/k}), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted list O(N), the k-d tree algorithm for {gamma} evaluation is much more efficient.

Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin [ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States) and Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Dunmore, Pennsylvania 18509 (United States); ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States)

2010-09-15

122

Automated search and retrieval of information from imaged documents using optical correlation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litton PRC and Litton Data Systems Division are developing a system, the Imaged Document Optical Correlation and Conversion System (IDOCCS), to provide a total solution to the problem of managing and retrieving textual and graphic information from imaged document archives. At the heart of IDOCCS, optical correlation technology provides the search and retrieval of information from imaged documents. IDOCCS can be used to rapidly search for key words or phrases within the imaged document archives. In addition, IDOCCS can automatically compare an input document with the archived database to determine if it is a duplicate, thereby reducing the overall resources required to maintain and access the document database. Embedded graphics on imaged pages can also be exploited; e.g., imaged documents containing an agency's seal or logo can be singled out. In this paper, we present a description of IDOCCS as well as preliminary performance results and theoretical projections.

Stalcup, Bruce W.; Dennis, Phillip W.; Dydyk, Robert B.

1999-10-01

123

A combinatorial technique for the search of solid state gas sensor materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete high throughput assembly for the search for electrochemical sensor materials is described. It is a primary screening device, whose sole purpose is to locate most efficiently new materials with potential sensor properties. The set-up consists of a gas tight reactor for the sensor libraries, an IR-camera, a switching multimeter for dc-resistance measurements, a test gas supply array for

Jens Scheidtmann; Andreas Frantzen; Gerald Frenzer; Wilhelm F. Maier

2005-01-01

124

A High Through-put Combinatorial Growth Technique for Semiconductor Thin Film Search  

SciTech Connect

Conventional semiconductor material growth technique is costly and time-consuming. Here we developed a new method to growth semiconductor thin films using high through-put combinatorial technique. In this way, we have successfully fabricated tens of semiconductor libraries with high crystallinity and high product of {mu}{tau} for the purpose of radiation detection.

Ma, Z. X.; Hao, H. Y.; Xiao, P.; Oehlerking, L. J.; Liu, D. F.; Zhang, X. J.; Yu, K.-M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Mao, S. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yu, P. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-12-23

125

The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques\\u000a from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences\\u000a its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from\\u000a these

Valentin Robu; Han La Poutré; Sander M. Bohte

2009-01-01

126

Research on the key techniques of wireless communication for emergency information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As China's continuous improvement in the degree of information, the wireless communication network has covered all regions of the country, and information has also brought a great deal of information network security issues. In this paper, firstly, the information security emergency response procedures and disposal system are proposed according to the comprehensive analysis of weak links in information security defense

Zhigang Yang

2010-01-01

127

Experienced emergency medicine physicians cannot safely inflate or estimate endotracheal tube cuff pressure using standard techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTracheal necrosis, stenosis, and rupture may result from overinflated endotracheal tube cuffs (ETTcs). We sought to determine the ability of faculty emergency medicine (EM) physicians to safely inflate ETTc as well as to estimate pressure of previously inflated ETTc.

Robert J. Hoffman; Vivek Parwani; In-Hei Hahn

2006-01-01

128

Overviews of Emerging Research Techniques in Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics: Proceedings of the 1981 Meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics cover topics of emerging research in several areas of interest to the Committee. Topics covered include: hair cell function; transduction process of hair cells; speech synthesis; machine recognition of words; neuromagnetic analysis of sensory systems; tinnitus; tactile communication of speech; and biodynamic research at the Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.

Not Available

1982-01-01

129

Validating an analytical technique for calculating detection probability given time-dependent search parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search problem discussed in this paper is easily stated: given search parameters (??, ?) that are known functions of time, calculate how the probability of a single observer to acquire a target grows with time. This problem was solved analytically in a previous paper. To investigate the validity of the solution, videos generated using NVIG software show the view from a vehicle traveling at two different speeds along a flat, straight road. Small, medium and large sized equilateral triangles with the same gray level as the road but without texture were placed at random positions on a textured road and military observers were tasked to find the targets. Analysis of this video in perception experiments yields experimental probability of detection as a function of time. Static perception tests enabled ?? and ? to be measured as a function of range for the small, medium and large triangles. Since range is a known function of time, ?? and ? were known as functions of time. This enabled the calculation of modeled detection probabilities which were then compared with measured detection probabilities.

Friedman, Melvin H.; Choi, Hee-Sue; Cha, Jae; Reynolds, Joseph P.

2012-05-01

130

Stress myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency department--new techniques for speed and diagnostic accuracy.  

PubMed

Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

2012-05-01

131

Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in the Emergency Department - New Techniques for Speed and Diagnostic Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain.

Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

2012-01-01

132

Established and Emerging Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The number and type of atmospheric pressure techniques suitable for sampling analytes from surfaces, forming ions from those analytes, and subsequently transporting those ions into vacuum for interrogation by mass spectrometry has rapidly expanded over the last several years. Moreover, the literature in this area is complicated by an explosion in acronyms for these techniques, many of which provide no information relating to the chemical or physical processes involved. In this review, we sort this vast array of techniques into a relatively few categories on the basis of the approaches used for surface sampling and ionization. For each technique, we explain, as best known, many of the underlying principles of operation, describe representative applications, and in some cases, discuss needed research or advancements and attempt to forecast their future analytical utility.

Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Pasilis, Sofie P [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL

2008-01-01

133

Experimental search for the electron Electric Dipole Moment using solid state techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of an experimental search for the permanent Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the electron using a solid state system. The experiment uses a paramagnetic insulator (gadolinium gallium garnet) with a large magnetic response at low temperatures. The presence of the electron EDM leads to a finite magnetization when the garnet sample is subjected to a strong electric field. The resulting magnetization can be measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as a magnetometer. With considerable efforts made towards controlling various sources of systematic effects, the experiment is currently free of spurious signals larger than the SQUID noise. We report the value of electron EDM of (-5.57 ± 7.98 ± 0.12) × 10-25e-cm with 120 hours of data.

Kim, Y. J.; Liu, C.-Y.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Reddy, G.

2011-09-01

134

Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

135

Neuro-fuzzy reaping of shear wave velocity correlations derived by hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave velocity is a critical physical property of rock, which provides significant data for geomechanical and geophysical studies. This study proposes a multi-step strategy to construct a model estimating shear wave velocity from conventional well log data. During the first stage, three correlation structures, including power law, exponential, and trigonometric were designed to formulate conventional well log data into shear wave velocity. Then, a Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search tool was used to find the optimal coefficients of these correlations. Due to the different natures of these correlations, they might overestimate/underestimate in some regions relative to each other. Therefore, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm is employed to combine results of intelligently derived formulas. Neuro-fuzzy technique can compensate the effect of overestimation/underestimation to some extent, through the use of fuzzy rules. One set of data points was used for constructing the model and another set of unseen data points was employed to assess the reliability of the propounded model. Results have shown that the hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique is a robust tool for finding the most appropriate form of correlations, which are meant to estimate shear wave velocity. Furthermore, neuro-fuzzy combination of derived correlations was capable of improving the accuracy of the final prediction significantly.

Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

2013-06-01

136

Resampling technique to correct for the Doppler effect in a search for gravitational waves  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of any gravitational-wave signal received from a spinning neutron star will appear Doppler-shifted by the Earth's rotation and orbital motion. This frequency shift must be compensated to recover the signal energy as a spectral monochromatic peak with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Generally the correction depends on the source's position in the sky, spin, and spin-down rate. Here we propose a method of applying a single correction to the data which is valid for all the emission frequencies at a fixed position in the sky and for a given spin-down rate. We advance or retard the antenna proper time by removing (or repeating) single samples of the digitized output signal to keep the effective receiver and source clocks in accurate synchronization. The method, which requires just a few lines of code and little computational effort, appears to be very effective for ''semitargeted'' searches, where the source direction is known but the emission frequency is not.

Braccini, S.; Cella, G.; Ferrante, I.; Passuello, D.; Torre, O. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Universita di Siena (Italy)

2011-02-15

137

The Search for Astrophysical Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos Using Radio Detection Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino astronomy would allow for the highest energy observation of extragalactic sources and the observation of extremely distant sources in the universe. A flux of UHE neutrinos is expected from interactions of UHE cosmic-ray protons with the cosmic microwave background. The ANITA (ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna) experiment. a NASA Long Duration Balloon omission, searches for radio emission arising from the Askaryan charge excess that develops in electromagnetic particle cascades induced by UHE neutrinos with energy greater than 1018 eV interacting in Antarctic ice. The second flight of the ANITA experiment launched on December 21st, 2008, and collected data for 31 days. In Chapters 2 and 3, I describe the ANITA-II instrument and the calibration of the instrument in detail. Chapters 4 and 5 contain a discussion of a blind analysis of ANITA-II data in which I find 2 surviving neutrino candidate events on a background (anthropogenic and thermal noise) of 0.97+/-0.42 events. I set the strongest limit to dare for 1018 -- 1021 eV cosmic neutrinos, excluding several current cosmogenic neutrino models. In Chapters 6 and 7, I investigate possibilities for next-generation experiments for radio detection of UHE neutrinos. In Chapter 6. I discuss the results of radio attenuation length measurements of rock salt taken at two different salt mines. Chapter 7 is a description of a simulation for a next-generation, ground-based experiment in Antarctica.

Vieregg, Abigail Goodhue

138

Old and new cluster designs in emergency field surveys: in search of a one-fits-all solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Cluster surveys are frequently used to measure key nutrition and health indicators in humanitarian emergencies. The survey design of 30 clusters of 7 children (30 × 7) was initially proposed by the World Health Organization for measuring vaccination coverage, and later a design of 30 clusters of 30 children (30 × 30) was introduced to measure acute malnutrition in

Oleg O Bilukha

2008-01-01

139

Application of data mining techniques for automat settings in emergency control at Hydro-Qudbec  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach used by Hydro-Quebec to optimize the settings of automatic devices installed in its main power plants to maintain secure operation under extreme contingencies. An example of application of this approach is given to illustrate how to apply data mining techniques for the setting of the automatic generator tripping and load shedding system (RPTC: rejet

J. A. Huang; G. Vanier; A. Valette; S. Harrison; L. Wehenkel

2003-01-01

140

Novel techniques and findings in the study of plant microbiota: search for plant probiotics.  

PubMed

Plants live in intimate relationships with numerous microorganisms present inside or outside plant tissues. The plant exterior provides two distinct ecosystems, the rhizosphere (below ground) and the phyllosphere (above ground), both populated by microbial communities. Most studies on plant microbiota deal with pathogens or mutualists. This review focuses on plant commensal bacteria, which could represent a rich source of bacteria beneficial to plants, alternatively termed plant probiotics. Plant commensal bacteria have been addressed only recently with culture-independent studies. These use next-generation sequencing, DNA microarray technologies and proteomics to decipher microbial community composition and function. Diverse bacterial populations are described in both rhizosphere and phyllosphere of different plants. The microorganisms can emerge from neighboring environmental ecosystems at random; however their survival is regulated by the plant. Influences from the environment, such as pesticides, farming practice and atmosphere, also affect the composition of microbial communities. Apart from community composition studies, some functional studies have also been performed. These include identification of broad-substrate surface receptors and methanol utilization enzymes by the proteomic approach, as well as identification of bacterial species that are important mediators of disease-suppressive soil phenomenon. Experience from more advanced human microbial studies could provide useful information and is discussed in the context of methodology and common trends. Administration of microbial mixtures of whole communities, rather than individual species, is highlighted and should be considered in future agricultural applications. PMID:22794922

Berlec, Aleš

2012-05-26

141

Literature Searches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation outlines the importance of and best practices for literature searches on research projects. It includes suggestions for search techniques, rubrics for evaluating sources, and resources to help with the search process. This presentation was developed for a physics senior projects class.

Chottiner, Gary

2010-04-14

142

Techniques for improving efficiency in the emergency department for patients with acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

The past 15 years have witnessed significant strides in the management of acute stroke. The most significant advance, reperfusion therapy, has changed relatively little, but the integrated healthcare systems-stroke systems-established to effectively and safely administer stroke treatments have evolved greatly. Driving change is the understanding that "time is brain." Data are compelling that the likelihood of improvement is directly tied to time of reperfusion. Regional stroke systems of care ensure patients arrive at the most appropriate stroke-capable hospital in which intrahospital systems have been created to process the potential stroke patient as quickly as possible. The hospital-based systems are comprised of prehospital care providers, emergency department physicians and nurses, stroke team members, and critical ancillary services such as neuroimaging and laboratory. Given their complexity, these systems of care require maintenance. Through teamwork and ownership of the process, more patients will be saved from potential death and long-term disability. PMID:22994222

Jauch, Edward C; Holmstedt, Christine; Nolte, Justin

2012-09-01

143

An experimental search on the electron EDM based on solid-state techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discovery of a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) would provide crucial information about the nature of T-violation and imply new sources of CP-violation beyond the Standard Model. We are pursuing research that would improve the present experimental limit of the eEDM using a new technique in solid-state systems at 4K. The experiment uses a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet sample with a large magnetic response, which can be measured using the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device as the magnetometer. In this talk, I will discuss the progress to control the systematic effects, including the design and implementation of a 24-bit DAQ system with ultra-low level of channel crosstalk, and the control of the high voltage drift from the supply. With significant progress, finally we push the experimental limit of eEDM on the order of 10-25e cm under four days integration time of data, which is most sensitive results ever achieved using the solid state technique. In addition, the experiment is free of sources that could produce spurious signal at this level. Further enhancement of the eEDM sensitivity would require operating the experiment at sub-Kelvin temperatures.

Kim, Young Jin; Liu, Chen-Yu

2010-11-01

144

Evaluation of image-based modeling and laser scanning accuracy for emerging automated performance monitoring techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and rapid assessment of the as-built status on any construction site provides the opportunity to understand the current performance of a project easily and quickly. Rapid project assessment further identifies discrepancies between the as-built and as-planned progress, and facilitates decision making on the necessary remedial actions. Currently, manual visual observations and surveying are the most dominant data capturing techniques

Mani Golparvar-Fard; Jeffrey Bohn; Jochen Teizer; Silvio Savarese; Feniosky Peña-Mora

2011-01-01

145

Spontaneous Emergence, Imitation and Spread of Alternative Foraging Techniques among Groups of Vervet Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Animal social learning has become a subject of broad interest, but demonstrations of bodily imitation in animals remain rare. Based on Voelkl and Huber's study of imitation by marmosets, we tested four groups of semi-captive vervet monkeys presented with food in modified film canisters (“aethipops’). One individual was trained to take the tops off canisters in each group and demonstrated five openings to them. In three groups these models used their mouth to remove the lid, but in one of the groups the model also spontaneously pulled ropes on a canister to open it. In the last group the model preferred to remove the lid with her hands. Following these spontaneous differentiations of foraging techniques in the models, we observed the techniques used by the other group members to open the canisters. We found that mouth opening was the most common technique overall, but the rope and hands methods were used significantly more in groups they were demonstrated in than in groups where they were not. Our results show bodily matching that is conventionally described as imitation. We discuss the relevance of these findings to discoveries about mirror neurons, and implications of the identity of the model for social transmission.

van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew

2012-01-01

146

In Search of Red Dwarf Stars: Application of Three-Color Photometric Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The luminosity function of low luminosity red stars is important due to the high frequency of such stars and their substantial contribution to the mass of baryonic matter as determined by analysis of the numbers of such stars within a few parsecs of the Sun. Many such stars relatively close to the Sun have not been detected due to their low luminosity and to an inability to distinguish between red giant and dwarf stars. CCD photometry is being used to detect nearby red dwarf stars using the remotely-controlled telescope of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA). Three-color observations are obtained with short, medium and long duration exposures to accurately measure the colors of stars. Observations are made with red (R), infrared (I), and calcium hydride (CaH) filters. This pilot project is designed to establish the photometric properties of stars detected in this type of survey and to perfect observation and data reduction techniques.

Mason, Justin R.; Robertson, T. H.

2008-05-01

147

Searching for Extant Life on Mars - The ATP-Firefly LuciferinLuciferase Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the use of the ATP-Firefly Luciferin/Luciferase (FFL) enzymic photoluminescent reaction as a possible means of detecting extant life in the Martian environment. Experiments carried out by the authors illustrate the capacity of the method to successfully detect extant forms of life on Mars assuming ATP is an intrinsic part of the biochemistry of such life-forms. A photodiode based apparatus, built to test the assumptions and applicability of the ATP-Firefly Luciferase/Luciferin technique to an exobiologically inclined mission to Mars, revealed the adequate resolution and reproducibility of the methodology plus areas of improvement. Also detailed are extraction, delivery and analysis system concepts, proposed for future Mars missions.

Obousy, R. K.; Tziolas, A. C.; Kaltsas, K.; Sims, M. R.; Grant, W. D.

148

[Psychiatric emergencies].  

PubMed

The present work is divided into four parts, the first part is a brief "Discourse on Emergency" that attempts to clarify the elements that distinguish psychiatric from medical emergency. The second part reviews the "Clinical pictures in which psychiatric emergency is not common". Psychopathological emergencies are briefly reviewed and mention is made of psychiatric emergencies deriving from non-psychiatric pathologies. The third part gives "Advice on the right approach to adopt in response to calls". Some integrated approaches are suggested. The fourth part presents several models of "Short-term psychotherapy in psychiatric emergency". Two cases of emergency treatment using multiple approach techniques are reported. PMID:3763026

Merra, S

1986-09-15

149

Comparison of 2 laryngeal tracheal anesthesia techniques in reducing emergence phenomena.  

PubMed

Endotracheal intubation (ETT) can cause emergence phenomena (EP) including coughing, sore throat, and dysphonia. Two methods used to prevent EP are the administration of local anesthetics directly onto airway structures using a specialized laryngotracheal instillation of topical anesthesia (LITA) tube (Sheridan Catheter Corporation, Argyle, New York) or the placement of a local anesthetic into the ETT cuff. The purpose of this study was to determine which method was better at preventing ERl In this prospective, randomized, comparative analysis, a sample of 160 ASA class I through III patients were randomly assigned to receive their EP prophylaxes either by placement of alkalinized lidocaine directly into the ETT cuff at intubation or by injection into a specialized port on the LITA tube approximately 30 minutes before extubation. Variables measured included the incidence and severity of sore throat, coughing, and dysphonia for the first 24 hours following surgery. The incidence of cough and sore throat was higher in the LITA group, achieving significance in the postanesthesia care unit and after discharge to home. No difference in any of the other variables was noted between groups. Our study demonstrated greater efficacy in decreasing the incidence and severity of EP by placing an alkalinized solution of lidocaine into the ETT cuff on intubation. PMID:19090310

Crerar, Christopher; Weldon, Edwardo; Salazar, Jamie; Gann, Kelly; Kelly, Joseph A; Pellegrini, Joseph E

2008-12-01

150

Perioperative Intravascular Fluid Assessment and Monitoring: A Narrative Review of Established and Emerging Techniques  

PubMed Central

Accurate assessments of intravascular fluid status are an essential part of perioperative care and necessary in the management of the hemodynamically unstable patient. Goal-directed fluid management can facilitate resuscitation of the hypovolemic patient, reduce the risk of fluid overload, reduce the risk of the injudicious use of vasopressors and inotropes, and improve clinical outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the strengths and limitations of a spectrum of noninvasive and invasive techniques for assessing and monitoring intravascular volume status and fluid responsiveness in the perioperative and critically ill patient.

Singh, Sumit; Kuschner, Ware G.; Lighthall, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

151

X-ray microscopy: An emerging technique for semiconductor microstructure characterization  

SciTech Connect

The advent of third generation synchrotron radiation x-ray sources, such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley have enabled the practical realization of a wide range of new techniques in which mature chemical or structural probes such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction are used in conjunction with microfocused x-ray beams. In this paper the characteristics of some of these new microscopes are described, particularly in reference to their applicability to the characterization of semiconductor microstructures.

Padmore, H.A.

1998-05-01

152

Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly-? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

2013-09-01

153

Information retrieval techniques: The differences in cognitive strategies and search behaviors among graduate students in an academic library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive study questioned why some graduate students appear to have few problems with literature searching, while others find the task difficult and are dissatisfied with their search experiences and the results. By using presearch, search, and postsearch questionnaires, the researcher examined various literature search strategies and behaviors of a cross section of 112 adult learners in graduate school who were

Charlotte Ellen Simon

1995-01-01

154

Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson in the H->WW->l?l? channel using Multi-Variate Techniques at ATLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the channel H->WW->l?l? with proton-proton collisions at ?s=7 TeV is presented. This decay channel, which is highly sensitive to a Higgs around mH= 2mW, is crucial for exclusion and is also a promising discovery channel. The data for this search were recorded with the ATLAS detector during LHC operation in 2011, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb-1. We discuss the use of multi-variate techniques in this search.

Cerio, Benjamin

2012-03-01

155

Searching for Criteria in Evaluating the Monofin Swimming Turn from the Perspective of Coaching and Improving Technique  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study aims to analysise the selected kinematic parameters of the monofin swimming turn. The high complexity of performing turns is hindered by the large surface of the monofin, which disturbs control and sense of the body in water. A lack of objective data available on monofin swimming turns has resulted in field research connected with the specification of parameters needed for the evaluation of the technique. Therefore, turns observed in elite swimmers contain underlying conclusions for objective criteria, ensuring the highest level of coaching and the improving of turns in young swimmers. Six, high level, male swimmers participated in the study. The subject of the analysis was the fastest turn, from one out of three trial turns made after swimming a distance of 25 m. Images of the turns were collected from two cameras located under water in accordance with the procedures of the previous analyses of freestyle turns. The images were digitized and analysed by the SIMI®- Movement Analysis System. The interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded parameters, constituted the basis for analysis of the kinematic parameters of five turn phases. The interdependency was measured using r- Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The novel character of the subject covered in this study, forced interpretation of the results on the basis of turn analyses in freestyle swimming. The results allow for the creation of a diagram outlinig area of search for an effective and efficient monofin swimming turn mechanism. The activities performed from the moment of wall contact until the commencement of stroking seem to be crucial for turn improvement. A strong belief has resulted that, the correct monofin swimming turn, is more than just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its components. The most important criteria in evaluating the quality of the monofin swimming turn are: striving for the optimal extension of wall contact time, push-off time and glide time. Key Points Short time and large surface of the monofin additionally hinders complexity of the turn performance by disturbance in sensing and controlling body in water. Availability of no objective data on monofin swimming turns resulted in research in the field connected with specifying parameters needed for the technique evaluation. Correct turn technique may help to improve swimming race results. The diagram constructed on the basis of the interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded kinematic parameters should establish the areas of searching for mechanism of effective and efficient monofin swimming turn. The most crucial, from the coaching and improving point of view, seem to be activities which take place from the moment of feet wall contact till the first propulsive movements. Therefore, the high quality of the monofin swimming turn technique is not just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its component parts. The most important criteria of the quality in the monofin swimming turn technique are: striving for extending in the optimum scope of wall contact time, the time of the push-off phase and the glide time.

Rejman, Marek; Borowska, Grazyna

2008-01-01

156

To Infinity and Beyond! Cutting Edge Strategies for Searching the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this collaborative, hands-on workshop we will plumb the hive mind for the most savvy and useful strategies for finding information on the Web. Come prepared to share your favorite searching tips, tricks and techniques, both old and new. In addition to advanced searching of Google and alternate search engines, we will explore emerging trends such as using crowdsourcing, structured

Martha Hardy; Kristen Mastel

2011-01-01

157

Charm and beauty searches using electron -D{sup 0} azimuthal correlations and microvertexing techniques in STAR experiment at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The energy loss of heavy quarks in the hot and dense matter created at RHIC, can be used to probe the properties of the medium. Both charm and beauty quarks contribute to the non-photonic electrons through their semi-leptonic decays. It is essential to determine experimentally the relative contribution of charm and beauty quarks to understand the suppression of heavy flavors at high p{sub T} in central Au+Au collisions. The azimuthal angular correlations of non-photonic electrons with the reconstructed D{sup 0} allow to disentangle the contribution of charm and beauty and to reduce the background below the D{sup 0} invariant mass as well. We discuss the STAR measurement of non-photonic electron and D{sup 0{yields}}K{sup -{pi}+} azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at 200 GeV. Furthermore, we show results from the application of microvertexing techniques for charm and beauty searches in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV using the information of the Silicon tracker of STAR.

Geromitsos, Artemios [SUBATECH, Ecole de Mines, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, BP 20722, 44307, Nantes (France)

2010-12-22

158

Charm and beauty searches using electron -D0 azimuthal correlations and microvertexing techniques in STAR experiment at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy loss of heavy quarks in the hot and dense matter created at RHIC, can be used to probe the properties of the medium. Both charm and beauty quarks contribute to the non-photonic electrons through their semi-leptonic decays. It is essential to determine experimentally the relative contribution of charm and beauty quarks to understand the suppression of heavy flavors at high pT in central Au+Au collisions. The azimuthal angular correlations of non-photonic electrons with the reconstructed D0 allow to disentangle the contribution of charm and beauty and to reduce the background below the D0 invariant mass as well. We discuss the STAR measurement of non-photonic electron and D0-->K-?+ azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at 200 GeV. Furthermore, we show results from the application of microvertexing techniques for charm and beauty searches in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV using the information of the Silicon tracker of STAR.

Geromitsos, Artemios

2010-12-01

159

Charm and beauty searches using electron-D0 azimuthal correlations and microvertexing techniques in STAR experiment at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy loss of heavy quarks in the hot and dense matter created at RHIC, can be used to probe the properties of the medium. Both charm and beauty quarks contribute to the non-photonic electrons through their semi-leptonic decays. It is essential to determine experimentally the relative contribution of charm and beauty quarks to understand the suppression of heavy flavors at high PT in central Au+Au collisions. The azimuthal angular correlations of non-photonic electrons with the reconstructed D0 allow to disentangle the contribution of charm and beauty and to reduce the background below the D0 invariant mass as well. We discuss the STAR measurement of non-photonic electron and D0 ? K? azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at 200 GeV. Furthermore, we show results from the application of microvertexing techniques for charm and beauty searches in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV using the information of the Silicon tracker of STAR.

Borowski, Witold; STAR Collaboration

2011-01-01

160

Emergency colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different diagnostic techniques for massive active lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage are reviewed. According to data in the literature and personal experience in 409 emergency endoscopic examinations of the large bowel, emergency colonoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in cases of massive colorectal bleeding.

Francesco Paolo Rossini; Arnaldo Ferrari; Mauro Spandre; Mariella Cavallero; Carlo Gemme; Carlo Loverci; Alberto Bertone; Marco Pinna Pintor

1989-01-01

161

Search 3.0: Present, Personal, Precise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of Web search is already beginning to emerge. With it we will see several shifts in the way people search, and the way major search engines provide search functionality to consumers.

Spivack, Nova

162

Optimization of cellular manufacturing systems design using the hybrid approach based on the ant colony and tabu search techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular systems design problems (CSDP) constitute an important issue in the design of cellular manufacturing systems (CMS). A few years back, it emerged as the best alternative in manufacturing systems, representing a compromise between the efficiency of serial and the flexibility of batch production systems. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach for solving the CSDP for large industrial

B. H. Ateme-Nguema; T.-M. Dao

2007-01-01

163

Tracking the eye non-invasively: simultaneous comparison of the scleral search coil and optical tracking techniques in the macaque monkey  

PubMed Central

From human perception to primate neurophysiology, monitoring eye position is critical to the study of vision, attention, oculomotor control, and behavior. Two principal techniques for the precise measurement of eye position—the long-standing sclera-embedded search coil and more recent optical tracking techniques—are in use in various laboratories, but no published study compares the performance of the two methods simultaneously in the same primates. Here we compare two popular systems—a sclera-embedded search coil from C-N-C Engineering and the EyeLink 1000 optical system from SR Research—by recording simultaneously from the same eye in the macaque monkey while the animal performed a simple oculomotor task. We found broad agreement between the two systems, particularly in positional accuracy during fixation, measurement of saccade amplitude, detection of fixational saccades, and sensitivity to subtle changes in eye position from trial to trial. Nonetheless, certain discrepancies persist, particularly elevated saccade peak velocities, post-saccadic ringing, influence of luminance change on reported position, and greater sample-to-sample variation in the optical system. Our study shows that optical performance now rivals that of the search coil, rendering optical systems appropriate for many if not most applications. This finding is consequential, especially for animal subjects, because the optical systems do not require invasive surgery for implantation and repair of search coils around the eye. Our data also allow laboratories using the optical system in human subjects to assess the strengths and limitations of the technique for their own applications.

Kimmel, Daniel L.; Mammo, Dagem; Newsome, William T.

2012-01-01

164

Application of Lean Six Sigma techniques to optimize hospital laboratory Emergency Department Turnaround time across a multi-hospital system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2005, Indiana University, Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI) and Purdue- Calumet were invited to partner with the Alverno Clinical Labs in adapting Lean Six Sigma methodologies for use within healthcare. Our initial project focused on optimization of lab services for the emergency department at the Saint Margaret Mercy Hospitals in Hammond, IN. This project resulted in reduction of

Heather Hagg; Susan Scachitti; Lash Mapa; Lillie Brandford; Chris Vanni; Catherine Cox

2007-01-01

165

Bioinformatics: searching the Net.  

PubMed

During the past 30 years, there has been an explosion in the volume of published medical information. As this volume has increased, so has the need for efficient methods for searching the data. MEDLINE, the primary medical database, is currently limited to abstracts of the medical literature. MEDLINE searches use AND/OR/NOT logical searching for keywords that have been assigned to each article and for textwords included in article abstracts. Recently, the complete text of some scientific journals, including figures and tables, has become accessible electronically. Keyword and textword searches can provide an overwhelming number of results. Search engines that use phrase searching, or searches that limit the number of words between two finds, improve the precision of search engines. The development of the Internet as a vehicle for worldwide communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a common vehicle for communication have made instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information an exciting possibility. There is more than one way to search the WWW for information. At the present time, two broad strategies have emerged for cataloging the WWW: directories and search engines. These allow more efficient searching of the WWW. Directories catalog WWW information by creating categories and subcategories of information and then publishing pointers to information within the category listings. Directories are analogous to yellow pages of the phone book. Search engines make no attempt to categorize information. They automatically scour the WWW looking for words and then automatically create an index of those words. When a specific search engine is used, its index is searched for a particular word. Usually, search engines are nonspecific and produce voluminous results. Use of AND/OR/NOT and "near" and "adjacent" search refinements greatly improve the results of a search. Search engines that limit their scope to specific sites, and metasearch sites that use multiple search engines optimized for specific types of searches have recently emerged. The distinctions between search engines and directory searches have blurred. Eventually, conceptual searching in which the computer searches for related ideas, without having to be given all the related keywords, may become a reality. This will free the user from having to learn specific rules about searching, allowing energies to be focused on results of the search, not the search itself. PMID:9579419

Kastin, S; Wexler, J

1998-04-01

166

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

Lewis R. Brown; Charles Pittman Jr; F. Leo Lynch

2003-01-01

167

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

2003-02-10

168

Search for the existence of circulating currents in high-T superconductors using the polarized neutron scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review experimental attempts using polarized neutron scattering technique to reveal the existence in high temperature superconductors of a long-range ordered state characterized by the spontaneous appearance of current loops. We draw particular attention to our recent results (B. Fauqué et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 197001) that, up to now, can be explained only by the theory of circulating currents proposed by Varma.

Sidis, Y.; Fauqué, B.; Aji, V.; Bourges, P.

2007-07-01

169

Search for $\  

SciTech Connect

The MINOS experiment uses the NuMI {nu}{sub {mu}} beam to make precise measurements of neutrino flavor oscillations in the 'atmospheric' neutrino sector. MINOS can also probe the yet-unknown neutrino mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13} by searching for a {nu}{sub e} appearance signal in the {sub {mu}} beam. This paper reviews the techniques developed for the first {nu}{sub e} appearance analysis in MINOS.

Yang, Ting-Jun; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2011-01-01

170

The kinetic activation-relaxation technique: an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm has been proposed almost 40 years ago, its application in materials science has been mostly limited to lattice-based motion due to the difficulties associated with identifying new events and building usable catalogs when atoms moved into off-lattice position. Here, I present the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (kinetic ART) is an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search [1]. It combines ART nouveau [2], a very efficient unbiased open-ended activated method for finding transition states, with a topological classification [3] that allows a discrete cataloguing of local environments in complex systems, including disordered materials. In kinetic ART, local topologies are first identified for all atoms in a system. ART nouveau event searches are then launched for new topologies, building an extensive catalog of barriers and events. Next, all low energy events are fully reconstructed and relaxed, allowing to take complete account of elastic effects in the system's kinetics. Using standard kinetic Monte Carlo, the clock is brought forward and an event is then selected and applied before a new search for topologies is launched. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, I will discuss three recent applications to ion-bombarded silicon, defect diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.[4pt] This work was done in collaboration with Laurent Karim B'eland, Peter Brommer, Fedwa El-Mellouhi, Jean-Francois Joly and Laurent Lewis.[4pt] [1] F. El-Mellouhi, N. Mousseau and L.J. Lewis, Phys. Rev. B. 78, 153202 (2008); L.K. B'eland et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 046704 (2011).[2] G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4358 (1996); E. Machado-Charry et al., J. Chem Phys. 135, 034102, (2011).[3] B.D. McKay, Congressus Numerantium 30, 45 (1981).

Mousseau, Nomand

2012-02-01

171

Searching the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We oer an overview of current Web search engine design. After introducing a generic search engine architecture, we examine each engine component in turn. We cover crawling, local Web page storage, indexing, and the use of link analysis for boosting search performance. The most common design and implementation techniques for each of these components are presented. We draw for this

Arvind Arasu; Junghoo Cho; Hector Garcia-molina; Andreas Paepcke; Sriram Raghavan

2001-01-01

172

Emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Objective: To review current knowledge about emergency contraception (EC), including available options, their modes of action, efficacy, safety, and the effective provision of EC within a practice setting. Options: The combined estradiol-levonorgestrel (Yuzpe regimen) and the levonorgestrel-only regimen, as well as post-coital use of copper intrauterine devices, are reviewed. Outcomes: Efficacy in terms of reduction in risk of pregnancy, safety, and side effects of methods for EC and the effect of the means of access to EC on its appropriate use and the use of consistent contraception. Evidence: Studies published in English between January 1998 and March 2010 were retrieved though searches of Medline and the Cochrane Database, using appropriate key words (emergency contraception, post-coital contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, post-coital copper IUD). Clinical guidelines and position papers developed by health or family planning organizations were also reviewed. Values: The studies reviewed were classified according to criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, and the recommendations for practice were ranked according to this classification (Table 1). Benefits, Harms, and Costs: These guidelines are intended to help reduce unintended pregnancies by increasing awareness and appropriate use of EC. Sponsor: The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Summary Statements 1. Hormonal emergency contraception may be effective if used up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse. (II-2) 2. The earlier hormonal emergency contraception is used, the more effective it is. (II-2) 3. A copper IUD can be effective emergency contraception if used within 7 days after intercourse. (II-2) 4. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception regimens are more effective and cause fewer side effects than the Yuzpe regimen. (I) 5. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception single dose (1.5 mg) and the 2-dose levonorgestrel regimen (0.75 mg 12 hours apart) have similar efficacy with no difference in side effects. (I) 6. Of the hormonal emergency contraception regimens available in Canada, levonorgestrel-only is the drug of choice. (I) 7. A pregnancy that results from failure of emergency contraception need not be terminated (I) Recommendations 1. Emergency contraception should be used as soon as possible after unprotected sexual intercourse. (II-2A) 2. Emergency contraception should be offered to women if unprotected intercourse has occurred within the time it is known to be effective (5 days for hormonal methods and up to 7 days for a copper IUD). (II-2B) 3. Women should be evaluated for pregnancy if menses have not begun within 21 days following emergency contraception treatment. (III-A) 4. During physician visits for periodic health examinations or reproductive health concerns, any woman in the reproductive age group who has not been sterilized may be counselled about emergency contraception in advance with detailed information about how and when to use it. (III-C). PMID:22971457

Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith

2012-09-01

173

Cation exchange on the nanoscale: an emerging technique for new material synthesis, device fabrication, and chemical sensing.  

PubMed

Cation exchange is an age-old technique for the chemical conversion of liquids or extended solids by place-exchanging the cations in an ionic material with a different set of cations. The technique is undergoing a major revival with the advent of high-quality nanocrystals: researchers are now able to overcome the limitations in bulk systems and fully exploit cation exchange for materials synthesis and discovery via rapid, low-temperature transformations in the solid state. In this tutorial review, we discuss cation exchange as a promising materials synthesis and discovery tool. Exchange on the nanoscale exhibits some unique attributes: rapid kinetics at room temperature (orders of magnitude faster than in the bulk) and the tuning of reactivity via control of nanocrystal size, shape, and surface faceting. These features make cation exchange a convenient tool for accessing nanocrystal compositions and morphologies for which conventional synthesis may not be established. A simple exchange reaction allows extension of nanochemistry to a larger part of the periodic table, beyond the typical gamut of II-VI, IV-VI, and III-V materials. Cation exchange transformations in nanocrystals can be topotactic and size- and shape-conserving, allowing nanocrystals synthesized by conventional methods to be used as templates for production of compositionally novel, multicomponent, or doped nanocrystals. Since phases and compositions resulting from an exchange reaction can be kinetically controlled, rather than governed by the phase diagram, nanocrystals of metastable and hitherto inaccessible compositions are attainable. Outside of materials synthesis, applications for cation exchange exist in water purification, chemical staining, and sensing. Since nanoscale cation exchange occurs rapidly at room temperature, it can be integrated with sensitive environments such as those in biological systems. Cation exchange is already allowing access to a variety of new materials and processes. With better mechanistic understanding and control, researchers may be able to advance the field to a stage where a custom nanostructure of arbitrary complexity would be achievable by simple cation exchange chemistry and a basic understanding of the periodic table. PMID:22968228

Rivest, Jessy B; Jain, Prashant K

2012-09-11

174

Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

Leman, Steven W.

2012-09-01

175

Higgs Searches  

SciTech Connect

We present the status and prospects of Higgs searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Results from the Tevatron are using up to 5 fb{sup -} of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors. The major contributing processes include associated production (WH {yields} l{nu}bb, ZH {yields} {nu}{nu}bb, ZH {yields} llbb) and gluon fusion (gg {yields} H {yields} WW{sup (*)}). Improvements across the full mass range resulting from the larger data sets, improved analyses techniques and increased signal acceptance are discussed. Recent results exclude the SM Higgs boson in a mass range of 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV. Searches for the neutral MSSM Higgs boson in the region 90 < m{sub A} < 200 GeV exclude tan {beta} values down to 30 for several benchmark scenarios.

Peters, Krisztian

2009-11-01

176

Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

Fagan, Jody Condit

2011-01-01

177

Penalty Search.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes penalty search based on a modified neighborhood search where move and solution penalty functions attempt to keep the search process out of recently 'explored' regions. During the penalty search process trajectories which may cause a c...

J. M. Nurmilaakso

1996-01-01

178

Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson associated with a W Boson using Matrix Element Technique in the CDF detector at the Tevatron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis a direct search for the Standard Model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson at the CDF detector in the Tevatron is presented. This search contributes predominantly in the region of low mass Higgs region, when the mass of Higgs boson is less than about 135 GeV. The search is performed in a final state

Barbara Alvarez Gonzalez

2010-01-01

179

The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from these queries, especially the market share distribution of different advertisers. We show that the sponsored search market is highly concentrated, with less than 5% of all advertisers receiving over 2/3 of the clicks in the market. Furthermore, we show that both the number of ad impressions and the number of clicks follow power law distributions of approximately the same coefficient. However, we find this result does not hold when studying the same distribution of clicks per rank position, which shows considerable variance, most likely due to the way advertisers divide their budget on different keywords. Finally, we turn our attention to how such sponsored search data could be used to provide decision support tools for bidding for combinations of keywords. We provide a method to visualize keywords of interest in graphical form, as well as a method to partition these graphs to obtain desirable subsets of search terms.

Robu, Valentin; La Poutré, Han; Bohte, Sander

180

Phonetic Searching Of Digital Audio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper. The 10-page pdf document has images and graphs to illustrate the process and results. Topics covered include audio searching techniques, implementation of new search methods, as well as current and future applications of the technology.

Clements, Mark; Cardillo, Peter S.; Miller, Michael

2007-12-10

181

Application of hyperspectral techniques to multispectral data: spectral mixture analysis (SMA) in mapping of emergent macrophytes in a water-hyacinth-infested area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte that has infested the lake Victoria, East Africa, since the late 1980s. It has been associated with major negative economic and ecological impact of this important water resource in East Africa. Remote sensing technology has significant potential in mapping this fast growing floating weed, in a mostly inaccessible area for field measurements. Our study site is the Winam Gulf, on the Kenyan part of the Lake, which has had the highest reported infestation in recent years. The paper describes a study to evaluate the ability of ETM+ multispectral imagery in mapping water hyacinth and associated macrophytes in the hyacinth infested Winam Gulf. By applying hyperspectral techniques on multispectral data, a spectral mixture analysis was undertaken using image-derived endmembers. The study was also an evaluation of an alternative way of acquiring emergent macrophytic endmembers in cases where limitations like lack of hyperspectral data, spectrometric measurements and spectral libraries exist. The results demonstrate that whereas it is possible to discriminate and map the different spectral constituents, a spectral library of the endmembers under investigation would be required for positive identification, especially for macrophytes that are closely related spectrally, fast growing, have varying concentrations (density) spatially, and are non-static in nature.

Idawo, Cuthbert; Jajah, Munzer; Laneve, Giovanni

2004-02-01

182

Search Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... do not need to use AND because the search engine automatically finds resources containing all of your search ... Use as a wildcard when you want the search engine to fill in the blank for you; you ...

183

Searching with probabilities  

SciTech Connect

This book examines how probability distributions can be used as a knowledge representation technique. It presents a mechanism that can be used to guide a selective search algorithm to solve a variety of tactical chess problems. Topics covered include probabilities and searching the B algorithm and chess probabilities - in practice, examples, results, and future work.

Palay, A.J.

1985-01-01

184

Web Searching, Sleuthing and Sifting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These site offers tips and guidance to help users make effective and fast Internet searches. Web Searching, Sleuthing and Sifting, part of a course taught by Professor and Librarian Angela Elkordy of the Sage Colleges, Albany and Troy, NY, is designed as an introduction to Web searching methods and techniques, aimed specifically at newer users. The site offers an overview of the Internet, an introduction to searchable Web resources, and discussions on resource evaluation and power searching techniques.

185

Effective Search Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses problem preparation and specification along with search strategies and techniques employed by an information scientist in assisting users of on-line data bases, and briefly reviews ways to save computer time. (CWM)|

Hlava, Marjorie M. K.; Knox, Douglas R.

1979-01-01

186

Engineering and Development Support of General Decon Technology for the DARCOM Installation Restoration Program. Task 4. General Technology Literature Searches (II) Solidification Techniques for Lagoon Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate processes for solidification of lagoon water and sediments. The solidification methods evaluated in this study included: Cement-based techniques; Lime-based techniques; and Organic polymer techniques. Most methods...

J. F. Kitchens R. Iadevaia

1980-01-01

187

The emergence of emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using chemical intuition often allows one to predict what might transpire on throwing a batch of chemicals into a beaker, but sometimes the unexpected can occur. Bruce C. Gibb discusses how you define an 'emergent phenomenon', recognizing that it's not a simple exercise and can actually be different for each of us.

Gibb, Bruce C.

2011-01-01

188

Enhancing canine disaster search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes canine augmentation technology (CAT) for use in urban search and rescue (USAR). CAT is a WiFi enabled sensor array that is worn by a trained canines deployed in urban disasters. The system includes, but is not limited to, cameras that provide emergency responders with real-time data to remotely monitor, analyze and take action during USAR operations. An

James Tran; Alexander Ferworn; Cristina Ribeiro; Mieso Denko

2008-01-01

189

Engineering emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore various definitions and characteristics of emergence, how we might recognise and measure emergence, and how we might engineer emergent systems. We discuss the TUNA (Theory Underpinning Nanotech Assemblers) project, which is investigating emergent engineering in the context of molecular nanotechnology, and use the TUNA case study to explore an architecture suitable for emergent complex systems

Susan Stepney; Fiona A. C. Polack; Heather R. Turner

2006-01-01

190

Diabetic Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... should go here Social Media ACEP in Social Media Campaigns Campaigns Read Patient Stories Health News About Emergencies Childhood / Student Emergencies Diseases & Infections Disaster Preparedness Elderly Safety ...

191

Office emergencies and emergency kits.  

PubMed

Preparedness to recognize and appropriately manage medical emergencies in the dental environment includes the following: current BLS certification for all office staff; didactic and clinical courses in emergency medicine; periodic office emergency drills; telephone numbers of EMS or other appropriately trained health care providers; emergency drug kit and equipment, and the knowledge to properly use all items. This update on office emergencies and emergency kits replaces the previous Association report, prepared in 1980 by the Council on Dental Therapeutics. PMID:11934192

2002-03-01

192

Online Bibliographic Search Strategy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the building block, successive fractions, citation pearl growing, and interactive scanning approaches to search strategy formulation and discusses practical techniques for online bibliographic searches such as being flexible, searching the most specific aspect first, using thesauri, conceptualizing, using full text operators, and…

Hawkins, Donald T.; Wagers, Robert

1982-01-01

193

Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base  

SciTech Connect

Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

1998-08-01

194

Emergency nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building upon a historical context, the current and future roles of the clinical emergency nurse are reviewed. For several reasons, emergency nurse availability is expected to be insufficient to meet staffing demands in the near future. Emergency physicians can partner with emergency nurses and hospital administrators to pursue the following strategies for addressing the nursing shortage: (1) improve the workplace

John A Schriver; Robin Talmadge; Roberta Chuong; Jerris R Hedges

2003-01-01

195

Confidential Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

Kenney, Linda Chion

2003-01-01

196

Tabu Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the meta-heuristic approach called tabu search, which is dramatically changing our ability to solve a host of problems in applied science, business and engineering. Tabu search has important links to evolutionary and \\

Fred Glover; Manuel Laguna

2003-01-01

197

Texas Emergency Resource Management. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is Volume I of Texas Emergency Resource Management (TERM), a study which analyzes the methods, procedures and techniques for constructing a state plan for the emergency management of resources in a nuclear attack emergency or crisis relocati...

A. C. Eledge R. L. Orton S. O. Merz

1979-01-01

198

Suspicionless Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)|

Zirkel, Perry A.

2000-01-01

199

Dewey Searches!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)|

School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

2000-01-01

200

Suspicionless Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.

2000-01-01

201

Analytical Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

Pappas, Marjorie L.

1995-01-01

202

NASA's Search-and-Rescue Technology  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation depicts the next-generation search and rescue system, the DASS. Under this system, instruments used to relay emergency beacon signals will be installed on GPS satellites. When one emergency signal goes off at least four satellites will be in view. Search and Rescue authorities can begin processing the signal to determine its precise location almost instantly. (No audio)

Robert Garner

2010-10-25

203

Parallel Depth First Search on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iterative deepening A* (IDA*) technique is well-known for its superior performance among various search techniques in the depth-first search family. In the report, the authors parallelize the IDA* search on distributed memory multiprocessors. Performing s...

R. K. Joshi P. S. Kumar A. Basu

1992-01-01

204

Focusing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the paraxial geometric optics model of image formation to derive a set of camera focusing techniques. These techniques do not require calibration of cameras but involve a search of the camera parameter space. The techniques are proved to be theoretically sound under weak assumptions. They include energy maximization of unfiltered, low-pass-filtered, high-pass-filtered, and bandpass-filtered images. It is shown

Murali Subbarao; Tae S. Choi; Arman Nikzad

1993-01-01

205

Improving Search Engine Reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Search engines on the Internet are used daily to access and find information. While these services are providing an easy way to find information globally, they are also suffering from artificially created false results. This paper describes two techniques that are being used to manipulate the search engines: spam pages (used to achieve higher rankings on the result page) and cloaking (used to feed falsified data into search engines). This paper also describes two proposed methods to fight this kind of misuse, algorithms for both of the formerly mentioned cases of spamdexing.

Pruthi, Jyoti; Kumar, Ela

2010-11-01

206

Chemical Emergency  

MedlinePLUS

... Prepare Your Workplace Types of Emergency Chemical Emergency Drought Preparedness Earthquake Home Fire Flood Flu Food Safety ... you have been advised by medical professionals. Next Drought Preparedness & Water Conservation Be Red Cross Ready Are ...

207

New fluorescence technique to search for neutrino masses by identification of double beta decay barium-136 ion daughters in liquid xenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the initial research on the development of a new fluorescence technique for laser tagging of single 136Ba+ daughters from 0nubetabeta decay of 136Xe. 0nubetabeta decay is the only probe which is able to reach the absolute neutrino mass scale with meV sensitivity. The next generation 0nubetabeta experiments with meV sensitivity require new techniques for background rejection in

Shie-Chang Jeng

2004-01-01

208

Raging Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another search engine!! Another search engine? Yes, yet another Web search engine has come online, but this one isn't just business as usual. For one thing, there are no graphics, no banner ads, and no fancy portal features, so Raging Search loads very quickly. Another thing that makes it stand out is the ability to customize various parameters like the number of results displayed per page or the amount of detail returned for each result, and have those preferences "stick," so users need not reset them every time they enter the site. Also through this customization interface, users can select the languages of resources they want to search for (including support for various non-English character sets) and opt to include a "translated version" link along with each search result. And last, but certainly not least, all of the above runs atop an AltaVista search engine, consistently rated one of the best search tools on the Web, enhanced with Google-style link analysis technology to help identify the most useful sites. Overall, if you're serious about tracking something down on the Web, then Raging Search is definitely worth a look.

209

Emergent behaviors of classifier systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

1989-01-01

210

Decision pathways in patent searching and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigates the applicability of the techniques of decision analysis to patent searching, to achieve better searches and better understood outputs. Amongst topics explored are decision hierarchy (strategic, tactical, operational), decision models (deterministic, probabilistic), influence diagrams and decision trees, suitable software, and patent search decision points (illustrated by an example search). The author concludes that decision analysis can improve

Julia Deboys

2004-01-01

211

Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a $W$ Boson Using a Matrix Element Technique at CDF in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb{sup -1}. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} WH) x {Beta}(H {yields} b{bar b}). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between m{sub H} = 100 GeV/c{sup 2} and m{sub H} = 150 GeV/c{sup 2}. The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.

Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

2011-12-01

212

Search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using a matrix element technique at CDF in pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6fb-1. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on ?(pp¯?WH)×B(H?bb¯). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between mH=100GeV/c2 and mH=150GeV/c2. The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.

Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.

2012-04-01

213

Searching the medical literature.  

PubMed

Medical literature searches have become more complex because of the increasing amount of published material and the multiple available databases indexing those publications. Although newly graduated physicians may have received some training in literature searching as part of a medical school curriculum, most clinicians have received no formal training in this skill. In today's world of evidence-based medicine, access to published data is crucial, and the importance of a systematic approach to searching cannot be overemphasized. A brief review of searching techniques can greatly increase productivity while using the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Science Citation Index, and other databases. Similarly, knowing the options available for remote access to databases and electronic delivery of articles can expedite the task of accessing publications. PMID:15123924

Smith, Cheri G; Herzka, Andrea S; Wenz, James F

2004-04-01

214

Harmony Search Algorithms in Structural Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Harmony search method is widely applied in structural design optimization since its emergence. These applications have shown\\u000a that harmony search algorithm is robust, effective and reliable optimization method. Within recent years several enhancements\\u000a are suggested to improve the performance of the algorithm. Among these Mahdavi has presented two versions of harmony search\\u000a methods. He named these as improved harmony search

M. P. Saka; I. Aydogdu; O. Hasancebi; Z. W. Geem

215

Encountering Search Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As search committees become more sophisticated in their techniques, academic administrator candidates must become equally adept at working with the committees to get the information they seek and create favorable impressions of themselves. Even when unsuccessful, the experience can lead to self-knowledge and professional growth. (Author/MSE)|

Lawrence, Jane Fiori; Marchese, Theodore J.

1990-01-01

216

Pediatric emergency medical services and their drawbacks  

PubMed Central

Aim: To survey the literature on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services (PEMS) with an aim to focus its drawbacks and emphasize the means of improvement. Materials and Methods: Published articles selected for inclusion were based on the significance and understanding of literature search on different aspects of PEMS. To meet this criterion, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Uptodate, Med Line, comprehensive databases, Cochrane library and the Internet (Google, Yahoo) were thoroughly searched. Results: PEMS provide out-of-hospital medical care and/or transport the patients to definitive care. The task force represents specialties of ambulance transport, first aid, emergency medical care, life saving, trauma, emergency medicine, water rescue, and extrication. Preliminary care is undertaken to save the patients from different medical exigencies. The techniques and procedures of basic and advanced life-support are employed. A large number of weaknesses are recorded in PEMS system, such as ambulance transport irregularities, deficit equipment, lack of expertise, and ignorance of the pre-hospital care providers. These are discussed with special reference to a few examples of medical exigencies. Conclusions: The appointments in PEMS should be regularized with specific qualifications, experience, and expertise in different areas. Responsibility of PEMS should not be left to pre-hospital care providers, who are non clinicians and lack proper education and training. Pediatricians should be adequately trained to play an active role in PEMS. Meetings should be convened to discuss the lapses and means of improvement. Networks of co-operation between pre-hospital providers and experts in the emergency department should be established.

Al-Anazi, Abdullah Foraih

2012-01-01

217

New fluorescence technique to search for neutrino masses by identification of double beta decay barium-136 ion daughters in liquid xenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the initial research on the development of a new fluorescence technique for laser tagging of single 136Ba+ daughters from 0nubetabeta decay of 136Xe. 0nubetabeta decay is the only probe which is able to reach the absolute neutrino mass scale with meV sensitivity. The next generation 0nubetabeta experiments with meV sensitivity require new techniques for background rejection in order to gain the full benefit of large fiducial mass and long running time. By detecting the decay daughter Ba+ in liquid xenon at the observed position of the decay, we expect to suppress essentially all of the radioactive backgrounds. As a first step in realization this technique, the measurement of the mobility of Ba+ in liquid xenon is finished and the study of the optical spectra of Ba+ in liquid xenon is in progress. In this work, measurements of the mobility of alkaline earth ions, Mg +, Ca+, Sr+, and Ba+, in liquid xenon are presented for the first time. Akins's cluster model of positive ions in non-polar liquids, based on the electrostriction effect, gives general agreement with the magnitude of the mobility values. This might indicate that the positive ions form a snowball structure in liquid xenon. The excitation and fluorescence spectra of Ba+ in liquid xenon are also observed for the first time. The evidence that Ba+ does fluoresce in liquid xenon is a positive sign for achievement of the long-term goal. The spectra show much narrower absorption width and smaller emission shift compared to alkali atoms in solid noble gas matrix. Agreement is better with the spectra of Ca+ in solid argon. More detailed and careful experimental data will be required for a full understanding of the spectra properties of Ba+ in liquid xenon.

Jeng, Shie-Chang

218

Emergency SMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivering first aid before transferring patients to hospital is among keys to survival. Moreover, calling the emergency center as soon as possible and providing brief information about the patient are helpful for the emergency center to dispatch specialized medical team and equipments proportionate to the conditions of the patient. Mobile phone is a device which many people use and always

M. Shirali-Shahreza

2006-01-01

219

Humanitarian Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries or regions affected by humanitarian emergencies remain challenging situations for the provision of health and nutrition services in developing countries. Major advances in recent decades have been made regarding our knowledge of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, the availability of standardized guidance protocols and indicators, and the development of new products, especially for severely

Reinhard Kaiser; Paul B. Spiegel

220

Nuclear emergencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The ...

1991-01-01

221

Psychiatric Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry. The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.) In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine.

Bayrakal, Sadi

1972-01-01

222

Search engine for handwritten documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Search aspects of a system for analyzing handwritten documents are described. Documents are indexed using global image features, e.g., stroke width, slant as well as local features that describe the shapes of words and characters. Image indexing is done automatically using page analysis, page segmentation, line separation, word segmentation and recognition of words and characters. Two types of search are permitted: search based on global features of entire document and search using features at local level. For the second type of search, i.e., local, all the words in the document are characterized and indexed by various features and it forms the basis of different search techniques. The paper focuses on local search and describes four tasks: word/phrase spotting, text to image, image to text and plain text. Performance in terms of precision/recall and word ranking is reported on a database of handwriting samples from about 1,000 individuals.

Srihari, Sargur N.; Huang, Chen; Srinivasan, Harish

2004-12-01

223

Applying skeletal, histological and molecular techniques to syphilitic skeletal remains from the past  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many have been searching for and contemplating the origins of syphilis. By understanding its emergence as a human pathogen we will be better able to elucidate its evolution through time and space as well as shed light on its current state. Ancient DNA techniques used to isolate Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum DNA from archaeological human specimens provides direct evidence of

Tanya von Hunnius

2004-01-01

224

Applying Skeletal, Histological and Molecular Techniques to Syphilitic Skeletal Remains from the Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many have been searching for and contemplating the origins of syphilis. By understanding its emergence as a human pathogen we will be better able to elucidate its evolution through time and space as well as shed light on its current state. Ancient DNA techniques used to isolate Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum DNA from archaeological human specimens provides direct evidence of

Tanya von Hunnius

2004-01-01

225

Local Search for Grid Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces local search based algorithms as a new technique for the Grid scheduling problem. Specific algorithms based on dispatching rules and lo- cal search were proposed and implemented to gener- ate schedule for dynamically arriving jobs. Algorithm performance was compared with typical queue-based algorithms on the basis of objective function optimi- sation and time required to generate scheduling

Ranieri Baraglia; Gabriele Capannini

226

Distributed Breadth-First Search with 2-D Partitioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many emerging large-scale data science applications require searching large graphs distributed across multiple memories and processors. This paper presents a scalable implementation of distributed breadth-first search (BFS) which has been applied to graph...

E. Chow K. Henderson A. Yoo

2005-01-01

227

Functional Search-based Testing from State Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of metaheuristic search techniques in test data generation has been extensively investigated in recent years. Most studies, however, have concentrated on the application of such techniques in structural testing. The use of search-based techniques in functional testing is less frequent, the main cause being the implicit nature of the specification. This paper investigates the use of search-based techniques

Raluca Lefticaru; Florentin Ipate

2008-01-01

228

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Skip Content Marketing Share this: Research at NIAID ... emerging infectious diseases. Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Anthrax Antimicrobial ... Fever Ehrlichiosis ...

229

Search Standard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sherlock, first described in the October 16, 1998 Scout Report, is the new search tool provided by Mac OS 8.5 which allows users to perform searches of Websites without opening a browser. One of the great advantages of Sherlock is its ability to create a plug-in for any Web-based search engine. Since the release, the collection of Sherlock plug-ins has grown to number over 250. A few sites have taken up the task of collecting and organizing these plug-ins. While the Apple-Donuts site is a bit more polished than the others, all three of these sites provide fairly complete listings of the available plug-ins.

1999-01-01

230

LUNASKA experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos and develop technology for the lunar Cherenkov technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design, performance, sensitivity and results of our recent experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) for lunar Cherenkov observations with a very wide (600 MHz) bandwidth and nanosecond timing, including a limit on an isotropic neutrino flux. We also make a first estimate of the effects of small-scale surface roughness on the effective experimental aperture, finding that contrary to expectations, such roughness will act to increase the detectability of near-surface events over the neutrino energy-range at which our experiment is most sensitive (though distortions to the time-domain pulse profile may make identification more difficult). The aim of our 'Lunar UHE Neutrino Astrophysics using the Square Kilometre Array' (LUNASKA) project is to develop the lunar Cherenkov technique of using terrestrial radio telescope arrays for ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) and neutrino detection, and, in particular, to prepare for using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its path-finders such as the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for lunar Cherenkov experiments.

James, C. W.; Protheroe, R. J. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Ekers, R. D.; Phillips, C. J.; Roberts, P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping (Australia); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Department Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bray, J. D. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping (Australia); McFadden, R. A. [School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping (Australia)

2010-02-15

231

Studies on Magnetometry and Samples used for an Experimental Search on the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron using Solid-State Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discovery of a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) at the current sensitivity level will imply new sources of CP violation beyond the standard model of particle physics. We are attempting to improve the experimental limit of the eEDM using a new technique employing solid-state systems at low temperatures. The experiment requires a system with a large magnetic response and the application of sensitive SQUID magnetometry. In this talk, I will present results in characterizing the magnetic properties of our solid-state sample, polycrystalline Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG), and discuss preliminary results of systematic studies on our SQUID detectors. In our current setup, SQUID sensors record a non-zero change in magnetic flux with no GGG samples. This non-zero signals indicate sources of systematic effects which mimic EDM signals. We identified that several sources are responsible for producing systematic errors: the eddy current and the transient current. The dominant effect due to the eddy current can be reduced by using electrode material with a high resistivity, such as graphite..

Kim, Young Jin; Huffer, Craig; Karcz, Maciej; Liu, Chen-Yu; Reddy, Goverdhan

2008-04-01

232

911 Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... sick, or has a headache might have a concussion or other head injury. Dealing with an emergency ... Know What to Do After a Car Crash Concussions Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

233

Radiation Emergencies  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Safety (3/2011); Radiation Emergencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). ... increase the rates of elimination of these substances from the ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

234

Paediatric emergencies.  

PubMed

The care of sick children can be challenging for the anaesthetist who is only involved in the occasional care of paediatric patients. This paper outlines the care of medical and surgical paediatric emergencies for which an anaesthetist working at a district general hospital or equivalent may encounter. Conditions discussed include paediatric respiratory emergencies, sepsis, status epilepticus, the acute abdomen in the newborn, intussusception, the bleeding tonsil, trauma and the child with burns. PMID:23210557

McDougall, R J

2013-01-01

235

Searching Secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fourth Amendment violation has traditionally involved a physical intrusion such as the search of a house or the seizure of a person or her papers. Today, investigators rarely need to break down doors, rummage through drawers, or invade one’s peace and repose to obtain incriminating evidence in an investigation. Instead, the government may unobtrusively intercept information from electronic files,

Nita A. Farahany

2012-01-01

236

Savvy Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes indexes to Web resources that have been created by librarians to be more discriminating than the usual Web search engines, some of which are organized by standard classification systems. Includes indexes by solo librarians as well as by groups of librarians, some in public libraries and some in higher education. (LRW)

Jacso, Peter

2001-01-01

237

Supernova Searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supernovae are extremely bright stellar explosions that sometimes outshine the integrated light of the parent galaxies. The physics of their explosions and the variety of supernova types present fascinating problems in stellar evolution, and their intrinsic luminosity makes them useful probes of cosmology. Searches for supernovae are currently underway by both amateur and professional astronomers using telescopes that range from

P. M. Garnavich

2006-01-01

238

Biomedical Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wading through the tremendous online resource that is the BioMed archive can be a bit tricky at times. This process just got much easier through the creation of the BioMedSearch feature. The goal of this work is "to make these important works available to the community in a way that is fast and easy, while still offering the advanced features demanded by power users such as portfolios, collaboration features, bibliographical citation export, alerts, and more." Their search engine contains all of the data in Pub Med/Medline, along with additional full-text documents, and a large database of theses and dissertations. Many users will find the "Clusters" section of the site most useful. Here, visitors can view "clusters" of documents grouped together thematically into topics such as clinical trials, exercises, diet and cholesterol, and medical imagining. The homepage contains a basic search engine, and visitors may also wish to use the "Search Tutorial" to gain a better understanding of how best to use the archive.

239

Savvy Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes indexes to Web resources that have been created by librarians to be more discriminating than the usual Web search engines, some of which are organized by standard classification systems. Includes indexes by solo librarians as well as by groups of librarians, some in public libraries and some in higher education. (LRW)|

Jacso, Peter

2001-01-01

240

A Harmony Search Algorithm Combined with Differential Operator Applied to Reliability-Redundancy Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability-redundancy allocation problem can be approached as a mixed-integer programming problem. It has been solved by using optimization techniques such as dynamic programming, integer programming, and mixed-integer nonlinear programming. On the other hand, a broad class of meta-heuristics has been developed for reliability-redundancy optimization. Recently, a new meta-heuristics called harmony search (HS) algorithm has emerged. HS was conceptualized using

Leandro dos Santos Coelho; Diego Luis de Andrade Bernert; Viviana Cocco Mariani

2009-01-01

241

Emergency cricothyrotomy - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background An emergency cricothyrotomy is the last-resort in most airway management protocols and is performed when it is not possible to intubate or ventilate a patient. This situation can rapidly prove fatal, making it important to identify the best method to establish a secure airway. We conducted a systematic review to identify whether there exists superiority between available commercial kits versus traditional surgical and needle techniques. Methods Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria included manikin, animal and human studies and there were no restrictions regarding the professional background of the person performing the procedure. Results In total, 1,405 unique references were identified; 108 full text articles were retrieved; and 24 studies were included in the review. Studies comparing kits with one another or with various surgical and needle techniques were identified. The outcome measures included in this systematic review were success rate and time consumption. The investigators performing the studies had chosen unique combinations of starting and stopping points for time measurements, making comparisons between studies difficult and leading to many conflicting results. No single method was shown to be better than the others, but the size of the studies makes it impossible to draw firm conclusions. Conclusions The large majority of the studies were too small to demonstrate statistically significant differences, and the limited available evidence was of low or very low quality. That none of the techniques in these studies demonstrated better results than the others does not necessarily indicate that each is equally good, and these conclusions will likely change as new evidence becomes available.

2013-01-01

242

Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Cheyne-Stokes respiration:  Respiratory distress related to posture (especially reclining at night) that occurs in association with heart disease.   From Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (heart disease)

2013-02-19

243

Asbestos Hazard and Emergency Response Act Terms  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Vibration:  The periodic motion of friable ACBM which may result in the release of asbestos.   From Asbestos Hazard and Emergency Response Act Terms  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing vibration

2012-05-22

244

Emergency Management Guidelines for Telepsychiatry  

PubMed Central

Objective Telepsychiatry, in the form of live-interactive videoconferencing, is an emerging application for emergency psychiatric assessment and treatment, can improve the quality and quantity of mental health services, particularly for rural, remote and isolated populations. Despite the potential of emergency telepsychiatry, the literature has been fairly limited in this area. Method Drawing on the combined clinical and administrative experiences of its authors this article reviews the common administrative, legal/ethical and clinical issues that arise in emergency telepsychiatry. Results An initial set of guidelines for emergency telepsychiatry is presented to generate further discussion to assist those who are considering establishing general telepsychiatry and/or emergency telepsychiatry services. Conclusion The practices and techniques of emergency telepsychiatry are relatively new and require further examination, modification and refinement so that they may be fully utilized within comprehensive mental health service systems.

Hilty, Donald M.; Yellowlees, Peter

2007-01-01

245

[Development of domain specific search engines].  

PubMed

As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing. PMID:11534132

Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

2000-01-01

246

Tracking Emerging Markets and Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the kinds of online sources to use and processes involved in finding information on emerging markets and new industry trends. Highlights include relevance ranking in DIALOG searches; press releases; news sources; news alert services; market research reports; tracking research in progress; company information; and tracking subsidiaries.…

Bates, Mary Ellen

1994-01-01

247

Issues in Designing Novel Applications for Emerging Multimedia Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging computational multimedia tools and techniques promise powerful ways to organise, search and browse our ever-increasing\\u000a multimedia contents by automating annotation and indexing, augmenting meta-data, understanding media contents, linking related\\u000a pieces of information amongst them, and providing intriguing visualisation and exploration front-ends. Identifying real-world\\u000a scenarios and designing interactive applications that leverage these developing multimedia technology is certainly an important\\u000a research

Hyowon Lee

2010-01-01

248

Addiction Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Subtitled "a gateway to research-based addiction information for health consumers, health professionals, educators, students, and researchers," this Website offers a directory of annotated links to materials relating to various addictions. Categories include news, the addictions, statistics, populations, treatment, prevention, social issues, organizations, and harm reduction. These main headings break down into a second level of subheadings, and a search engine -- with date and cataloging parameters -- is also provided. While we would not call Addiction Search a comprehensive gateway, its hundreds of frequently updated links serve as an excellent starting point for investigation into any of the commonly recognized addictive conditions. The site is maintained by Emil Chiauzzi, a published clinical psychologist who is currently involved with "developing multimedia and Internet-based addictions interventions."

2000-01-01

249

Emergent spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the possibility that spacetime geometry may be an emergent phenomenon. This idea has been motivated by the Analogue Gravity programme. These are systems where the kinematics of small perturbations are dominated by an effective gravitational field. In these models there is no obvious connection between the "gravitational" field tensor and the Einstein equations, as the emergent spacetime geometry arises as a consequence of linearising around some classical field. After a brief introduction on this topic, we present our recent contributions to the field.

Weinfurtner, Silke

2007-11-01

250

Fast search methods for biometric signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate some current biometric algorithms - which are basically statistical pattern matching and pattern database searching- and ways of speeding them up. This will encompass both optimal (where the match found is identical to an exhaustive search) and suboptimal techniques. Implementation of the fast-search algorithms investigated to determine both the computational complexity and

Snehal Patel

2007-01-01

251

Random Entry Searching of Binary Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new technique for searching lexically ordered binary trees is analyzed. Searching starts at a randomly selected node, rather than at the root node. Searching progresses in the usual manner until the item of interest is found, or until a leaf node is enc...

R. E. Fairley

1973-01-01

252

Persona: A Contextualized and Personalized Web Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in graph-based search tech- niques derived from Kleinberg's work (1) have been impres- sive. This paper further improves the graph-based search al- gorithm in two dimensions. Firstly, variants of Kleinberg's techniques do not take into account the semantics of the query string nor of the nodes being searched. As a result, polysemy of query words cannot be resolved.

Francisco Tanudjaja; Lik Mui

2001-01-01

253

Cardiac emergencies.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and management of pediatric cardiac emergencies can be challenging and complicated. Early presentations are usually the result of ductal-dependent lesions and appear with cyanosis and shock. Later presentations are the result of volume overload or pump failure and present with signs of congestive heart failure. Acquired diseases also present as congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. PMID:23915599

Barata, Isabel Araujo

2013-08-01

254

Emerging Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce…

Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

255

Dental Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral.

Symington, J.M.

1988-01-01

256

EMERGING ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to better fulfill its mission under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement for the restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem GLNPO has funded strategic or emerging issues of basin-wide importance: ...

257

Radiation Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and ...

258

["Emergency measures"].  

PubMed

This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime. PMID:22693924

Louis, Jean-Jacques

2012-03-01

259

Platinum ratio search versus golden ratio search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this simulation study, we examine the traditional golden ratio search in view of cost minimization and search risk, and propose an alternative search plan with what we call “platinum ratio”. The golden ratio search has been thought the best for unimodal optimization. However, our study shows that the golden ratio search is the best only in the sense of

Xia Pan

2008-01-01

260

Accelerating instant question search with database techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed question answering services, like Yahoo Answer and Aardvark, are known to be useful for end users and have also opened up numerous topics ranging in many research fields. In this paper, we propose a user-support tool for composing questions in such services. Our system incrementally recommends similar questions while users are typing their question in a sentence, which gives

Takeharu Eda; Toshio Uchiyama; Katsuji Bessho; Norifumi Katafuchi; Alice Chen; Ryoji Kataoka

2011-01-01

261

Novel techniques to search for neutron radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new methods to observe neutron radioactivity are presented. Both methods rely on the production and decay of the parent nucleus in flight. The relative velocity measured between the neutron and the fragment is sensitive to half-lives between ˜1 and ˜100ps for the Decay in Target (DiT) method. The transverse position measurement of the neutron in the Decay in a Magnetic Field (DiMF) method is sensitive to half-lives between 10 ps and 1 ns.

Thoennessen, M.; Christian, G.; Kohley, Z.; Baumann, T.; Jones, M.; Smith, J. K.; Snyder, J.; Spyrou, A.

2013-11-01

262

Conflict Analysis in Search Algorithms for Satisfiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces GRASP (Generic seaRch Algorithm for the Sati$ability Problem), a new search algorithm for Prop- ositional Satisjability (SAT). GRASP incorporates several search-pruning techniques, some of which are spec$c to SAT whereas others find equivalent in other fieh ofArt$cial Intelli- gence. GRASP is premised on the inevitability of conflicts during search and its most distinguishing feature is the augmentation

João P. Marques Silva; Karem A. Sakallah

1996-01-01

263

Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

Zhang, Li

2009-01-01

264

HRR profiling in GMTI search radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high range resolution (HRR) profiling technique for generating range and Doppler profiles of multiple moving targets, while the radar is in ground moving target indicator (GMTI) search mode. To implement such a technique, it requires no a priori information on target velocity and\\/or phase, hence, it is a good candidate to be incorporated into a search

Pileih Chen

2000-01-01

265

Knowledge-Based Search in Competitive Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence programs operating in competitive domains typically use brute-force search if the domain can be modeled using a search tree or alternately use nonsearch heuristics as in production rule-based expert systems. While brute-force techniques have recently proven to be a viable method for modeling domains with smaller search spaces, such as checkers and chess, the same techniques cannot succeed

Steven Walczak

2003-01-01

266

A search for sex-specific antigens on bovine spermatozoa using immunological and biochemical techniques to compare the protein profiles of X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm populations separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.  

PubMed

Currently, the only successful method for separating X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa is fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Although effective, this technique is of limited usefulness to the animal breeding industry as it cannot produce the large volumes of sexed spermatozoa needed for artificial insemination. An attractive alternative would be to identify an immunological marker confined to one sperm type and, therefore, significant scientific effort has been expended in examining antibodies that appear to recognize approximately 50% of spermatozoa in an ejaculate. However, no sex-specific antigens have yet been identified from spermatozoa. Using the opportunity afforded by the development of sperm separation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we have made a thorough search for differences between X and Y chromosome-bearing bull spermatozoa using both biochemical and immunological methods. Techniques for radiolabelling surface membrane proteins, in conjunction with SDS-PAGE, failed to show any differences between populations. Similarly, a wide range of monoclonal antibodies raised to ejaculated, cauda epididymidal and testicular spermatozoa failed to distinguish between the X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Only after analysis by high resolution two-dimensional SDS-PAGE was an indication obtained that X-specific proteins occur. However, these proteins are not associated with the surface membrane and further work is necessary to confirm their association with the X chromosome and to characterize them more fully. Our inability to detect sex-specific differences in sperm surface antigenicity suggests that further work on this immunological approach to semen sexing is unlikely to be profitable. PMID:9306971

Howes, E A; Miller, N G; Dolby, C; Hutchings, A; Butcher, G W; Jones, R

1997-07-01

267

Emerging techniques to treat corneal neovascularisation  

PubMed Central

Neovascularisation is a major cause of visual loss in a number of ophthalmic diseases. This review aims to outline the basic regulators of vessel growth in corneal neovascularisation. An understanding of the underlying principles of physiological and pathophysiological vascular development helps to appreciate current approaches to prevent or treat corneal neovascularisation. Options for future interventions will be discussed in the light of recent evidence provided by animal models of corneal neovascularisation.

Menzel-Severing, J

2012-01-01

268

U.S. VERSUS EUROPEAN WEB SEARCHING TRENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Web is becoming a worldwide phenomenon we need to understand what searching trends are emerging across different global regions. Are there regional differences in Web searching? What are the differences between searching by the United States population compared to Europeans? As part of a body of research studying these questions, we have analyzed two data sets culled from

Amanda Spink; Seda Ozmutlu; Huseyin Cenk Ozmutlu; Bernard J. Jansen

2002-01-01

269

Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

Ojala, Marydee

2002-01-01

270

Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)|

Ojala, Marydee

2002-01-01

271

Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by…

Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2006-01-01

272

Fast Structural Search in Phylogenetic Databases  

PubMed Central

As the size of phylogenetic databases grows, the need for efficiently searching these databases arises. Thanks to previous and ongoing research, searching by attribute value and by text has become commonplace in these databases. However, searching by topological or physical structure, especially for large databases and especially for approximate matches, is still an art. We propose structural search techniques that, given a query or pattern tree P and a database of phylogenies D, find trees in D that are sufficiently close to P. The “closeness” is a measure of the topological relationships in P that are found to be the same or similar in a tree D in D. We develop a filtering technique that accelerates searches and present algorithms for rooted and unrooted trees where the trees can be weighted or unweighted. Experimental results on comparing the similarity measure with existing tree metrics and on evaluating the efficiency of the search techniques demonstrate that the proposed approach is promising.

Wang, Jason T. L.; Shan, Huiyuan; Shasha, Dennis; Piel, William H.

2007-01-01

273

Does linear separability really matter? Complex visual search is explained by simple search.  

PubMed

Visual search in real life involves complex displays with a target among multiple types of distracters, but in the laboratory, it is often tested using simple displays with identical distracters. Can complex search be understood in terms of simple searches? This link may not be straightforward if complex search has emergent properties. One such property is linear separability, whereby search is hard when a target cannot be separated from its distracters using a single linear boundary. However, evidence in favor of linear separability is based on testing stimulus configurations in an external parametric space that need not be related to their true perceptual representation. We therefore set out to assess whether linear separability influences complex search at all. Our null hypothesis was that complex search performance depends only on classical factors such as target-distracter similarity and distracter homogeneity, which we measured using simple searches. Across three experiments involving a variety of artificial and natural objects, differences between linearly separable and nonseparable searches were explained using target-distracter similarity and distracter heterogeneity. Further, simple searches accurately predicted complex search regardless of linear separability (r = 0.91). Our results show that complex search is explained by simple search, refuting the widely held belief that linear separability influences visual search. PMID:24029822

Vighneshvel, T; Arun, S P

2013-09-12

274

Regenerative medicine techniques in cardiovascular disease: where is the horizon?  

PubMed

Regenerative medicine techniques to restore cardiac and vascular function are being increasingly investigated as management options for cardiovascular disease. The authors set out to identify emerging regenerative techniques in cardiovascular disease and investigate their stage of development. The relevant networks in the field in the UK were contacted and online sources for cell therapy, tissue engineering, and other regenerative techniques and products were searched for online. A total of 49 Phase II, II/III and III trials of regenerative products or techniques were identified: 13 Phase III, eight Phase II/III and 28 Phase II trials. Twelve of the Phase III trials are for myocardial ischemia and involve an intracoronary infusion or intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most of those in Phase III trials are, however, associated either with an unproven delivery technique or cellular approach. The authors conclude that translation into clinical practice and diffusion into health systems is some way off. PMID:23627828

Packer, Claire; Boddice, Beth; Simpson, Sue

2013-05-01

275

Energy efficient searching in delay-tolerant wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of information discovery in densely deployed and delay-tolerant Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), where the initiator of search is unaware of the location of target information. We propose Increasing Ray Search (IRS), an energy efficient query resolution or search technique. The basic principle of IRS is to route the search packet along a set

Kiran Rachuri; A. Antony Franklin; C. Siva Ram Murthy; A. Antony Franklin

2008-01-01

276

Personalizing search via automated analysis of interests and activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate and study search algorithms that consider a user's prior interactions with a wide variety of content to personalize that user's current Web search. Rather than relying on the unrealistic assumption that people will precisely specify their intent when searching, we pursue techniques that leverage implicit information about the user's interests. This information is used to re-rank Web search

Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais; Eric Horvitz

2005-01-01

277

SS-Wrapper: a package of wrapper applications for similarity searches on Linux clusters  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale sequence comparison is a powerful tool for biological inference in modern molecular biology. Comparing new sequences to those in annotated databases is a useful source of functional and structural information about these sequences. Using software such as the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) or HMMPFAM to identify statistically significant matches between newly sequenced segments of genetic material and those in databases is an important task for most molecular biologists. Searching algorithms are intrinsically slow and data-intensive, especially in light of the rapid growth of biological sequence databases due to the emergence of high throughput DNA sequencing techniques. Thus, traditional bioinformatics tools are impractical on PCs and even on dedicated UNIX servers. To take advantage of larger databases and more reliable methods, high performance computation becomes necessary. Results We describe the implementation of SS-Wrapper (Similarity Search Wrapper), a package of wrapper applications that can parallelize similarity search applications on a Linux cluster. Our wrapper utilizes a query segmentation-search (QS-search) approach to parallelize sequence database search applications. It takes into consideration load balancing between each node on the cluster to maximize resource usage. QS-search is designed to wrap many different search tools, such as BLAST and HMMPFAM using the same interface. This implementation does not alter the original program, so newly obtained programs and program updates should be accommodated easily. Benchmark experiments using QS-search to optimize BLAST and HMMPFAM showed that QS-search accelerated the performance of these programs almost linearly in proportion to the number of CPUs used. We have also implemented a wrapper that utilizes a database segmentation approach (DS-BLAST) that provides a complementary solution for BLAST searches when the database is too large to fit into the memory of a single node. Conclusions Used together, QS-search and DS-BLAST provide a flexible solution to adapt sequential similarity searching applications in high performance computing environments. Their ease of use and their ability to wrap a variety of database search programs provide an analytical architecture to assist both the seasoned bioinformaticist and the wet-bench biologist.

Wang, Chunlin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J

2004-01-01

278

In-flight Medical Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion. Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice.

Chandra, Amit; Conry, Shauna

2013-01-01

279

The search for proton decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques used to search for evidence of proton or neutron decay (by one of the 32 theoretically possible modes) are examined, and some preliminary results are summarized, in a general review. The physical principles of proton decay are reviewed; the operation of water-Cerenkov and layered tracking detectors is explained and illustrated with diagrams; the 8000-ton water detector (equipped with 2048

J. M. Losecco; Frederick Reines; Daniel Sinclair

1985-01-01

280

Social networks, incentives, and search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of network structure has grown in significance over the past ten years in the field of information retrieval, stimulated to a great extent by the importance of link analysis in the development of Web search techniques [4]. This body of work has focused primarily on the network that is most clearly visible on the Web: the network of

Jon M. Kleinberg

2006-01-01

281

Emerging anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Warfarin, heparin and their derivatives have been the traditional anticoagulants used for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism. While the modern clinician is familiar with the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of these agents, their adverse effects have provided the impetus for the development of newer anticoagulants with improved safety, ease of administration, more predictable pharmacodynamics and comparable efficacy. Research into haemostasis and the coagulation cascade has made the development of these newer anticoagulants possible. These drugs include the factor Xa inhibitors and IIa (thrombin) inhibitors. Direct and indirect factor Xa inhibitors are being developed with a relative rapid onset of action and stable pharmacokinetic profiles negating the need for close monitoring; this potentially makes them a more attractive option than heparin or warfarin. Examples of direct factor Xa inhibitors include apixaban, rivaroxaban, otamixaban, betrixaban and edoxaban. Examples of indirect factor Xa inhibitors include fondaparinux, idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux. Direct thrombin inhibitors (factor IIa inhibitors) were developed with the limitations of standard heparin and warfarin in mind. Examples include recombinant hirudin (lepirudin), bivalirudin, ximelagatran, argatroban, and dabigatran etexilate. This review will discuss emerging novel anticoagulants and their use for the prophylaxis and management of venous thromboembolism, for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for coronary artery disease. PMID:22680641

Kennedy, B; Gargoum, F S; Kennedy, L; Khan, F; Curran, D R; O'Connor, T M

2012-01-01

282

Probing the Search Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy Search, Geography Search, Geology Search, Archeology Search, and Community Search are microcomputer software games, usable in grades five to nine, which provide educational simulations, numbers and situational choices, and calculation of implications of decisions. The series is a pathfinder usable by entire class and requiring only one…

Owens, Peter

1983-01-01

283

To Search or Not to Search.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews court decisions in relation to public school teachers' and administrators' roles in searching and seizing goods belonging to students. The article outlines ways to protect Fourth Amendment guarantees against unreasonable searches. (MD)

Bertrand, Joseph; Musemeche, Richard A.

1984-01-01

284

A dynamic knowledge base based search engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines have greatly helped us to find the desired information from the Internet. Most search engines use keywords\\u000a matching technique. This paper discusses a Dynamic Knowledge Base based Search Engine (DKBSE), which can expand the user’s\\u000a query using the keywords’ concept or meaning. To do this, the DKBSE needs to construct and maintain the knowledge base dynamically\\u000a via the

Wang Hui-jin; Hu Hua; Li Qing

2005-01-01

285

A Search Engine for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Misha Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David Dobkin; David Jacobs

2002-01-01

286

A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs

2003-01-01

287

Inquirus, the NECI Meta Search Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Wide Web (WWW) search engines (e.g. AltaVista, Infoseek, HotBot, etc.) have a number of deficiencies including: periods of downtime, low coverage of the WWW, inconsistent and inefficient user interfaces, out of date databases, poor relevancy ranking and precision, and difficulties with spamming techniques. Meta search engines have been introduced which address some of these and other difficulties in searching

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles

1998-01-01

288

Optimal Searches for Asteroids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optimal searches for a fixed object are discussed and the rigorous analytical results of discrete search theory are presented. They show that the totally optimal, the uniformly optimal, locally optimal, and the fastest searches are identical under not too...

L. G. Taff

1984-01-01

289

Applied Research Program Search  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Search:? Search Applied Research Search all Division of Cancer Control & Population

290

Reflective Internet Searching: An Action Research Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an action research model of planning, acting, recording, and reflecting as an approach to Internet searching. Explains how the constantly changing Internet environment requires continuous reassessment of search tools and strategies and development of new techniques. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

Edwards, Sylvia Lauretta; Bruce, Christine

2002-01-01

291

Window-based Enterprise Expert Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first year for the participation of the City University Centre of Interactive System Research (CISR) in the Expert Search Task. In this paper, we describe an expert search experiment based on window- based techniques, that is, we build profile for each expert by using informa- tion around the expert's name and email address in the documents. We

Wei Lu; Stephen E. Robertson; Andy Macfarlane; Haozhen Zhao

2006-01-01

292

Stochastic search for signal processing algorithm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm for searching for the optimal implementations of signal transforms and compares this approach against other search techniques. A single signal processing algorithm can be represented by a very large number of different but mathematically equivalent formulas. When these formulas are implemented in actual code, unfortunately their running times differ significantly. Signal processing algorithm optimization

Bryan Singer; Manuela M. Veloso

2001-01-01

293

Generating hierarchical summaries for web searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchies provide a means of organizing, summarizing and accessing information. We describe a method for automatically generating hierarchies from small collections of text, and then apply this technique to summarizing the documents retrieved by a search engine.

Dawn J. Lawrie; W. Bruce Croft

2003-01-01

294

Methods for Parallelizing Search Paths in Phrasing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many search problems are commonly solved with combinatoric algorithms that unnecessarily duplicate and serialize work at considerable computational expense. There are techniques available that can eliminate redundant computations and perform remaining ope...

C. De Marcken

1993-01-01

295

Optimum Routeing: Analytical Constraint of Search Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algorithms are being developed for route optimization using the geometric constraints imposed on route geometry by zero-gradient conditions on route costs. Two related techniques are under consideration. The first takes a spatial search approach using the...

W. G. Semple

1995-01-01

296

Pediatric ENT emergencies.  

PubMed

Otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat) emergencies are a common complaint in the emergency department. These can present as a result of infection, trauma, foreign bodies, or postprocedure complications. The emergency department physician is called on to offer initial if not definitive management of these patients. This article discusses common ear, nose, and throat emergencies presenting to the emergency department. PMID:23915604

Stoner, Michael J; Dulaurier, Marlie

2013-06-14

297

Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS). Battery Monitor/Charging Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described in this report is the Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS) main battery charge/discharge monitor system and its components. The emergency processor battery charger is also discussed. Charging/discharging instructions for the battery monitor, a...

M. E. Rasmussen

1992-01-01

298

Music Search and Recommendation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last ten years, our ways to listen to music have drastically changed: In earlier times, we went to record stores or had to use low bit-rate audio coding to get some music and to store it on PCs. Nowadays, millions of songs are within reach via on-line distributors. Some music lovers already got terabytes of music on their hard disc. Users are now no longer desparate to get music, but to select, to find the music they love. A number of technologies has been developed to adress these new requirements. There are techniques to identify music and ways to search for music. Recommendation today is a hot topic as well as organizing music into playlists.

Brandenburg, Karlheinz; Dittmar, Christian; Gruhne, Matthias; Abeßer, Jakob; Lukashevich, Hanna; Dunker, Peter; Gärtner, Daniel; Wolter, Kay; Grossmann, Holger

299

Probabilistic diversification and intensification in local search for vehicle routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a probabilistic technique to diversify, intensify, and parallelize a local search adapted for solving\\u000a vehicle routing problems. This technique may be applied to a very wide variety of vehicle routing problems and local searches.\\u000a It is shown that efficient first-level tabu searches for vehicle routing problems may be significantly improved with this\\u000a technique. Moreover, the solutions produced

Yves Rochat; Éric D. Taillard

1995-01-01

300

Multilingual people search  

Microsoft Academic Search

People Search is an important search service with multiple applications (eg. looking up a friend on Facebook, finding colleagues in corporate email directories etc). With the proportion of non-English users on a steady rise, people search services are being used by users from diverse language demographics. Users may issue name search queries against these directories in languages other than the

Shaishav Kumar; Raghavendra Udupa

2010-01-01

301

Battleships: Searching Algorithms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores the main algorithms that are used as the basis for searching on computers, using different variations on the game of battleships. This activity demonstrates three search methods for finding information in data: linear searching, binary searching and hashing. It also includes an optional introductory activity as well as a video showing a fun demonstration related to the same content.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike; Adams, Robyn; Mckenzie, Jane

2002-01-01

302

NCI Visuals Online: Search  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation NCI Visuals Online Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Search Search for: Date Created: Any 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 to Any 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Sort

303

Multimedia Web Searching Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines and compares multimedia Web searching by Excite and FAST search engine users in 2001. Highlights include audio and video queries; time spent on searches; terms per query; ranking of the most frequently used terms; and differences in Web search behaviors of U.S. and European Web users. (Author/LRW)|

Ozmutlu, Seda; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

2002-01-01

304

Search Alternatives and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

Bell, Steven J.

2006-01-01

305

FAST Search (Fast Search and Transfer)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Claiming to be the world's biggest search engine, this new Web tool is the product of a joint venture between Dell Computer and FAST, a Norwegian company that has announced its intention to catalog the entire Internet. At 80 million searchable documents, FAST Search is not actually the world's most comprehensive engine (with over 150 million documents indexed, Northern Light holds that title), but it may be if it reaches its goal of 200 million by the end of summer 1999. Whether it becomes the largest or not, it is probably the Web's fastest search engine. Test searches returned tens of thousands of hits in under a second. Most returns were fairly relevant, especially when an exact phrase search was executed. Return pages also include a link to the same search at Lycos FTPsearch, which indexes over 100 million FTP files.

306

International emergency medicine and the recent development of emergency medicine worldwide.  

PubMed

Emergency medicine is being established as a unique and independent specialty throughout the world. Two major models of emergency care delivery exist in the world today: the Anglo-American and the Franco-German model. Most countries developing new systems of emergency care are following the Anglo-American model and are recapitulating the sequence of steps taken to establish the systems of emergency medicine in the United States. The most important step in the development of emergency medicine in other countries is the recognition that emergency medicine incorporates a unique body of knowledge requiring specialized practitioners or emergency physicians. A global network of international emergency medicine is assisting the development of emergency medicine worldwide and now includes international organizations, academic institutions, and individuals in countries where emergency medicine is mature and their counterparts in countries where emergency medicine is developing. The multilevel exchange of information through various modalities, such as international conferences, physician exchange programs, and print or electronic media, is playing a vital role in the search for internationally applicable systems of emergency care. PMID:9867895

Arnold, J L

1999-01-01

307

Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities.

Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Sintes, Alicia M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Schutz, Bernard F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom); Frasca, Sergio [Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Roma ''La Sapienza'', P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Palomba, Cristiano [INFN, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

2004-10-15

308

[Emerging rickettsioses].  

PubMed

Ticks are known to carry and transmit a number of microbial agents that cause diseases in humans and animals. Among these are members of the order Rickettsiales (alpha-proteobacteria), which include the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia. The most common and well-known Rickettsial human disease in Europe is Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF), caused by Rickettsia conorii. In recent years, a number of new Rickettsia species have been discovered in Europe, some of which have been shown to be pathogenic to humans. These discoveries have been facilitated by use of sequence-based molecular identification techniques. In Italy, it is generally believed that R. conorii is the only Rickettsia species present, and clinical tests for MSF rely on antigens raised against this bacterium. We are currently undertaking a molecular screening study of Rickettsiales-bacteria in ticks from various regions of Italy, to check for the potential presence of species from this order recently discovered in other parts of Europe. So far, we have identified a number of additional species in ticks collected from northern, central and southern regions. These include the known pathogens R. helvetica and R. slovaca as well as two species which may or may not be of medical relevance: R. monacensis and R. sp. IRS4. As a part of this survey, we have identified a novel alphaproteobacterium from the medically important tick Ixodes ricinus. This bacterium, tentatively named IricES1, has the unusual property of existing within the mitochondria, as well as the cytoplasm, of ovarian cells. To our knowledge, this is the only known example of a bacterium that is able to enter the mitochondria of animals. Our recently published electron microscopic data indicates that the bacterium enters mitochondria between the inner and outer membranes, and then proceeds to consume the inner mitochondrial matrix. We will present further data on this bacterium, including: 1) its phylogenetic position based on various molecular sequences, 2) its localization within the tick based on in situ hybridization; 3) its distribution among tick populations in Europe; 4) preliminary data on attempts at culturing this bacterium in a variety of cell types. Possible interactions between the bacterium and its host will be discussed. Ticks are known to carry and transmit a number of microbial agents that cause diseases in humans and animals. Among these are members of the order Rickettsiales (alpha-proteobacteria), which include the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia. The most common and well-known Rickettsial human disease in Europe is Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF), caused by Rickettsia conorii. In recent years, a number of new Rickettsia species have been discovered in Europe, some of which have been shown to be pathogenic to humans. These discoveries have been facilitated by use of sequence-based molecular identification techniques. In Italy, it is generally believed that R. conorii is the only Rickettsia species present, and clinical tests for MSF rely on antigens raised against this bacterium. We are currently undertaking a molecular screening study of Rickettsiales-bacteria in ticks from various regions of Italy, to check for the potential presence of species from this order recently discovered in other parts of Europe. So far, we have identified a number of additional species in ticks collected from northern, central and southern regions. These include the known pathogens R. helvetica and R. slovaca as well as two species which may or may not be of medical relevance: R. monacensis and R. sp. IRS4. As a part of this survey, we have identified a novel alphaproteobacterium from the medically important tick Ixodes ricinus. This bacterium, tentatively named IricES1, has the unusual property of existing within the mitochondria, as well as the cytoplasm, of ovarian cells. To our knowledge, this is the only known example of a bacterium that is able to enter the mitochondria of animals. Our recently published electron microscopic data indicates that the bacterium enters mitochondria between the inner

Lo, N; Beninati, T; Sacchi, L; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

2004-06-01

309

Coping with Noisy Search Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called Social Web has helped to change the very nature of the Internet by emphasising the role of our online experiences as new forms of content and service knowledge. In this paper we describe an approach to improving mainstream Web search by harnessing the search experiences of groups of like-minded searchers.We focus on the HeyStaks system ( www.heystaks.com ) and look in particular at the experiential knowledge that drives its search recommendations. Specifically we describe how this knowledge can be noisy, and we describe and evaluate a recommendation technique for coping with this noise and discuss how it may be incorporated into HeyStaks as a useful feature.

Champin, Pierre-Antoine; Briggs, Peter; Coyle, Maurice; Smyth, Barry

310

Emergency Acquisitions, May 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is designed to help ensure the acquisition workforce is prepared for emergencies. Each emergency evolves differently. Contractors play a critical role in providing supplies and services to our citizens during an emergency. Viable readiness plan...

2007-01-01

311

Emergency Care of Children  

MedlinePLUS

... of care in emergency departments and in the emergency medical services (EMS) community (e.g., ambulances). Recent studies examining ... In addition, ACEP is a member of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Partnership for Children consortium, sponsored by the ...

312

Emergency Medical Services  

MedlinePLUS

... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

313

Search engines’ responses to several search feature selections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper investigated the impact of the advanced search features of three common search engines on retrieval result performance: Yahoo, Google, and Live Search. The authors analyzed 240 search queries with different information need emphases to determine retrieval effectiveness differences among regular search, title search, exact phrase search, and PDF file format restriction search. A one-way ANOVA

Jin Zhang; Wei Fei

2010-01-01

314

Searching for people on Web search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web is a communication and information technology that is often used for the distribution and retrieval of personal information. Many people and organizations mount Web sites containing large amounts of information on individuals, particularly about celebrities. However, limited studies have examined how people search for information on other people, using personal names, via Web search engines. Explores the nature

Amanda Spink; Bernard J. Jansen

2004-01-01

315

Web Searching on the Vivisimo Search Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of clustering to Web search engine tech- nology is a novel approach that offers structure to the information deluge often faced by Web searchers. Clus- tering methods have been well studied in research labs; however, real user searching with clustering systems in operational Web environments is not well understood. This article reports on results from a transaction log

Sherry Koshman; Amanda Spink; Bernard J. Jansen

2006-01-01

316

Personalized Search Based on User Search Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

User profiles, descriptions of user interests, can be used by search engines to provide personalized search results. Many approaches to creating user profiles capture user information through proxy servers (to capture browsing histories) or desktop bots (to capture all activities on a personal computer). These both require participation of the user to install the proxy server or the bot. In

Mirco Speretta; Susan Gauch

2005-01-01

317

Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big Brother"…

Dadlez, Eva M.

1984-01-01

318

Leveraging user-generated content for news search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years both availability and accessibility of current news stories on the Web have dramatically improved. In particular, users can now access news from a variety of sources hosted on the Web, from newswire presences such as the New York Times, to integrated news search within Web search engines. However, of central interest is the emerging impact

Richard M. C. McCreadie

2010-01-01

319

Search Engine Prototype System Based on Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of Internet, IT support systems need to provide more storage space and faster computing power for Internet applications such as search engine. The emergence of cloud computing can effectively solve these problems. We present a search engine prototype system based on cloud computing platform in this paper.

Han, Jinyu; Hu, Min; Sun, Hongwei

320

Issues in intelligent robots for search and rescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and Kobe, Japan, earthquake, robotics researchers have been considering search and rescue as a humanitarian research domain. The recent devastation in Turkey and Taiwan, compounded with the new Robocup Rescue and AAAI Urban Search and Rescue robot competition, may encourage more research. However, roboticists generally go not have access to domain experts: the emergency

Jennifer L. Casper; Mark Micire; Robin R. Murphy

2000-01-01

321

Automatic search of geospatial features for disaster and emergency management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the fast development of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) WFS (Web Feature Service) technologies has undoubtedly improved the sharing and synchronization of feature-level geospatial information across diverse resources, literature shows that there are still apparent limitations in the current implementation of OGC WFSs. Currently, the implementation of OGC WFSs only emphasizes syntactic data interoperability via standard interfaces and cannot resolve

Chuanrong Zhang; Tian Zhao; Weidong Li

2010-01-01

322

Search for neutral leptons  

SciTech Connect

At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references.

Perl, M.L.

1984-12-01

323

Attractor of Local Search Space in the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local search technique usually is locally convergent and, as result, outputs a local optimum. For many optimization problems, there is an attractor in the search space that drives the local search trajectories to converge into a small region. To gain insight into the basic properties of the attractor, this paper presents a framework for studying the attractor of local

WEIQI LI

324

FOURIER ENCODED DATA SEARCHING OF INFRARED SPECTRA (FEDS/IRS)  

EPA Science Inventory

A new library searching technique is reported that relies on Fourier transforms of infrared (IR) absorbance spectra. Searching in the time domain is shown to be more tolerant to noise than searches in the spectral domain and fewer points are required to encode the unique characte...

325

Agglomerative clustering of a search engine query log  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a technique for mining a collection ofuser transactions with an Internet search engine to discoverclusters of similar queries and similar URLs. The informationwe exploit is "clickthrough data": each record consistsof a user's query to a search engine along with the URLwhich the user selected from among the candidates offeredby the search engine. By viewing this dataset as

Doug Beeferman; Adam L. Berger

2000-01-01

326

Improving multirobot, cooperative search via local target queues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multirobot coordination techniques range from sharing state and intent information to explicit coordination strategies. The choice of cooperation strategy can affect task performance and resource utilization. This paper investigates the use of local search queues, rather than globally shared search queues. This work shows this change improves search in terms of interference and communications loads, two key factors in multirobot

Monica Anderson; Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos

2007-01-01

327

CrowdSearch: exploiting crowds for accurate real-time image search on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile phones are becoming increasingly sophisticated with a rich set of on-board sensors and ubiquitous wireless connectivity. However, the ability to fully exploit the sensing capabilities on mobile phones is stymied by limitations in multimedia processing techniques. For example, search using cellphone images often encounters high error rate due to low image quality. In this paper, we present CrowdSearch, an

Tingxin Yan; Vikas Kumar; Deepak Ganesan

2010-01-01

328

Local Search Template.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A unifying framework for the many different types of local search algorithms in combinatorial optimization is proposed. A template that captures the majority of local search algorithms proposed in the literature, such as iterative improvement, simulated a...

R. J. M. Vaessens E. H. L. Aarts J. K. Lenstra

1992-01-01

329

Basics of Online Searching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters add...

C. T. Wiley . A. Cochrane

1981-01-01

330

SearchBug.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy site brings together some of the most common searches and places them at your fingertips. The most popular searches are listed on the front page, and the remainder are offered by category (Government, Entertainment, Finance, Legal, Auctions, etc.) with a listing of related Open Directory topics below them. The search interface is located at the SearchBug site, while results are listed at the provider's page. Simply put, a nifty idea.

331

Semantic Web for Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic Web data seems like a promising source of information for improving search. While there is some literature about how semantic data should be used to enhance search, there are no positive conclusions about the best approach. This paper surveys existing approaches to semantic web search, describes adapting a TREC benchmark for evaluation, and proposes a learned representation algorithm for using semantic web data in search.

Gronski, Jessica

332

Collaborative search in electronic health records  

PubMed Central

Objective A full-text search engine can be a useful tool for augmenting the reuse value of unstructured narrative data stored in electronic health records (EHR). A prominent barrier to the effective utilization of such tools originates from users' lack of search expertise and/or medical-domain knowledge. To mitigate the issue, the authors experimented with a ‘collaborative search’ feature through a homegrown EHR search engine that allows users to preserve their search knowledge and share it with others. This feature was inspired by the success of many social information-foraging techniques used on the web that leverage users' collective wisdom to improve the quality and efficiency of information retrieval. Design The authors conducted an empirical evaluation study over a 4-year period. The user sample consisted of 451 academic researchers, medical practitioners, and hospital administrators. The data were analyzed using a social-network analysis to delineate the structure of the user collaboration networks that mediated the diffusion of knowledge of search. Results The users embraced the concept with considerable enthusiasm. About half of the EHR searches processed by the system (0.44 million) were based on stored search knowledge; 0.16 million utilized shared knowledge made available by other users. The social-network analysis results also suggest that the user-collaboration networks engendered by the collaborative search feature played an instrumental role in enabling the transfer of search knowledge across people and domains. Conclusion Applying collaborative search, a social information-foraging technique popularly used on the web, may provide the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of information retrieval in healthcare.

Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A

2011-01-01

333

Search Based on Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the overwhelming size and fast growth of the Internet, flnding speciflc informa- tion may be a di-cult task. Today's search engines are mostly limited to keyword based searching methods, and reflning a search sometimes requires great skill on behalf of the user. Furthermore, there is a lack of facilities for locating information with a certain structure. On- tologies

Milos Radovanovic; Mirjana Ivanovic

334

Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

Murray, Kenneth T.

335

Distributed constrained heuristic search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of decentralized problem solving, called distributed constrained heuristic search (DCHS), that provides both structure and focus in individual agent search spaces to optimize decisions in the global space, is presented. The model achieves this by integrating decentralized constraint satisfaction and heuristic search. It is a formalism suitable for describing a large set of distributed artificial intelligence problems. The

K. Sycara; S. F. Roth; N. Sadeh; M. S. Fox

1991-01-01

336

Plugging Search Committee Leaks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions are given for maintaining confidentiality in the presidential search process, addressing such issues as appointing the search committee, dealing with the press, communicating with the campus, employing a consultant, choosing an executive secretary, transacting search business, contacting candidates and references, conducting…

McLaughlin, Judith Block

1985-01-01

337

Basics of online searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this book is to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching, or information retrieval to those with little or no prior experience. The major intended audiences are students, working information specialists and librarians, and end users, the people for whom all the searching is done. Material covers such topics as the nature of online searching, the kinds

C. T. Meadow; P. A. Cochrane

1981-01-01

338

EPA Publications Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site, located off of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) search page, simplifies finding EPA publications. Users can search by document number, title, or keyword. Search returns include a brief abstract, URL, and reference to document format (HTML or .pdf). The site also offers a Guide to EPA Publication Numbers and more information about EPA publications in general.

339

Inside a Search. Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lou Marinoff's article, "Inside a Search," discusses the issues college search committees face in the pursuit of qualified faculty members that will be a good fit for their institutions. More often than not, faculty searches are more complex and challenging than the featured article suggests. The economic downturn facing the nation has resulted…

Cooper, Rosie

2011-01-01

340

Searching for Spaceships  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe software that searches for spaceships in Conway's Game of Life and related two-dimensional cellular automata. Our program searches through a state space related to the de Bruijn graph of the automa- ton, using a method that combines features of breadth rst and iterative deepening search, and includes fast bit-parallel graph reachability and path enumeration algorithms for nding the

David Eppstein

2000-01-01

341

Concurrent search structure algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dictionary is an abstract data type supporting the actions member, insert, and delete. A search structure is a data structure used to implement a dictionary. Examples include B trees, hash structures, and unordered lists. Concurrent algorithms on search structures can achieve more parallelism than standard concurrency control methods would suggest, by exploiting the fact that many different search structure

Dennis Shasha; Nathan Goodman

1988-01-01

342

[Application of Tiantu (CV 22) in emergency].  

PubMed

The operation and application of Tiantu (CV 22) in emergency are discussed in the paper. The stimulating methods at Tiantu (CV 22) are acupuncture and pressing technique. The correct insertion of needle and proper depth and direction of insertion are required during acupuncture. The pressing technique stress the pressing strength and pressing time. Acupuncture or pressing technique is suitable for the emergent measurement of asthma, asthmatic breathing, coma, blockage of phlegm, hiccup, sore throat, etc. It is indicated that Tiantu (CV 22) is the key point in the emergency and phlegm resolving. Based on the characteristics of the point as promoting qi circulation, reducing the reversed qi and resolving phlegm, in light of the proper points combination by different syndromes and in terms of the correct and safe stimulating methods, Tiantu (CV 22) can achieve the immediate therapeutic effects in the emergent situations. PMID:23967641

Zhu, Xian-Min; Huo, Shang-Fei; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xin-Zhi

2013-06-01

343

The Research of Vertical Search Engine for Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following rapid expansion of huge Agriculture information body on the Web, the efficient Agriculture information gathering on specified top becomes more and more important in search engine research. Through the statement of the developing trend of search engine and sharing agriculture information resource, this paper discusses the necessity of building search engine for agriculture information. The author clarifies the working principles of professional search engine for agriculture and finally analyses the improvement of searching technique of agriculture and proposes a model for agriculture - focused search.

Li, Weiying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiang

344

Basics of online searching  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this book is to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching, or information retrieval to those with little or no prior experience. The major intended audiences are students, working information specialists and librarians, and end users, the people for whom all the searching is done. Material covers such topics as the nature of online searching, the kinds of files available online, the commands used to search for them, and the strategy used to perform a search - with numerous examples from real systems presented.

Meadow, C.T.; Cochrane, P.A.

1981-01-01

345

Successful Internet Searching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Searching for great resources on the internet is not as easy as we always think it should be. Working through this module will help you learn some quick and easy skills that will help improve your internet searches. Objective: Idaho Content Standards Information and Communication Technology Standards Objective: 9-12.ICT.3.1.3 Formulate specific searches using advanced navigation skills to access a variety of resources. Idaho Technology Standards Where did the internet come from and how do I successfully search online? To introduce you to online internet searching, watch the ...

Bird, Mz.

2011-09-30

346

An efficient search method for job-shop scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient search method for job-shop scheduling problems. Our technique is based on an innovative way of relaxing and subsequently reimposing the capacity constraints on some critical operations. We integrate this technique into a fast tabu search algorithm. Our computational results on benchmark problems show that this approach is very effective. Upper bounds for 11 well-known test problems

Leyuan Shi; Yunpeng Pan

2005-01-01

347

Finding What You Need: Using Internet Search Engines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simply typing in a word or two will not "automagically" produce good results on the Internet. Choosing the shortage of school administrators as a topic, this article outlines search techniques (including Boolean logic), reveals major Web sites' reactions to those techniques, and outlines tricks for improving search results. (MLH)|

Hall, Marc Elliot

2000-01-01

348

Utilization of a radiology-centric search engine.  

PubMed

Internet-based search engines have become a significant component of medical practice. Physicians increasingly rely on information available from search engines as a means to improve patient care, provide better education, and enhance research. Specialized search engines have emerged to more efficiently meet the needs of physicians. Details about the ways in which radiologists utilize search engines have not been documented. The authors categorized every 25th search query in a radiology-centric vertical search engine by radiologic subspecialty, imaging modality, geographic location of access, time of day, use of abbreviations, misspellings, and search language. Musculoskeletal and neurologic imagings were the most frequently searched subspecialties. The least frequently searched were breast imaging, pediatric imaging, and nuclear medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were the most frequently searched modalities. A majority of searches were initiated in North America, but all continents were represented. Searches occurred 24 h/day in converted local times, with a majority occurring during the normal business day. Misspellings and abbreviations were common. Almost all searches were performed in English. Search engine utilization trends are likely to mirror trends in diagnostic imaging in the region from which searches originate. Internet searching appears to function as a real-time clinical decision-making tool, a research tool, and an educational resource. A more thorough understanding of search utilization patterns can be obtained by analyzing phrases as actually entered as well as the geographic location and time of origination. This knowledge may contribute to the development of more efficient and personalized search engines. PMID:19214633

Sharpe, Richard E; Sharpe, Megan; Siegel, Eliot; Siddiqui, Khan

2009-02-12

349

AMBIGUITY AND POSITION SEARCH ALGORITHMS OF GPS CARRIER PHASE PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

For high-precision GPS satellite positioning, two search algorithms are compared in this paper. One algorithm, which is based on an approach for resolving phase ambiguities, uses a least-squares search technique. The other algorithm is related to an ambiguity function method but differs from it in that the final positional convergence is achieved by employing the same least-squares technique. The search

Joz Wu; Shiou-Gwo Lin; Fong-Gee Yiu

1997-01-01

350

Feature selection with harmony search.  

PubMed

Many search strategies have been exploited for the task of feature selection (FS), in an effort to identify more compact and better quality subsets. Such work typically involves the use of greedy hill climbing (HC), or nature-inspired heuristics, in order to discover the optimal solution without going through exhaustive search. In this paper, a novel FS approach based on harmony search (HS) is presented. It is a general approach that can be used in conjunction with many subset evaluation techniques. The simplicity of HS is exploited to reduce the overall complexity of the search process. The proposed approach is able to escape from local solutions and identify multiple solutions owing to the stochastic nature of HS. Additional parameter control schemes are introduced to reduce the effort and impact of parameter configuration. These can be further combined with the iterative refinement strategy, tailored to enforce the discovery of quality subsets. The resulting approach is compared with those that rely on HC, genetic algorithms, and particle swarm optimization, accompanied by in-depth studies of the suggested improvements. PMID:22645272

Diao, Ren; Shen, Qiang

2012-05-23

351

Pediatric office emergencies.  

PubMed

Pediatricians regularly see emergencies in the office, or children that require transfer to an emergency department, or hospitalization. An office self-assessment is the first step in determining how to prepare for an emergency. The use of mock codes and skill drills make office personnel feel less anxious about medical emergencies. Emergency information forms provide valuable, quick information about complex patients for emergency medical services and other physicians caring for patients. Furthermore, disaster planning should be part of an office preparedness plan. PMID:24093901

Fuchs, Susan

2013-07-17

352

In search of spontaneous positron creation  

SciTech Connect

The recent experiments investigating the behavior of the electron-positron field in strong external electromagnetic fields is reviewed. In particular, the search for spontaneous positron creation in superheavy collision systems is discussed. A striking new result emerging from this search is the observation of narrow peaked structures in the positron spectra whose origin cannot be associated with the established dynamic mechanisms of positron production involving Coulomb trajectories only. The possibility that these peaks may be signatures for the spontaneous decay of the vacuum and for the formation of metastable giant nuclear complexes is considered in the content of recent experimental results. 52 references, 23 figures.

Greenberg, J.S.

1982-01-01

353

Predictive subcodebook search algorithm for vector quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel variable-rate image-coding scheme called the predictive subcodebook search algorithm (PSS) is proposed. In PSS< the initial searched codeword for each input vector is predicted by its encoded neighbors and the closest codeword in the codebook is searched from a specific range (or subcodebook) that is determined dynamically according to the block type of its encoded neighbors. In addition, the relative addressing technique is employed to encode the searched closest codeword. According to the simulation results, it is shown that PSS not only provides better objective image quality peak SNR but also reduces the storage cost for storing multiple codebooks. Furthermore, PSS requires very little computational cost, compared to the full search algorithm for the vector quantization scheme. Therefore, it is concluded that PSS indeed provides a good means for variable-rate image coding.

Hu, Yu-Chen; Chang, Chin-Chen

2000-06-01

354

SEARCH, blackbox optimization, and sample complexity  

SciTech Connect

The SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) framework developed elsewhere (Kargupta, 1995; Kargupta and Goldberg, 1995) offered an alternate perspective toward blackbox optimization -- optimization in presence of little domain knowledge. The SEARCH framework investigates the conditions essential for transcending the limits of random enumerative search using a framework developed in terms of relations, classes and partial ordering. This paper presents a summary of some of the main results of that work. A closed form bound on the sample complexity in terms of the cardinality of the relation space, class space, desired quality of the solution and the reliability is presented. This also leads to the identification of the class of order-k delineable problems that can be solved in polynomial sample complexity. These results are applicable to any blackbox search algorithms, including evolutionary optimization techniques.

Kargupta, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Div.; Goldberg, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of General Engineering

1996-05-01

355

Searching Merging Galaxies via their Irregular Shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a shape select algorithm for searching merging galaxies among large astronomical surveys. Galaxy mergers usually have complex structures and exhibit irregular shapes, thus searching irregular pattern might be a practical approach to select possible merger candidates among large survey data. We use binarization technique to determine the shape of detected objects and quantify it into a set of shape descriptors. With these descriptors we can locate relatively irregular objects as possible merger candidates for further visual inspection.

Lee, T.-L.; Hwang, C.-Y.

2013-10-01

356

Navigating web search results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web searches for a specific topic can result in multiple document references for the topic, where information on the topic is redundantly presented across the document set. This can make it difficult for the user to locate a unique piece of information from the document set, or to comprehend the full scope of the information, without examining one document after another in the hope of discovering that new or interesting fact. Summarization techniques reduce the redundancy but often at the cost of information loss. Aggregation is difficult and may present information out of context. This paper presents a method for navigating the document set such that the facts or concepts and their redundant presentations are identified. The user can gain an overview of the concepts, and can locate where they are presented. The user can then view a desired concept as presented in the context of the document of choice. The approach also allows the user to move from concept to concept apart from the sequence of any one particular document. Navigation is accomplished via a graph structure in which redundant material is grouped into nodes. Sequential material unique to a document can also be clustered into a node for a more compact graph representation. Methods for identification of redundant content and for the construction of the navigation graph are discussed.

Harrington, Steven

2010-02-01

357

Objectives to direct the training of emergency medicine residents in pediatric emergency medicine.  

PubMed

This article outlines the objectives for a resident rotation on a pediatric emergency medicine service that is geographically separate from adult-oriented facilities. In this setting, pediatric emergency department care is considered an off service. However, these objectives incorporate key pediatric knowledge and techniques in a practical format for emergency medicine trainees who have no separate pediatric emergency department experience. The content of the pediatric emergency department educational exposure can be attained in a concentrated 2-month exposure at a pediatric facility or extracted throughout the course of multiple pediatric encounters at a general emergency department. These objectives are a part of a continuing series on the goals and objectives to direct emergency medicine resident training on off-service rotations. PMID:8505527

Singer, J I; Hamilton, G C

358

Emergency Preparedness and Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monsanto's emergency response plan in dealing with hazardous materials at their facilities is presented. Topics discussed include the following: CPR training; emergency medical training; incident reports; contractor injuries; hazardous materials transport...

K. Bouvier

1993-01-01

359

Emergency Medical Services Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four alternative plans are presented for the New River Valley Planning District Emergency Medical Service Communications System. Because a detailed overall Emergency Medical Service (EMS) plan was lacking for the New River area, communications planners de...

1974-01-01

360

Tube Feeding Emergency Kit  

MedlinePLUS

The Tube Feeding Emergency Kit Imagine having fifteen minutes to evacuate before a natural disaster strikes. Or imagine rushing ... of a local community hospital completely unfamiliar with tube-feeding. Having an emergency kit full of tube- ...

361

Searchers' selection of search keys: III. Searching styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual searching style has a primary effect on searching behavior. The case study method provided data about elements of searching styles through: (1) observation of 47 professional searchers performing their job-related searches; and (2) analysis of verbal and search protocols. Statistical associations among a number of variables reveal three dimensions of searching behavior: level of interaction, preference for operational or

Raya Fidel

1991-01-01

362

VisSearch: A Collaborative Web Searching Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|VisSearch is a collaborative Web searching environment intended for sharing Web search results among people with similar interests, such as college students taking the same course. It facilitates students' Web searches by visualizing various Web searching processes. It also collects the visualized Web search results and applies an association…

Lee, Young-Jin

2005-01-01

363

University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2012-01-01

364

Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search

Bloemen, Hans G.

2005-01-01

365

Protocols for Teaching Students How to Search for, Discover, and Evaluate Innovations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors introduce and develop protocols to guide aspiring entrepreneurs' behaviors in searching for and discovering innovative ideas that may have commercial potential. Systematic search has emerged as a theory-based, prescriptive framework to guide innovative behavior. Grounded in Fiet's theory of search and discovery, this article provides…

Norton, William I., Jr.; Hale, Dena H.

2011-01-01

366

Emergent Communication Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication strategy is often defined as planned actions to achieve desired results; however, strategies emerge regardless of writer\\/speaker intent. This paper defines an emergent communication strategy as a communication construct derived from the interaction between reader\\/hearer response, situated context, and discursive patterns. The definition is based on the work of Mintzberg (1988) on emergent business strategies, Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) on

Cynthia L. King

2009-01-01

367

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk Unit of Activity = Times Interval = Year Your search found

368

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Bike Unit of Activity = Times Interval = Year Your search found

369

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk/Bike Used as transport to/from: = School Your search found

370

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = * Used as transport to/from: = School Your search found 1 question

371

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk Unit of Activity = Months Interval = Year Your search

372

Search Internet.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mecklermedia provides this search engine that covers all things Internet. The Lycos powered search engine contains sites selected by Internet.com (Mecklermedia) editors. However, this is a search index, not a subject directory, as the large amount of retrieval from simple queries (in the hundreds of thousands) aptly demonstrates. Users must skillfully apply the sparse syntactical tools available at present (phrase searching and indirect or implied Boolean AND/NOT) to narrow their retrieval. Testing of the site revealed duplications in retrieval as well as retrieval that was unrelated to Internet content (as might be expected from a search index). As the site and its search language are developed, it can realize its potential as a useful tool for webmasters, system administrators, and other information technology professionals.

373

Planning as heuristic search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the AIPS98 Planning Contest, the HSP planner showed that heuristic search planners can be competitive with state-of-the-art Graphplan and SAT planners. Heuristic search planners like HSP transform planning problems into problems of heuristic search by automatically extracting heuristics from Strips encodings. They differ from specialized problem solvers such as those developed for the 24-Puzzle and Rubik's Cube in that

Blai Bonet; Hector Geffner

2001-01-01

374

Collective Search in Concrete and Abstract Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory has been studying the emergence of collective search behavior from a complex systems perspective. We have developed\\u000a an Internet-based experimental platform that allows groups of people to interact with each other in real-time on networked\\u000a computers. The experiments implement virtual environments where participants can see the moment-to-moment actions of their\\u000a peers and immediately respond to their environment. Agent-based

Robert L. Goldstone; Michael E. Roberts; Winter Mason; Todd Gureckis

375

Emerging and Re-emerging Swine Viruses.  

PubMed

In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J

2012-01-01

376

Excite Precision Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hot on the heels of AltaVista's Raging Search (see the May 5, 2000 Scout Report) comes another returned and (somewhat) slimmed-down search engine that focuses on relevant results. Like Raging Search, Excite's new Precision Search uses Google-style link analysis technology ("Deep Analysis") to help identify the most useful sites. Test queries produced consistently relevant results among the top few returns, though an indication of the number of total returns would be helpful, with two banner ads and (in some but not all cases) a Quick Results box on the left that could be quite handy for consumer-related searching. For instance, a search for "Plymouth" yielded links to research and comparisons, blue book values, financing, and service and repair information in the Quick Results box. I was also pleased to see that clicking on one of the other search categories (category, news, photo, audio/video) instantly produces returns for the original query, though the photo databases available seem somewhat limited compared to, say, AltaVista. While users searching for "official" sites will still do best at Google, those who also search for additional resources such as news, photos, and audio/video content may wish to give Excite Precision a run-through.

377

ArtSearch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get in touch with your creative side by browsing ArtSearch, "The place on the net to search for Arts and Crafts." This site gathers links to artists and exhibitions on the Internet, and allows users to search for media, subjects, and artists. Searchers may query across all categories of arts and crafts, or narrow their search to fine arts, fine crafts, folk arts, country crafts, or art resources. Suppliers of arts and crafts materials are also listed, with links to catalogs and other information.

378

Stable individual differences in search strategy? The effect of task demands and motivational factors on scanning strategy in visual search.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated large individual differences in scanning strategy during a dynamic visual search task (E. Becic, A. F. Kramer, & W. R. Boot, 2007; W. R. Boot, A. F. Kramer, E. Becic, D. A. Wiegmann, & T. Kubose, 2006). These differences accounted for substantial variance in performance. Participants who chose to search covertly (without eye movements) excelled, participants who searched overtly (with eye movements) performed poorly. The aim of the current study was to investigate the stability of scanning strategies across different visual search tasks in an attempt to explain why a large percentage of observers might engage in maladaptive strategies. Scanning strategy was assessed for a group of observers across a variety of search tasks without feedback (efficient search, inefficient search, change detection, dynamic search). While scanning strategy was partly determined by task demands, stable individual differences emerged. Participants who searched either overtly or covertly tended to adopt the same strategy regardless of the demands of the search task, even in tasks in which such a strategy was maladaptive. However, when participants were given explicit feedback about their performance during search and performance incentives, strategies across tasks diverged. Thus it appears that observers by default will favor a particular search strategy but can modify this strategy when it is clearly maladaptive to the task. PMID:19757946

Boot, Walter R; Becic, Ensar; Kramer, Arthur F

2009-03-13

379

Closing emergency operating rooms improves efficiency.  

PubMed

Long waiting times for emergency operations increase a patient's risk of postoperative complications and morbidity. Reserving Operating Room (OR) capacity is a common technique to maximize the responsiveness of an OR in case of arrival of an emergency patient. This study determines the best way to reserve OR time for emergency surgery. In this study two approaches of reserving capacity were compared: (1) concentrating all reserved OR capacity in dedicated emergency ORs, and (2) evenly reserving capacity in all elective ORs. By using a discrete event simulation model the real situation was modelled. Main outcome measures were: (1) waiting time, (2) staff overtime, and (3) OR utilisation were evaluated for the two approaches. Results indicated that the policy of reserving capacity for emergency surgery in all elective ORs led to an improvement in waiting times for emergency surgery from 74 (+/-4.4) minutes to 8 (+/-0.5) min. Working in overtime was reduced by 20%, and overall OR utilisation can increase by around 3%. Emergency patients are operated upon more efficiently on elective Operating Rooms instead of a dedicated Emergency OR. The results of this study led to closing of the Emergency OR in the Erasmus MC (Rotterdam, The Netherlands). PMID:18041289

Wullink, Gerhard; Van Houdenhoven, Mark; Hans, Erwin W; van Oostrum, Jeroen M; van der Lans, Marieke; Kazemier, Geert

2007-12-01

380

Color on emergency mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

2007-07-01

381

ReSEARCH: A Requirements Search Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research address three closely related problems. (1) Most current search technology is based on a popularity metric (e.g., PageRank or ExpertRank), but not on the semantic content of the document. (2) When building components in a service-oriented ar...

C. Martell G. Gehrke P. Anand P. H. Adams R. Gera

2008-01-01

382

Citation Searching: Search Smarter & Find More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The staff at University of Connecticut are participating in Elsevier's Student Ambassador Program (SAmP) in which graduate students train their peers on "citation searching" research using Scopus and Web of Science, two tremendous citation databases. They are in the fourth semester of these training programs, and they are wildly successful: They…

Hammond, Chelsea C.; Brown, Stephanie Willen

2008-01-01

383

Searching for Data: Swarming Agent Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As our ability to produce data grows our ability to examine and find the useful portions of large data sets must grow as well. We present an efficient, agent based search algorithm, based on the behavior of schooling fish in the presence of predators, designed to search and/or map very large data sets. Our algorithm, which belongs to the artificial life family of algorithms, attempts to leverage swarm intelligence against the difficulty of finding valuable data within a sea of data. The agents search the data space based on a small set of simple rules which produces emergent behavior and results in an efficient and flexible algorithm, while at the same time resisting many of the short comings of other artificial life algorithms.

Caputo, D. P.; Dolan, R.

2012-07-01

384

Enterprise and desktop search  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing amount of information on users' desktops and increasing scale and complexity of intranets, Enterprise and Desktop Search are becoming two increasingly important Information Retrieval applications. While the challenges arising there are not completely different from those that the web community has faced for years, advanced web search solutions are often unable to address them properly. In this

Pavel Dmitriev; Pavel Serdyukov; Sergey Chernov

2010-01-01

385

Google Advanced Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Google has unveiled an advanced search page, which features pull-down menus that allow users to specify included and excluded keywords and domains, specify languages, and find pages that link to or are similar to specified pages. The page also links to Google's topic-specific search pages (US Government, Mac, Linux, etc.).

2000-01-01

386

With News Search Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

Gunn, Holly

2005-01-01

387

Database Searching by Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they…

Arnold, Stephen E.

388

The PHASAR Search Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This article describes the rationale behind the PHASAR system (Phrase-based Accurate Search And Retrieval), a professional Information Retrieval and Text Mining system under development for the collection of information about metabolites from the biological literature. The system is generic in nature and applicable (given suitable linguistic resources and thesauri) to many other forms of professional search. Instead of keywords,

Cornelis H. A. Koster; Olaf Seibert; Marc Seutter

2006-01-01

389

What Can Search Predict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has shown that search query volume correlates well with a variety of phenomena, from influenza caseloads to economic indicators like real-estate prices, auto sales, and travel statistics. In this paper, we investigate the degree to which search behavior predicts the commercial success of cultural products, namely movies, video games, and songs. In contrast with previous work that has

Sharad Goel; Jake M. Hofman; Sébastien Lahaie; David M. Pennock; Duncan J. Watts

390

Is This Search Necessary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Georgia case involving a strip-searched class of fifth- graders to locate some missing money ($26), a Federal Court judge concluded the searches were unreasonable. Although students won the constitutionality battle, they lost the war over liability and injunctive relief in a subsequent decision. (MLH)

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

2000-01-01

391

Warrantless Searches and Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourth amendment to the Constitution has two basic clauses. The first, the reasonableness clause, protects the people against unreasonable searches and seizures. The second, the warrant clause, sets forth conditions under which a warrant may issue. Searches and seizures made pursuant to a warrant are, quite obviously, governed by the commands of the warrant clause. However, the effect of

Mack Allen Player

1971-01-01

392

Measuring Search Engine Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of twenty public search engines is evaluated using TREC-inspired methodsand a set of 54 queries taken from real Web search logs. The World Wide Web is taken as thetest collection and a combination of crawler and text retrieval system is evaluated. The enginesare compared on a range of measures derivable from binary relevance judgments of the firstseven live

David Hawking; Nick Craswell; Peter Bailey; Kathleen Griffiths

2001-01-01

393

A Search Space Toolkit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Search Space Toolkit (SST) is a suite of tools for investigating the properties of the continuous search spaces which arise in designing complex engineering artifacts whose evaluation requires significant computation by a numerical simulator. SST has been developed as part of NDA, a computational environment for (semi-)automated design of jet engine exhaust nozzles for supersonic aircraft, which was developed

Andrew Gelsey; Don Smith

1995-01-01

394

Geoscience Job Search Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego provides the Geoscience Job Search Engine. The search engine lists academic, industry, and student opportunities in the US and other countries. Searchable fields range from aqueous geochemistry to environmental engineering to volcanology.

395

Educational Search Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activities and research directions of the Educational Search Strategies project are outlined in this progress report. A pilot project was undertaken to study the development of problems into research projects. The research was to be divided into three areas: problem perception and problem definition, information search and dissemination, and…

Bjerstedt, Ake; And Others

396

Searching for Exoplanets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The series of investigations which lead to the conclusion that a serious search for planets orbiting stars other than our Sun (exoplanets) is feasible, are reviewed. The expectation of a search and the means of direct and indirect detection that would be ...

B. F. Burke

1992-01-01

397

Database Searching by Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

Arnold, Stephen E.

398

Intermittent search strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review examines intermittent target search strategies, which combine phases of slow motion, allowing the searcher to detect the target, and phases of fast motion during which targets cannot be detected. It is first shown that intermittent search strategies are actually widely observed at various scales. At the macroscopic scale, this is, for example, the case of animals looking for food; at the microscopic scale, intermittent transport patterns are involved in a reaction pathway of DNA-binding proteins as well as in intracellular transport. Second, generic stochastic models are introduced, which show that intermittent strategies are efficient strategies that enable the minimization of search time. This suggests that the intrinsic efficiency of intermittent search strategies could justify their frequent observation in nature. Last, beyond these modeling aspects, it is proposed that intermittent strategies could also be used in a broader context to design and accelerate search processes.

Bénichou, O.; Loverdo, C.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

2011-01-01

399

ROV Grid Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will show students how a grid search is conducted by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). They will learn that in order to locate target sites, underwater camera sleds and ROVs must often follow a well-defined search pattern. Using methodical sweeping movements, these craft will locate objects that might otherwise be overlooked if a more random searching method was employed. In this activity students get to create a search pattern that will be used to uncover hidden targets. It will offer students an experience that recreates the remote exploration of the sea bottom, a hands-on activity using a remote-controlled vehicle, and an exercise in uncovering targets through methodical searching.

Dispezio, Michael

400

Searches for radio transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration of the transient Universe is an exciting and fast-emerging area within radio astronomy. Known transient phenomena range in time scales from sub-nanoseconds to years or longer, thus spanning a huge range in time domain and hinting a rich diversity in their underlying physical processes. Transient phenomena are likely locations of explosive or dynamic events and they offer tremendous potential to uncover new physics and astrophysics. A number of upcoming next-generation radio facilities and recent advances in computing and instrumentation have provided a much needed impetus for this field which has remained a relatively uncharted territory for the past several decades. In this paper we focus mainly on the class of phenomena that occur on very short time scales (i.e. from ˜milliseconds to ˜nanoseconds), known as {it fast transients}, the detections of which involve considerable signal processing and data management challenges, given the high time and frequency resolutions required in their explorations, the role of propagation effects to be considered and a multitude of deleterious effects due to radio frequency interference. We will describe the techniques, strategies and challenges involved in their detections and review the world-wide efforts currently under way, both through scientific discoveries enabled by the ongoing large-scale surveys at Parkes and Arecibo, as well as technical developments involving the exploratory use of multi-element array instruments such as VLBA and GMRT. Such developments will undoubtedly provide valuable inputs as next-generation arrays such as LOFAR and ASKAP are designed and commissioned. With their wider fields of view and higher sensitivities, these instruments, and eventually the SKA, hold great potential to revolutionise this relatively nascent field, thereby opening up exciting new science avenues in astrophysics.

Bhat, N. D. R.

2011-09-01

401

Searching and Surfing the Web Using a Semi-Adaptive Meta-Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Search1 is a web agent which integrates and en- hances many well known search techniques in order to im- prove the quality of information gathered from usual web search engines. It features intelligent merging of relevant documents from different search engines, anticipated adap- tive exploration and evaluation of links from the current re- sult set, automated derivation of refined

A. Castellucci; Giovambattista Ianni; Domenico Vasile; S. Costa

2001-01-01

402

A Hybrid Search Architecture Applied to Hard Random 3SAT and Low-Autocorrelation Binary Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybridisation of systematic and stochastic search is an active research areawith potential benets for real-world combinatorial problems. This paper shows thatrandomising the backtracking component of a systematic backtracker can improve itsscalability to equal that of stochastic local search. The hybrid may be viewed asstochastic local search in a constrained space, cleanly combining local search withconstraint programming techniques. The approach

Steven David Prestwich

2000-01-01

403

Relational WordNet model for semantic search in Holy Quran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Holy Quran, due to its unique style and allegorical nature, needs special attention about searching and information retrieval issues. The legacy keyword searching techniques are incapable of retrieving semantically relevant verses. In this paper, we address the deficiencies of key word based searching and the issues related to semantic search in the Holy Quran, and propose a model that

Muhammad Shoaib; M. Nadeem Yasin; U. K. Hikmat; M. Imran Saeed; M. S. H. Khiyal

2009-01-01

404

A Genetic Local Search Algorithm for Solving Symmetric and Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of local search heuristics and genetic algorithms is a promising approach for finding nearoptimum solutions to the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In this paper, an approach is presented in which local search techniques are used to find local optima in a given TSP search space, and genetic algorithms are used to search the space of local optima in

Bernd Freisleben; Peter Merz

1996-01-01

405

Enhancing collaborative web search with personalization: groupization, smart splitting, and group hit-highlighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration on Web search is common in many domains, such as education and knowledge work; recently, HCI researchers have begun to introduce prototype collaborative search tools to support such scenarios. We analyze data from a collaborative search experiment, and based on these data we propose three techniques that can enhance the value of collaborative search tools using personalization: groupization, smart

Meredith Ringel Morris; Jaime Teevan; Steve Bush

2008-01-01

406

Emerging Propulsion Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) technology area is a branch of the In-Space Program that serves as a bridge to bring high-risk/high-payoff technologies to a higher level of maturity. Emerging technologies are innovative and, if successfully developed, could result in revolutionary science capabilities for NASA science missions. EPT is also charged with the responsibility of assessing the technology readiness level (TRL) of technologies under consideration for inclusion in the ISP portfolio. One such technology is the Momentum-eXchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) tether concept, which is the current, primary investment of EPT. The MXER tether is a long, rotating cable placed in an elliptical Earth orbit, whose rapid rotation allows its tip to catch a payload in a low Earth orbit and throw that payload to a high-energy orbit. Electrodynamic tether propulsion is used to restore the orbital energy transferred by the MXER tether to the payload and reboost the tether's orbit. This technique uses solar power to drive electrical current collected from the Earth's ionosphere through the tether, resulting in a magnetic interaction with the terrestrial field. Since the Earth itself serves as the reaction mass, the thrust force is generated without propellant and allows the MXER facility to be repeatedly reused without re-supply. Essentially, the MXER facility is a 'propellantless' upper stage that could assist nearly every mission going beyond low Earth orbit. Payloads to interplanetary destinations could especially benefit from the boost provided by the MXER facility, resulting in launch vehicle cost reductions, increased payload fractions and more frequent mission opportunities. Synergistic tether technologies resulting from MXER development could include science sampling in the upper atmosphere, remote probes or attached formation flying, artificial gravity experiments with low Coriolis forces, and other science needs that use long, ultra-light strength or conducting cables in space. Tether development additionally embraces the science investigation of ionospheric physics, micrometeorite and space particulates in LEO and precise earth environment knowledge of gravity fields, solar flux, .thermal environments and magnetic fields.

Bonometti, J. A.

2004-11-01

407

Beam-Stack Search: Integrating Backtracking with Beam Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for transforming beam search into a complete search algorithm that is guaranteed to find an optimal solution. Called beam-stack search, the algorithm uses a new data structure, called a beam stack, that makes it possible to integrate systematic backtracking with beam search. The resulting search algorithm is an anytime algo- rithm that finds a good, sub-optimal

Rong Zhou; Eric A. Hansen

2005-01-01

408

Some recent results in heuristic search theory.  

PubMed

The paper summarizes recent analytical investigations of the mathematical properties of heuristics and their influence on the performance of common search techniques. The results are reported without proofs together with discussions of motivations and interpretations. The highlights include the following: the optimality of A*; relations between the precision of the heuristic estimates and the average complexity of the search; comparisons of the average complexities of A* and BACKTRACKING; procedures for comparing and combining nonadmissible heuristic functions; the influence of the weight w (in f = (l - w) g + wh) on the complexity of A*; the pruning power of alphabeta, SSS*, and SCOUT; the effect of successor ordering on search complexity, and the effect of search depth of the quality of decisions in game-playing. PMID:21869160

Pearl, J

1984-01-01

409

State-space search strategies gleaned from animal behavior: a traveling salesman experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A widespread search strategy employed by predators in both vertebrate and invertebrate phyla is the well-known area-restricted\\u000a search strategy. The generality, simplicity, and effectiveness of this strategy have made it emerge many times during the\\u000a course of natural selection. In this work, an artificial intelligence state-space search procedure is developed using search\\u000a guidelines gleaned from the foraging behavior of

Alexandre Linhares

1998-01-01

410

The Emergency Department Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consultants may be called to an emergency department for a variety of reasons. Most requests are like those from a general\\u000a hospital ward. However, two issues are notable: a broader definition of psychiatric emergencies and greater concern about patient rights. These issues stem from an emergency department’s lack of a buffer from its surrounding\\u000a community: patients come as they are,

Seth Powsner

411

Emergency Department Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may present to the emergency department (ED) via emergency medical services or\\u000a self-transport. When they present via emergency medical services, a diagnostic-quality prehospital 12-lead EKG may enhance\\u000a the sensitivity and specificity of ACS diagnosis and shorten time to treatment. The ED evaluation of the patient at risk for\\u000a ACS includes a thorough history and

Jeffrey A. Holmes; Sean Collins

412

Visual search: a retrospective.  

PubMed

Visual search, a vital task for humans and animals, has also become a common and important tool for studying many topics central to active vision and cognition ranging from spatial vision, attention, and oculomotor control to memory, decision making, and rewards. While visual search often seems effortless to humans, trying to recreate human visual search abilities in machines has represented an incredible challenge for computer scientists and engineers. What are the brain computations that ensure successful search? This review article draws on efforts from various subfields and discusses the mechanisms and strategies the brain uses to optimize visual search: the psychophysical evidence, their neural correlates, and if unknown, possible loci of the neural computations. Mechanisms and strategies include use of knowledge about the target, distractor, background statistical properties, location probabilities, contextual cues, scene context, rewards, target prevalence, and also the role of saliency, center-surround organization of search templates, and eye movement plans. I provide overviews of classic and contemporary theories of covert attention and eye movements during search explaining their differences and similarities. To allow the reader to anchor some of the laboratory findings to real-world tasks, the article includes interviews with three expert searchers: a radiologist, a fisherman, and a satellite image analyst. PMID:22209816

Eckstein, Miguel P

2011-12-30

413

Emergency department process improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University Medical Center's Emergency Department (ED) in Tucson, Arizona, has faced continually increasing patient numbers and mounting costs while resources have remained fairly static. This phenomenon, termed \\

Stephanie J. Macdonald; I. Karkam; N. Al-Shiwarri; R. J. Chowdhary; E. M. Escalante; A. Afandi

2005-01-01

414

Parallel Search Algorithms for Robot Motion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that parallel search techniques derived from their sequential counterparts can enable the solution of instances of the robot motion planning problem that are computationally infeasible on sequential machines. We present a simple parallel version of a robot motion planning algorithm based on \\

Daniel J. Challou; Maria L. Gini; Vipin Kumar

1993-01-01

415

An Intelligent System for Searching Genomic Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have developed an intelligent system for searching comparative genomic sequences which departs from the traditional sequence alignment methods of nucleic residues or alphabets. Instead, we use the composition vector method that exploits pattern structures in sequences and indexing techniques for building a genomic database of prokaryotic organisms and their phylogenetic relationships. For the structural analysis of

Vandana Gummuluru; Su-shing Chen

2007-01-01

416

A Lookahead Strategy for Heuristic Search Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning as heuristic search framework, initiated by the planners ASP from Bonet, Loerincs and Geffner, and HSP from Bonet and Geffner, lead to some of the most performant planners, as demonstrated in the two previous editions of the Inter- national Planning Competition. We focus in this paper on a technique introduced by Hoffmann and Nebel in the FF planning

Vincent Vidal

2004-01-01

417

Results and Challenges in Web Search Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frozen 18.5 million page snapshot of part of the Web has been created to enable and encourage meaningful and reproducible evaluation of Web search systems and techniques. This collection is being used in an evaluation framework within the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) and will hopefully provide convincing answers to questions such as, \\

David Hawking; Nick Craswell; Paul B. Thistlewaite; Donna Harman

1999-01-01

418

XSEarch: A Semantic Search Engine for XML  

Microsoft Academic Search

XSEarch, a semantic search engine for XML, is presented. XSEarch has a simple query lan- guage, suitable for a naive user. It returns se- mantically related document fragments that satisfy the user's query. Query answers are ranked using extended information-retrieval techniques and are generated in an order sim- ilar to the ranking. Advanced indexing tech- niques were developed to facilitate

Sara Cohen; Jonathan Mamou; Yaron Kanza; Yehoshua Sagiv

2003-01-01

419

Inverted files for text search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology underlying text search engines has advanced dramatically in the past decade. The development of a family of new index representations has led to a wide range of innovations in index storage, index construction, and query evaluation. While some of these developments have been consolidated in textbooks, many specific techniques are not widely known or the textbook descriptions are

Justin Zobel; Alistair Moffat

2006-01-01

420

Fast Similarity Search for Learned Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method to efficiently index into a large database of examples a ccording to a learned met- ric. Given a collection of examples, we learn a Mahalanobis distance using an information-theoretic metric learning technique that adapts prior knowledge about pairwise distances to incorporate similarity and dis- similarity constraints. To enable sub-linear time similarity search under the lea rned

Brian Kulis; Prateek Jain; Kristen Grauman

2009-01-01

421

Correspondence: Searching sequence space  

SciTech Connect

This correspondence debates the efficiency and application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to search protein sequence space. The important experimental point is that such sparse searches utilize physically realistic syntheses. In this regard, all GA-based technologies are very similar; they {open_quotes}learn{close_quotes} from their initial sparse search and then generate interesting new proteins within a few iterations. Which GA-based technology is best? That probably depends on the protein and the specific engineering goal. Given the fact that the field of combinatorial chemistry is still in its infancy, it is probably wise to consider all of the proven mutagenesis methods. 19 refs.

Youvan, D.C. [Palo Alto Inst. of Molecular Medicine, Mountain View, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

422

Biochemically-Inspired Emergent Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adaptation software systems are expected to exhibit life-like properties such as robust operation in uncertain environments,\\u000a adaptive immunity against foreign attackers, self-maintenance, and so on. The traditional software design model based on top-down\\u000a human engineering fails in this context, where new, bottom-up emergent computation [1,2] techniques seem more appropriate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since chemistry and biochemistry are the basis of life, Artificial Chemistries

Lidia Yamamoto; Thomas Meyer

2010-01-01

423

Image analysis tools and emerging algorithms for expression proteomics  

PubMed Central

Since their origins in academic endeavours in the 1970s, computational analysis tools have matured into a number of established commercial packages that underpin research in expression proteomics. In this paper we describe the image analysis pipeline for the established 2-D Gel Electrophoresis (2-DE) technique of protein separation, and by first covering signal analysis for Mass Spectrometry (MS), we also explain the current image analysis workflow for the emerging high-throughput ‘shotgun’ proteomics platform of Liquid Chromatography coupled to MS (LC/MS). The bioinformatics challenges for both methods are illustrated and compared, whilst existing commercial and academic packages and their workflows are described from both a user’s and a technical perspective. Attention is given to the importance of sound statistical treatment of the resultant quantifications in the search for differential expression. Despite wide availability of proteomics software, a number of challenges have yet to be overcome regarding algorithm accuracy, objectivity and automation, generally due to deterministic spot-centric approaches that discard information early in the pipeline, propagating errors. We review recent advances in signal and image analysis algorithms in 2-DE, MS, LC/MS and Imaging MS. Particular attention is given to wavelet techniques, automated image-based alignment and differential analysis in 2-DE, Bayesian peak mixture models and functional mixed modelling in MS, and group-wise consensus alignment methods for LC/MS.

English, Jane A.; Lisacek, Frederique; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Dunn, Michael J.

2012-01-01

424

The variants of the harmony search algorithm: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmony search (HS) algorithm is a relatively new population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm. It imitates the\\u000a music improvisation process where musicians improvise their instruments’ pitch by searching for a perfect state of harmony.\\u000a Since the emergence of this algorithm in 2001, it attracted many researchers from various fields especially those working\\u000a on solving optimization problems. Consequently, this algorithm guided researchers

Osama Moh’d Alia; Mandava Rajeswari

2011-01-01

425

Essays in online search advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search advertising, which is advertising shown alongside online search results presented by search engines such as Google, is a rapidly growing form of online advertising today. Unlike traditional media advertising, which is typically sold on the basis of audience demographics, search advertising is sold on the basis of the keyword chosen by the consumer at a search engine website. Moreover,

Alex Jiyoung Kim

2011-01-01

426

Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

Notess, Greg R.

2008-01-01

427

Precision Web Searching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report developed under SBIR contract for topic AF99-136, 'Intelligent Web Assistant'. The technical feasibility of a new approach to precisely searching multiple, distributed, heterogeneous information sources was demonstrated. This new approach combines ...

K. Romanik

2000-01-01

428

The Bandwidth Heuristic Search.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By placing various restrictions on the heuristic estimator it is possible to constrain the heuristic search process to fit specific needs. The paper introduces a new restriction upon the heuristic, called the bandwidth condition, that enables the ordered ...

L. R. Harris

1973-01-01

429

Searching For Vulcanoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulcanoids are a hypothesized population of small asteroid-like bodies in orbits interior to that of Mercury. Their presence or absence would be an important test of cosmogonical theories. There are significant dynamical and thermodynamical constraints that restrict the search area roughly to the ecliptic in the range of 0.1 to 0.25 AU from the Sun. Previous searches rule out only bodies with radii greater than about 50--100 km. We estimate that with current technology a search with a limiting magnitude of 6 at 3.5 microns might be feasible. This limiting magnitude corresponds approximately to the smallest (1 km) objects expected to have survived in this region over the age of the solar system. If such a search were carried out, even the absence of detections would yield definitive results.

Campins, H.; Davis, D. R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.; Magee, M.

430

Stereo without Search.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Search is not inherent in the correspondence problem. We propose a representation of images, called intrinsic curves, that combines the ideas of associative storage of images with connectedness of the representation: intrinsic curves are the paths that a ...

C. Tomasi R. Manduchi

1995-01-01

431

Evolutionary pattern search algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper defines a class of evolutionary algorithms called evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) and analyzes their convergence properties. This class of algorithms is closely related to evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategie and real...

W. E. Hart

1995-01-01

432

Future Patent Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we make some prediction for patent search in about ten year’s time—in 2021. We base these predictions on both\\u000a the contents of the earlier part of the book, and on some data and trends not well represented in the book (for one reason\\u000a or another). We consider primarily incorporating knowledge of different sorts of patent search into

John I. Tait; Barou Diallo

433

Implementation and verification of an advancement to the Galileo system search and rescue service signal simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Sino-European cooperation in the Galileo satellite navigation system Search And Rescue(SAR) service, a multi-channel distress beacon signal simulator is presented here. The mathematic model and spectrum analysis of current 406 MHz distress beacons signals is presented which includes Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) for Maritime, Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) for land (road and rail), and Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) for aeronautical applications. Based on Software Defined Radio (SDR) and digital IF techniques, the design of a SAR Signal Simulator (SAR-SS) is proposed, which can generate no less than 20 distress signals simultaneously. The Doppler shift and space propagation effect such as ionosphere delay, free space attenuation and etc, are simulated in SAR-SS, which provided a significant test and evaluation capability for SAR/Galileo project. The performance of SAR-SS is more accurate and stabile than the Cospas-Sarsat(C-S) requirement. SAR-SS will be a significant instrument for the Galileo system search and rescue project ground test.

Lin, Mo; Wu, Qiongzhi; Liu, Shaobo

2009-12-01

434

Developing Automated Helicopter Models Using Simulated Annealing and Genetic Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heuristic technique is presented that applies simulated annealing search to derive mathematical equations that model a pilot for an X-CELL 60 helicopter. The technique uses a pre-defined alphabet of formulas and combines them to create a mathematical model of the system controller or pilot. The proposed technique provides a new tool that can be used to develop an accurate

Namir Aldawoodi; Rafael Perez; Kimon Valavanis; Wendy Alvis

435

Emerging Organizational Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of emerging higher educational organizational structures focuses on the increasing importance of distance education. Considers the emerging organizational landscape, three types of network organizations, six organization archetypes, organizational forms that support distance education, and implications for higher education planners. (DB)

Carchidi, Daniel M.; Peterson, Marvin W.

2000-01-01

436

Emergency Preparedness at NCI  

Cancer.gov

The more you do to prepare for an emergency before something happens, the better equipped you will be to respond. Please take a moment to follow the links below and get the information you will need to build your own emergency plan.

437

HANARO radiation emergency plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emergency plan of HANARO (High-flux advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is prepared based on the Korea Atomic Law, the Civil Defence Law, Disaster Protection Law and the emergency related regulation guides such as the NUREG series from USNRC to ensu...

J. T. Lee

1997-01-01

438

Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

Edwards, Richard

2010-01-01

439

Emergency Medical Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of emergency medical technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 4 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

440

Avoiding medical emergencies.  

PubMed

Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

Omar, Y

2013-03-01

441

Emerging Adulthood in Argentina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined conceptions of emerging adulthood among Argentinians in their middle twenties. Found wide support for individualistic criteria for adulthood, but also criteria suggesting more collectivistic values. Identified gender, social class origin, and educational attainment differences. Concluded that emerging adulthood is a distinct…

Facio, Alicia; Micocci, Fabiana

2003-01-01

442

Stroke is an emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke is an emergency. Ischemic stroke is similar to myocardial infarction in that the pathogenesis is loss of blood supply to the tissue, which can result in irreversible damage if blood flow is not restored quickly. Public education is needed to emphasize the warning signs of stroke. Patients should seek medical help immediately, using emergency transport systems. Therapy geared toward

Clark H. Millikan

1996-01-01

443

Quantum searching application in search based software engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is widely used in software engineering for identifying optimal solutions. However, there is no polynomial-time complexity solution used in the traditional algorithms for SBSE, and that causes the cost very high. In this paper, we analyze and compare several quantum search algorithms that could be applied for SBSE: quantum adiabatic evolution searching algorithm, fixed-point quantum search (FPQS), quantum walks, and a rapid modified Grover quantum searching method. The Grover's algorithm is thought as the best choice for a large-scaled unstructured data searching and theoretically it can be applicable to any search-space structure and any type of searching problems.

Wu, Nan; Song, FangMin; Li, Xiangdong

2013-05-01

444

Low background techniques in XMASS  

SciTech Connect

The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

2011-04-27

445

Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 11--Childbirth, Pediatric Emergencies. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers childbirth and pediatric emergencies. Objectives stated for the two chapters are for the students to be able to describe: emergency procedures for normal childbirth, unusual childbirth emergencies, emergency care for…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

446

Adapting metric indexes for searching in multi-metric spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important research issue in multimedia databases is the retrieval of similar objects. For most applications in multimedia databases, an exact search is not meaningful. Thus, much effort has been devoted to\\u000a develop efficient and effective similarity search techniques. A recent approach that has been shown to improve the effectiveness\\u000a of similarity search in multimedia databases resorts to the usage

Benjamin Bustos; Sebastian Kreft; Tomáš Skopal

447

Transportation Networks for Emergency Evacuations  

SciTech Connect

Evacuation modeling systems (EMS) have been developed to facilitate the planning, analysis, and deployment of emergency evacuation of populations at risk. For any EMS, data such as road network maps, traffic control characteristics, and population distribution play critical roles in delineating emergency zones, estimating population at risk, and determining evacuation routes. There are situations in which it is possible to plan in advance for an emergency evacuation including, for example, an explosion at a chemical processing facility or a radiological accident at a nuclear plant. In these cases, if an accident or a terrorist attack were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other instances -for example, the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials-, there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on if and how to identify and proceed with the best course of action to minimize losses. Although both cases require as a starting point the development of a transportation network model of the area at risk, which must include road capacity and topology, in the latter the available time to generate this network is extremely limited. This time constraint precludes the use of any traditional data gathering methodology and the network generation process has to rely on the use of GIS and stochastic modeling techniques. The generation of these transportation networks in real time is the focus of this entry.

Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL

2008-01-01

448

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk/Bike Used as transport to/from: = Work or Work/Home Your

449

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Bike Duration of Activity = Min. Interval = Day or Weekday

450

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk Duration of Activity = Min. Interval = Day or Weekday

451

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk Duration of Activity = Hr. Interval = Day or Weekday or

452

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk/Bike Duration of Activity = Min. Interval = Day or Weekday

453

Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Bike Duration of Activity = Hr. Interval = Day or Weekday or

454

Neutral Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Searches  

SciTech Connect

In some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the coupling of Higgs bosons to b-quarks is enhanced. This enhancement makes the associated production of the Higgs with b-quarks an interesting search channel for the Higgs and Supersymmetry at D0. The identification of b-quarks, both online and offline, is essential to this search effort. This thesis describes the author's involvement in the development of both types of b-tagging and in the application of these techniques to the MSSM Higgs search. Work was carried out on the Level-3 trigger b-tagging algorithms. The impact parameter (IP) b-tagger was retuned and the effects of increased instantaneous luminosity on the tagger were studied. An extension of the IP-tagger to use the z-tracking information was developed. A new b-tagger using secondary vertices was developed and commissioned. A tool was developed to allow the use of large multi-run samples for trigger studies involving b-quarks. Offline, a neural network (NN) b-tagger was trained combining the existing offline lifetime based b-tagging tools. The efficiency and fake rate of the NN b-tagger were measured in data and MC. This b-tagger was internally reviewed and certified by the Collaboration and now provides the official b-tagging for all analyses using the Run IIa dataset at D0. A search was performed for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a b{bar b} pair and produced in association with one or more b-quarks. Limits are set on the cross-section times the branching ratio for such a process. The limits were interpreted in various MSSM scenarios. This analysis uses the NN b-tagger and was the first to use this tool. The analysis also relies on triggers using the Level-3 IP b-tagging tool described previously. A likelihood discriminant was used to improve the analysis and a neural network was developed to cross-check this technique. The result of the analysis has been submitted to PRL and is comparable to the result from CDF in the same channel which uses approximately twice the integrated luminosity.

Robinson, Stephen Luke; /Imperial Coll., London

2009-09-01

455

Emerging communication technologies in emergency medical services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in communication technologies are changing the face of emergency medical services (EMS). Two communication technologies in particular—cellular-enhanced 9-1-1 service and automatic crash notification (ACN)—will have a considerable impact on EMS. Although enhanced 9-1-1 service from land-line phones is now available in nearly every EMS system across the country, enhanced 9-1-1 service from cell phones currently does not exist. With

Richard C. Hunt

2002-01-01

456

Fast and flexible word searching on compressed text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast compression technique for natural language texts. The novelties are that (1) decompression of arbitrary portions of the text can be done very efficiently, (2) exact search for words and phrases can be done on the compressed text directly, using any known sequential pattern-matching algorithm, and (3) word-based approximate and extended search can also be done efficiently

Edleno Silva de Moura; Gonzalo Navarro; Nivio Ziviani; Ricardo A. Baeza-Yates

2000-01-01

457

The relationship between search based software engineering and predictive modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is an approach to software engineering in which search based optimization algorithms are used to identify optimal or near optimal solutions and to yield insight. SBSE techniques can cater for multiple, possibly competing objectives and\\/ or constraints and applications where the potential solution space is large and complex. This paper will provide a brief overview

Mark Harman

2010-01-01

458

Search for Strange Matter by Heavy Ion Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an experimental search for stable strange matter using the heavy ion technique, based on properties of strangelets. We studied samples of a meteorite, terrestrial nickel ore, and lunar soil. Our search improved by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude the existing experimental limit on the strange matter content in normal matter and enabled probing the

M. C. Isaac; Y. D. Chan; R. Clark; M. A. Deleplanque; M. R. Dragowsky; P. Fallon; I. D. Goldman; R.-M. Larimer; I. Y. Lee; A. O. Macchiavelli; R. W. MacLeod; K. Nishiizumi; E. B. Norman; L. S. Schroeder; F. S. Stephens

1998-01-01

459

Locality in Search Engine Queries and Its Implications for Caching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caching is a popular technique for reducing both server load and user response time in dis- tributed systems. In this paper, we are interested in the question of whether caching might be effective for search engines as well. We study two real search engine traces by examining query locality and its implications for caching. Our trace analysis results show that:

Yinglian Xie; David R. O'hallaron

2002-01-01

460

A Probabilistic Model for Optimal Searching of the Deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of the World Wide Web, efficient searching of information on the web has become a challenge to the Internet technology community. However in earlier days when the net was not such a huge pool of information as it is today, most of the information used to be stored in static HTML pages. Thus searching techniques were primarily

Shibnath Mukherjee

461

Pareto optimal search based refactoring at the design level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refactoring aims to improve the quality of a software sys- tems' structure, which tends to degrade as the system evolves. While manually determining useful refactorings can be chal- lenging, search based techniques can automatically discover useful refactorings. Current search based refactoring ap- proaches require metrics to be combined in a complex fash- ion, and produce a single sequence of refactorings.

Mark Harman; Laurence Tratt

2007-01-01

462

Applying tabu search to the job-shop scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply the tabu-search technique to the job-shop scheduling problem, a notoriously difficult problem in combinatorial optimization. We show that our implementation of this method dominates both a previous approach with tabu search and the other heuristics based on iterative improvements.

Mauro Dell' Amico; Marco Trubian

1993-01-01

463

An enhanced model for searching in semantic portals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic Portal is the next generation of web portals that are powered by Semantic Web technologies for improved information sharing and exchange for a community of users. Current methods of searching in Semantic Portals are limited to keyword-based search using information retrieval (IR) techniques, ontology-based formal query and reasoning, or a simple combination of the two. In this paper, we

Lei Zhang; Yong Yu; Jian Zhou; ChenXi Lin; Yin Yang

2005-01-01

464

Improving non-English web searching (iNEWS07)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop attempted to promote the discussion and the research on non-English Web searching. Most search engines were first built for English. They do not take full account of inflectional semantics nor, for example, diacritics or the use of capitals. Our main aim was to discuss the additional problems faced in non-English Web queries and to suggest techniques to improve

Fotis Lazarinis; Jesús Vilares Ferro; John Tait

2007-01-01

465

Issues in intelligent robots for search and rescue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and Kobe, Japan, earthquake, robotics researchers have been considering search and rescue as a humanitarian research domain. The recent devastation in Turkey and Taiwan, compounded with the new Robocup Rescue and AAAI Urban Search and Rescue robot competition, may encourage more research. However, roboticists generally go not have access to domain experts: the emergency workers or first providers. This paper shares our understanding of urban search and rescue, based on our active research in this area and training sessions with rescue workers from the Hillsborough County (Florida) Fire Departments. The paper is intended to be a stepping stone for roboticists entering the field.

Casper, Jennifer L.; Micire, Mark; Murphy, Robin R.

2000-07-01

466

Search for Shallow Magma Accumulations at Augustine Volcano.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A search was made for shallow magma accumulations beneath Augustine Volcano using primarily three geophysical techniques: (1) temperature and heat flow measurements, (2) active and passive seismic refraction, and (3) three-dimensional modeling of aeromagn...

J. Kienle D. J. Lalla C. F. Pearson S. A. Barrett

1979-01-01

467

Enhancing Search Performance on Gnutella-Like P2P Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The big challenges,facing the search techniques,on Gnutella-like peer-to-peer networks,are search efficiency and quality of search results. In this paper, leveraging information retrieval (IR) algorithms such as Vector Space Model (VSM) and relevance ranking algorithms, we present GES (Gnutella with Efficient Search) to improve search performance. The key idea is that GES uses a distributed topology,adaptation algorithm,to organize,semantically,relevant nodes,into same semantic

Yingwu Zhu; Yiming Hu

2006-01-01

468

Measuring Customer Perceptions of Emergency Facility Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative research technique and define problems faced by one hospital that was attempting to increase demand for its emergency services. A telephone survey of 450 affluent and well-educated suburban residents was conducted to determine their perceptions of six major facilities. Topics included actual and preferred facility use by injury type, general

Raymond A. Phelps II; Edward J. Ryan Jr; William A. Bailey

1995-01-01

469

Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM me...

M. W. McGreevy

2001-01-01

470

Planning for psychiatric emergencies.  

PubMed Central

Hospital emergency services have been used increasingly in recent years. This has resulted in questions as to the true nature of patients' complaints and the appropriateness of this type of care. Since the increase in the number of psychiatric emergency patients has paralleled that for patients at other types of emergency clinics a study was conducted at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, to examine the situation prior to the inception in 1977 of a crisis intervention unit. It was found that most patients had both psychiatric and social difficulties, and it was considered that planning should concentrate on strategies for efficient management of the clinical problems.

Eastwood, M. R.; Stiasny, S.; Cashman, F.; Littmann, S. K.; Voineskos, G.

1979-01-01

471

Finding Planets and Searching for Life: Worthy Goals for 21st Century Science (The Search for Habitable Planets)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has made the search for life, both inside and beyond our solar system, a focus of its space science program. The goal of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is to search for earth-like planets. Recently completed architecture studies suggest that both infrared and visible light techniques offer plausible solutions to the daunting observational problems this goal presents. I will

Beichman; Charles A

2003-01-01

472

Paleomagnetic database search possible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have recently finished an on-line search program which allows remote users to search the “Abase” ASCII version of the World Paleomagnetic Database developed by Lock and McElhinny [1991]. The program is very simple to use and will search the Soviet, non-Soviet, rock unit, and reference databases and create output files that can be downloaded back to a researcher's local system using the ftp command.To use Search, telnet to 130.49.3.1 (earth.eps.pitt.edu) and login as the user “Search.rdquo There is no password, and the user is asked a series of questions, which define the geographic region and ages of interest. The program will also ask for an identifier with which to create the output file names. The program has three modes of operation: text-only, Tektronix graphics, or X11l/R5 graphics; the proper choice depends on the computer hardware that is used by the searcher.

Harbert, William

473

Searching strategies in Dictyostelium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levy walks are known to be the best strategy for optimizing non-destructive search times, while an intermittent two-state searching process optimizes the destructive case. Here we ask about hunting strategy in Dictyostelium amoebae when they cannot know where their food is. We show that correlated random walks with two typical correlation time scales bias their search, improving the search outcome. Further analysis indicates that cell trajectories consist of runs and turns. Strikingly, amoebae remember the last turn, and have a strong turning preference away from the last turn. Autocorrelation analysis of turn sequences indicates that this tendency does not persist beyond the nth+1 turn. Computer simulations reveal that this bias contributes to the longer of the two correlation times. The search rules are essentially the same when cells are continuously stimulated by cAMP, with different persistence times and lengths. Interestingly, new pseudopods form in an orientation opposite to the following turn. One of the correlation timescales is approximately 30 seconds in all cases, thus indicating a short-lived cellular process, while the other is 9 to 15 minutes suggesting a process sensitive to external signals, perhaps pseudopod extensions during turning.

Li, Liang; Cox, Edward

2007-03-01

474

Subpixel object detection using hyperspectral imaging for search and rescue operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time critical search & rescue (s&r) operations often requires the detection of small objects in a vast area. While an airborne search can cover the area, no operational instrumental tools currently exist to actually replace the human operator. By producing the spectral signature of each pixel in a spatial image, multi- and hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) sensors provides a powerful capability for automated detection of subpixel size objects that are otherwise unresolved objects in conventional imagery. This property of HSI naturally lends itself to s&r operations. A lost hiker, skier, life raft adrift in the ocean, downed pilot or small aircraft wreckage targets, can be detected from relatively high altitude based on their unique spectral signatures. Moreover, the spectral information obtained allows the search craft to operate at substantially reduced spatial resolution thereby increasing scene coverage without a significant loss in detection sensitivity. The paper demonstrates the detection of objects as small as 1/10 of an image pixel from a sensor flying at over 6 km altitude. A subpixel object detection algorithm using HSI, based on local image statistics without reliance on spectral libraries is presented. The technique is amenable to fast signal processing and the requisite hardware can be built using inexpensive off the shelf technology. This makes HSI a highly attractive tool for real-time, autonomous instrument-based implementation. It can complement current visual-based s&r operations or emerging synthetic aperture radar sensors that are much more expensive.

Subramanian, Suresh; Gat, Nahum

1998-09-01

475

Children's Search Engines from an Information Search Process Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes cognitive and affective characteristics of children and teenagers that may affect their Web searching behavior. Reviews literature on children's searching in online public access catalogs (OPACs) and using digital libraries. Profiles two Web search engines. Discusses some of the difficulties children have searching the Web, in the…

Broch, Elana

2000-01-01

476

Mining templates from search result records of search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metasearch engine, Comparison-shopping and Deep Web crawling applications need to extract search result records enwrapped in result pages returned from search engines in response to user queries. The search result records from a given search engine are usually formatted based on a template. Precisely identifying this template can greatly help extract and annotate the data units within each record correctly.

Hongkun Zhao; Weiyi Meng; Clement T. Yu

2007-01-01

477

Respirators for Public Health Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... to Z Index Follow FDA FDA Voice Blog Enter Search terms Search the FDA Archive Home Food Drugs Medical ... is no longer maintained and may be outdated. Enter Search terms For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section ...

478

CRESST Dark Matter Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are preparing the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) experiment in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, to search for dark Matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) using cryogenic detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers. In the first stage of the experiment we plan to use four 262g sapphire detectors with thresholds of 0.5 keV and resolutions of .2 keV at 1 keV. This will provide sensitivity to WIMP masses below 10 GEV making our experiment complementary to other dark matter searches. In 1997 the installation in Gran Sasso was completed and first detector tests were made. Preparation of the low-background cold box is in progress.

1998-02-01

479

Optimizing persistent random searches.  

PubMed

We consider a minimal model of persistent random searcher with a short range memory. We calculate exactly for such a searcher the mean first-passage time to a target in a bounded domain and find that it admits a nontrivial minimum as function of the persistence length. This reveals an optimal search strategy which differs markedly from the simple ballistic motion obtained in the case of Poisson distributed targets. Our results show that the distribution of targets plays a crucial role in the random search problem. In particular, in the biologically relevant cases of either a single target or regular patterns of targets, we find that, in strong contrast to repeated statements in the literature, persistent random walks with exponential distribution of excursion lengths can minimize the search time, and in that sense perform better than any Levy walk. PMID:22463578

Tejedor, Vincent; Voituriez, Raphael; Bénichou, Olivier

2012-02-22

480

Child Development and Emergent Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a typology of emergent literacy skills, reviews research relating emergent literacy to reading, and reviews evidence linking emergent literacy environments and development of emergent literacy skills. Proposes that emergent literacy consists of inside-out skills and outside-in skills that are influential at different times during reading…

Whitehurst, Grover J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

1998-01-01

481

Emergency Cooling System Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations of emergency cooling system (ECS) flows are required to complete the Flood Code documentation and validation. Only minimum ECS flows are required input to the FLOOD code for system safety analysis. ECS flows have not been documented since the...

J. H. Hinton

1985-01-01

482

Emerging Battery Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines emerging battery technologies. Included in this report are the following sections. The need for energy storage, the resulting programs, some results (lead-acid battery, zinc/chlorine battery and zinc/bromine battery) and the potential...

J. L. Chamberlin

1984-01-01

483

Pesticides: Emergency Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Inhaled poison. Carry or drag victim to fresh air immediately. If you think you need protection such as a respirator and one is not available to you, call the Fire Department and wait for emergency equipment before entering ...

484

Emergency medicine in space.  

PubMed

Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight. PMID:17239732

Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

2007-01-01

485

[Emerging viral diseases].  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have again entered the public arena in recent years. This is due to factors such as evolving lifestyles, ecological and socio-political upheavals, and recent diagnostic advances. Numerous pathogens, including viruses like West Nile, Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis on the one hand, and hemorrhagic fever viruses like Ebola and Maburg, are particular concerns. Recently, the Corona virus responsible for SARS, which caused an epidemic sufficiently worrisome to challenge crisis management concepts, was successfully isolated. It is in this context that so-called "bird flu'", may be on the verge of causing a human pandemic. Pox and Monkeypox are "virtually emerging" viruses that have potential for use in bioterrorism. The management and treatment of these emerging infectious diseases calls for new approaches, organizations and infrastructures. PMID:17140098

Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

2006-03-01

486

Rural Emergency Medical Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report finds that many State emergency medical service (EMS) systems are fragmented and lacking resources to remedy EMS problems in rural areas. Many rural EMS programs lack specialized EMS providers, have inadequate EMS transportation and communicati...

1989-01-01

487

SOPP 8205: Emergency INDs  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... In the past, the procedure for granting such emergency use ... FDA, and therefore should not be granted on the ... the decision is made to grant or deny ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/proceduressopps

488

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

489

Promises of Emerging Technology  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emerging technology promises to give US theater commanders the ability to destroy enemy aircraft on the ground. The Air Force's current doctrine, and predictive studies are unanimous - destroying enemy aircraft on the ground is the most effective method o...

C. W. Nystrom

1991-01-01

490

Demography and Public Health Emergency Preparedness: Making the Connection  

PubMed Central

The tools and techniques of population sciences are extremely relevant to the discipline of public health emergency preparedness: protecting and securing the population’s health requires information about that population. While related fields such as security studies have successfully integrated demographic tools into their research and literature, the theoretical and practical connection between the methods of demography and the practice of public health emergency preparedness is weak. This article suggests the need to further the interdisciplinary use of demography by examining the need for a systematic use of population science techniques in public health emergency preparedness. Ultimately, we demonstrate how public health emergency preparedness can incorporate demography to develop more effective preparedness plans. Important policy implications emerge: demographers and preparedness experts need to collaborate more formally in order to facilitate community resilience and mitigate the consequences of public health emergencies.

Katz, Rebecca

2009-01-01

491

Privacy Preserving Nearest Neighbor Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data mining is frequently obstructed by privacy concerns. In many cases data is distributed, and bringing the data together in one place for analysis is not possible due to privacy laws (e.g. HIPAA) or policies. Privacy preserving data mining techniques have been developed to address this issue by providing mechanisms to mine the data while giving certain privacy guarantees. In this chapter we address the issue of privacy preserving nearest neighbor search, which forms the kernel of many data mining applications. To this end, we present a novel algorithm based on secure multiparty computation primitives to compute the nearest neighbors of records in horizontally distributed data. We show how this algorithm can be used in three important data mining algorithms, namely LOF outlier detection, SNN clustering, and kNN classification. We prove the security of these algorithms under the semi-honest adversarial model, and describe methods that can be used to optimize their performance. Keywords: Privacy Preserving Data Mining, Nearest Neighbor Search, Outlier Detection, Clustering, Classification, Secure Multiparty Computation

Shaneck, Mark; Kim, Yongdae; Kumar, Vipin

492

Emergence from irreversibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergent nature of quantum mechanics is shown to follow from a precise correspondence with the classical theory of irreversible thermodynamics. Specifically, the linear (or Gaussian) regime of the latter can be put in a 1-to-1 map with the semiclassical approximation to quantum mechanics. The very possibility of reinterpreting quantum mechanics as a thermodynamics proves that the former is an emergent phenomenon. That is, quantum mechanics is a coarse-grained description of some underlying degrees of freedom.

Fernández de Córdoba, P.; Isidro, J. M.; Perea, Milton H.

2013-06-01

493

Bound-phrase searching in OCLC FirstSearch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful way to pinpoint information in OCLC FirstSearch is through a wordlist bound-phrase search. A bound-phrase search looks for the full title, author, and so forth. exactly as you type it. A wordlist search will tell you how many hits to expect before you are charged for a search. You can also browse through the wordlist for additional related

Janice Zlendich

1994-01-01

494

Upgrading Enterprise Search  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined phases of implementation and customization, with initial rollout late January 2004. Finally, we will show you where we are today and describe future search plans.

McDunn, R

2005-04-28

495

The SARG Planet Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the radial velocity planet search in moderately wide binaries with similar components (twins) ongoing at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) using the Galileo High Resolution Spectrograph (Spettrografo Alta Risoluzione Galileo, SARG). We discuss the sample selection, the observing and analysis procedures, the main results of the radial velocity monitoring and the implications in terms of planet frequency in binary systems. We also briefly discuss the second major science goal of the SARG survey, the search for abundance anomalies caused by the ingestion of planetary material by the central star. Finally, we present some preliminary conclusions regarding the frequency of planets in binary systems.

Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Endl, M.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Scuderi, S.; Bonavita, M.; Barbieri, M.; Bonanno, G.; Cecconi, M.; Lucatello, S.; Marzari, F.

2010-04-01

496

Searching with iterated maps  

PubMed Central

In many problems that require extensive searching, the solution can be described as satisfying two competing constraints, where satisfying each independently does not pose a challenge. As an alternative to tree-based and stochastic searching, for these problems we propose using an iterated map built from the projections to the two constraint sets. Algorithms of this kind have been the method of choice in a large variety of signal-processing applications; we show here that the scope of these algorithms is surprisingly broad, with applications as diverse as protein folding and Sudoku.

Elser, V.; Rankenburg, I.; Thibault, P.

2007-01-01

497

Searching for excellence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visits to six school districts which were identified by the National Science Teachers Association's Search for Excellence program were made during 1983 by teams of 17 researchers. The reports were analyzed in search for common characteristics that can explain the requirements necessary for excellent science programs. The results indicate that creative ideas, administrative and community involvement, local ownership and pride, and well-developed in-service programs and implementation strategies are vital. Exceptional teachers with boundless energies also seem to exist where exemplary science programs are found.

Yager, Robert E.

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Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BEST (Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope) is a simple but robust ground-based photometric observation system with the scope to detect exoplanet transit events of Jupiter sized objects. A 20-cm flat-field Schmidt-camera is equipped with a 2048×2048 CCD. The field of view is around 3.0 degrees, allowing a large number of stars to be observed simultaneously. Regular observations of a number of selected fields have s