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QUEST: A model to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques, theory and application  

SciTech Connect

As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to our national security. Sandia National Laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response fro various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training.

Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Wilcox, W.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hensley, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)



Techniques for Specialized Search Engines  

E-print Network

It is emerging that it is very difficult for the major search engines to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date search service of the Web. Even the largest search engines index only a small proportion of static Web pages and do not search the Web' s backend databases that are estimated to be 500 times larger than the static Web. The scale of such searching introduces both technical and economic problems. What is more, in many cases users are not able to retrieve the information they desire because of the simple and generic search interface provided by the major search engines. A necessary response to these search problems is the creation of specialized search engines. These search engines search just for information in a particular topic or category on the Web. Such search engines will have smaller and more manageable indexes and have a powerful domainspecific search interface. This paper discusses the issues in this area and gives an overview of the techniques for building specialized search engines. Keywords: specialized search engine, information retrieval, focused crawling, taxonomy, Web search. 1.

Robert Steele



Emerging Imaging Techniques  

PubMed Central

This article reviews recent developments in selected imaging technologies focused on the cardiovascular system. The techniques covered are: ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), microSPECT, microPET, near infrared imaging, and quantum dots. For each technique, the basic physical principles are explained and recent example applications demonstrated. PMID:16614313

McVeigh, Elliot R.



Improved Search Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

Albornoz, Caleb Ronald



Lidar techniques for search and rescue  

SciTech Connect

Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the uv. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

Cabral, W.L.



Emerging Affinity-Based Techniques in Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Summary Proteomes of interest, such as the human proteome, have such complexity that no single technique is adequate for complete analysis of the constituents. Depending on the goal (e.g., identification of a novel protein vs. measurement of the level of a known protein), the tools required can vary significantly. While existing methods provide valuable information, their limitations drive the development of complementary, innovative methods to achieve greater breadth of coverage, dynamic range, or specificity of analysis. Here, we will discuss affinity-based methods and their applications, focusing on their unique advantages. In addition, we will describe emerging methods with potential value to proteomics as well as the challenges that remain for proteomic studies. PMID:19811078

Xie, Shengnan; Moya, Colby; Bilgin, Betul; Jayaraman, Arul; Walton, S. Patrick



Mobile Visual Search: Architectures, Technologies, and the Emerging  

E-print Network

Mobile Visual Search: Architectures, Technologies, and the Emerging MPEG Standard Modern-era mobile to initiate search queries about objects in the user's visual proximity (see Figure 1). Such applications can, real estate, printed media, or art. First deploy- ments of mobile visual-search systems include Google

Girod, Bernd


Air traffic control using genetic search techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic search techniques constitute an optimization methodology effective for solving discontinuous, non-convex, nonlinear, or non-analytic problems. This paper explores the application of such techniques to a non-analytic event-related air traffic control problem, that of runway assignment, sequencing and scheduling of arrival flights at an airport with multiple runways. Several genetic search formulations are developed and evaluated with a representative arrival

V. H. L. Cheng; L. S. Crawford; P. K. Menon



Emerging semantic communities in peer web search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer network systems are becoming an increasingly important development in Web search technology. Many studies show that peer search systems perform better when a query is sent to a group of peers semantically similar to the query. This suggests that semantic communities should form so that a query can quickly propagate to many appropriate peers. For the network to be

R. Akavipat; L.-S. Wu; F. Menczer; A. G. Maguitman



Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centropolyhedral groups  

E-print Network

Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centro­polyhedral groups C. M. Campbell and P. P. Campbell the Fibonacci orbit of G with respect to the generating set A, denoted FA (G). If FA (G) is periodic, we call the length of the period of the sequence the Fibonacci length of G with respect to A, written LENA (G). We

St Andrews, University of


A Fast Search Technique for Binary Pulsars  

E-print Network

I describe a computationally simple, efficient, and sensitive method to search long observations for pulsars in binary systems. The technique looks for orbitally induced sidebands in the power spectrum around a nominal spin frequency, enabling it to detect pulsars in high- or low-mass binaries with short orbital periods (P_orb <~ 5 h).

Scott M. Ransom



Emergent Behaviour, Population-based Search and  

E-print Network

emergent organism is proportional to the gradient of a modified food distribution. This is the result, we have found kernels (via genetic programming) that allow the single organism model to track entities. The model is a modified spring mass model where the masses can perceive the environment

Fernandez, Thomas



Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces and overviews an emerging methodology in search and optimisation. One of the key aims of these new approaches, which have been termed hyper-heuristics, is to raise the level of generality at which optimisation systems can operate. An objective is that hyper-heuristics will lead to more general systems that are able to handle a wide range of problem

Edmund Burke; Emma Hart; G raham Kendall; Peter Ross; Sonia Schulenburg



Search techniques for near-earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the near-earth asteroids (Apollo, Amor, and Aten groups) has increased enormously over the last 10 to 15 years. This has been due in large part to the success of programs that have systematically searched for these objects. These programs have been motivated by the apparent relationships of the near-earth asteroids to terrestrial impact cratering, meteorites, and comets, and their relative accessibility for asteroid missions. Discovery of new near-earth asteroids is fundamental to all other studies, from theoretical modeling of their populations to the determination of their physical characteristics by various remote-sensing techniques. The methods that have been used to find these objects are reviewed, and ways in which the search for near-earth asteroids can be expanded are discussed.

Helin, E. F.; Dunbar, R. S.


The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

McGlone, B; Balan, K



Information Spread of Emergency Events: Path Searching on Social Networks  

PubMed Central

Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning. PMID:24600323

Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan



Field deployable technique for 90Sr emergency bioassay.  


Rapid bioassay is very important for immediate and near-term consequence management, which includes identifying contaminated individuals and providing necessary medical intervention during a radiological or nuclear emergency. This paper reports the application of a newly developed bioassay technique for (90)Sr in urine on a field deployable instrument, the Triathler. Performance of this field technique for sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability is evaluated against bioassay criteria (ANSI N13.30). This field technique offers the following analytical merits: (1) minimum detectable activity of 121 Bq l(-1) when 20 ml of urine is used; (2) relative bias of 11.1 % and relative precision of 3.2 % at the level of 45 Bq per 20 ml of urine and (3) sample turnaround time of less than 1 h. The technique meets the requirements for emergency bioassay when a committed effective dose of 0.5 Sv is used as the action dose threshold for medical intervention. Sample throughput can be significantly improved if this technique is automated. PMID:19692422

Li, C; Sadi, B B; Moodie, G; Daka, J N; Lai, E P C; Kramer, G H



Emerging techniques and molecular imaging in breast cancer.  


The sensitivity of screening mammography is limited in the evaluation of dense breasts, with as few as 45% of cancers visible in extremely dense breasts. Supplementary imaging for improved sensitivity in women with dense breasts is necessary to overcome this limitation. Emerging technologies that advance the applications of digital mammography include digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast cone-beam computed tomography. Molecular imaging goes beyond structural imaging. A functional imaging technique that provides information on the biology, physiology, and metabolic pathways of cancer might help to improve the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer diagnosis, facilitate early assessment of treatment response, and help individualize therapy options for patients. Advanced magnetic resonance, nuclear medicine, and optical imaging techniques in the realm of molecular imaging will be explored in this article. PMID:21782119

Yang, Wei Tse



Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.


Searching the Web: Introduction to Search Techniques on the Web. [Videotape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 20-minute videotape looks at techniques for searching the Web and deals with other pertinent issues, such as performing Boolean searches, evaluating the usefulness of search engines and evaluating the resource materials found on the Web. A resource guide accompanies the tape. The guide consists of print training materials written by library…

American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.


Building Domain-Specific Search Engines with Machine Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domain-specific search engines are growing in popu- larity because they offer increased accuracy and extra functionality not possible with the general, Web-wide search engines. For example, allows complex queries by age-group, size, location and cost over .summer camps. Unfortunately these domain-specific search engines are difficult and time- consuming to maintain. This paper proposes the use of machine learning techniques

Andrew McCallum; Kamal Nigam; Jason Rennie; Kristie Seymore



Teaching Web Search Skills: Techniques and Strategies of Top Trainers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here is a unique and practical reference for anyone who teaches Web searching. Greg Notess shares his own techniques and strategies along with expert tips and advice from a virtual "who's who" of Web search training: Joe Barker, Paul Barron, Phil Bradley, John Ferguson, Alice Fulbright, Ran Hock, Jeff Humphrey, Diane Kovacs, Gary Price, Danny…

Notess, Greg R.



A Flexible Motif Search Technique Based on Generalized Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible motif search technique is presented which has two major components: (1) a generalized profile syntax serving as a motif definition language; and (2) a motif search method specifically adapted to the problem of finding multiple instances of a motif in the same sequence. The new profile structure, which is the core of the generalized profile syntax, combines the

Philipp Bucher; Kevin Karplus; Nicolas Moeri; Kay Hofmann



Combining local search and backtracking techniques for constraint satisfaction  

SciTech Connect

Backtracking techniques are well-known traditional methods for solving many constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) including the satisfiability (SAT) problem in the propositional logic. In recent years, it has been reported that local search techniques are very effective in solving some large-scale instances of the SAT problem. In this research, we combine the backtracking and local search techniques into a single method for solving SAT and CSPs. When setting a parameter of the method to either of its two extreme values, we obtain the ordinary backtracking procedure or the local search procedure. For some problems, if the parameter takes values in the middle of the two extremes, the new method is much more effective than either backtracking or local search. We tested the method with classical problems like the n-Queens and random SAT instances, as well as some difficult problems from finite mathematics. In particular, using the new method, we solved four open problems in design theory.

Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)



Effective Group Training Techniques in Job-Search Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine the effects of group training techniques in job-search training on later reemployment and mental health. The participants were 278 unemployed workers in Finland in 71 job-search training groups. Five group-level dimensions of training were identified. The results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that preparation for setbacks at the group level significantly predicted decreased psychological distress

Jukka Vuori; Richard H. Price; Pertti Mutanen; Ira Malmberg-Heimonen



Analysis of Piezoelectric Structural Sensors with Emergent Computing Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to try to interpret the results of some tests that were performed earlier this year and to demonstrate a possible use of emergence in computing to solve IVHM problems. The test data used was collected with piezoelectric sensors to detect mechanical changes in structures. This project team was included of Dr. Doug Ramers and Dr. Abdul Jallob of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, Arnaldo Colon-Lopez - a student intern from the University of Puerto Rico of Turabo, and John Lassister and Bob Engberg of the Structural and Dynamics Test Group. The tests were performed by Bob Engberg to compare the performance two types of piezoelectric (piezo) sensors, Pb(Zr(sub 1-1)Ti(sub x))O3, which we will label PZT, and Pb(Zn(sub 1/3)Nb(sub 2/3))O3-PbTiO, which we will label SCP. The tests were conducted under varying temperature and pressure conditions. One set of tests was done by varying water pressure inside an aluminum liner covered with carbon-fiber composite layers (a cylindrical "bottle" with domed ends) and the other by varying temperatures down to cryogenic levels on some specially prepared composite panels. This report discusses the data from the pressure study. The study of the temperature results was not completed in time for this report. The particular sensing done with these piezo sensors is accomplished by the sensor generating an controlled vibration that is transmitted into the structure to which the sensor is attached, and the same sensor then responding to the induced vibration of the structure. There is a relationship between the mechanical impedance of the structure and the resulting electrical impedance produced in the in the piezo sensor. The impedance is also a function of the excitation frequency. Changes in the real part of impendance signature relative to an original reference signature indicate a change in the coupled structure that could be the results of damage or strain. The water pressure tests were conducted by pressurizing the bottle on a test stand, and running sweeps of excitations frequencies for each of the piezo sensors and recording the resulting impedance. The sweeps were limited to 401 points by the available analyzer, and it was decided to perform individual sweeps at five different excitation frequency ranges. The frequency ranges used for the PZTs were different in two of the five ranges from the ranges used for the SCP. The bottles were pressurized to empty (no water), 0psig, 77 psig, 155 psig, 227 psig in nearly uniform increments of about 77psi. One of each of the two types of piezo sensors was fastened on to the bottle surface at two locations: about midway between the ends on cylindrical portion of the bottle and at the very edge of one of the end domes. The data was collected in files by sensor type (2 cases), by location (2 cases), by frequency range (5 cases), and pressure (5cases) to produce 100 data sets of 401 impedances. After familiarization with the piezo sensing technology and obtaining the data, the team developed a set of questions to try to answer regarding the data and made assignments of responsibilities. The next section lists the questions, and the remainder of the report describes the data analysis work performed by Dr. Ramers. This includes a discussion of the data, the approach to answering the question using statistical techniques, the use of an emergent system to investigate the data where statistical techniques were not usable, conclusions regarding the data, and recommendations.

Ramers, Douglas L.



Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene



Comments on the Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We comment on the paper "The co-emergence of machine techniques, paper-and-pencil techniques, and theoretical reflection: A study of CAS use in secondary school algebra" by Carolyn Kieran and Paul Drijvers. We look at aspects of Kieran and Drijvers' analysis with regard to "task-technique-theory" in the light of a model of abstraction in context…

Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih



Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

Lansky, Amy L.



Improved techniques for result caching in web search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Query processing is a major cost factor in operating large web search engines. In this paper, we study query result caching, one of the main techniques used to optimize query processing performance. Our first contribution is a study of result caching as a weighted caching problem. Most previous work has focused on optimizing cache hit ratios, but given that processing

Qingqing Gan; Torsten Suel



Search Methodologies: Introductory Tutorials in Optimization and Decision Support Techniques  

E-print Network

Search Methodologies: Introductory Tutorials in Optimization and Decision Support Techniques Edmund the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical #12 and applied for solution to real world science and engineering problems. In this tutorial, we briefly describe

Aickelin, Uwe


Search Methodologies: Introductory Tutorials in Optimization and Decision Support Techniques  

E-print Network

Search Methodologies: Introductory Tutorials in Optimization and Decision Support Techniques Edmund to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical #12;2 messengers for solution to real world science and engineering problems. In this tutorial, we briefly describe the immune

Aickelin, Uwe


High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

Juan D. Deaton



Surface space : digital manufacturing techniques and emergent building material  

E-print Network

This thesis explores tectonic possibilities of new material and forming techniques. The design process is catalyzed by experimenting different configurations of the material.This project attempts to develop inventive ways ...

Ho, Joseph Chi-Chen, 1975-



Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centro-polyhedral groups  

E-print Network

Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centro-polyhedral groups C. M. Campbell and P. P. Campbell} the sequence xi = ai+1, 0 i n - 1, xi+n = n j=1 xi+j-1, i 0, is called the Fibonacci orbit of G with respect the Fibonacci length of G with respect to A, written LENA(G). We examine the Fibonacci lengths of all generating

St Andrews, University of


Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: review and assessment of an emerging technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several recent reports have affirmed the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach for radical prostatectomy. In this review, we discuss the morbidities associated with this technique and compare outcomes and convalescence withstandard open radical prostatectomy. Methods: We reviewed all currently published data on laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and our series of 45 robotic-assisted radical prostatectomies and compared them to several landmark

J. B. Basillote; T. E. Ahlering; D. W. Skarecky; D. I. Lee; R. V. Clayman



Emerging role of radiolabeled nanoparticles as an effective diagnostic technique  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising approach for diagnostic applications. Nanoparticles are structures in the nanometer size range, which can present different shapes, compositions, charges, surface modifications, in vitro and in vivo stabilities, and in vivo performances. Nanoparticles can be made of materials of diverse chemical nature, the most common being metals, metal oxides, silicates, polymers, carbon, lipids, and biomolecules. Nanoparticles exist in various morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, platelets, and tubes. Radiolabeled nanoparticles represent a new class of agent with great potential for clinical applications. This is partly due to their long blood circulation time and plasma stability. In addition, because of the high sensitivity of imaging with radiolabeled compounds, their use has promise of achieving accurate and early diagnosis. This review article focuses on the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in detecting diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also presents an overview about the formulation, stability, and biological properties of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:22809406



Microfabrication techniques using focused ion beams and emergent applications.  


The application of focused ion beam (FIB) machining in several technologies aimed at microstructure fabrication is presented. These emergent applications include the production of micromilling tools for machining of metals and the production of microsurgical tools. An example of the use of microsurgical manipulators in a circulatory system measurement is presented. The steps needed to transform the laboratory fabrication of these tools and manipulators into a routine FIB production process are discussed. The ion milling of three-dimensional cavities by the exact solution of a mathematical model of the FIB deflection is demonstrated. A good agreement between the model calculation and the ion beam control has been obtained for parabolic and cosine cross-section features with planes of symmetry. PMID:10420642

Vasile, M J; Nassar, R; Xie, J; Guo, H



Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a

R. Linker; A. Shaviv



New and Emerging Techniques in Cartilage Repair: MACI  

PubMed Central

The management of full thickness articular cartilage defects is a challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. It has limited potential for healing and can be a significant source of pain and loss of function. Multiple cartilage repair strategies have been attempted. Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI) has been shown to produce hyaline-like cartilage into chondral defects. The goal of this review is to provide the current principles and technique of the MACI procedure along with reported clinical outcomes with its use. PMID:24072960

Dunkin, Brad S; Lattermann, Christian



Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ?V?3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015



[Invasive techniques in emergency medicine. III. Intraosseous punction--an alternative vascular access in paediatric emergencies].  


There can be few more daunting challenges for the emergency physician than an infant or small child in shock or cardiac arrest. At the best of times, the combination of small veins and abundant subcutaneous tissue makes vascular access difficult or impossible, even in experienced hands. For these situations, the intraosseous vascular access is an easy, rapid and safe alternative. The intraosseous route is recommended for children < or =6 years of age, where conventional vascular access cannot be timely established. The preferred sites are the medial aspect of the proximal end of the tibia, just below the tibial tuberosity. Access should be obtained with a commercially available intraosseous needle. All emergency drugs and infusion fluids for intravenous usage can safely be infused via the intraosseous route (except hypertonic solutions) and it is not necessary to adjust drug dosage compared to the intravenous route. To avoid complications caused by the intraosseous needle, such as osteomyelitis, it should be replaced within 2 h by a conventional vascular access. PMID:15625599

Helm, M; Gries, A; Fischer, S; Hauke, J; Lampl, L



Application of multivariable search techniques to structural design optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariable optimization techniques are applied to a particular class of minimum weight structural design problems: the design of an axially loaded, pressurized, stiffened cylinder. Minimum weight designs are obtained by a variety of search algorithms: first- and second-order, elemental perturbation, and randomized techniques. An exterior penalty function approach to constrained minimization is employed. Some comparisons are made with solutions obtained by an interior penalty function procedure. In general, it would appear that an interior penalty function approach may not be as well suited to the class of design problems considered as the exterior penalty function approach. It is also shown that a combination of search algorithms will tend to arrive at an extremal design in a more reliable manner than a single algorithm. The effect of incorporating realistic geometrical constraints on stiffener cross-sections is investigated. A limited comparison is made between minimum weight cylinders designed on the basis of a linear stability analysis and cylinders designed on the basis of empirical buckling data. Finally, a technique for locating more than one extremal is demonstrated.

Jones, R. T.; Hague, D. S.



Per-oral endoscopic myotomy: Emerging indications and evolving techniques.  


Esophageal achalasia is a benign esophageal motility disorder resulting from an impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. The principles of treatment involve disruption of the sphincter at the esophagogastric junction. Treatment techniques include balloon dilatation, botulinum toxin injection, and surgical myotomy. In 2008, per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was introduced by Inoue et?al. as an endoscopic myotomy with no skin incision. The procedure has been well accepted and widely applied owing to its minimal invasiveness and high cure rates. Moreover, there have been discussions on wider indications for POEM and new technical developments have been reported. The present article reviews the historical background and present status of POEM, as well as future prospects for its application in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. PMID:25040806

Minami, Hitomi; Inoue, Haruhiro; Haji, Amyn; Isomoto, Hajime; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Hashiguchi, Keiichi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakao, Kazuhiko



Search for chameleon particles using a photon-regeneration technique.  


We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons. PMID:19257328

Chou, A S; Wester, W; Baumbaugh, A; Gustafson, H R; Irizarry-Valle, Y; Mazur, P O; Steffen, J H; Tomlin, R; Upadhye, A; Weltman, A; Yang, X; Yoo, J



A search for chameleon particles using a photon regeneration technique  

E-print Network

We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.

A. S. Chou; W. Wester; A. Baumbaugh; H. R. Gustafson; Y. Irizarry-Valle; P. O. Mazur; J. H. Steffen; R. Tomlin; A. Upadhye; A. Weltman; X. Yang; J. Yoo



In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

Powell, Gary C.


Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are recorded by a microphone and constitute the PAS signal. The major advantage of this method is that it is suitable for highly absorbing solid samples such as soils without any special pretreatment. This method has been applied successfully to soil classification and to quantitative determination of soil properties such as available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter or calcium carbonate content [2-4]. 3. FTIR-based determination of ion concentration using ion-exchange membranes In addition to the previous direct methods, mid-infrared spectroscopy can also be used to estimate nutrient availability or ion availability indirectly by combining FTIR with ion-exchange membranes. Such membranes are commonly used in studies dealing with nutrient availability, in which standard chemical methods are used to determine the amount of nutrients sorbed onto the membranes. Chemical analysis can be replaced by mid-IR spectroscopy of the loaded membrane, using either the transmittance or photo-acoustic technique depending on the type of membrane [9, 11]. The present work reviews these techniques and the chemometrics tools required for accurate interpretation of the spectra and discusses the potentials and limitations of each method. References 1. Borenstein A., R. Linker, I. Shmulevich and A. Shaviv (2006). Determination of soil nitrate and water content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 60: 1267-1272. 2. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2007). Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 61: 1063-1067. 3. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2008). Identification of agricultural Mediterranean soils using mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Geoderma, 143: 85-90. 4. Du, C., J. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Chen, A. Zhu and J. Zhang (2008). Determiantion of soil properties using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy (In press). 5. Du, C., R. Linker, A. Shaviv and Z. Jianmin. In situ evaluation of net nitrification rate in Terra rossa soil using FTIR-ATR

Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.



Emerging Laser Materials Processing Techniques for Future Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers are not only the proven and indispensable tools for some of the contemporary manufacturing technologies but have the potential for providing solutions to some of the upcoming intricate problems of industrial materials processing. The ongoing research is spearheading in the direction to develop novel fabrication techniques for improving qualities of the products, possibilities to engineer integrated multi-materials and multi-functional components and enhancing economic or procedural benefits. To explore the possibilities of achieving some of these objectives, we have carried out studies on the laser rapid manufacturing of structures of different metals with control over porosity, bimetallic integration, and other technologically important mechanical characteristics, laser melting based surface processing , laser shock peening , hybrid welding , and laser profile cutting of metal sheets. The results of these studies with comprehensiveness are presented and discussed in this chapter. A brief review of their scope for the industrial acceptability and adaptability has also been presented to assess the real potential of these research areas.

Kukreja, L. M.; Kaul, R.; Paul, C. P.; Ganesh, P.; Rao, B. T.


Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: an emerging label-free detection and identification technique for proteins.  


The detection and identification of biologically important molecules has critical importance in several fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and pharmacology. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful emerging vibrational spectroscopic technique that allows not only for the characterization, but also for the identification and detection of biomacromolecules in a very short time. In this review, efforts to utilize SERS for label-free protein detection and identification is summarized after a short introduction of proteins and the technique. PMID:23601534

Culha, Mustafa



Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical exploration is an important part of copper-resource evaluation. A large number of geochemical exploration techniques, both proved and untried, are available to the geochemist to use in the search for new copper deposits. Analyses of whole-rock samples have been used in both regional and local geochemical exploration surveys in the search for copper. Analyses of mineral separates, such as biotite, magnetite, and sulfides, have also been used. Analyses of soil samples are widely used in geochemical exploration, especially for localized surveys. It is important to distinguish between residual and transported soil types. Orientation studies should always be conducted prior to a geochemical investigation in a given area in order to determine the best soil horizon and the best size of soil material for sampling in that area. Silty frost boils, caliche, and desert varnish are specialized types of soil samples that might be useful sampling media. Soil gas is a new and potentially valuable geochemical sampling medium, especially in exploring for buried mineral deposits in arid regions. Gaseous products in samples of soil may be related to base-metal deposits and include mercury vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxysulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the noble gases, the halogens, and many hydrocarbon compounds. Transported materials that have been used in geochemical sampling programs include glacial float boulders, glacial till, esker gravels, stream sediments, stream-sediment concentrates, and lake sediments. Stream-sediment sampling is probably the most widely used and most successful geochemical exploration technique. Hydrogeochemical exploration programs have utilized hot- and cold-spring waters and their precipitates as well as waters from lakes, streams, and wells. Organic gel found in lakes and at stream mouths is an unproved sampling medium. Suspended material and dissolved gases in any type of water may also be useful media. Samples of ice and snow have been used for limited geochemical surveys. Both geobotanical and biogeochemical surveys have been successful in locating copper deposits in many parts of the world. Micro-organisms, including bacteria and algae, are other unproved media that should be studied. Animals can be used in geochemical-prospecting programs. Dogs have been used quite successfully to sniff out hidden and exposed sulfide minerals. Tennite mounds are commonly composed of subsurface material, but have not as yet proved to be useful in locating buried mineral deposits. Animal tissue and waste products are essentially unproved but potentially valuable sampling media. Knowledge of the location of areas where trace-element-associated diseases in animals and man are endemic as well as a better understanding of these diseases, may aid in identifying regions that are enriched in or depleted of various elements, including copper. Results of analyses of gases in the atmosphere are proving valuable in mineral-exploration surveys. Studies involving metallic compounds exhaled by plants into the atmosphere, and of particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere are reviewed these methods may become important in the future. Remote-sensing techniques are useful for making indirect measurements of geochemical responses. Two techniques applicable to geochemical exploration are neutron-activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry. Aerial photography is especially useful in vegetation surveys. Radar imagery is an unproved but potentially valuable method for use in studies of vegetation in perpetually clouded regions. With the advent of modern computers, many new techniques, such as correlation analysis, regression analysis, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, trend-surface analysis, and moving-average analysis can be applied to geochemical data sets. Selective use of these techniques can provide new insights into the interpretatio

Chaffee, Maurice A.



Review of neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques: new needs for emerging fields.  


Neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques have been developed since the middle of the 20th century to support research and nuclear power energy development. The technical areas needing reference neutron fields and related instruments were mainly cross section measurements, radiation protection, dosimetry and fission reactors, with energy ranging from a few millielectronvolts to about 20 MeV. The reference neutron fields and calibration techniques developed for these purposes will be presented in this paper. However, in recent years, emerging fields have brought new needs for calibration facilities and monitoring techniques. These new challenges for neutron metrology will be exposed with their technical difficulties. PMID:24344349

Gressier, V



Cathodoluminescence : an imaging technique for the search of extraterrestrial life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solids irradiated by a 10-20 keV electron beam emit ligth in the UV-visible range, which is called cathodoluminescence (CL). CL imagery is a powerful tool for visualizing minerals and their internal structures (lattice defects, zoning). For example, terrestrial calcite, either of sedimentary or biogenic origin, often display a bright orange CL, as a result of the incorporation of trace Mn2+ in its lattice. Aragonite can also be discriminated from calcite by its green CL. Carbonates are a major target for the search of life on Mars, and CL imagery could contribute to reveal carbonates in situ. Thomas et al. [1] have validated the concept of an electron lamp to make CL imagery of a rock surface placed in a martian CO2 atmosphere. We present 2 examples of terrestrial bacterial microstructures that are revealed by CL. (1) In Sinemurian sediments from the Montmiral borehole (Valence Basin, France), banded wavy calcite in contact with pyrite represents fossilized biofilms of sulfato-reducing bacteria, as confirmed by the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite ~+36 %0 PDB. (2) At l'Ile Crémieux, north of the Valence basin, a dense filamentous microbial/fungal community with a bright orange CL signature is embedded in vuggy calcite from a tectonic vein. The mat is anchored 1-2 mm deep in the oolitic veinwall and emerges at right angle in the 'open' fracture space. Finally, carbonate vesicles and exhalite crusts from the Svalbard basalt in Groendland, with orange CL, are shown as analogues to carbonates from the martian ALH84001 igneous meteorite. [1]Thomas et al. (2009) in A. Gucsik (Ed.) "Cathodoluminescence and Its Application in the Planetary Sciences"

Ramboz, C.; Rubert, Y.; Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Lerouge, C.



Chimney and periscope technique for emergent treatment of spontaneous aortic rupture.  


Aortic rupture comprises a potentially fatal condition necessitating emergent treatment. Endovascular sealing of the rupture site is often combined with the use of chimney- and periscope stent placement to preserve perfusion of aortic branches. We present a case of successful endovascular management of contained aortic rupture in a 78-year-old patient. The left brachial access facilitated stenting of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, whereas the left femoral route served stenting of the renal artery. One-month follow-up confirmed complete sealing, stent patency, and absence of endograft migration. The combined periscope and chimney technique is feasible and effective in the emergency setting. PMID:24517987

Trellopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Pelekas, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Athanasia; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S



Revised requirements for radiation emergency bioassay techniques for the public and first responders.  


This technical note reports the required sensitivities for bioassay techniques derived from a 0.1 Sv effective dose incurred in the first year following an emergency (recommended by ICRP) and those derived from a 0.25 Sv committed effective dose (recommended by NCRP) as dose thresholds for possible medical attention. During a large-scale radiological or nuclear emergency, the dose threshold chosen for medical attention may be raised, as available resources may be insufficient for conducting a sensitive contamination assessment and medical treatment of a large population exposed to radioactive contamination. PMID:22134082

Li, Chunsheng; Kramer, Gary H



Search-based software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper claims that a new field of Software Engineering research and practice is emerging: Search-Based Software Engineering. The paper argues that Software Engineering is ideal for the application of metaheuristic search techniques, such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and tabu search. Such search-based techniques could provide solutions to the difficult problems of balancing competing (and sometimes inconsistent) constraints and

Mark Harman; Bryan F. Jones



A New Patient-Controlled Technique for Shoulder Relocation in Emergency Departments  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Traumatic shoulder dislocation Symptoms: Shoulder pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Patient-controlled shoulder relocation Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology Objective: Management of emergency care Background: The glenohumeral joint is the most mobile joint in the human body due to the shallowness of the glenoid socket. This unique anatomy also makes it the most dislocated joint in humans. All the techniques described so far for relocation require operator control and prescription drugs. We describe a technique that is unique, easy, and patient-controlled. Case Report: A 29-year-old male patient presented to the Emergency Department after falling from scaffolding at work. He had left shoulder dislocation confirmed by clinical and radiological examination. The patient lay face down on the trolley with trolley being raised with electronic controls. The shoulder was reduced with ease and the patient was discharged home after radiologic confirmation of reduction. Conclusions: A new patient-controlled technique for reduction of the glenohumeral joint following dislocation is described. It is simple, safe, and effective to perform in Emergency Departments. PMID:25375965

Doshi, Deepak; Firke, Ritesh



Retrospective Derivation and Validation of a Search Algorithm to Identify Emergent Endotracheal Intubations in the Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The development and validation of automated electronic medical record (EMR) search strategies are important in identifying emergent endotracheal intubations in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective To develop and validate an automated search algorithm (strategy) for emergent endotracheal intubation in the critically ill patient. Methods The EMR search algorithm was created through sequential steps with keywords applied to an institutional EMR database. The search strategy was derived retrospectively through a secondary analysis of a 450-patient subset from the 2,684 patients admitted to either a medical or surgical ICU from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011. This search algorithm was validated against an additional 450 randomly selected patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the automated search algorithm were compared with a manual medical record review (the reference standard) for data extraction of emergent endotracheal intubations. Results In the derivation subset, the automated electronic note search strategy achieved a sensitivity of 74% (95% CI, 69%-79%) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 92%-100%). With refinements in the search algorithm, sensitivity increased to 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and specificity decreased to 96% (95% CI, 92%-98%) in this subset. After validation of the algorithm through a separate patient subset, the final reported sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI, 86%-99%) and 100% (95% CI, 98%-100%). Conclusions Use of electronic search algorithms allows for correct extraction of emergent endotracheal intubations in the ICU, with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Such search algorithms are a reliable alternative to manual chart review for identification of emergent endotracheal intubations. PMID:24155793

Smischney, N.J.; Velagapudi, V.M.; Onigkeit, J.A.; Pickering, B.W.; Herasevich, V.; Kashyap, R.



Emerging fabrication techniques for 3D nano-structuring in plasmonics and single molecule studies.  


The application of new methods and techniques to fields such as biology and medicine is becoming more and more demanding since the request of detailed information down to single molecules is a scientific necessity and a technical realistic possibility. In this effort a key role is played by emerging fabrication techniques. One of the hardest challenges is to incorporate the third dimension in the design and fabrication of novel devices. Significantly, this means that conventional nano-fabrication methods, intrinsically useful for planar structuring, have to be substituted or complemented with new approaches. In this paper we show how emerging techniques can be used for 3D structuring of noble metals down to nanoscale. In particular, the paper deals with electroless deposition of silver, ion and electron beam induced deposition, focused ion beam milling, and two-photon lithography. We exploited these techniques to fabricate different plasmonics nanolenses, nanoprobes and novel beads for optical tweezers. In the future these devices will be used for the manipulation and chemical investigation of single cells with sensitivity down to a few molecules in label free conditions and native environment. Although this paper is only devoted to nanofabrication, we foresee that the fields of biology and medicine will directly gain substantial advantages from this approach. PMID:21562670

De Angelis, F; Liberale, C; Coluccio, M L; Cojoc, G; Di Fabrizio, E



New international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components. The goals of PARENT are to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks and apply the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.



New International Program to Asses the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of the PARENT is to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks (PWSCC) and applying the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.



Emerging Techniques in Stratified Designs and Continuous Gradients for Tissue Engineering of Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Interfacial tissue engineering is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine, where engineers are faced with developing methods for the repair of one or many functional tissue systems simultaneously. Early and recent solutions for complex tissue formation have utilized stratified designs, where scaffold formulations are segregated into two or more layers, with discrete changes in physical or chemical properties, mimicking a corresponding number of interfacing tissue types. This method has brought forth promising results, along with a myriad of regenerative techniques. The latest designs, however, are employing “continuous gradients” in properties, where there is no discrete segregation between scaffold layers. This review compares the methods and applications of recent stratified approaches to emerging continuously graded methods. PMID:20411333

Dormer, Nathan H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.



Emerging clinical imaging techniques for cerebral cavernous malformations: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are divided into sporadic and familial forms. For clinical imaging, T2-weighted gradient-echo sequences have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional sequences. Recently more advanced imaging techniques such as high-field and susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has been employed for the evaluation of CCMs. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been applied to the preoperative and intraoperative management of these lesions. In this paper, the authors attempt to provide a concise review of the emerging imaging methods utilized in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of CCMs. PMID:20809764

Campbell, Peter G.; Jabbour, Pascal; Yadla, Sanjay; Awad, Issam A.



Search techniques and epimorphisms between certain groups and Fibonacci groups (TITLE  

E-print Network

Search techniques and epimorphisms between certain groups and Fibonacci groups (TITLE, Abstract. We examine the Fibonacci lengths of all generating pairs and random search. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification: 20F05. Keywords: Group, Fibonacci length

St Andrews, University of


Planning Graph as a (Dynamic) CSP: Exploiting EBL, DDB and other CSP Search Techniques in Graphplan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the connections between Graphplan's planning-graph and the dynamic constraint satisfaction problem and motivates the need for adapting CSP search techniques to the Graphplan algorithm. It then describes how explanation based learning, dependency directed back- tracking, dynamic variable ordering, forward checking, sticky values and random-restart search strategies can be adapted to Graphplan. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate

Subbarao Kambhampati



High Performance Issues in Web Search Engines: Algorithms and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract For hundreds of years the mankind,has organized information in order to make,it more accessible to the others. The last media born to globally provide information is the Internet. With the Web, in particular, the name of the Internet has spread all over the World. Due to its impressive size and its high dinamicity, when we need to search for

Fabrizio Silvestri; Guy E. Blelloch; Ronny Lempel


Searching for millisecond pulsars: surveys, techniques and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searches for millisecond pulsars (which we here loosely define as those with periods < 20 ms) in the galactic field have undergone a renaissance in the past five years. New or recently refurbished radio telescopes utilizing cooled receivers and state-of-the art digital data acquisition systems are carrying out surveys of the entire sky at a variety of radio frequencies. Targeted searches for millisecond pulsars in point sources identified by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have proved phenomenally successful, with over 50 discoveries in the past five years. The current sample of millisecond pulsars now numbers almost 200 and, for the first time in 25 years, now outnumbers their counterparts in galactic globular clusters. While many of these searches are motivated to find pulsars which form part of pulsar timing arrays, a wide variety of interesting systems are now being found. Following a brief overview of the millisecond pulsar phenomenon, we describe these searches and present some of the highlights of the new discoveries in the past decade. We conclude with predictions and prospects for ongoing and future surveys.

Stovall, K.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R. S.



Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish



Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.  


Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish



Tabu search techniques for large high-school timetabling problems  

SciTech Connect

The high-school timetabling problem consists in assigning all the lectures of a high school to the time periods in such a way that no teacher (or class) is involved in more than one lecture at a time and other side constraints are satisfied. The problem is NP-complete and is usually tackled using heuristic methods. This paper describes a solution algorithm (and its implementation) based on Tabu Search. The algorithm interleaves different types of moves and makes use of an adaptive relaxation of the hard constraints. The implementation of the algorithm has been successfully experimented in some large high schools with various kinds of side constraints.

Schaerf, A. [Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy)



Search: Search Home Top News Science Business Entertainment Sports Health Quirks Newspictures Emerging Threats Energy Resources Security Industry  

E-print Network

Search: » Search My Account Home Top News Science Business Entertainment Sports Health Quirks - Compare Electric Companies in Texas - home care - home health care - PC Games - prom dresses - Prom - Conferences - Motivational Sports Speakers Bureau - Press Release Services - Real Estate Properties

Rogers, John A.


Building DomainSpecific Search Engines with Machine Learning Techniques  

E-print Network

Seymore y z Just Research 4616 Henry Street Pittsburgh, PA 15213 y School of Computer research in rein­ forcement learning, information extraction and text classification that enables efficient spidering, iden­ tifying informative text segments, and populating topic hierarchies. Using these techniques

McCallum, Andrew


Context-dependent interaction leads to emergent search behavior in social aggregates  

E-print Network

Locating the source of an advected chemical signal is a common challenge facing many living organisms. When the advecting medium is characterized by either high Reynolds number or high Peclet number the task becomes highly non-trivial due to the generation of heterogenous, dynamically changing filamental concentrations which do not decrease monotonically with distance to the source. Defining search strategies which are effective in these environments has important implications for the understanding of animal behavior and for the design of biologically inspired technology. Here we present a strategy which is able to solve this task without the higher intelligence required to assess spatial gradient direction, measure the diffusive properties of the flow field or perform complex calculations. Instead our method is based on the collective behavior of autonomous individuals following simple social interaction rules which are modified according to the local conditions they are experiencing. Through these context-dependent interactions the group is able to locate the source of a chemical signal and in doing so displays an awareness of the environment not present at the individual level. Our model demonstrates the ability of decentralized information processing systems to solve real world problems and also illustrates an alternative pathway to the evolution of higher cognitive capacity via the emergent, group level intelligence which can result from local interactions.

Colin Torney; Zoltan Neufeld; Iain D. Couzin



Freshness of Web search engines: Improving performance of Web search engines using data mining techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive use of Web based information retrieval systems such as general purpose search engines and dynamic nature of the Web make it necessary to continually maintain Web based information retrieval systems. Crawlers facilitate this process by following hyperlinks in Web pages to automatically download new and updated Web pages. Freshness (recency) is one of the important maintaining factors of Web

Sadegh Kharazmi; Ali Farahmand Nejad; Hassan Abolhassani



Search for life on Mars: Evaluation of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important question for exobiology is, did life evolve on Mars? To answer this question, experiments must be conducted on the martian surface. Given current mission constraints on mass, power, and volume, these experiments can only be performed using proposed analytical techniques such as: electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, a-proton backscatter, g-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and specific element detectors. Using prepared test samples consisting of 1% organic matter (bovine serum albumin) in palagonite and a mixture of palagonite, clays, iron oxides, and evaporites, it was determined that a combination of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography provides the best insight into the chemistry, mineralogy, and geological history of the samples.

Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.



Effectiveness of capture techniques for rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reliable and effective technique for capturing rails would improve researchers' ability to study these secretive marsh birds. The time effectiveness and capture success of four methods for capturing rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands in southern Louisiana and Texas were evaluated during winter and breeding seasons. Methods were hand and net capture from an airboat at night, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) at night, an ATV during daylight rice harvest and passive capture using drop-door traps with drift fencing. Five hundred and twenty rails were captured (and 21 recaptures): 192 King Rails (Rallus elegans), 74 Clapper Rails (R. longirostris), 110 Virginia Rails (R. limicola), 125 Sora (Porzana Carolina) and 40 Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Methods used at night were effective at capturing rails: capture from airboats yielded 2.13 rails per hour each airboat was operated and capture from ATVs yielded 1.80 rails per hour each ATV was operated. During daylight, captures from ATVs during rice harvest (0.25 rails per hour each ATV was operated) and passive drop-door traps with drift fencing (0.0054 rails per trap hour) were both inefficient.

Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Linscombe, J.



PUMA 560 Optimal Trajectory Control using Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing and Generalized Pattern Search Techniques  

E-print Network

Abstract—Robot manipulators are highly coupled nonlinear systems, therefore real system and mathematical model of dynamics used for control system design are not same. Hence, fine-tuning of controller is always needed. For better tuning fast simulation speed is desired. Since, Matlab incorporates LAPACK to increase the speed and complexity of matrix computation, dynamics, forward and inverse kinematics of PUMA 560 is modeled on Matlab/Simulink in such a way that all operations are matrix based which give very less simulation time. This paper compares PID parameter tuning using Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing, Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) and Hybrid Search techniques. Controller performances for all these methods are compared in terms of joint space ITSE and cartesian space ISE for tracking circular and butterfly trajectories. Disturbance signal is added to check robustness of controller. GA-GPS hybrid search technique is showing best results for tuning PID controller parameters in terms of ITSE and robustness.

unknown authors


RFI shielding and mitigation techniques for a sensitive search for the 327 MHz line of Deuterium  

E-print Network

RFI shielding and mitigation techniques for a sensitive search for the 327 MHz line of Deuterium and from nearby sites has been reduced by extensive shielding and in some cases the removal of consumer from RFI plays an important role in achieving the required sensitivity. #12;MIT Haystack Observatory

Ellingson, Steven W.


Application of multivariable search techniques to the optimization of airfoils in a low speed nonlinear inviscid flow field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariable search techniques are applied to a particular class of airfoil optimization problems. These are the maximization of lift and the minimization of disturbance pressure magnitude in an inviscid nonlinear flow field. A variety of multivariable search techniques contained in an existing nonlinear optimization code, AESOP, are applied to this design problem. These techniques include elementary single parameter perturbation methods, organized search such as steepest-descent, quadratic, and Davidon methods, randomized procedures, and a generalized search acceleration technique. Airfoil design variables are seven in number and define perturbations to the profile of an existing NACA airfoil. The relative efficiency of the techniques are compared. It is shown that elementary one parameter at a time and random techniques compare favorably with organized searches in the class of problems considered. It is also shown that significant reductions in disturbance pressure magnitude can be made while retaining reasonable lift coefficient values at low free stream Mach numbers.

Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.



The role of molecular techniques in the understanding of emerging infections.  


Emerging infections are defined as infections that are newly identified or recognized, or those whose incidence in humans has significantly increased over the past 20 years. The interaction of several factors contributes to the emergence of infectious disease, including changes in human behavior, technological advances, economic development, increased international travel, microbial adaptation and lapses in public health measures. Biomedical research has allowed us to identify and classify previously uncultured pathogens, characterize microbial virulence factors, create new diagnostic tests and develop vaccines. Here, we highlight a few emerging infections and illustrate the role that molecular medicine has played in furthering our understanding of these diseases. PMID:8796869

Sable, C A; Mandell, G L



Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)




A search for quantum coin-flipping protocols using optimization techniques  

E-print Network

Coin-flipping is a cryptographic task in which two physically separated, mistrustful parties wish to generate a fair coin-flip by communicating with each other. Chailloux and Kerenidis (2009) designed quantum protocols that guarantee coin-flips with near optimal bias. The probability of any outcome in these protocols is provably at most $1/\\sqrt{2} + \\delta$ for any given $\\delta > 0$. However, no explicit description of these protocols is known, and the number of rounds in the protocols tends to infinity as $\\delta$ goes to 0. In fact, the smallest bias achieved by known explicit protocols is $1/4$ (Ambainis, 2001). We take a computational optimization approach, based mostly on convex optimization, to the search for simple and explicit quantum strong coin-flipping protocols. We present a search algorithm to identify protocols with low bias within a natural class, protocols based on bit-commitment (Nayak and Shor, 2003) restricting to commitment states used by Mochon (2005). An analysis of the resulting protocols via semidefinite programs (SDPs) unveils a simple structure. For example, we show that the SDPs reduce to second-order cone programs. We devise novel cheating strategies in the protocol by restricting the semidefinite programs and use the strategies to prune the search. The techniques we develop enable a computational search for protocols given by a mesh over the parameter space. The protocols have up to six rounds of communication, with messages of varying dimension and include the best known explicit protocol (with bias 1/4). We conduct two kinds of search: one for protocols with bias below 0.2499, and one for protocols in the neighbourhood of protocols with bias 1/4. Neither of these searches yields better bias. Based on the mathematical ideas behind the search algorithm, we prove a lower bound on the bias of a class of four-round protocols.

Ashwin Nayak; Jamie Sikora; Levent Tunçel



Emerging Innovation system and Environmental Innovation: the case of mitigation techniques and CCS.1  

E-print Network

targets. They allow preserve the use of fossil fuels during a transition period towards a more especially a controversial mitigation technique, the Carbon Capture and Storage techniques, from fossil fuels these innovations without incurring their development costs, but they are reluctant to move towards a more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Choosing a DIVA: a comparison of emerging digital imagery vegetation analysis techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Question: What is the precision of five methods of measuring vegetation structure using ground-based digital imagery and processing techniques? Location: Lincoln, Nebraska, USA Methods: Vertical herbaceous cover was recorded using digital imagery techniques at two distinct locations in a mixed-grass prairie. The precision of five ground-based digital imagery vegetation analysis (DIVA) methods for measuring vegetation structure was tested using a split-split plot analysis of covariance. Variability within each DIVA technique was estimated using coefficient of variation of mean percentage cover. Results: Vertical herbaceous cover estimates differed among DIVA techniques. Additionally, environmental conditions affected the vertical vegetation obstruction estimates for certain digital imagery methods, while other techniques were more adept at handling various conditions. Overall, percentage vegetation cover values differed among techniques, but the precision of four of the five techniques was consistently high. Conclusions: DIVA procedures are sufficient for measuring various heights and densities of standing herbaceous cover. Moreover, digital imagery techniques can reduce measurement error associated with multiple observers' standing herbaceous cover estimates, allowing greater opportunity to detect patterns associated with vegetation structure.

Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Stutzman, Ryan J.; Anderson, Lars C.; Decker, Suzanne E.; Powell, Larkin A.; Schacht, Walter H.; Fontaine, Joseph J.



Overviews of Emerging Research Techniques in Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics: Proceedings of the 1981 Meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics cover topics of emerging research in several areas of interest to the Committee. Topics covered include: hair cell function; transduction process of hair cells; speech synthesis; machine recognition of words; neuromagnetic analysis of sensory systems; tinnitus; tactile communication of speech; and biodynamic research at the Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.

Not Available



An efficient technique for revealing visual search strategies with classification images.  


We propose a novel variant of the classification image paradigm that allows us to rapidly reveal strategies used by observers in visual search tasks. We make use of eye tracking, 1/f noise, and a grid-like stimulus ensemble and also introduce a new classification taxonomy that distinguishes between foveal and peripheral processes. We tested our method for 3 human observers and two simple shapes used as search targets. The classification images obtained show the efficacy of the proposed method by revealing the features used by the observers in as few as 200 trials. Using two control experiments, we evaluated the use of naturalistic 1/f noise with classification images, in comparison with the more commonly used white noise, and compared the performance of our technique with that of an earlier approach without a stimulus grid. PMID:17515220

Tavassoli, Abtine; van der Linde, Ian; Bovik, Alan C; Cormack, Lawrence K



Search for Axionlike Particles Using a Variable-Baseline Photon-Regeneration Technique  

SciTech Connect

We report the first results of the GammeV experiment, a search for milli-eV mass particles with axionlike couplings to two photons. The search is performed using a ''light shining through a wall'' technique where incident photons oscillate into new weakly interacting particles that are able to pass through the wall and subsequently regenerate back into detectable photons. The oscillation baseline of the apparatus is variable, thus allowing probes of different values of particle mass. We find no excess of events above background and are able to constrain the two-photon couplings of possible new scalar (pseudoscalar) particles to be less than 3.1x10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1} (3.5x10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1}) in the limit of massless particles.

Chou, A. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Wester, W.; Baumbaugh, A.; Irizarry-Valle, Y.; Mazur, P. O.; Steffen, J. H.; Tomlin, R.; Yang, X.; Yoo, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Gustafson, H. R. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)



Search for axion-like particles using a variable baseline photon regeneration technique  

E-print Network

We report the first results of the GammeV experiment, a search for milli-eV mass particles with axion-like couplings to two photons. The search is performed using a "light shining through a wall" technique where incident photons oscillate into new weakly interacting particles that are able to pass through the wall and subsequently regenerate back into detectable photons. The oscillation baseline of the apparatus is variable, thus allowing probes of different values of particle mass. We find no excess of events above background and are able to constrain the two-photon couplings of possible new scalar (pseudoscalar) particles to be less than 3.1x10^{-7} GeV^{-1} (3.5x10^{-7} GeV^{-1}) in the limit of massless particles.

A. S. Chou; W. Wester; A. Baumbaugh; H. R. Gustafson; Y. Irizarry-Valle; P. O. Mazur; J. H. Steffen; R. Tomlin; X. Yang; J. Yoo



Stress myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency department--new techniques for speed and diagnostic accuracy.  


Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane



Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in the Emergency Department - New Techniques for Speed and Diagnostic Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane



Image Comparison Search Engine Based On Traditional and Improved Fractal Encoding Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This search engine allows users to quickly obtain information from networks. Traditional search engines can only search the data of modal characters. To solve this problem, Image Comparison Search Engine (ICSE) makes use of \\

Shraddha Viraj Pandit; M. V. Kulkarni; M. L. Dhore



Lean techniques for the improvement of patients’ flow in emergency department  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) face problems with overcrowding, access block, cost containment, and increasing demand from patients. In order to resolve these problems, there is rising interest to an approach called “lean” management. This study aims to (1) evaluate the current patient flow in ED, (2) to identify and eliminate the non-valued added process, and (3) to modify the existing process. METHODS: It was a quantitative, pre- and post-lean design study with a series of lean management work implemented to improve the admission and blood result waiting time. These included structured re-design process, priority admission triage (PAT) program, enhanced communication with medical department, and use of new high sensitivity troponin-T (hsTnT) blood test. Triage waiting time, consultation waiting time, blood result time, admission waiting time, total processing time and ED length of stay were compared. RESULTS: Among all the processes carried out in ED, the most time consuming processes were to wait for an admission bed (38.24 minutes; SD 66.35) and blood testing result (mean 52.73 minutes, SD 24.03). The triage waiting time and end waiting time for consultation were significantly decreased. The admission waiting time of emergency medical ward (EMW) was significantly decreased from 54.76 minutes to 24.45 minutes after implementation of PAT program (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of lean management can improve the patient flow in ED. Acquiescence to the principle of lean is crucial to enhance high quality emergency care and patient satisfaction. PMID:25215143

Chan, HY; Lo, SM; Lee, LLY; Lo, WYL; Yu, WC; Wu, YF; Ho, ST; Yeung, RSD; Chan, JTS



Emergence of an optimal search strategy from a simple random walk  

PubMed Central

In reports addressing animal foraging strategies, it has been stated that Lévy-like algorithms represent an optimal search strategy in an unknown environment, because of their super-diffusion properties and power-law-distributed step lengths. Here, starting with a simple random walk algorithm, which offers the agent a randomly determined direction at each time step with a fixed move length, we investigated how flexible exploration is achieved if an agent alters its randomly determined next step forward and the rule that controls its random movement based on its own directional moving experiences. We showed that our algorithm led to an effective food-searching performance compared with a simple random walk algorithm and exhibited super-diffusion properties, despite the uniform step lengths. Moreover, our algorithm exhibited a power-law distribution independent of uniform step lengths. PMID:23804445

Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio



Emerging technologies to improve techniques and outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy: striving toward the pentafecta.  


The technique of robotic partial nephrectomy continues to evolve, but the goals remain the same. Achievement of pentafecta outcomes is difficult to obtain; however, surgeons should continue to strive for this standard of excellence. The future continues to be bright for patients and surgeons alike in continuing to perform robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. PMID:25306163

Krane, L Spencer; Hemal, Ashok K



Application of data mining techniques for automat settings in emergency control at Hydro-Qudbec  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach used by Hydro-Quebec to optimize the settings of automatic devices installed in its main power plants to maintain secure operation under extreme contingencies. An example of application of this approach is given to illustrate how to apply data mining techniques for the setting of the automatic generator tripping and load shedding system (RPTC: rejet

J. A. Huang; G. Vanier; A. Valette; S. Harrison; L. Wehenkel



An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.

Fogle, F. R.




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.

Fogle, F. R.



Current oncologic concepts and emerging techniques for imaging of head and neck squamous cell cancer  

PubMed Central

The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is increasing and currently they account for 5% of all malignancies worldwide. Inspite of ongoing developments in diagnostic imaging and new therapeutic options, HNSCC still represents a multidisciplinary challenge. One of the most important prognostic factors in HNSCC is the presence of lymph node metastases. Patients with confirmed nodal involvement have a considerable reduction of their 5-year overall survival rate. In the era of individually optimised surgery, chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy, the main role of pre- and posttherapeutic imaging remains cancer detection at an early stage and accurate follow-up. The combined effort of early diagnosis and close patient monitoring after surgery and/or radio-chemotherapy influences disease progression and outcome predicition in patients with HNSCC. This review article focuses on currrent oncologic concepts and emerging tools in imaging of head and neck squamous cell cancer. Besides the diagnostic spectrum of the individual imaging modalities, their limitations are also discussed. One main part of this article is dedicated to PET-CT which combines functional and morphological imaging. Furthermore latest developments in MRI are presented with regard to lymph node staging and response prediction. Last but not least, a clinical contribution in this review explains, which information the head and neck surgeon requires from the multimodality imaging and its impact on operation planning. PMID:23320060

Sadick, Maliha; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Hoermann, Karl; Sadick, Haneen



Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.



Particle swarm optimization with chaotic opposition-based population initialization and stochastic search technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a relatively new optimization algorithm that has been applied to a variety of problems. However, it may easily get trapped in a local optima when solving complex multimodal problems. To address this concerning issue, we propose a novel PSO called as CSPSO to improve the performance of PSO on complex multimodal problems in the paper. Specifically, a stochastic search technique is used to execute the exploration in PSO, so as to help the algorithm to jump out of the likely local optima. In addition, to enhance the global convergence, when producing the initial population, both opposition-based learning method and chaotic maps are employed. Moreover, numerical simulation and comparisons with some typical existing algorithms demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Gao, Wei-feng; Liu, San-yang; Huang, Ling-ling



Achievements and future trends in the analysis of emerging organic contaminants in environmental samples by mass spectrometry and bioanalytical techniques.  


Several groups of organic compounds have emerged as particularly relevant as environmental pollutants. These compounds, including new brominated flame retardants, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and their metabolites, hormones and other endocrine disrupting compounds, nanomaterials, perfluoroalkyl substances, pharmaceuticals and siloxanes among others, constitute new risks for environmental and human health. In order to face up to these new risk challenges there is an increasing need to assess their occurrence and behaviour in the environment, as well as, that of their degradation products. Therefore, during recent years an important part of research has been focused on to the improvement of analytical schemes for complex matrices, in which the new tendencies in sample preparation (e.g. online clean up systems), the development of new materials and new mass spectrometry analysers have played an important role. This paper presents a general overview of new analytical trends and potentials in trace analysis of emerging pollutants in the environment, including chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometry, and bio analytical approaches (biosensors). PMID:22877973

Farré, Marinella; Kantiani, Lina; Petrovic, Mira; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià



Hitting the Target: Emerging Technologies in the Search for Kinase Substrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through phosphorylation, protein kinases can alter the activity, localization, protein association, and stability of their targets. Despite the importance to our understanding of all aspects of cell biology, progress toward identifying bona fide substrates of specific protein kinases has been slow. Traditionally used techniques to identify true kinase substrates, such as genetics, yeast two-hybrid screens, and biochemical purification, are often laborious and unreliable. However, several new approaches have recently been developed and used successfully to identify genuine in vivo substrates of certain protein kinases. These methods include screening for phosphorylation of proteins from phage expression libraries, peptide library screens to determine optimal motifs favored by specific kinases, the use of phospho-motif antibodies, and an approach that uses structurally altered kinases and allele-specific adenosine triphosphate analogs and kinase inhibitors. We describe these approaches and discuss their utility and inherent caveats.

Brendan D. Manning (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center;Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Division of Signal Transduction REV); Lewis C. Cantley (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center;Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Division of Signal Transduction REV)



Research Report on Development of a Probabilistic Author Search and Matching Technique for Retrieval and Creation of Bibliographic Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using macro and micro-structure analysis of large files of personal author names, this study developed retrieval techniques and algorithms to automatically correct and/or flag typographical errors in names, identify names in a database that are similar to a name entered by a user during a search, and measure similarities between names. It was…

Hickey, Thomas B.


Applying collaborative filtering techniques to movie search for better ranking and browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new ranking method, which combines rec- ommender systems with information search tools for better search and browsing. Our method uses a collaborative lter- ing algorithm to generate personal item authorities for each user and combines them with item proximities for better ranking. To demonstrate our approach, we build a prototype movie search and browsing engine called MAD6

Seung-taek Park; David M. Pennock



Finding Rural Development Resources on the World Wide Web: Tips and Techniques for Efficient Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents basic information on searching the World Wide Web and lists selected Web sites and links to resources that contain information on rural development. The guide describes and differentiates among search engines, Web directories, metacrawlers, and mutations. Searching tips include: using quotation marks around phrases; using plus…

Stierman, Jeanne Koekkoek


New Techniques in the Teaching of Online Searching. An Institute for Library Educators (Seattle, Washington, March 20-24, 1978). Exhibits and Summaries of Presentations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data bases of the DIALOG system new teaching techniques and materials are presented to an audience of library educators. Included are search demonstrations, teaching approaches, sample exercises and instructional prolects, multidatabase searching methods, utilization of search aids and offline resources, the conduct of presearch interviews,…

Mignon, Edmond, Ed.


Hybrid Stochastic Search Technique based Suboptimal AGC Regulator Design for Power System using Constrained Feedback Control Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hybrid stochastic search technique is proposed to design of suboptimal AGC regulator for a two area interconnected non reheat thermal power system incorporating DC link in parallel with AC tie-line. In this technique, we are proposing the hybrid form of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) based regulator. GASA has been successfully applied to constrained feedback control problems where other PI based techniques have often failed. The main idea in this scheme is to seek a feasible PI based suboptimal solution at each sampling time. The feasible solution decreases the cost function rather than minimizing the cost function.

Ibraheem, Omveer, Hasan, N.



Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field  

SciTech Connect

The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.



Efficient keyword search over virtual XML views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging applications such as personalized portals, enterprise search, and web integration systems often require keyword search\\u000a over semi-structured views. However, traditional information retrieval techniques are likely to be expensive in this context\\u000a because they rely on the assumption that the set of documents being searched is materialized. In this paper, we present a\\u000a system architecture and algorithm that can efficiently

Feng Shao; Lin Guo; Chavdar Botev; Anand Bhaskar; Muthiah Chettiar; Fan Yang; Jayavel Shanmugasundaram



Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonacesous Chondrite Using a new X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling to search for fluid inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. By using method, objects, which are considered to be fluid inclusions, were found.

Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.



3RIP Evaluation of the Performance of the Search System Using a Realtime Simulation Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a real-time simulation experiment to evaluate the performance of the search and editing system 3RIP, an interactive system written in the language BLISS on a DEC-10 computer. The test vehicle, preliminary test runs, and capacity test are detailed, and the following conclusions are reported: (1) 3RIP performs well up to the…

Lofstrom, Mats


Using the repertory grid and laddering technique to determine the user's evaluative model of search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore a method for the determination of users' representations of search engines, formed during their interaction with these systems. Determines the extent to which these elicited “mental models” indicate the system aspects of importance to the user and from this their evaluative view of these tools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The repertory grid

Sarah E. Crudge; Frances C. Johnson



A Technique for Measuring the Relative Size and Overlap of Public Web Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines are among the most useful and popular services on the Web. Users are eager to know how they compare. Which one has the largest coverage? Have they indexed the same portion of the Web? How many pages are out there? Although these questions have been debated in the popular and technical press, no objective evaluation methodology has been

Krishna Bharat; Andrei Z. Broder



A {gamma} dose distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve the {gamma} calculation time for 2D and 3D dose distributions. Methods: The {gamma} calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of dose distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable dose and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation dose distributions. The {gamma} value indicates the acceptability. In regions where {gamma}{<=}1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naieve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a maximum radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional dose distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O(log N) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the dose points, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the {gamma} evaluation in this work. Results: In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference point is O(log N), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation point is proportional to O(N{sup 1/k}), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted list O(N), the k-d tree algorithm for {gamma} evaluation is much more efficient.

Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin [ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States) and Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Dunmore, Pennsylvania 18509 (United States); ICT Radiotherapy, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States)



To Infinity and Beyond! Cutting Edge Strategies for Searching the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this collaborative, hands-on workshop we will plumb the hive mind for the most savvy and useful strategies for finding information on the Web. Come prepared to share your favorite searching tips, tricks and techniques, both old and new. In addition to advanced searching of Google and alternate search engines, we will explore emerging trends such as using crowdsourcing, structured

Martha Hardy; Kristen Mastel



Neuro-fuzzy reaping of shear wave velocity correlations derived by hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave velocity is a critical physical property of rock, which provides significant data for geomechanical and geophysical studies. This study proposes a multi-step strategy to construct a model estimating shear wave velocity from conventional well log data. During the first stage, three correlation structures, including power law, exponential, and trigonometric were designed to formulate conventional well log data into shear wave velocity. Then, a Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search tool was used to find the optimal coefficients of these correlations. Due to the different natures of these correlations, they might overestimate/underestimate in some regions relative to each other. Therefore, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm is employed to combine results of intelligently derived formulas. Neuro-fuzzy technique can compensate the effect of overestimation/underestimation to some extent, through the use of fuzzy rules. One set of data points was used for constructing the model and another set of unseen data points was employed to assess the reliability of the propounded model. Results have shown that the hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique is a robust tool for finding the most appropriate form of correlations, which are meant to estimate shear wave velocity. Furthermore, neuro-fuzzy combination of derived correlations was capable of improving the accuracy of the final prediction significantly.

Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa



Plat_Forms: A Web Development Platform Comparison by an Exploratory Experiment Searching for Emergent Platform Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: For developing Web-based applications, there exist several competing and widely used technological platforms (consisting of a programming language, framework(s), components, and tools), each with an accompanying development culture and style. Research question: Do Web development projects exhibit emergent process or product properties that are characteristic and consistent within a platform, but show relevant substantial differences across platforms or do

Lutz Prechelt



Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (?400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (?900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for PARENT round-robin tests.

Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri



A Search for Variable Stars and Planetary Occultations in NGC2301 I: Techniques  

E-print Network

We observed the young open cluster NGC 2301 for 14 nights in Feb. 2004 using the orthogonal transfer CCD camera (OPTIC). We used PSF shaping techniques ("square stars") during the observations allowing a larger dynamic range (4.5 magnitudes) of high photometric precision results ($\\le$2 mmag) to be obtained. These results are better than similar observing campaigns using standard CCD imagers. This paper discusses our observational techniques and presents initial results for the variability statistics found in NGC 2301. Details of the variability statistics as functions of color, variability type, stellar type, and cluster location will appear in paper II.

John L. Tonry; Steve B. Howell; Mark E. Everett; Steven A. Rodney; Mark Willman; Cassandra VanOutryve



Emerging techniques to quantify 3D ground deformation using high resolution optical imagery and multi-temporal LiDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate how 3D ground deformations, involving different types of geomorphological processes, can be recovered using three different techniques. First, we focus on the availability of high resolution imagery such as provided by the Quickbird or Worldview satellites, to reconstruct the 3D displacement field induced by the 2010 El-Mayor Cucapah earthquake. Full-field ground deformation is recovered using sub-pixel image matching and triangulation on a set of images acquired before the earthquake, and on a set of images acquired after the earthquake. This technique is implicitly equivalent to reconstructing two elevation models, before and after the earthquake, using stereoscopy, and matching them. Second, we show that the ground deformation recovered for the El-Mayor Cucapah earthquake using multi-angle and multitemporal optical imagery can also be recovered using image correlation techniques applied to gridded LiDAR data. However, we also show that image correlation techniques applied to LiDAR data fail when the topography to be analyzed is too smooth, as is often the case on sand dunes. Therefore, we finally introduce a point-cloud matching technique based on the Free Form Deformation (FFD) framework, which delivers promising results even when applied to smooth and poorly textured LiDAR data. In particular, we study a time series of LiDAR data acquired above the White Sand Dunes, NM, and we derive their migration field from 2007 to 2010.

Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.; Conejo, B.; Avouac, J.



Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)




QUEST: A Keyword Search System for Relational Data based on Semantic and Machine Learning Techniques  

E-print Network

Techniques Sonia Bergamaschi University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy Francesco Guerra University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy Matteo Interlandi University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy Raquel Trillo-Lado University

Velegrakis, Yannis


PSO-based support vector machine with cuckoo search technique for clinical disease diagnoses.  


Disease diagnosis is conducted with a machine learning method. We have proposed a novel machine learning method that hybridizes support vector machine (SVM), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and cuckoo search (CS). The new method consists of two stages: firstly, a CS based approach for parameter optimization of SVM is developed to find the better initial parameters of kernel function, and then PSO is applied to continue SVM training and find the best parameters of SVM. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CS-PSO-SVM model achieves better classification accuracy and F-measure than PSO-SVM and GA-SVM. Therefore, we can conclude that our proposed method is very efficient compared to the previously reported algorithms. PMID:24971382

Liu, Xiaoyong; Fu, Hui



PSO-Based Support Vector Machine with Cuckoo Search Technique for Clinical Disease Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Disease diagnosis is conducted with a machine learning method. We have proposed a novel machine learning method that hybridizes support vector machine (SVM), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and cuckoo search (CS). The new method consists of two stages: firstly, a CS based approach for parameter optimization of SVM is developed to find the better initial parameters of kernel function, and then PSO is applied to continue SVM training and find the best parameters of SVM. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CS-PSO-SVM model achieves better classification accuracy and F-measure than PSO-SVM and GA-SVM. Therefore, we can conclude that our proposed method is very efficient compared to the previously reported algorithms. PMID:24971382

Fu, Hui



Inversion of seismological data using a controlled random search global optimization technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion problems in seismology deal with the estimation of the location and the time of occurrence of an earthquake from observations of the arrival time of the body waves. These problems can be regarded as non-linear optimization problems in which the objective function to be minimized is the discrepancy between the recorded arrival times and the calculated arrival times at a prescribed set of observation stations, as a function of the hypocentral parameters and the wave speed structure of the Earth. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a controlled random search algorithm of global optimization (Shanker and Mohan, 1987; Mohan and Shanker, 1988) in solving such types of inversion problems. The performance of the algorithm has been tested on earthquake arrival time data of earthquakes recorded in the vicinity of local networks in the Garhwal Kumaon region of the Himalayas.

Shanker, K.; Mohan, C.; Khattri, K. N.



A Photometric Technique to Search for Be Stars in Open Clusters  

E-print Network

We describe a technique to identify Be stars in open clusters using Stromgren b, y, and narrow-band Halpha photometry. We first identify the B-type stars of the cluster using a theoretical isochrone fit to the (b-y, y) color-magnitude diagram. The strongest Be stars are easily identified in a (b-y, y-Halpha) color-color diagram, but those with weaker Halpha emission (classified as possible Be star detections) may be confused with evolved or foreground stars. Here we present such photometry plus Halpha spectroscopy of members of the cluster NGC 3766 to demonstrate the accuracy of our technique. Statistical results on the relative numbers of Be and B-type stars in additional clusters will be presented in a future paper.

M. Virginia McSwain; Douglas R. Gies



Development of mass spectrometric techniques applicable to the search for organic matter in the lunar crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data processing techniques were developed to measure with high precision and sensitivity the line spectra produced by a high resolution mass spectrometer. The most important aspect of this phase was the interfacing of a modified precision microphotometer-comparator with a computer and the improvement of existing software to serve the special needs of the investigation of lunar samples. In addition, a gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer system was interfaced with the same computer to allow continuous recording of mass spectra on a gas chromatographic effluent and efficient evaluation of the resulting data. These techniques were then used to detect and identify organic compounds present in the samples returned by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions.

Biemann, K.



Comparison of a percutaneous device and the bougie-assisted surgical technique for emergency cricothyrotomy: an experimental study on a porcine model performed by air ambulance anaesthesiologists  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of techniques and devices for cricothyroidotomy have been developed. In this study, the Portex™ Cricothyroidotomy Kit (PCK, Smiths Medical Ltd, Hythe, UK) was compared with the bougie assisted emergency surgical cricothyrotomy technique (BACT). Methods Twenty air ambulance anaesthesiologists performed emergency cricothyrotomy on a cadaveric porcine airway model using both PCK and BACT. Baseline performance and performance after the intensive training package were recorded. Success rate, time to secured airway and tracheal damage were the primary endpoints, and confidence rating was a secondary endpoint. Results During baseline testing, success rates for PCK and BACT were 60% and 95%, respectively. Tracheal injury rate with PCK was 60% while no such injury was found in BACT. A lecture was given and skills were trained until the participants were able to perform five consecutive successful procedures with both techniques. In the post-training test, all participants were successful with either technique. The mean time to successful insertion was reduced by 15.7 seconds (from 36.3 seconds to 20.6 seconds, p< 0.001) for PCK and by 7.8 seconds (from 44.9 seconds to 37.1 seconds, p=0.021) for BACT. In the post-training scenario, securing the airway with PCK was significantly faster than with BACT (p<0.001). Post-training tracheal laceration occurred in six (30%) of the PCK procedures and in none of the BACT procedures (p=0.028). The self-evaluated confidence level was measured both pre- and post-training using a confidence scale with 10 indicating maximum amount of confidence. The median values increased from 4 to 8 for PCK and from 6.5 to 9.5 for BACT. All participants reported that BACT was their preferred technique. Conclusions Testing the base-line PCK skills of prehospital anaesthesiologists revealed low confidence, sub-optimal performance and a very high failure rate. The BACT technique demonstrated a significantly higher success rate and no tracheal damage. In spite of PCK being a significantly faster technique in the post-training test, the anaesthesiologists still reported a higher confidence in BACT. Limitations of the cadaveric porcine airway may have influenced this study because the airway did not challenge the clinicians with realistic tissue bleeding. PMID:23890359



Hernia emergencies.  


Hernia emergencies are commonly encountered by the acute care surgeon. Although the location and contents may vary, the basic principles are constant: address the life-threatening problem first, then perform the safest and most durable hernia repair possible. Mesh reinforcement provides the most durable long-term results. Underlay positioning is associated with the best outcomes. Components separation is a useful technique to achieve tension-free primary fascial reapproximation. The choice of mesh is dictated by the degree of contamination. Internal herniation is rare, and preoperative diagnosis remains difficult. In all hernia emergencies, morbidity is high, and postoperative wound complications should be anticipated. PMID:24267501

Yeh, D Dante; Alam, Hasan B



Examination of the capability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as the emerging laser-based analytical tool for analyzing trace elements in coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its superior advantageous over the conventional analytical tools, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique nowadays is becoming an emerging analytical tools and it is expected to be new future super star of analytical tool. This technique is based on the use of optical emission from the laser-induced plasma for analyzing spectrochemically the constituent and content of the sampled object. The capability of this technique is examined on analysis of trace elements in coal sample. Coal is one difficult sample to analyze due to its complex chemical composition and physical properties. It is inherent that coal contains trace element including heavy metal, thus mining, beneficiation and utilization poses hazard to environment and to human beings. The LIBS apparatus used was composed by a laser system (Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and optical detector (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny-Turner) equipped with Andor I*Star intensified CCD 1024×256 pixels. The emitted laser was focused onto coal sample with a focusing lens of +250 mm. The plasma emission was collected by a fiber optics and sent to the the spectrograph. The coal samples were taken from Province of Aceh. As the results, several trace elements including heavy metal (As, Mn, Pb) can surely be observed, implying the eventuality of LIBS technique to analysis the presence of trace element in coal.

Idris, N.; Ramli, M.; Mahidin, Hedwig, R.; Lie, Z. S.; Kurniawan, K. H.



Resampling technique to correct for the Doppler effect in a search for gravitational waves  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of any gravitational-wave signal received from a spinning neutron star will appear Doppler-shifted by the Earth's rotation and orbital motion. This frequency shift must be compensated to recover the signal energy as a spectral monochromatic peak with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Generally the correction depends on the source's position in the sky, spin, and spin-down rate. Here we propose a method of applying a single correction to the data which is valid for all the emission frequencies at a fixed position in the sky and for a given spin-down rate. We advance or retard the antenna proper time by removing (or repeating) single samples of the digitized output signal to keep the effective receiver and source clocks in accurate synchronization. The method, which requires just a few lines of code and little computational effort, appears to be very effective for ''semitargeted'' searches, where the source direction is known but the emission frequency is not.

Braccini, S.; Cella, G.; Ferrante, I.; Passuello, D.; Torre, O. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Universita di Siena (Italy)



Infodemiology and Infoveillance: Framework for an Emerging Set of Public Health Informatics Methods to Analyze Search, Communication and Publication Behavior on the Internet  

PubMed Central

Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include: the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza); monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance; detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability; identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports); automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized. PMID:19329408



Endmember search techniques based on lattice auto-associative memories: a case on vegetation discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments, based on lattice auto-associative memories, have been proposed as novel and alternative techniques for endmember determination in hyperspectral imagery. The present paper discusses and compares three such methods using, as a case study, the generation of vegetation abundance maps by constrained linear unmixing. The first method uses the canonical min and max autoassociative memories as detectors for lattice independence between pixel spectra; the second technique scans the image by blocks and selects candidate spectra that satisfies the strong lattice independence criteria within each block. Both methods give endmembers which correspond to pixel spectra, are computationally intensive, and the number of final endmembers are parameter dependent. The third method, based on the columns of the matrices that define the scaled min and max autoassociative memories, gives an approximation to endmembers that do not always correspond to pixel spectra; however, these endmembers form a high-dimensional simplex that encloses all pixel spectra. It requires less computations and always gives a fixed number of endmembers, from which final endmembers can be selected. Besides a quantification of computational performance, each method is applied to discriminate vegetation in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve geographical area.

Urcid, Gonzalo; Valdiviezo-N., Juan Carlos; Ritter, Gerhard X.



Speeding up keyword search for search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current information age, the dominant method for information search is by providing few keywords to a search engine. Keyword search is currently one of the most important operations in search engines and numerous other applications. In this paper we propose a new text indexing technique for improving the performance of keyword search. Our proposed technique not only speeds

Sanjay Baberwal; Ben Choi



The Search for Relevant Climate Change Information to Support Adaptation Decision Makers: Lessons from Reductionism, Emergence and the Past (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reality of anthropogenic climate change is founded on well understood scientific principles and is now widely accepted. The need for international efforts to limit the extent of future changes in climate - climate change mitigation - is therefore clear. Since anthropogenic climate change is well underway, however, and the planet is committed to further changes based on past emissions alone, there will certainly be a need for global society to adapt to the consequences. The physical sciences are increasingly being looked to as sources of information and guidance on adaptation policy and decision making. Unlike mitigation efforts such decisions generally require information on local or regional scales. What is the source of such information? How can we tell when it is robust and fit for the purpose of supporting a specific decision? The availability of rapidly increasing computational resources has led to a steady increase in the resolution of global climate models and of embedded regional climate models. They are approaching a point where they can provide data at a resolution which may be usable in adaptation decision support. Yet models are not equivalent to reality and model errors are significant even at the global scale. By contrast scientific understanding of climatic processes now and in the past can provide information about plausible responses which are more qualitative but may be equally useful. This talk will focus on the relative roles of fundamentally reductionist, model approaches with alternatives based on observations and process understanding. The latter, although more qualitative, are able to inform us about emergent properties; properties which may be difficult or impossible to reproduce within a reductionist paradigm. The contrast between emergent and reductionist approaches has a long history in the physical sciences; a history which provides valuable lessons for the relationship between climate science and societal / policy decisions. Here we will present some background to emergent and reductionist views in the physical sciences and their implication for climate science. In this context we will discuss issues in the relationship between climate science and practical decision making, addressing factors including the evaluation and communication of: (i) information content in model produced data, (ii) relevant and robust information, and (iii) the exploration of aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. Illustrations will come from palaeo-climate and geomorphology along with the latest multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of complex climate models.

Stainforth, D.; Harrison, S.; Smith, L. A.



Searching for criteria in evaluating the monofin swimming turn from the perspective of coaching and improving technique.  


This study aims to analysise the selected kinematic parameters of the monofin swimming turn. The high complexity of performing turns is hindered by the large surface of the monofin, which disturbs control and sense of the body in water. A lack of objective data available on monofin swimming turns has resulted in field research connected with the specification of parameters needed for the evaluation of the technique. Therefore, turns observed in elite swimmers contain underlying conclusions for objective criteria, ensuring the highest level of coaching and the improving of turns in young swimmers. Six, high level, male swimmers participated in the study. The subject of the analysis was the fastest turn, from one out of three trial turns made after swimming a distance of 25 m. Images of the turns were collected from two cameras located under water in accordance with the procedures of the previous analyses of freestyle turns. The images were digitized and analysed by the SIMI(®)- Movement Analysis System. The interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded parameters, constituted the basis for analysis of the kinematic parameters of five turn phases. The interdependency was measured using r- Pearson's correlation coefficients. The novel character of the subject covered in this study, forced interpretation of the results on the basis of turn analyses in freestyle swimming. The results allow for the creation of a diagram outlinig area of search for an effective and efficient monofin swimming turn mechanism. The activities performed from the moment of wall contact until the commencement of stroking seem to be crucial for turn improvement. A strong belief has resulted that, the correct monofin swimming turn, is more than just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its components. The most important criteria in evaluating the quality of the monofin swimming turn are: striving for the optimal extension of wall contact time, push-off time and glide time. Key pointsShort time and large surface of the monofin additionally hinders complexity of the turn performance by disturbance in sensing and controlling body in water. Availability of no objective data on monofin swimming turns resulted in research in the field connected with specifying parameters needed for the technique evaluation.Correct turn technique may help to improve swimming race results.The diagram constructed on the basis of the interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded kinematic parameters should establish the areas of searching for mechanism of effective and efficient monofin swimming turn.The most crucial, from the coaching and improving point of view, seem to be activities which take place from the moment of feet wall contact till the first propulsive movements. Therefore, the high quality of the monofin swimming turn technique is not just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its component parts.THE MOST IMPORTANT CRITERIA OF THE QUALITY IN THE MONOFIN SWIMMING TURN TECHNIQUE ARE: striving for extending in the optimum scope of wall contact time, the time of the push-off phase and the glide time. PMID:24150136

Rejman, Marek; Borowska, Gra?yna



Exploiting Hybrid Parallelism in Web Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of multi-core CPU (or Chip-level Multi- Processor -CMP-), it is essential to develop techniques that capitalize on CMP's advantages to speed up very demanding applications of parallel computing such as Web search engines. In particular, for this application and given the huge amount of computational resources deployed at data centers, it is of paramount importance to come

Carolina Bonacic; Carlos García; Mauricio Marín; Manuel Prieto; Francisco Tirado



Unmanned airships for emergency management  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are keen demands of robotic technologies in management of many kinds of emergencies. In this paper, we argue that unmanned airships present a unique potential in emergency management cycle, and their applications for surveillance, search and rescue, and communication are discussed. To make our lighter-than-air platform an autonomous airship with significant levels of autonomy for emergency management, the hardware

Jinjun Rao; Zhenbang Gong; Jun Luo; Shaorong Xie



Protecting Your Right: Attribute-based Keyword Search with Fine-grained Owner-enforced Search  

E-print Network

, USA Abstract--Search over encrypted data is a critically important enabling technique in cloud shows the efficiency of our scheme. I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has emerged as a new enterprise un- paralleled advantages brought by cloud computing, such as on-demand computing resource

Hou, Y. Thomas


Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its clustering in 2D.

Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.



The Application of an Emerging Technique for Protein–Protein Interaction Interface Mapping: The Combination of Photo-Initiated Cross-Linking Protein Nanoprobes with Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Protein–protein interaction was investigated using a protein nanoprobe capable of photo-initiated cross-linking in combination with high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry. This emerging experimental approach introduces photo-analogs of amino acids within a protein sequence during its recombinant expression, preserves native protein structure and is suitable for mapping the contact between two proteins. The contact surface regions involved in the well-characterized interaction between two molecules of human 14-3-3? regulatory protein were used as a model. The employed photo-initiated cross-linking techniques extend the number of residues shown to be within interaction distance in the contact surface of the 14-3-3? dimer (Gln8–Met78). The results of this study are in agreement with our previously published data from molecular dynamic calculations based on high-resolution chemical cross-linking data and Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The observed contact is also in accord with the 14-3-3? X-ray crystal structure (PDB 3dhr). The results of the present work are relevant to the structural biology of transient interaction in the 14-3-3? protein, and demonstrate the ability of the chosen methodology (the combination of photo-initiated cross-linking protein nanoprobes and mass spectrometry analysis) to map the protein-protein interface or regions with a flexible structure. PMID:24865487

Ptá?ková, Renata; Je?men, Tomáš; Novák, Petr; Hude?ek, Ji?í; Stiborová, Marie; Šulc, Miroslav




E-print Network

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Critical evaluation of screening techniques for emerging environmental contaminants based on accurate mass measurements with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


Emerging contaminants from wastewater effluent samples were analysed, using posttarget and nontarget analysis techniques. The samples were analysed with an ultra performance liquid chromatograph-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS), and the resulting data were processed with commercial deconvolution software. The method works well for posttarget analysis with prior information about the retention times of the compounds of interest. With positive polarity, 63 of 66 compounds and with negative polarity, 18 of 20 compounds were correctly identified in a spiked sample, while two compounds of a total of 88 fell out of the mass range. Furthermore, a four-stage process for identification was developed for the posttarget analysis lacking the retention time data. In the process, the number of candidate compounds was reduced by using the accurate mass of selected compounds in two steps (stages 1 and 2), structure-property relationships (stage 3) and isotope patterns of the analytes (stage 4). The process developed was validated by analysing wastewater samples spiked with 88 compounds. This procedure can be used to gain a preliminary indication of the presence of certain analytes in the samples. Nontarget analysis was tested by applying a theoretical mass spectra library for a wastewater sample spiked with six pharmaceuticals. The results showed a high number of false identifications. In addition, manual processing of the data was considered laborious and ineffective. Finally, the posttarget analysis was applied to a real wastewater sample. The analysis revealed the presence of six compounds that were afterwards confirmed with standard compounds as being correct. Three psycholeptics (nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam) could be tentatively identified, using the identification process developed. Posttarget analysis with UPLC-TOF-MS proved to be a promising method for analysing wastewater samples, while we concluded that the software for nontarget analysis will need improvement before it can be used in environmental analytical work with LC-TOF-MS systems. PMID:22431456

Nurmi, Joonas; Pellinen, Jukka; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea



Diabetic Emergencies  


... PDF What to do in a Medical Emergency Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...


Techniques used to search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the 199Hg atom and the implications for CP violation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss in detail the search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 199Hg atom reported by Griffith [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.101601 102, 101601 (2009)]. The upper bound, d(199Hg)<3.1×10-29 e cm (95% C.L.), is a factor of 7 improvement over the best previous EDM limit for 199Hg, provides the most sensitive probe to date for EDMs in diamagnetic atoms, and sets new limits on time-reversal symmetry violation in extensions to the standard model. This paper provides extensive discussion of the techniques used to search for the 199Hg EDM and the implications of the new 199Hg EDM limit for CP violation in elementary particle interactions.

Swallows, M. D.; Loftus, T. H.; Griffith, W. C.; Heckel, B. R.; Fortson, E. N.; Romalis, M. V.



Sources of error in emergency ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography. Methods The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed. Results Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one’s own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques. Conclusions To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities. PMID:23902656



Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base  

SciTech Connect

Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management



Virage Image Search Engine: An Open Framework for Image Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the management of large image databases has relied exclusively on manually entered alphanumeric annotations. Systems are beginning to emerge in both the research and commercial sectors based on 'content-based' image retrieval, a technique which explicitly manages image assets by directly representing their visual attributes. The Virage image search engine provides an open framework for building such systems. The

Jeffrey R. Bach; Charles Fuller; Amarnath Gupta; Arun Hampapur; Bradley Horowitz; Rich Humphrey; Ramesh Jain; Chiao-Fe Shu



Information Retrieval Techniques: The Differences in Cognitive Strategies and Search Behaviors among Graduate Students in an Academic Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate schools have been admitting more and more students older than the "traditional" 18- to 24-year-old campus population. These adult learners may come to their programs of study without formal training in library use in general or literature searches in particular. By examining various successful and unsuccessful strategies used by these…

Simon, Charlotte E.


The use of a heuristic search technique for the optimization of quality of steel billets produced by continuous casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes an interaction between a numerical heat transfer model and an artificial intelligence (AI) heuristic search method which is linked to a Knowledge Base for the continuous casting of quality billets (SAE 1010 steel). A two-dimensional heat transfer model was developed using a finite difference method and was applied to real dimensions of a steel billet continuous caster.

N. Cheung; A. Garcia



The capture–mark–recapture technique can be used as a stopping rule when searching in systematic reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveResearchers have no empirically based search stopping rule when looking for potentially relevant articles for inclusion in systematic reviews. We tested a stopping strategy based on capture–mark–recapture (CMR; i.e., the Horizon Estimate) statistical modeling to estimate the total number of articles in the domain of clinical decision support tools for osteoporosis disease management using four large bibliographic databases (Medline, EMBASE,

Monika Kastner; Sharon E. Straus; K. Ann McKibbon; Charlie H. Goldsmith



911 Emergencies  


... Ebola: The Facts How to Make Sense of Health News Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine 911 Emergencies KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > Safety Basics > 911 Emergencies Print A A A Text ...


Emergency Checklist  


... Prevention Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call ... may save you from a visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you ...


Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the 136Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the 136Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the 136Xe Q?? for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A.



Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs  

SciTech Connect

The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)



A preliminary study of head-up display assessment techniques. 2: HUD symbology and panel information search time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twelve commercial pilots were shown 50 high-fidelity slides of a standard aircraft instrument panel with the airspeed, altitude, ADI, VSI, and RMI needles in various realistic orientations. Fifty slides showing an integrated head-up display (HUD) symbology containing an equivalent number of flight parameters as above (with flight path replacing VSI) were also shown. Each subject was told what flight parameter to search for just before each slide was exposed and was given as long as needed (12 sec maximum) to respond by verbalizing the parameter's displayed value. The results for the 100-percent correct data indicated that: there was no significant difference in mean reaction time (averaged across all five flight parameters) between the instrument panel and HUD slides; and a statistically significant difference in mean reaction time was found in responding to different flight parameters.

Guercio, J. G.; Haines, R. F.



Pediatric emergency medical services and their drawbacks  

PubMed Central

Aim: To survey the literature on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services (PEMS) with an aim to focus its drawbacks and emphasize the means of improvement. Materials and Methods: Published articles selected for inclusion were based on the significance and understanding of literature search on different aspects of PEMS. To meet this criterion, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Uptodate, Med Line, comprehensive databases, Cochrane library and the Internet (Google, Yahoo) were thoroughly searched. Results: PEMS provide out-of-hospital medical care and/or transport the patients to definitive care. The task force represents specialties of ambulance transport, first aid, emergency medical care, life saving, trauma, emergency medicine, water rescue, and extrication. Preliminary care is undertaken to save the patients from different medical exigencies. The techniques and procedures of basic and advanced life-support are employed. A large number of weaknesses are recorded in PEMS system, such as ambulance transport irregularities, deficit equipment, lack of expertise, and ignorance of the pre-hospital care providers. These are discussed with special reference to a few examples of medical exigencies. Conclusions: The appointments in PEMS should be regularized with specific qualifications, experience, and expertise in different areas. Responsibility of PEMS should not be left to pre-hospital care providers, who are non clinicians and lack proper education and training. Pediatricians should be adequately trained to play an active role in PEMS. Meetings should be convened to discuss the lapses and means of improvement. Networks of co-operation between pre-hospital providers and experts in the emergency department should be established. PMID:22988399

Al-Anazi, Abdullah Foraih



Hacking Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

With tales of hacked networks and websites being reported by the media daily, people assume that hacking must be easy. But, in truth, the tools and techniques employed by hackers are extremely complex, utilizing a broad range of technologies. The number of mechanisms for breaking into systems, whatever the objective, is on the increase with new tools emerging continuously. This

Richard Barber



Humanitarian Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries or regions affected by humanitarian emergencies remain challenging situations for the provision of health and nutrition services in developing countries. Major advances in recent decades have been made regarding our knowledge of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, the availability of standardized guidance protocols and indicators, and the development of new products, especially for severely

Reinhard Kaiser; Paul B. Spiegel


Emergent Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses ways to let semantics emerge from simple observations from the bottom-up, rather than imposing concepts on the observations top-down, to provide precise query, retrieval, communication or translation for a wide variety of applications. The following areas are examined: image retrieval and databases; media information spaces including the Semantic Web and MPEG frameworks; language games for emergent semantics;

Steffen Staab; S. Santini; F. Nack; L. Steels; A. Maedche



Emergency contraception.  


The term 'emergency contraception', as employed in this paper, refers to methods that are used as emergency procedures to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse. Alternative, less appropriate, terms are postcoital and 'morning-after' contraception. References to postcoital preparations can be found as far back as 1500 BC in Egyptian papyri, but it was not until fairly recently that contraceptive research has been able to at least partially fulfill that need. The development of hormonal methods of emergency contraception goes back to the 1960s when the first human trials of postcoitally administered high-dose oestrogens were undertaken. Combined oestrogen- progestogen combination therapy (the so-called Yuzpe regimen) was introduced in the early 1970s, while the postcoital insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for emergency contraception was first reported in 1976. Other compounds that have been tested more recently include levonorgestrel, the antiprogestogen mifepristone, and danazol. Although there is some debate about the magnitude of the protective effect, few people question the important role that emergency contraception can play in preventing unwanted pregnancy and hence maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from unsafe abortion. Given that the most often used methods of emergency contraception, namely the Yuzpe regimen and postcoital insertion of an IUD, rely on technology that has been available for some 30 years, family planning programmes that claim to be concerned with improving women's reproductive health, cannot really be excused if they do not provide emergency contraception as part of their routine services. PMID:8324605

Van Look, P F; von Hertzen, H



The evolution of emergent computation.  

PubMed Central

A simple evolutionary process can discover sophisticated methods for emergent information processing in decentralized spatially extended systems. The mechanisms underlying the resulting emergent computation are explicated by a technique for analyzing particle-based logic embedded in pattern-forming systems. Understanding how globally coordinated computation can emerge in evolution is relevant both for the scientific understanding of natural information processing and for engineering new forms of parallel computing systems. PMID:11607588

Crutchfield, J P; Mitchell, M



Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases  


... get there. q Visit Quest Magazine Online ( and search keyword Emergencies for related articles. ( ... assistance and copies of articles, call your local MDA office at 800-572-1717.) q Post emergency ...


Emergency contraception  


... in women. It can be used: After a sexual assault or rape When a condom breaks or a diaphragm slips ... your health care provider first). Emergency contraception may cause side effects. Most are mild. They may include: ...


Radiation Emergencies  


... Simulation Tools CDC Response, Japan 2011 Specific Hazards Radiation Emergencies Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir If ... loved ones, and your pets. Learn More » Radiation and Your Health Radiation can affect the body ...


Emergency Contraception  


... taken within 72 hours after having unprotected sex Levonorgestrel: 2 pills; the first dose taken within 72 ... can decrease the effectiveness of emergency contraceptives with levonorgestrel, including Plan B One-Step. Women weighing more ...


Endocrine emergencies  

PubMed Central

Diabetic and endocrine emergencies are traditionally treated by the acute medical admitting team or accident and emergency department staff. Most will see diabetic emergencies on a regular basis, as they are common and both type 1 and type 2 disease are increasing in prevalence. Diabetic emergencies are usually easily treated and the patients discharged. However, it is vital not to become complacent as these disorders can lead to death. It is particularly important to follow local guidance and to involve the diabetes team both during and after each episode. Recently it has become clear that about 30% of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome (including infarction) have either diabetes or "stress hyperglycaemia"; evidence suggests that these patients should be treated not only as a cardiac emergency but also as a diabetic one. Thus, every patient with acute coronary syndrome or acute myocardial infarction needs diabetes to be excluded. The other endocrine emergencies are less common, but in some ways more important simply because of their rarity. A high level of suspicion is often required to make a diagnosis, although some, such as myxoedema coma, are usually obvious. Treatment must be started before the diagnosis can be confirmed. Guidance on making the diagnosis and initiating treatment should be made available on the local NHS intranet for non-endocrinologists to access; and where possible expert advice made available by telephone. The basic management steps in the common diabetic and endocrine emergencies are outlined; this is not a complete list, but rather an insight for those involved in non-selected emergency admissions. PMID:15356351

Savage, M; Mah, P; Weetman, A; Newell-Price, J



Emergency cricothyrotomy – a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background An emergency cricothyrotomy is the last-resort in most airway management protocols and is performed when it is not possible to intubate or ventilate a patient. This situation can rapidly prove fatal, making it important to identify the best method to establish a secure airway. We conducted a systematic review to identify whether there exists superiority between available commercial kits versus traditional surgical and needle techniques. Methods Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria included manikin, animal and human studies and there were no restrictions regarding the professional background of the person performing the procedure. Results In total, 1,405 unique references were identified; 108 full text articles were retrieved; and 24 studies were included in the review. Studies comparing kits with one another or with various surgical and needle techniques were identified. The outcome measures included in this systematic review were success rate and time consumption. The investigators performing the studies had chosen unique combinations of starting and stopping points for time measurements, making comparisons between studies difficult and leading to many conflicting results. No single method was shown to be better than the others, but the size of the studies makes it impossible to draw firm conclusions. Conclusions The large majority of the studies were too small to demonstrate statistically significant differences, and the limited available evidence was of low or very low quality. That none of the techniques in these studies demonstrated better results than the others does not necessarily indicate that each is equally good, and these conclusions will likely change as new evidence becomes available. PMID:23725520



Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by

Jimmy J. Lin



[Vascular access in emergency paediatric anaesthesia].  


There is very little literature to guide the young practitioner in caring for a child that needs emergency surgery and has difficult venous access. Questionnaires were sent to 89 members of the Swiss Paediatric Anaesthesia Society and to the heads of Anaesthesia Departments of Swiss teaching hospitals. Two typical case records were presented, both of which were characterised by the fact that 2-3 peripheral venous cannulation attempts were unsuccessful. Case A: a young child with a fracture of the radius and case B an infant with upper gastrointestinal ileus. The anaesthetists were then questioned regarding their preferences for optimal treatment. The majority would proceed with further attempts and, if these still failed, intramuscular or inhalational induction of anaesthesia was suggested as a reasonable choice for case A. However, for case B, a femoral venous or intraosseous access to the venous system was judged to be the safest method. On the basis of our inquiry and a literature search, a priority list was developed to suggest the best possible techniques for vascular access and alternative anaesthesia induction techniques for emergency paediatric procedures. PMID:15609024

Jordi Ritz, E-M; Erb, T O; Frei, F J



Searching the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We oer an overview of current Web search engine design. After introducing a generic search engine architecture, we examine each engine component in turn. We cover crawling, local Web page storage, indexing, and the use of link analysis for boosting search performance. The most common design and implementation techniques for each of these components are presented. We draw for this

Arvind Arasu; Junghoo Cho; Hector Garcia-molina; Andreas Paepcke; Sriram Raghavan



Emergency psychiatry.  


Up to 15% of people that are visited in the Emergency Department of a Hospital have a mental disorder and/or a psychiatric symptom: often this is not recognized or not properly treated. The reasons for this are more than one and involve: the emergency physicians that are not always prepared and sensible to face this kind of disorders; the psychiatrists that are not always well tuned with the language and the clinic of the emergency; and the patients, that can ignore or deny the psychiatric nature of their problems. After an initial definitions of the most important terms and concepts (Psychiatric Emergency and Urgency, Behavioral Emergency, Acute Presentations of Mental Disorders, and Crisis) the Medical and Psychiatric Assessment are discussed with different Clinical Presentations and Classifications, Psychosocial Evaluation and Risk Assessment. Finally the Clinical Management and the Pharmacological Treatment are presented with special attention to the underlying medical causes and to the use of new drugs, especially second generation antipsychotics, alone or combined with benzodiazepines. PMID:18043562

Villari, V; Rocca, P; Bogetto, F



Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.



Obesity: an emerging disease.  


Obesity is rapidly becoming an emerging disease in developing countries due to the increasing westernization of societies and change in the lifestyle. The etiology of obesity is said to be multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Literature has been extensively reviewed to provide a broad overview of obesity. Data for this review were obtained from original articles, review articles and textbooks. Internet search engines were also employed. The years searched were from 1993 to 2008. Obesity, classified in terms of the body mass index and the waist-hip ratio, has several associated co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, degenerative osteoarthritis and infertility. In Nigeria, there is limited information on obesity. A literature review on obesity is necessary to improve the knowledge about obesity in developing countries, its prevention and its management. PMID:22248935

Ogunbode, A M; Ladipo, Mma; Ajayi, I O; Fatiregun, A A



Emerging phleboviruses.  


The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin



Emerging Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia



Radiation Emergencies  


... enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and ...


[Outpatient emergencies].  


The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient. PMID:24979919

Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe



Optimization technique for problems with an inequality constraint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General technique uses a modified version of an existing technique termed the pattern search technique. New procedure called the parallel move strategy permits pattern search technique to be used with problems involving a constraint.

Russell, K. J.



Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception  

PubMed Central

Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith



Closing Emergency Operating Rooms Improves Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long waiting times for emergency operations increase a patient's risk of postoperative complications and morbidity. Reserving Operating Room (OR) capacity is a common technique to maximize the responsiveness of an OR in case of arrival of an emergency patient. This study determines the best way to reserve OR time for emergency surgery. In this study two approaches of reserving capacity

Gerhard Wullink; Mark Van Houdenhoven; Erwin W. Hans; Jeroen M. Van Oostrum; Marieke Van Der Lans; Geert Kazemier



Phonetic Searching Of Digital Audio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper. The 10-page pdf document has images and graphs to illustrate the process and results. Topics covered include audio searching techniques, implementation of new search methods, as well as current and future applications of the technology.

Cardillo, Peter S.; Clements, Mark; Miller, Michael



Emergency granulopoiesis.  


Neutrophils are a key cell type of the innate immune system. They are short-lived and need to be continuously generated in steady-state conditions from haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow to ensure their immediate availability for the containment of invading pathogens. However, if microbial infection cannot be controlled locally, and consequently develops into a life-threatening condition, neutrophils are used up in large quantities and the haematopoietic system has to rapidly adapt to the increased demand by switching from steady-state to emergency granulopoiesis. This involves the markedly increased de novo production of neutrophils, which results from enhanced myeloid precursor cell proliferation in the bone marrow. In this Review, we discuss the molecular and cellular events that regulate emergency granulopoiesis, a process that is crucial for host survival. PMID:24751955

Manz, Markus G; Boettcher, Steffen



Emergent spin  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

Creutz, Michael, E-mail:



Newborn Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A 14-h-old male, 2,400 g, born at 37 weeks gestational age, is scheduled emergently for repair of esophageal atresia with\\u000a tracheoesophageal fistula. The newborn choked and gagged on the first glucose water feed. A contrast study confirmed the diagnosis.\\u000a Vital signs are BP = 88\\/52 mmHg, RR = 44\\/min, P = 158 bpm, T = 37.2°C. His hemoglobin is 13.0

Robert S. Holzman; Thomas J. Mancuso; Navil F. Sethna; James A. DiNardo


Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonaceous Chondrite Using a New X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early solar system aqueous fluids are preserved in some H chondrites as aqueous fluid inclusions in halite (e.g., [1]). Although potential fluid inclusions are also expected in carbonaceous chondrites [2], they have not been surely confirmed. In order to search for these fluid inclusions, we have developped a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling and applied this techniqu to a carbanaceous chondrite. Experimental: A polished thin section of Sutter's Mill meteorite (CM) was observed with an optical microscope and FE-SEM (JEOL 7001F) for chosing mineral grains of carbonates (mainly calcite) and sulfides (FeS and ZnS) 20-50 microns in typical size, which may have aqueous fluid inclusions. Then, a "house" similar to a cube with a roof (20-30 microns in size) is sampled from the mineral grain by using FIB (FEI Quanta 200 3DS). Then, the house was atached to a thin W-needle by FIB and imaged by a SR-based imaging microtomography system with a Fresnel zone plate at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. One sample was imaged at two X-ray energies, 7 and 8 keV, to identify mineral phases (dual-enegy microtomography: [3]). The size of voxel (pixel in 3D) was 50-80 nm, which gave the effective spatial resolution of approx. 200 nm. A terrestrial quartz sample with an aqueous fluid inclusion with a bubble was also examined as a test sample by the same method. Results and discussion: A fluid inclusion of 5-8 microns in quartz was clearly identified in a CT image. A bubble of approx. 4 microns was also identified as refraction contrast although the X-ray absorption difference between fluid and bubble is small. Volumes of the fluid and bubble were obtained from the 3D CT images. Fourteen grains of calcite, two grains of iron sulfide and one grain of (Zn,Fe)S were examined. Ten calcite, one iron sulfide and one (Zn,Fe)S grains have inclusions >1 micron in size (the maximum: approx. 5 microns). The shapes are spherical or irregular. Tiny inclusions (<1 micron) are also present in all the grains examined. These results show that mineral grains have more inclusions than expected from 2D observations. The X-ray absorption of the inclusions shows that they are not solid inclusions. No bubbles were observed inside, indicating that we cannot determine whether they are really aqueous fluids or merely voids. One calcite grain has an inclusion approx. 2 microns in size, which seems to have a bubble and a tiny solid daughter crystal inside (three-phase inclusion). As we know the exact 3D position of the inclusion, we will anlyze the inclusion by SIMS after freezing the sample as has been done for a halite sample [3]. The present technique is useful for finding small inclusions not only in carbonaceous chondrites but also for terrestrial materials.

Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.



Emergency Response Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

Barnett, Traci M.



The emergency control of traumatic maxillofacial haemorrhage.  


Maxillofacial trauma is common and may lead to haemorrhage that is associated with actual or impending airway compromise. This study briefly discusses the aetiology of midfacial haemorrhage and describes a simple effective technique of midface splintage for haemorrhage control, which may be applied in the prehospital and emergency environments. This technique has been used successfully by the London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. PMID:20603900

Harris, Tim; Rice, Scott; Watts, Beverley; Davies, Gareth



Web Searching, Sleuthing and Sifting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These site offers tips and guidance to help users make effective and fast Internet searches. Web Searching, Sleuthing and Sifting, part of a course taught by Professor and Librarian Angela Elkordy of the Sage Colleges, Albany and Troy, NY, is designed as an introduction to Web searching methods and techniques, aimed specifically at newer users. The site offers an overview of the Internet, an introduction to searchable Web resources, and discussions on resource evaluation and power searching techniques.


The Gestalt of Online Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to teach online research techniques and how to design research activities for beginner searchers. Highlights include contextualized learning; task definition; one-stop resource pages; words and search topics; search engines, including metasearch engines; browser techniques; management techniques for organizing sources into folders;…

Abilock, Debbie



OCLC's First Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First Search (formerly NetFirst,) provided by OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) is part of the FirstSearch suite of bibliographic tools. It is OCLC's first large scale attempt to create a bibliographic resource for searching Internet resources. Simple searching can be done on title or subject headings, and the search engine also supports complete Boolean AND/OR/NOT, proximity, and field searching. Word lists (inverted indexes of the database) are available in order to aid searching. Records contain bibliographic and access information, along with detailed summaries of the resource. NetFirst plans to incorporate all major Internet resource types in its database. Web pages and listservs are available now. First Search should not be confused with another OCLC service, InterCAT. First Search does not rely on volunteers to create its database as InterCAT does. NetFirst "uses a combination of automated collection and verification techniques and proven abstracting and indexing practices." First Search also does not create MARC (MAchine Readable Cataloging) records at this time. For these reasons, the First Search database is already much larger than InterCAT. NetFirst is freely available until July 31, at which time it will be sold to libraries as part of the FirstSearch suite. For more information on InterCAT see the Scout Toolkit: searching/subcatalogs.html


Emerging Holography  

E-print Network

We rederive AdS/CFT predictions for infrared two-point functions by an entirely four dimensional approach, without reference to holography. This approach, originally due to Migdal in the context of QCD, utilizes an extrapolation from the ultraviolet to the infrared using a Pade approximation of the two-point function. We show that the Pade approximation and AdS/CFT give the same leading order predictions, and discuss including power corrections such as those due to condensates of gluons and quarks in QCD. At finite order the Pade approximation provides a gauge invariant regularization of a higher dimensional gauge theory in the spirit of deconstructed extra dimensions. The radial direction of anti-de Sitter space emerges naturally in this approach.

Joshua Erlich; Graham D. Kribs; Ian Low



Emerging holography  

SciTech Connect

We rederive AdS/CFT predictions for infrared two-point functions by an entirely four-dimensional approach, without reference to holography. This approach, originally due to Migdal in the context of QCD, utilizes an extrapolation from the ultraviolet to the infrared using a Pade approximation of the two-point function. We show that the Pade approximation and AdS/CFT give the same leading order predictions, and we discuss including power corrections such as those due to condensates of gluons and quarks in QCD. At finite order the Pade approximation provides a gauge invariant regularization of a higher dimensional gauge theory in the spirit of deconstructed extra dimensions. The radial direction of anti-de Sitter space emerges naturally in this approach.

Erlich, Joshua [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Kribs, Graham D. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Low, Ian [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)



Emergency Guide Tuscarawas Campus  

E-print Network

.................................................................................7 Biological Threat........................................................................... 11Emergency Guide Tuscarawas Campus Kent State University Prepared by: Kent State University Police;Emergency Guide Using the Emergency Guide The Tuscarawas Campus Emergency Guide is a companion document

Khan, Javed I.


In-flight Medical Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion. Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. PMID:24106549

Chandra, Amit; Conry, Shauna



Emergency contraception.  


There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI). From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (LNG), known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of UPSI, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, LNG alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2?×?0.75?mg 12 hours apart) showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5?mg LNG pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception (EC) are available on the market today with the most widely spread being LNG in a single dose of 1.5?mg (given as one tablet of 1.5?mg or 2 tablets of 0.75?mg each) for administration up to 3 days (according to WHO up to 5 days) after UPSI. Its limitations are the non-optimal efficacy which is decreasing the later the drug is taken and the fact that it is only approved for up to 72 hours after UPSI. This regimen has no effect on the endometrium, corpus luteum function and implantation, is not abortive and don't harm the fetus if accidentally taken in early pregnancy. It has no impact on the rate of ectopic pregnancies. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for EC, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that EC is considered an off label use for most IUDs (not for the GynFix copper IUD in the European Union) and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Furthermore IUD-insertion is an invasive procedure and it is required trained providers and sterilized facilities. Mifepristone in the dosages of 10 or 25?mg is used with good results as an emergency contraceptive in China for up to 120 hours after UPSI, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. While high doses of mifepristone has an effect on endometrial receptivity and will inhibit ovulation if given in the follicular phase and prevent implantation if given in the early luteal phase, low doses such as 10?mg has no impact on the endometrium. Mifepristone does not increase the rate of ectopic pregnancies. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate (UPA) in the dosage of 30?mg for EC up to 5 days after UPSI, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose LNG pill with an even higher efficacy. It has shown to be more efficacious than LNG and can be used for up to 120 hours after UPSI; the difference in efficacy is highest for 0-24 hours, followed by 0-72 hours following UPSI. No VTE has been reported following UPA-administration or any progesterone receptor modulator. No effect on endometrium, corpus luteum function and implantation has been observed with doses used for EC. Independent of the substance it should be noted that, if there is a choice, the intake of an oral emergency contraceptive pill should happen as soon as possible after the risk situation. A pre-existing pregnancy must be excluded. Possible contraindications and drug interactions must be considered according to the individual special product informations. PMID:23437846

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Rabe, Thomas; Cheng, Linan



Emerging technologies  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

Lu, Shin-yee



Emerging technologies  

SciTech Connect

Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.



Emergency radiology.  


US has a relevant role in the initial assessment of non-traumatic emergencies of the abdomen, sometimes being conclusive and some other times for selecting the patients for further imaging with CT. Injection of a contrast medium may give to the radiologist additional information to that obtained at baseline US and Doppler examination, since real-time, contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) may allow observing findings in the abdomen not recognizable at baseline US or even at color Doppler imaging. Extravascular use of microbubbles may also be useful in clinical practice to rapidly solve a number of unclear aspects. CEUS has a number of distinct advantages in acute patients, including its quickness, low invasiveness, and its possible bedside use. The information based on contrast enhancement is useful for initial diagnosis, therapeutic decision making, and follow-up of the critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of abdominal CEUS in the acute setting, with special emphasis on the detection and characterization of acute inflammatory processes, infarcts, and hemorrhages. PMID:25450869

Farina, Roberto; Catalano, Orlando; Stavolo, Ciro; Sandomenico, Fabio; Petrillo, Antonella; Romano, Luigia



Emergent Relativity  

E-print Network

A possible resolution of the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and general relativity is that the relativity principle is emergent. I show that the central paradox of black holes also occurs at a liquid-vapor critical surface of a bose condensate but is resolved there by the phenomenon of quantum criticality. I propose that real black holes are actually phase boundaries of the vacuum analogous to this, and that the Einstein field equations simply fail at the event horizon the way quantum hydrodynamics fails at a critical surface. This can occur without violating classical general relativity anywhere experimentally accessible to external observers. Since the low-energy effects that occur at critical points are universal, it is possible to make concrete experimental predictions about such surfaces without knowing much, if anything about the true underlying equations. Many of these predictions are different from accepted views about black holes - in particular the absence of Hawking radiation and the possible transparency of cosmological black hole surfaces. [To appear in the C. N Yang Festschrift (World Sci., Singapore, 2003).

R. B. Laughlin



Electronic Career Search.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that career counselors should familiarize themselves with technological resources so that they can encourage job seekers to incorporate electronic search techniques within their job hunts. Discusses online communications, sending resumes electronically, skills assessment, and other electronic technology applications. (MKA)

Bratina, Thomas G; Bratina, Tuiren A.



Higgs Searches  

SciTech Connect

We present the status and prospects of Higgs searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Results from the Tevatron are using up to 5 fb{sup -} of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors. The major contributing processes include associated production (WH {yields} l{nu}bb, ZH {yields} {nu}{nu}bb, ZH {yields} llbb) and gluon fusion (gg {yields} H {yields} WW{sup (*)}). Improvements across the full mass range resulting from the larger data sets, improved analyses techniques and increased signal acceptance are discussed. Recent results exclude the SM Higgs boson in a mass range of 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV. Searches for the neutral MSSM Higgs boson in the region 90 < m{sub A} < 200 GeV exclude tan {beta} values down to 30 for several benchmark scenarios.

Peters, Krisztian



Emergency contraception  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which Nova Scotian FPs prescribe and provide emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and to explore their knowledge of and attitudes toward ECPs. Design Survey of Nova Scotian FPs using a modified Dillman method. Setting All regions of Nova Scotia. Participants Family physicians registered with Dalhousie University’s Division of Continuing Medical Education. Main outcome measures Sex differences in the provision of ECPs and knowledge and attitudes about the ECP Plan B. Results Of 913 eligible FPs, 155 (17.0%) participated in the survey. Respondents resembled the sampling frame closely. Most physicians (64.0%) had prescribed ECPs in the previous year (mean number of prescriptions, 4.92); only 12.9% provided ECPs in advance of need. Knowledge about Plan B was quite good, except for knowledge of the time frame for potential effectiveness; only 29.2% of respondents answered that question correctly. Respondents generally supported nonprescription availability of ECPs, but 25.0% of FPs were concerned that this could lead to less use of more effective methods of contraception, and 39.2% believed that it would encourage repeat use. Younger FPs provided ECPs more often than their older colleagues, while female respondents had better knowledge about Plan B. In multivariate analysis being younger than 40 years was marginally associated with prescribing Plan B and with prescribing any form of ECP. Conclusion Most Nova Scotian FPs provided ECPs and had generally good knowledge about and attitudes toward providing such contraception without prescription. However, FPs were poorly informed about the length of time that Plan B can be effective, which could potentially affect use when patients consult several days after unprotected sex. There were some concerns about nonprescription availability of ECPs, which could have implications for recommending it to patients. Rarely were ECPs prescribed for advance use, which might represent a lost prevention opportunity, especially for adolescents who often do not use effective contraception. PMID:22586200

Langille, Donald B.; Allen, Michael; Whelan, Anne Marie



Psychiatric Emergencies In Family Medicine  

PubMed Central

The family physician is often called upon to deal with psychiatric emergencies. In order to deal with these situations expertly, he/she must be familiar with the techniques of psychiatric assessment and management. A knowledge of community resources is invaluable in treating such patients. PMID:20469247

Smith, V. A.; Goluboff, S.



Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a $W$ Boson Using a Matrix Element Technique at CDF in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb{sup -1}. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} WH) x {Beta}(H {yields} b{bar b}). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between m{sub H} = 100 GeV/c{sup 2} and m{sub H} = 150 GeV/c{sup 2}. The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.

Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M



The Role and Importance of Search Engine and Search Engine Optimization  

E-print Network

Abstract: Search Engines are basically designed for searching the relevant content. Search Engine Optimization is collection of techniques and practices by which any website can increase ranking in search engine. Search Engine Optimization is divided into two parts, first one is on page and second one is off page. This paper describes the role, importance and working of search engine. And also describe about the concept and overview of search engine optimization and its types.

Ayush Jain


Web Search. Web Spidering Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Web Search. Web Spidering Introduction #12;2 Outline · Information Retrieval applied on the Web · The Web ­ the largest collection of documents available today ­Still, a collection ­Should be able to apply "traditional" IR techniques, with few changes · Web Search · Spidering #12;3 Web Search Using IR

Inkpen, Diana


A Harmony Search Algorithm Combined with Differential Operator Applied to Reliability-Redundancy Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability-redundancy allocation problem can be approached as a mixed-integer programming problem. It has been solved by using optimization techniques such as dynamic programming, integer programming, and mixed-integer nonlinear programming. On the other hand, a broad class of meta-heuristics has been developed for reliability-redundancy optimization. Recently, a new meta-heuristics called harmony search (HS) algorithm has emerged. HS was conceptualized using

Leandro dos Santos Coelho; Diego Luis de Andrade Bernert; Viviana Cocco Mariani



Emergency Management Institute- Federal Emergency Management Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emergency Management Institute (EMI) provides a nationwide training program of resident courses and non-resident courses to enhance U.S. emergency management practices. Lists the courses, programs, and activities offered.


Emergency Medical Services  


... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...


[Pediatric emergencies in the emergency medical service].  


Out-of-hospital pediatric emergencies occur rarely but are feared among medical personnel. The particular characteristics of pediatric cases, especially the unaccustomed anatomy of the child as well as the necessity to adapt the drug doses to the little patient's body weight, produce high cognitive and emotional pressure. In an emergency standardized algorithms can facilitate a structured diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The aim of this article is to provide standardized procedures for the most common pediatric emergencies. In Germany, respiratory problems, seizures and analgesia due to trauma represent the most common emergency responses. This article provides a practical approach concerning the diagnostics and therapy of emergencies involving children. PMID:25523319

Silbereisen, C; Hoffmann, F



Organising communities-of-practice: facilitating emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The notion of communities of practice (CoP) has received great attention in educational and organisational practice and research. Although the concept originally refers to collaborative practices that emerge naturally, educational and HRD practitioners are increasingly searching for ways to create these practices intentionally in order to stimulate learning and professional development in specific fields. This paper aims to

Sanne Akkerman; Christian Petter; Maarten de Laat



Conducting Literature Searches for Instructional Development Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three types of literature searches conducted as part of instructional design process: instructional materials, content research, and instructional theory reviews. Search techniques to complete each type of literature search are reviewed: card catalog, online, materials indexes, and grapevine searches. An example of an instructional…

Osguthorpe, Russell T.



Cooperative Searching and Geomagnetic Surveying Using Teams of Autonomous Agents  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.5 Multi-Agent Emergent Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3 a team of heterogeneous agents to search for targets based on their magnetic signatures. The system

Washington at Seattle, University of


Emerging Infections in Burns  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Patients who suffer severe burns are at higher risk for local and systemic infections. In recent years, emerging resistant pathogens have forced burn care providers world wide to search for alternative forms of treatment. Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and various fungal strains have been the major contributors to the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Multi-drug-resistant S. aureus remains the major cause of gram-positive burn wound infections world wide. Treatment strategies include rigorous isolation protocols and new types of antibiotics where necessary. Methods We reviewed 398 severely burned patients (burns >40% total body surface area [TBSA]) admitted to our hospital between 2000 and 2006. Patients who did not contract multi-drug-resistant gram-negative organisms during their hospital course and received our standard antibiotic regimen—vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam—served as controls (piperacillin/tazobactam; n?=?280). The treatment group consisted of patients who, during their acute hospital stay, developed infections with multi-drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens and were treated with vancomycin and colistin for at least three days (colistin; n?=?118). Results Gram-negative organisms continue to cause the most severe infections in burn patients. Colistin has re-emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections of burns. Patients who required colistin therapy had a significantly larger average total and full-thickness burn than patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin, and the mortality rate was significantly higher in the colistin group (p?emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections. Current challenges include Candida, Aspergillus, and molds. The development of new agents, prudent and appropriate use of antibiotics, and better infection control protocols are paramount in the ongoing battle against multi-resistant organisms. PMID:19810827

Branski, Ludwik K.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed; Rivero, Haidy; Jeschke, Marc G.; Sanford, Arthur P.



Verification of NASA Emergent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike



A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search-based software testing is the application of metaheuristic search techniques to generate software tests. The test adequacy criterion is transformed into a fitness function and a set of solutions in the search space are evaluated with respect to the fitness function using a metaheuristic search technique. The application of metaheuristic search techniques for testing is promising due to the fact

Wasif Afzal; Richard Torkar; Robert Feldt



[Application of Tiantu (CV 22) in emergency].  


The operation and application of Tiantu (CV 22) in emergency are discussed in the paper. The stimulating methods at Tiantu (CV 22) are acupuncture and pressing technique. The correct insertion of needle and proper depth and direction of insertion are required during acupuncture. The pressing technique stress the pressing strength and pressing time. Acupuncture or pressing technique is suitable for the emergent measurement of asthma, asthmatic breathing, coma, blockage of phlegm, hiccup, sore throat, etc. It is indicated that Tiantu (CV 22) is the key point in the emergency and phlegm resolving. Based on the characteristics of the point as promoting qi circulation, reducing the reversed qi and resolving phlegm, in light of the proper points combination by different syndromes and in terms of the correct and safe stimulating methods, Tiantu (CV 22) can achieve the immediate therapeutic effects in the emergent situations. PMID:23967641

Zhu, Xian-Min; Huo, Shang-Fei; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xin-Zhi



Search Cloud  


... Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... 64 of Top 110 zoloft Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...


Information Systems Coordinate Emergency Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rescue crews have been searching for the woman for nearly a week. Hurricane Katrina devastated Hancock County, the southernmost point in Mississippi, and the woman had stayed through the storm in her beach house. There is little hope of finding her alive; the search teams know she is gone because the house is gone. Late at night in the art classroom of the school that is serving as the county s emergency operations center, Craig Harvey is discussing the search with the center s commander. Harvey is the Chief Operating Officer of a unique company called NVision Solutions Inc., based at NASA s Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, only a couple of miles away. He and his entire staff have set up a volunteer operation in the art room, supporting the emergency management efforts using technology and capabilities the company developed through its NASA partnerships. As he talks to the commander, Harvey feels an idea taking shape that might lead them to the woman s location. Working with surface elevation data and hydrological principles, Harvey creates a map showing how the floodwaters from the storm would have flowed along the topography of the region around the woman s former home. Using the map, search crews find the woman s body in 15 minutes. Recovering individuals who have been lost is a sad reality of emergency management in the wake of a disaster like Hurricane Katrina in 2005. But the sooner answers can be provided, the sooner a community s overall recovery can take place. When damage is extensive, resources are scattered, and people are in dire need of food, shelter, and medical assistance, the speed and efficiency of emergency operations can be the key to limiting the impact of a disaster and speeding the process of recovery. And a key to quick and effective emergency planning and response is geographic information. With a host of Earth-observing satellites orbiting the globe at all times, NASA generates an unmatched wealth of data about our ever-changing planet. This information can be captured, analyzed, and visualized by geographic information systems (GIS) to produce maps, charts, and other tools that can reveal information essential to a wide variety of applications including emergency management. Knowing precise, real-time information about the size, location, environmental conditions, and resulting damage of an event like a flood or wildfire as well as the location and numbers of emergency responders and other resources contributes directly to the effectiveness of disaster mitigation. The need for such information is also evident when responding to homeland security threats, such as a terrorist attack. Recognizing the value of its geospatial information resources for this and other purposes, in 1998 Stennis and the state of Mississippi partnered to form what became the Enterprise for Innovative Geospatial Solutions (EIGS) industry cluster, supporting the growth of remote sensing and GIS-based research and business. As part of EIGS, several companies partnered with NASA through dual use and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. Among those was NVision.



New fluorescence technique to search for neutrino masses by identification of double beta decay barium-136 ion daughters in liquid xenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the initial research on the development of a new fluorescence technique for laser tagging of single 136Ba+ daughters from 0nubetabeta decay of 136Xe. 0nubetabeta decay is the only probe which is able to reach the absolute neutrino mass scale with meV sensitivity. The next generation 0nubetabeta experiments with meV sensitivity require new techniques for background rejection in order to gain the full benefit of large fiducial mass and long running time. By detecting the decay daughter Ba+ in liquid xenon at the observed position of the decay, we expect to suppress essentially all of the radioactive backgrounds. As a first step in realization this technique, the measurement of the mobility of Ba+ in liquid xenon is finished and the study of the optical spectra of Ba+ in liquid xenon is in progress. In this work, measurements of the mobility of alkaline earth ions, Mg +, Ca+, Sr+, and Ba+, in liquid xenon are presented for the first time. Akins's cluster model of positive ions in non-polar liquids, based on the electrostriction effect, gives general agreement with the magnitude of the mobility values. This might indicate that the positive ions form a snowball structure in liquid xenon. The excitation and fluorescence spectra of Ba+ in liquid xenon are also observed for the first time. The evidence that Ba+ does fluoresce in liquid xenon is a positive sign for achievement of the long-term goal. The spectra show much narrower absorption width and smaller emission shift compared to alkali atoms in solid noble gas matrix. Agreement is better with the spectra of Ca+ in solid argon. More detailed and careful experimental data will be required for a full understanding of the spectra properties of Ba+ in liquid xenon.

Jeng, Shie-Chang


Adaptable search neighborhoods for Resource Constrained Scheduling  

E-print Network

are encouraging when searching these spaces using simple local search techniques and genetic algorithms. Close-to-optimal solutions are found for standard problems from the literature. A special case of RCSP, the flexible flow line (FFL) scheduling problem...

Balakrishnan, Ramamoorthy



Search Engine Optimization 1  

E-print Network

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is an Internet marketing strategy and a process, widely used now-a-days for improving the volume or quality of traffic to a website through search engines. The results generated by search engines can be natural (organic or algorithmic) and/or paid search. In the present study, different techniques were used for achieving better optimization for Web 2.0 based websites. Different techniques related to SEO like keyword discovery, crawling, on-page and off-page optimization and different Google tools are discussed in this paper. The present study also study also describes the impact of SEO on Internet marketing. The results of the investigation help webmasters to gain a deep insight about SEO and also to guide them in making better decisions regarding their online advertising and marketing campaign.

Karthikeyan K; Sangeetha M


Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer


Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo



Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.  


Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo



A Survey in Indexing and Searching XML Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of XML focuses on indexing techniques for XML documents, grouping them into flat-file, semistructured, and structured indexing paradigms. Highlights include searching techniques, including full text search and multistage search; search result presentations; database and information retrieval system integration; XML query languages; and…

Luk, Robert W. P.; Leong, H. V.; Dillon, Tharam S.; Chan, Alvin T. S.; Croft, W. Bruce; Allan, James



An improved technique for the search for optical emission from radio pulsars, and its application to PSR 0301 + 19, 1919 + 21 and 2303 + 30  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical basis and implementation of a technique to identify radio-pulsar optical counterparts are described. The method is based on time-resolved imaging and rigorous statistical analysis; two-dimensional epoch-folding and chi-squared mapping are used to select promising candidates, which are then evaluated with one-dimensional time-series methods. Preliminary results for three long-period pulsars are presented in extensive tables, graphs, and maps, based on observations obtained with the ESA photon-counting detector on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on October 20 and 22, 1984. Optical peaks are detected near the pulsar locations, but also at significant distances, and the optical pulsations persist for only part of the observation period. The need for further observations is indicated.

Perryman, M. A. C.; Jakobsen, P.; Colina, L.; Lelievre, G.; Macchetto, F.; Nieto, J. L.; Serego Alighieri, S.



In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was determined that time had a positive effect on such quality. The research question that investigated learners' attitudes towards the instructions revealed that experimental groups understood the main idea behind the suggested technique and positively reacted to it. The results of the study support the conclusions that (a) prompting learners to self-explain while independently solving problems can increase performance, especially on far transfer questions; (b) better performance is achieved in combination with increased mental effort; (c) self-explanations do not increase time on task; and (d) quality of self-explanations can be improved with time. Results based on the analyses of learners' attitudes further support that learners in the experimental groups understood the main idea behind the suggested techniques and positively reacted to them. The study also raised concern about application of efficiency formula for instructional conditions that increase both performance and mental effort in CLT. As a result, an alternative model was suggested to explain the relationship between performance and mental effort based on Yerkes-Dodson law (1908). Keywords: instructional design, cognitive load, complex tasks, problem-solving, self-explanation.

Sliva, Yekaterina


Efficient POMDP Forward Search by Predicting the Posterior Belief Distribution  

E-print Network

Online, forward-search techniques have demonstrated promising results for solving problems in partially observable environments. These techniques depend on the ability to efficiently search and evaluate the set of beliefs ...

Roy, Nicholas



Query suggestion by query search: a new approach to user support in web search  

E-print Network

-literate users of web search engines often have difficulty formulating queries that allow them to easily findQuery suggestion by query search: a new approach to user support in web search Shen Jiang suggestion is a technique that aims to improve the efficiency of a user's web search by suggesting

Holte, Robert


New perspectives on Web search engine research  

E-print Network

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of the context of Web search and search engine-?related research, as well as to introduce the reader to the sections and chapters of the book. Methodology/approach – We review literature dealing with various aspects of search engines, with special emphasis on emerging areas of Web searching, search engine evaluation going beyond traditional methods, and new perspectives on Web searching. Findings – The approaches to studying Web search engines are manifold. Given the importance of Web search engines for knowledge acquisition, research from different perspectives needs to be integrated into a more cohesive perspective. Research limitations/implications – The chapter suggests a basis for research in the field and also introduces further research directions. Originality/value of paper – The chapter gives a concise overview of the topics dealt within the book and also shows directions for researchers interested in Web search engines.

Dirk Lewandowski


Efficient query processing in geographic web search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic web search engines allow users to constrain and or- der search results in an intuitive manner by focusing a query on a particular geographic region. Geographic search technology, also called local search, has recently received significant interest from major search engine companies. Academic research in this area has focused primarily on techniques for extracting geographic knowl- edge from the

Yen-yu Chen; Torsten Suel; Alexander Markowetz



Talent Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talent searches are discussed in this journal theme issue, with two feature articles and several recurring columns. "Talent Search: A Driving Force in Gifted Education," by Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, defines what a talent search is, how the Talent Search was developed by Dr. Julian Stanley at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, the benefits of…

Silverman, Linda Kreger, Ed.



On the Precision of Search Engines: Results from a Controlled Experiment  

E-print Network

On the Precision of Search Engines: Results from a Controlled Experiment Hasan Girit, Robert, search engines adopt a key role. Besides conventional search engines such as Google, semantic search engines have emerged as an alternative approach in recent years. The quality of search results delivered

Ulm, Universität


Fast Search for Dynamic Multi-Relational Graphs  

SciTech Connect

Acting on time-critical events by processing ever growing social media or news streams is a major technical challenge. Many of these data sources can be modeled as multi-relational graphs. Continuous queries or techniques to search for rare events that typically arise in monitoring applications have been studied extensively for relational databases. This work is dedicated to answer the question that emerges naturally: how can we efficiently execute a continuous query on a dynamic graph? This paper presents an exact subgraph search algorithm that exploits the temporal characteristics of representative queries for online news or social media monitoring. The algorithm is based on a novel data structure called the that leverages the structural and semantic characteristics of the underlying multi-relational graph. The paper concludes with extensive experimentation on several real-world datasets that demonstrates the validity of this approach.

Choudhury, Sutanay; Holder, Larry; Chin, George; Feo, John T.



Search IQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yet another in a large collection of sites on search engines, Search IQ is notable for two features. First, its collection of search engine reviews is rather extensive, covering far more than the usual dozen or so listed at most search engine review sites. Although rankings and full reviews are offered for only 17 engines, the individual and meta-search engine listings offer at least a sentence or two on many more. The other key section of the site is a fairly large directory of specialized search engines, organized by subject. Additional resources at the site include daily tips, tutorials and guides, and a listing of new search engines.


Radiation Emergencies and Preparedness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information to help people protect themselves during and after a radiation emergency. It also provides information for professionals involved in planning for and responding to this type of emergency.



Household Chemical Emergencies  


... the risk of injury. Before Before a Household Chemical Emergency The following are guidelines for buying and ... is (800) 222-1222. During During a Household Chemical Emergency Get out of the residence immediately if ...



E-print Network

Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) ........................4 National Incident Management System Executive Director Sherry Stoner Project Manager Pat Perez Manager SPECIAL PROJECTS OFFICE Rosella Shapiro, safety, and welfare. #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Energy Emergency Response Plan was prepared from



EPA Science Inventory

Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and phar...


LUNASKA experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos and develop technology for the lunar Cherenkov technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design, performance, sensitivity and results of our recent experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) for lunar Cherenkov observations with a very wide (600 MHz) bandwidth and nanosecond timing, including a limit on an isotropic neutrino flux. We also make a first estimate of the effects of small-scale surface roughness on the effective experimental aperture, finding that contrary to expectations, such roughness will act to increase the detectability of near-surface events over the neutrino energy-range at which our experiment is most sensitive (though distortions to the time-domain pulse profile may make identification more difficult). The aim of our 'Lunar UHE Neutrino Astrophysics using the Square Kilometre Array' (LUNASKA) project is to develop the lunar Cherenkov technique of using terrestrial radio telescope arrays for ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) and neutrino detection, and, in particular, to prepare for using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its path-finders such as the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for lunar Cherenkov experiments.

James, C. W.; Protheroe, R. J. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Ekers, R. D.; Phillips, C. J.; Roberts, P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping (Australia); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Department Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bray, J. D. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping (Australia); McFadden, R. A. [School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping (Australia)



Hierarchical random walks in trace fossils and the origin of optimal search behavior  

PubMed Central

Efficient searching is crucial for timely location of food and other resources. Recent studies show that diverse living animals use a theoretically optimal scale-free random search for sparse resources known as a Lévy walk, but little is known of the origins and evolution of foraging behavior and the search strategies of extinct organisms. Here, using simulations of self-avoiding trace fossil trails, we show that randomly introduced strophotaxis (U-turns)—initiated by obstructions such as self-trail avoidance or innate cueing—leads to random looping patterns with clustering across increasing scales that is consistent with the presence of Lévy walks. This predicts that optimal Lévy searches may emerge from simple behaviors observed in fossil trails. We then analyzed fossilized trails of benthic marine organisms by using a novel path analysis technique and find the first evidence, to our knowledge, of Lévy-like search strategies in extinct animals. Our results show that simple search behaviors of extinct animals in heterogeneous environments give rise to hierarchically nested Brownian walk clusters that converge to optimal Lévy patterns. Primary productivity collapse and large-scale food scarcity characterizing mass extinctions evident in the fossil record may have triggered adaptation of optimal Lévy-like searches. The findings suggest that Lévy-like behavior has been used by foragers since at least the Eocene but may have a more ancient origin, which might explain recent widespread observations of such patterns among modern taxa. PMID:25024221

Sims, David W.; Reynolds, Andrew M.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Southall, Emily J.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Metcalfe, Brett; Twitchett, Richard J.



Stanford University Emergency Preparedness  

E-print Network

Logistics & Finance Public Information Policy Group #12;25 SOCs Emergency Communications Flows SOC 1 SOC2Stanford University Emergency Preparedness Plans and Building Assessment Team Program Earthquake Preparedness and Building Assessment Team (BAT) Response #12;Agenda · Overview of Stanford Emergency Plan

Straight, Aaron


Biological Sciences Emergency Instructions  

E-print Network

Biological Sciences Emergency Instructions In the event of an EMERGENCY dial 403-220-5333 for Campus Security or dial 9-1-1 for Police, Fire or Ambulance Additional emergency instructions is found and incapacitate the shooter. Acts or Threats of Violence Attempt to distance yourself from the person if possible

de Leon, Alex R.


Modelling weed emergence patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipating weed pressure may be important in selecting and timing weed control measures in order to optimize their effectiveness, and thus reduce herbicide use. Therefore, a predictive model of the time of emergence and the numbers of seedling emerging (the weed emergence pattern) after soil cultivation may be a useful tool in integrated weed management. In this study, a simulation

L. M. Vleeshouwers



Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  


... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. ...


Tactical emergency medical services: an emerging subspecialty of emergency medicine.  


Law enforcement agencies are recognizing the need to have emergency medical care available at the scene of any incident involving tactical operations. The potentially volatile and dangerous atmosphere surrounding tactical operations is conducive to severe injury to officers, hostages, suspects, and bystanders. This mandates the immediate availability of basic and advanced life support services. However, a purely traditional approach to emergency medical services in the tactical environment may not be feasible and may expose prehospital personnel to greater danger. It also may disrupt the law enforcement mission. These factors mandate a different set of field assessment and treatment priorities. To meet these needs, selected prehospital personnel and emergency physicians train to work with and support special weapons and tactics teams. PMID:8161047

Heiskell, L E; Carmona, R H



Emergent topological phenomena in thin films of pyrochlore iridates.  


Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena. PMID:24996097

Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto



Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.  


In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J



Search engine for handwritten documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Search aspects of a system for analyzing handwritten documents are described. Documents are indexed using global image features, e.g., stroke width, slant as well as local features that describe the shapes of words and characters. Image indexing is done automatically using page analysis, page segmentation, line separation, word segmentation and recognition of words and characters. Two types of search are permitted: search based on global features of entire document and search using features at local level. For the second type of search, i.e., local, all the words in the document are characterized and indexed by various features and it forms the basis of different search techniques. The paper focuses on local search and describes four tasks: word/phrase spotting, text to image, image to text and plain text. Performance in terms of precision/recall and word ranking is reported on a database of handwriting samples from about 1,000 individuals.

Srihari, Sargur N.; Huang, Chen; Srinivasan, Harish



Search engine for handwritten documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Search aspects of a system for analyzing handwritten documents are described. Documents are indexed using global image features, e.g., stroke width, slant as well as local features that describe the shapes of words and characters. Image indexing is done automatically using page analysis, page segmentation, line separation, word segmentation and recognition of words and characters. Two types of search are permitted: search based on global features of entire document and search using features at local level. For the second type of search, i.e., local, all the words in the document are characterized and indexed by various features and it forms the basis of different search techniques. The paper focuses on local search and describes four tasks: word/phrase spotting, text to image, image to text and plain text. Performance in terms of precision/recall and word ranking is reported on a database of handwriting samples from about 1,000 individuals.

Srihari, Sargur N.; Huang, Chen; Srinivasan, Harish



2005 Fall Meeting Search Results  

E-print Network

2005 Fall Meeting Search Results Cite abstracts as Author(s) (2005), Title, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract xxxxx-xx Your query was: de boer HR: 16:30h AN: A34B-03 TI: Observational/radiation interaction DE: 0394 Instruments and techniques SC: Atmospheric Sciences [A] MN: Fall Meeting 2005 New Search

Eloranta, Edwin W.


Machine-learning techniques applied to antibacterial drug discovery.  


The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria threatens to revert humanity back to the preantibiotic era. Even now, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections annually result in millions of hospital days, billions in healthcare costs, and, most importantly, tens of thousands of lives lost. As many pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic development in search of more lucrative therapeutics, academic researchers are uniquely positioned to fill the pipeline. Traditional high-throughput screens and lead-optimization efforts are expensive and labor intensive. Computer-aided drug-discovery techniques, which are cheaper and faster, can accelerate the identification of novel antibiotics, leading to improved hit rates and faster transitions to preclinical and clinical testing. The current review describes two machine-learning techniques, neural networks and decision trees, that have been used to identify experimentally validated antibiotics. We conclude by describing the future directions of this exciting field. PMID:25521642

Durrant, Jacob D; Amaro, Rommie E



Black Hole Emergence in Supernovae  

E-print Network

If a black hole formed in a core-collapse supernova is accreting material from the base of the envelope, the accretion luminosity could be observable in the supernova light curve. Here we continue the study of matter fall back onto a black hole in the wake of a supernova and examine realistic supernovae models which allow for an early emergence of the accretion luminosity. Such cases may provide a direct observational identification of the black hole formed in the aftermath of the explosion. Our approach combines analytic estimates and fully relativistic, radiation-hydrodynamic numerical computations. We employ a numerical hydrodynamical scaling technique to accommodate the diverse range of dynamical time scales in a single simulation. We find that while in typical Type II supernovae heating by radioactive decays dominates the late-time light curve, low-energy explosions of more massive stars should provide an important exception where the accretion luminosity will emerge while it is still relatively large. O...

Balberg, S; Shapiro, S L; Balberg, Shmuel; Zampieri, Luca; Shapiro, Stuart L.



Is quantum search practical?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gauging a quantum algorithm's practical significance requires weighing it against the best conventional techniques applied to useful instances of the same problem. The authors show that several commonly suggested applications of Grover's quantum search algorithm fail to offer computational improvements over the best conventional algorithms.

George F. Viamontes; Igor L. Markov; John P. Hayes



Similarity Search in Trajectory Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trajectory Database (TD) management is a relatively new topic of database research, which has emerged due to the explosion of mobile devices and positioning technologies. Trajectory similarity search forms an important class of queries in TD with applications in trajectory data analysis and spatiotemporal knowledge discovery. In contrast to related works which make use of generic similarity metrics that virtually

Nikos Pelekis; Ioannis Kopanakis; Gerasimos Marketos; Irene Ntoutsi; Gennady L. Andrienko



Savvy Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

Jacso, Peter



University of ADA Emergency Assistance  

E-print Network

1 University of Delaware ADA Emergency Assistance Plan Developed June 2011 #12;Annex E UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE June 2011 ADA EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PLAN 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS ADA Emergency Assistance Plan Section ..................................................................................13 Emergency Evacuation Assistance ................................................................14

Firestone, Jeremy


Hybrid genetic algorithm with adaptive local search scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm (a-hGA) with adaptive local search scheme. For designing the a-hGA, a local search technique is incorporated in the loop of genetic algorithm (GA), and whether or not the local search technique is used in the GA is automatically determined by the adaptive local search scheme. Two modes of adaptive local search schemes are

YoungSu Yun



Metor Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is another metasearch engine worth a spin. In addition to the typical choices of search engines and directories, Metor Search also offers specialized searching by nineteen additional categories, including cars, downloads, news, games, recipes, and travel, among others. Some of these only index a few engines, but in each, users have the option to select specific engines and set a timeout span. Search returns, which include a short description culled from the page, appeared to be fairly relevant in test runs.


Snoogle: A Search Engine for Pervasive Environments  

E-print Network

retrieval (IR) has been widely used to search for information1 within databases. People can use search are considered as the representatives of the physical objects they are attached to, naturally form a database of the physical world. New techniques for searching information in such a database are necessary. Information

Li, Qun


Forensic familial searching: scientific and social implications  

E-print Network

Forensic familial searching: scientific and social implications Nanibaa' A. Garrison1 , Rori V. Rohlfs2 and Stephanie M. Fullerton3 Familial searching in forensic genetic testing is raising concerns Published online 4 June 2013 In July 2010, a new forensic technique called familial searching gained public


Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach  

E-print Network

Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach Department of Computer that a variety of visual search behaviors appear as emergent properties of the model and therefore basic: saliency, visual attention, visual search, eye movements, information theory, efficient coding, pop



Microsoft Academic Search

As the Web is becoming a worldwide phenomenon we need to understand what searching trends are emerging across different global regions. Are there regional differences in Web searching? What are the differences between searching by the United States population compared to Europeans? As part of a body of research studying these questions, we have analyzed two data sets culled from

Amanda Spink; Seda Ozmutlu; Huseyin Cenk Ozmutlu; Bernard J. Jansen



Suspicionless Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.



Dewey Searches!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000



Partition search  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

Ginsberg, M.L. [CIRL, Eugene, OR (United States)



Emergency Medical Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lewis Research Center helped design the complex EMS Communication System, originating from space operated telemetry, including the telemetry link between ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services. In emergency medical use telemetry links ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services and allows transmission of physiological data -- an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital emergency room where a physician reads the telemetered message and prescribes emergency procedures to ambulance attendants.



Flux Emergence (Theory)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field) in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

Cheung, Mark C. M.; Isobe, Hiroaki



Handbook of pulmonary emergencies  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A



Obstetric emergency simulation.  


Simulation for obstetric emergencies has progressed from being a good idea in theory to the level of an evidence-based intervention that can improve outcomes. Though not a stand-alone solution, the inclusion of simulation for training individuals and teams to react and perform correctly when obstetric emergencies occur is a critical part of a comprehensive strategy to improve outcomes for both the mother and baby. In this article, we will briefly review both the recent history of simulation for obstetric emergencies and then examine the most current evidence for specific emergencies. PMID:23721775

Deering, Shad; Rowland, Jennifer



Research Directions in Emergency Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Research Directions Conference, Atlanta, January 1995. This Consensus document is being published simultaneously in Academic Emergency Medicine, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Annals of Emergency Medicine, and Journal of Emergency Medicine.[Research Directions Conference: Research directions in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med March 1996;27:339-342.

Richard V Aghababian; William G Barsan; William H Bickell; Michelle H Biros; Charles G Brown; Charles B Cairns; Michael L Callaham; Donna L Carden; William H Cordell; Richard C Dart; Steven C Dronen; Herbert G Garrison; Lewis R Goldfrank; Jerris R Hedges; Gabor D Kelen; Arthur L Kellermann; Lawrence M Lewis; Robert J Lewis; Louis J Ling; John A Marx; John B McCabe; Arthur B Sanders; David L Schriger; David P Sklar; Terrence D Valenzuela; Joseph F Waeckerle; Robert L Wears; J. Douglas White; Robert J Zalenski



MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency?  

E-print Network

emergency? Building or location where aid is needed . Specific location within the building. Type of problem, or if I see a student, with a minor illness or injury? GO or REFER the student to the Florida Atlantic University Student Health Services available on or near the following campuses: (Proof of enrollment

Fernandez, Eduardo


Novel techniques to search for neutron radioactivity  

E-print Network

Two new methods to observe neutron radioactivity are presented. Both methods rely on the production and decay of the parent nucleus in flight. The relative velocity measured between the neutron and the fragment is sensitive to half-lives between ~1 and ~100 ps for the Decay in Target (DiT) method. The transverse position measurement of the neutron in the Decay in a Magnetic Field (DiMF) method is sensitive to half-lives between 10 ps and 1 ns.

M. Thoennessen; G. Christian; Z. Kohley; T. Baumann; M. Jones; J. K. Smith; J. Snyder; A. Spyrou



Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

Zhang, Li



Micronutrients in Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores two main aspects of the micronutrient problem as it relates to entitlements in humanitarian emergencies: the diseases that arise directly or indirectly as a result of vitamin and mineral deficiencies often fatal in their own right; and knowledge, or awareness, of micronutrient concerns (and solutions) among income poor households. The delivery of nutrients in emergencies is a

Patrick Webb; Andrew Thorne-Lyman



Emergency Carotid Endarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of the therapeutical efficacy of emergency carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in neurologically unstable patients. Patients and Methods: Three groups of a consecutive series of 71 emergency CEAs performed from 1980 to July 1998 were classified: (1) acute onset of severe stroke (n = 16), (2) progressive stroke\\/stroke in evolution (n = 34), and (3) crescendo transient ischemic attacks (n

Hans-Henning Eckstein; Hardy Schumacher; Klaus Klemm; Hans Laubach; Thomas Kraus; Peter Ringleb; Arnd Dörfler; Markus Weigand; Hubert Bardenheuer; Jens-Rainer Allenberg



Emergency Numbers DANFORTH CAMPUS  

E-print Network

Fire Safety Active Shooter Natural Disasters Hazardous Material Spills Flu Information PreparingEmergency Numbers DANFORTH CAMPUS Ambulance · Fire · Police (314) 935-5555 Emergency Health Service 911 MEDICAL CAMPUS Ambulance · Fire · Police (314) 362-HELP (4357) Safety and Security 2012-2013 Guide

Subramanian, Venkat


Emergency Numbers DANFORTH CAMPUS  

E-print Network

Fire Safety Active Shooter Natural Disasters Hazardous Material Spills Flu Information PreparingEmergency Numbers DANFORTH CAMPUS Ambulance · Fire · Police (314) 935-5555 Emergency Health Service 911 MEDICAL CAMPUS Ambulance · Fire · Police (314) 362-HELP (4357) Safety and Security 2014-2015 Guide

Grant, Gregory


School Emergency Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared to assist Pennsylvania schools and communities in the development of comprehensive emergency plans. Procedures for identifying and responding to potential community and school emergency situations are presented. A plan for developing and organizing mass care centers utilizing school and community facilities and resources is…

Benedetto, Harry J.


USGS Emergency Response Resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

Bewley, Robert D.



Emergency Preparedness at NCI

When emergencies happen, different groups have different needs. NCI stays as prepared as we can to provide cancer care and continue cancer research in the face of catastrophic events. The more you do to prepare for an emergency before something happens, the better equipped you will be to respond. It is important to think ahead, be prepared, and have a plan.


CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-print Network

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Bolch, Tobias


Emergency Management Queen's University  

E-print Network

Emergency Management Plan Queen's University 1 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Distribution List Record of Revision Queen's Emergency Management Plan 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Aim and Objectives 3.0 Authority/Chain of Command 4.0 Initiation of the Plan/Activation Process 5.0 Communications/Notifications (Call Out

Linder, Tamás


Emergency Medical Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of emergency medical technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 4 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.


Transportation Networks for Emergency Evacuations  

SciTech Connect

Evacuation modeling systems (EMS) have been developed to facilitate the planning, analysis, and deployment of emergency evacuation of populations at risk. For any EMS, data such as road network maps, traffic control characteristics, and population distribution play critical roles in delineating emergency zones, estimating population at risk, and determining evacuation routes. There are situations in which it is possible to plan in advance for an emergency evacuation including, for example, an explosion at a chemical processing facility or a radiological accident at a nuclear plant. In these cases, if an accident or a terrorist attack were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other instances -for example, the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials-, there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on if and how to identify and proceed with the best course of action to minimize losses. Although both cases require as a starting point the development of a transportation network model of the area at risk, which must include road capacity and topology, in the latter the available time to generate this network is extremely limited. This time constraint precludes the use of any traditional data gathering methodology and the network generation process has to rely on the use of GIS and stochastic modeling techniques. The generation of these transportation networks in real time is the focus of this entry.

Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL



Parallel Randomized State-Space Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model checkers search the space of possible program be- haviors to detect errors and to demonstrate their absence. Despite major advances in reduction and optimization tech- niques, state-space search can still become cost-prohibitive as program size and complexity increase. In this paper, we present a technique for dramatically improving the cost- effectiveness of state-space search techniques for error de- tection

Matthew B. Dwyer; Sebastian G. Elbaum; Suzette Person; Rahul Purandare



Electric power emergency handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

Labadie, J.R.



Modeling Emergence in Neuroprotective Regulatory Networks  

SciTech Connect

The use of predictive modeling in the analysis of gene expression data can greatly accelerate the pace of scientific discovery in biomedical research by enabling in silico experimentation to test disease triggers and potential drug therapies. Techniques that focus on modeling emergence, such as agent-based modeling and multi-agent simulations, are of particular interest as they support the discovery of pathways that may have never been observed in the past. Thus far, these techniques have been primarily applied at the multi-cellular level, or have focused on signaling and metabolic networks. We present an approach where emergence modeling is extended to regulatory networks and demonstrate its application to the discovery of neuroprotective pathways. An initial evaluation of the approach indicates that emergence modeling provides novel insights for the analysis of regulatory networks that can advance the discovery of acute treatments for stroke and other diseases.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Haack, Jereme N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary



Black Hole Emergence in Supernovae  

E-print Network

If a black hole formed in a core-collapse supernova is accreting material from the base of the envelope, the accretion luminosity could be observable in the supernova light curve. Here we continue the study of matter fall back onto a black hole in the wake of a supernova and examine realistic supernovae models which allow for an early emergence of the accretion luminosity. Such cases may provide a direct observational identification of the black hole formed in the aftermath of the explosion. Our approach combines analytic estimates and fully relativistic, radiation-hydrodynamic numerical computations. We employ a numerical hydrodynamical scaling technique to accommodate the diverse range of dynamical time scales in a single simulation. We find that while in typical Type II supernovae heating by radioactive decays dominates the late-time light curve, low-energy explosions of more massive stars should provide an important exception where the accretion luminosity will emerge while it is still relatively large. Our main focus is on the only current candidate for such an observation, the very unusual SN1997D. Due to the low energy of the explosion and the very small ($2\\times10^{-3} M_\\sun$) inferred mass of Co56 in the ejected envelope, we find that accretion should become the dominant source of its luminosity during the year 2000. The total luminosity at emergence is expected to lie in the range $0.5-3\\times10^{36} $ ergs/s, potentially detectable with HST. We also discuss the more favorable case of explosions which eject negligible amounts of radioactive isotopes and find that the black hole is likely to emerge a few tens of days after the explosion, with a luminosity of $\\sim 10^{37} $\\ergss.

Shmuel Balberg; Luca Zampieri; Stuart L. Shapiro



E-print Network Version 10 EMERGENCY ACTION GUIDE TO REPORT AN EMERGENCY CALL 911 for any EMERGENCY ACTION GUIDE 2 Version 10 This guide provides basic information for dealing.............................................................................(607)255-3377 · Operating Status Web Site University Special Conditions

Pawlowski, Wojtek


A Task-Based Evaluation of an Aggregated Search Interface  

E-print Network

. Federated search, distributed information retrieval, and metasearch engines are the techniques that aimA Task-Based Evaluation of an Aggregated Search Interface Shanu Sushmita, Hideo Joho, and Mounia that evaluated the effective- ness of an aggregated search interface in the context of non-navigational search

Lalmas, Mounia


Low background techniques in XMASS  

SciTech Connect

The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)



The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.



Sensor-Based Data Storage for Search and Rescue Sanem Sariel Talay1  

E-print Network

, according to Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) search and rescue guidelines [3], oneSensor-Based Data Storage for Search and Rescue Sanem Sariel Talay1 , Esin Ergen 2 , Gurhan Avdan1 available and easily accessible to search and rescue team members following an earthquake. The Search

Talay, Sanem Sarýel


Protocols for Teaching Students How to Search for, Discover, and Evaluate Innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce and develop protocols to guide aspiring entrepreneurs’ behaviors in searching for and discovering innovative ideas that may have commercial potential. Systematic search has emerged as a theory-based, prescriptive framework to guide innovative behavior. Grounded in Fiet’s theory of search and discovery, this article provides teaching protocols that provide proven methods for guiding individuals to effectively search for

William I. Norton; Dena H. Hale



Search Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from PC Magazine reviews and rates fifteen of the most popular search engines. The report includes brief reviews of each engine; a scorecard rating the engines on relevancy, query customization, duplicate and dead link elimination, and anticipatory results; and an Editor's Choice of the three best engines for directory searches, research, and all-purpose searches. While quite brief and containing little new information for experienced users, newer users may find the report useful.

Sirapyan, Nancy.


Emergency Operation Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Emergency Operation Center (EOC) is a site from which NASA LaRC Emergency Preparedness Officials exercise control and direction in an emergency. Research was conducted in order to determine what makes an effective EOC. Specifically information concerning the various types of equipment and communication capability that an efficient EOC should contain (i.e., computers, software, telephone systems, radio systems, etc.) was documented. With this information a requirements document was written stating a brief description of the equipment and required quantity to be used in an EOC and then compared to current capabilities at the NASA Langley Research Center.

Chinea, Anoushka Z.



Automatic searching and evaluation of priority and emerging contaminants in wastewater and river water by stir bar sorptive extraction followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


A new analytical method based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC-TOF-MS), has been developed for the automatic searching and evaluation of nonpolar or semipolar contaminants in wastewater and river water. The target compounds selected were 13 personal care products (PCPs), 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 27 pesticides. Excellent results have been obtained in terms of separation efficiency and also in terms of compound identification. Exceptional method detection limits were achieved applying the optimized method, at or below 1 ng/L for most of the compounds in real samples. The reliable confirmation of analyte identity was possible at this low concentration level, even for typically troublesome compounds such as the PAHs. The other validation parameters were good. In addition to obtaining analytical information such as identification and quantification of target analytes, it is also possible to screen for nontarget compounds or unknowns. New contaminants have been identified in the wastewater effluents and river water samples, such as cholesterol and its degradation products, pharmaceuticals, industrial products, other pesticides, and PCPs. The multidimensional information generated by the instrument can also be used by the researchers for contrasting samples and identifying, much more easily, the major differences between samples. We have used this feature to propose studies of comparison between the fingerprinting of different water samples, such as the contamination variation along a river affected by the discharge of urban wastewaters and also the contamination variation over a period of time in the effluent. Results show that the most frequently detected contaminants (and the contaminants detected at higher concentrations) were the PCPs. The musk fragrances galaxolide and tonalid were the most concentrated compounds in the samples. The pesticides and PAHs were present at much lower concentration than PCPs. PMID:21388147

Gómez, María José; Herrera, Sonia; Solé, David; García-Calvo, Eloy; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R



Measuring improvement in user search performance resulting from optimal search tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web search performance can be improved by either improving the search engine itself or by educating the user to search more efficiently. There is a large amount of literature describing techniques for measuring the former; whereas, improvements resulting from the latter are more difficult to quantify. In this paper we demonstrate an experimental methodology that proves to successfully quantify improvements

Neema Moraveji; Daniel Russell; Jacob Bien; David Mease



Seattle Pacific University Emergency Procedures  

E-print Network

defibrilla- tors, as well as fire brigade and self-defense training. Security officers have a well at the Washington Campus Law Enforcement Training Academy, certification in first aid and CPR, and #12; CampusEmergency AlertSystems Campus Emergency Alert Systems Campus Emergency

Nelson, Tim


Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan.....................................................................21 Hazardous Material Accidents ..............................................22 Nuclear Power Plants Emergency Telephone Numbers.....................................................26 Credits The Family

Noble, James S.


Meta Search Engines for Information Retrieval on Multiple Domains  

E-print Network

Abstract: A Web Search Engine searches for information in the World Wide Web. The number of web resources increases every day but the user is often unable to get the exact information due to the different page ranking techniques followed by individual Search Engines. Meta Search Engines solve this problem to a certain level by using more than one search engines. A Vertical Search Engine is used to provide the user with results for queries on a particular domain such as Medical, Insurance and etc. This paper proposes three Multi Domain Meta Search Engines that facilitate efficient Information Retrieval on multiple domains. These Search Engines combines the functionality of both the Meta

D. Minnie; S. Srinivasan



Responding to adaptation emergencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of extreme events are triggering action and reaction -- sometimes in unexpected ways. Confronted by 'adaptation emergencies', the private sector is rapidly innovating climate risk management, but governments must also fulfil their responsibilities.

Hall, Jim W.; Berkhout, Frans; Douglas, Rowan



Emergency Care of Children  


... Care .” Q. What advice do you have for parents about children’s medical emergencies? A. Preventable injuries are the leading cause of childhood death and permanent injury. Child safety seats, bicycle helmets, ...


Emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H. Rogier



Emerging infectious diseases.  


The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H Rogier



Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.



Recommended Procedures for Handling Emergency Illnesses and Accidents at School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended procedures for handling emergency illnesses and accidents are provided in this guide for school personnel prepared by the North Dakota State Department of Health. Following five general recommendations for steps to take in emergency situations, advice and techniques are given for handling: nose bleeds; abdominal pain; toothaches and…

North Dakota State Dept. of Health, Bismarck.


Use of a uniconcave balloon in emergency cerclage.  


Pushing bulging fetal membranes back into the uterine cavity effectively without rupture of fetal membranes during emergency cerclage is a concern to obstetricians. We have developed a new uniconcave balloon device for repositioning fetal membranes into the uterus during emergency cerclage. Our technique can be accomplished easily with few complications. PMID:25046811

Son, Ga-Hyun; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Keun-Young



Oncologic mechanical emergencies.  


Prevalence of cancer and its various related complications continues to rise. Increasingly these life-threatening complications are initially managed in the emergency department, making a prompt and accurate diagnosis crucial to effectively institute the proper treatment and establish goals of care. The following oncologic emergencies are reviewed in this article: pericardial tamponade, superior vena cava syndrome, brain metastasis, malignant spinal cord compression, and hyperviscosity syndrome. PMID:25060246

Khan, Umar A; Shanholtz, Carl B; McCurdy, Michael T



Emergency Communications Console  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has applied its communications equipment expertise to development of a communications console that provides, in a compact package only slightly larger than an electric typewriter, all the emergency medical services communications functions needed for a regional hospital. A prototype unit, built by Johnson Space Center, has been installed in the Odessa (Texas) Medical Center Hospital. The hospital is the medical control center for the 17-county Permian Basin Emergency Medical System in west Texas. The console project originated in response to a request to NASA from the Texas governor's office, which sought a better way of providing emergency medical care in rural areas. Because ambulance travel time is frequently long in remote areas of west Texas, it is important that treatment begin at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital emergency room. A radio and telephone system linking ambulance emergency technicians and hospital staff makes this possible. But earlier equipment was complex, requiring specialized operators. A highly reliable system was needed to minimize breakdowns and provide controls of utmost simplicity, so that the system could be operated by physicians and nurses rather than by communications specialists. The resulting console has both radio and telephone sections. With the radio equipment, hospital personnel can communicate with ambulance drivers and paramedics, receive incoming electrocardiagrams, consult with other hospitals, page hospital staff and set up a radio-to-telephone "patch." The telephone portion of the system includes a hotline from the Permian Basin Emergency Medical Service's resource control center, an automatic dialer for contacting special care facilities in the Permian Basin network, a hospital intercom terminal and a means of relaying cardioscope displays and other data between hospitals. The integrated system also provides links with local disaster and civil defense organizations and with emergency "Dial 911" control points.



Emergent Universe by Tunneling  

E-print Network

In this work we propose an alternative scheme for an Emergent Universe scenario where the universe is initially in a static state supported by a scalar field located in a false vacuum. The universe begins to evolve when, by quantum tunneling, the scalar field decays into a state of true vacuum. The Emergent Universe models are interesting since they provide specific examples of nonsingular inflationary universes.

Pedro Labrana



Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others] [and others



On the Emergence of Time in Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We discuss from a philosophical perspective the way in which the normal concept of time might be said to `emerge' in a quantum theory of gravity. After an introduction, we briefly discuss the notion of emergence, without regard to time (Section 2). We then introduce the search for a quantum theory of gravity (Section 3); and review some general interpretative issues about space, time and matter Section 4). We then discuss the emergence of time in simple quantum geometrodynamics, and in the Euclidean approach (Section 5). Section 6 concludes.

C. J. Isham; J. Butterfield



Analyzing and Detecting Malicious Activities in Emerging Communication Platforms  

E-print Network

Benefiting from innovatory techniques, two communication platforms (online social networking (OSN) platforms and smartphone platforms) have emerged and been widely used in the last few years. However, cybercriminals have also utilized these two...

Yang, Chao




Microsoft Academic Search

Metaheuristic search techniques strongly employ randomized decisions while searching for solutions to structural optimization problems. These techniques play an increasingly important role for practically solving hard combinatorial problems from various domains. Over the past few years there has been considerable success in developing metaheuristic search algorithms as well as randomized systematic search methods for obtaining solutions to discrete programming problems.

O. Hasançebi; F. Erdal; M. P. Saka



Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 7--Medical Emergencies. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers medical emergencies. The objectives for the chapter are for students to be able to describe the causes, signs, and symptoms for specified medical emergencies and to describe emergency care for them. Informative…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.



E-print Network

or UD Public Safety for emergency assistance 4. If imminent danger exists activate building alarm Contact UD Public Safety for emergency medical assistance or contact Supervisor, Instructor, or EHS EYE UD Public Safety for emergency assistance CHEMICAL SPILL/ SPLASH #12;

Firestone, Jeremy



E-print Network

MEDICAL AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION FORM Field Trip Name: __________________________ Trip Dates from information about your medical coverage that might be useful. Emergency Contact Information Emergency Personal;___________________________________________________________________________________ Please return completed form to the trip coordinator two weeks prior to departure. Known Medical

Rothman, Daniel


Search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using a matrix element technique at CDF in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV  

E-print Network

This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6??fb[superscript ...

Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo



Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of carrier-phase ambiguity resolution is described. The new technique is a variation of the least- squares residual search technique in the ambiguity domain. It uses a very efficient algorithm to compute the residuals associated with each potential combination of ambiguities to be tested. Several other techniques are employed to simplify the calculations and to enhance the probability

Ron Hatch; Tenny Sharpe


Towards Automatic Incorporation of Search Engines into a Large-Scale Metasearch Engine. Web Intelligence Conference  

E-print Network

A metasearch engine supports unified access to multiple component search engines. To build a very large-scale metasearch engine that can access up to hundreds of thousands of component search engines, one major challenge is to incorporate large numbers of autonomous search engines in a highly effective manner. To solve this problem, we propose automatic search engine discovery, automatic search engine connection, and automatic search engine result extraction techniques. Experiments indicate that these techniques are highly effective and efficient.

Zonghuan Wu; Vijay Raghavan; Hua Qian; Vuyyuru Rama K



Meet the Emergency Medical Team  


... Campaigns Read Patient Stories Health News About Emergencies Childhood / Student Emergencies Diseases & Infections Disaster Preparedness Elderly Safety Holiday & Seasonal Injury Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español ER ...


Modulation techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

Schilling, D. L.



Methods for the discovery of emerging pathogens.  


Recently, there has been a steady increase in the number of recognized pathogenic microorganisms, specifically bacteria. The development of genetic technologies, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and new culturing techniques has significantly widened the repertoire of known microorganisms and therefore pathogenic microorganisms. The repertoire of infectious agents has been studied in various environments including water, soil, pets, livestock, wildlife and arthropods. Using different methods, many known pathogens can be identified in these samples; therefore, the impact of emergent pathogens on humans can be examined and novel pathogens can be identified. In this special issue, we discuss the identification of emerging pathogens in the environment and animals. PMID:25014736

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier



The Emergence of Public Health Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify key concepts in the literature relating to the release of open educational resources (OER), with specific reference to the emergence of public health OER. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature relating to the development of OER was followed by an online search for OER literature…

Angell, C.; Hartwell, H.; Hemingway, A.




E-print Network

2009 EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN SUMMARY IMPORTANT EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS: UGA Police: (706) 542 Emergency? · UGAAlert System ­ Emergency notifications via phones, cell phones, and email (see www Systems ­ NOAA Weather radios, Arch News, phone trees, local radio stations · UGA Building Safety

Arnold, Jonathan


EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal


Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Declaring an Emergency  

E-print Network

Communications Commission, as well as their emergency services and facilities, when the pilot requests or whenEmergency and Abnormal Situations Project Declaring an Emergency ­ Fact and Fiction Immanuel Barshi NASA Ames Research Center Todd Kowalski NASA Ames Research Center / SJSUF #12;Emergency and Abnormal


Emergent nontrivial lattices for topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials with nontrivial lattice geometries allow for the creation of exotic states of matter like topologically insulating states. Therefore searching for such materials is an important aspect of current research in solid-state physics. In the field of ultracold gases there are ongoing studies aiming to create nontrivial lattices using optical means. In this paper we study two species of fermions trapped in a square optical lattice and show how nontrivial lattices can emerge due to strong interaction between atoms. We theoretically investigate regimes of tunable parameters in which such self-assembly may take place and describe the necessary experimental conditions. Moreover, we discuss the possibility of such emergent lattices hosting topologically insulating states.

Dutta, O.; Przysie?na, A.; Lewenstein, M.



Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies  

PubMed Central

We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

Kokuti, Andras.; Gelenbe, Erol.



Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.  


Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented. PMID:16168994

Polley, Lydden



Emerging foodborne diseases.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

Altekruse, S. F.; Cohen, M. L.; Swerdlow, D. L.



Hanford Emergency Response Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

Wagoner, J.D.



Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.  


Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes. PMID:25620633

Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K



NASA's Search-and-Rescue Technology - Duration: 0:37.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation depicts the next-generation search and rescue system, the DASS. Under this system, instruments used to relay emergency beacon signals will be installed on GPS satellites. When one em...


Emerging Supplements in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.



Genetic algorithm-based clustering technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic algorithm-based clustering technique, called GA-clustering, is proposed in this article. The searching capability of genetic algorithms is exploited in order to search for appropriate cluster centres in the feature space such that a similarity metric of the resulting clusters is optimized. The chromosomes, which are represented as strings of real numbers, encode the centres of a \\

Ujjwal Maulik; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay



Research directions in emergency medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of emergency medicine is to improve health while preventing and treating disease and illness in patients seeking emergency medical care. Improvements in emergency medical care and the delivery of this care can be achieved through credible and meaningful research efforts. Improved delivery of emergency medical care through research requires careful planning and the wise use of limited resources.

Richard V Aghababian; William G Barsan; William H Bickell; Michelle H Biros; Charles G Brown; Charles B Cairns; Michael L Callaham; Donna L Carden; William H Cordell; Richard C Dart; Steven H Dronen; Herbert G Garrison; Lewis R Goldfrank; Jerris R Hedges; Gabor D Kelen; Arthur L Kellermann; Lawrence M Lewis; Roger G Lewis; Louis J Ling; John A Marx; John B McCabe; Arthur B Sanders; David L Schriger; David P Sklar; Terrence D Valenzuela; Joseph F Waeckerle; Robert L Wears; J. Douglas White; Robert J Zalenski



Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill


Information & Communication Technology Emergency Instructions  

E-print Network

Information & Communication Technology Emergency Instructions In the event of an EMERGENCY dial 403-220-5333 for Campus Security or dial 9-1-1 for Police, Fire or Ambulance Additional emergency instructions is found the area for Campus Security or emergency services to arrive Evacuation Procedures Activate the NEAREST

de Leon, Alex R.


Solving the Emergency Care Crisis in America: The Power of the Law and Storytelling  

PubMed Central

An Emergency Department visit that ended tragically prompted my yearlong journey to Washington, DC, and emergency rooms across the country to search for solutions to the national crisis in emergency care. I reached the conclusion that the crisis is entirely solvable, and I developed a three-part solution that includes 1) nationally standardizing and coordinating care, 2) prioritizing resources and incentives in the delivery of emergency care, and 3) inspiring young clinicians to careers in emergency care. Physicians across America should now harness the power of storytelling to strengthen both the delivery of patient care and health care reform efforts on Capitol Hill. PMID:23012606

Maa, John



Teaching Techniques  

E-print Network

the topic using other techniques. It is important that you know each member. Teaching Techniques Several teaching techniques are available: lecture, illus- trated talk, discussion, question and answer, demonstra- tion, work session or practical exercise... about the various shapes and distinguishing characteristics of insects, sketch them on a large sheet of paper or blackboard or show an actual specimen or picture. When the topic discussed is in the members? guide, you can have them follow along. 3...

Howard, Jeff W.



Probabilistic diversification and intensification in local search for vehicle routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a probabilistic technique to diversify, intensify, and parallelize a local search adapted for solving\\u000a vehicle routing problems. This technique may be applied to a very wide variety of vehicle routing problems and local searches.\\u000a It is shown that efficient first-level tabu searches for vehicle routing problems may be significantly improved with this\\u000a technique. Moreover, the solutions produced

Yves Rochat; Éric D. Taillard



A Hybrid Search Algorithm for Swarm Robots Searching in an Unknown Environment  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a novel method to improve the efficiency of a swarm of robots searching in an unknown environment. The approach focuses on the process of feeding and individual coordination characteristics inspired by the foraging behavior in nature. A predatory strategy was used for searching; hence, this hybrid approach integrated a random search technique with a dynamic particle swarm optimization (DPSO) search algorithm. If a search robot could not find any target information, it used a random search algorithm for a global search. If the robot found any target information in a region, the DPSO search algorithm was used for a local search. This particle swarm optimization search algorithm is dynamic as all the parameters in the algorithm are refreshed synchronously through a communication mechanism until the robots find the target position, after which, the robots fall back to a random searching mode. Thus, in this searching strategy, the robots alternated between two searching algorithms until the whole area was covered. During the searching process, the robots used a local communication mechanism to share map information and DPSO parameters to reduce the communication burden and overcome hardware limitations. If the search area is very large, search efficiency may be greatly reduced if only one robot searches an entire region given the limited resources available and time constraints. In this research we divided the entire search area into several subregions, selected a target utility function to determine which subregion should be initially searched and thereby reduced the residence time of the target to improve search efficiency. PMID:25386855

Li, Shoutao; Li, Lina; Lee, Gordon; Zhang, Hao



Like a Hurricane: A Citation Analysis of Emergency Management Scholarly Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliometric study used citation analysis to uncover citing characteristics in the burgeoning academic field of emergency management. Of the 281 degree programs listed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency nationwide, those at community colleges accounted for 17% of the total. Using the interdisciplinary database of Academic Search

Noe, Jennifer; Furay, Julia



National radiological emergency preparedness conference  

SciTech Connect

This conference focuses on the following major topics, presented in various written formats from speakers presentations: future of nuclear power and the problems of low-level radioactive waste storage; regulatory cooperation and reform in emergency planning; emergency management, monitoring and health assessment; standardization of exercise report form; social, political, economic, and agricultural concerns in emergency planning; organizational activities of the Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program; Emergency planning in Australia.




Cellular Microbiology Emerging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Microbial pathogens have evolved to interfere with essential processes in eukaryotic cells. P. Cossart illustrates how a new field, cellular microbiology, is emerging in which the targets of these microbes are being identified and many aspects of normal cell biology are being revealed.

P. Cossart (Institut Pasteur;Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules); P. Boquet (Faculté de Médecine;); S. Normark (Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center;Karolinska Institute); R. Rappuoli (Istituto Ricerche Immunobiologiche;)



Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.  


Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T




E-print Network


Goldman, Steven A.


Fire Department Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.



Emergency Helicopter Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardly a day passes by without a news headline giving an account of a portion of the national landscape stricken with disaster. In order to effectively combat the increasing complexity and frequency of disasters, such as hurricanes, storms, earthquakes, and terrorist attacks; there exists a need for an emergency helicopter support system (EHS) that assimilates seamlessly into a network centric

Jonathan Norris; E. Vogel; I. Noboa-Heredia; D. Adkins; A. Karamalla



Emerging Presidential Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the state of the college presidency revealed that five broad management issues have emerged: conflict resolution, coping with change, achieving continuity, need for increased collaboration, and justice and ethics in the education enterprise. Implications for managerial practice in the future are analyzed. (MSE)

Stanton, Thomas C.; Pitsvada, Bernard T.



Indiana Energy Exploring Emerging  

E-print Network

turning to energy efficiency as the lowest-cost energy resource. Let's examine the history of these programs. Anna Chittum, American Council for an Energy- Efficiency Economy (ACEEE) Alternative FuelsIndiana Energy Conference Exploring Emerging Energy Issues October 3, 2012 - 9:00 a.m. ­ 4:30 p

Ginzel, Matthew


The Emerging Scholarly Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

Kurtz, Michael J.


Emerging Asian Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

Trezise, Philip H.



EPA Science Inventory

Fecal contamination of surface waters used for recreation, drinking water and aquaculture are a continuous environmental problem and pose significant human health risks. An alarming amount of the United States rivers/streams (39%), lakes (45%), and estuaries (51%) are not safe f...


Location-Based Flooding Techniques for Vehicular Emergency Messaging  

E-print Network

-to-Roadside (V-to-R) communication protocols such as DSRC/WAVE [1] is the avoidance of traffic accidents difference of V-to-V communication system to conventional radio systems is that radios in automobiles

Gruteser, Marco



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coastal and inland waters used for recreation and shellfish production are frequently contaminated with human and animal feces that carry parasites and bacteria. There are many potential sources of contamination including, runoff from agricultural land, urban surfaces, and undeveloped land, normal w...


Knowledge mapping method for emerging technology detection and examination on interdisciplinary research fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search for emerging technologies is important part for science and tech nology policy. Early detection of emerging technologies makes R&D str ategy setting possible. In this study, we suggest the methodology to se arch emerging technologies by knowledge mapping method. We exami ne the highly-cited-papers in SCOPUS publication DB from 2005 to 200 9. We can also examine the characteristics

Heyoung Yang



A Search Engine for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Misha Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David Dobkin; David Jacobs



Inquirus, the NECI Meta Search Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Wide Web (WWW) search engines (e.g. AltaVista, Infoseek, HotBot, etc.) have a number of deficiencies including: periods of downtime, low coverage of the WWW, inconsistent and inefficient user interfaces, out of date databases, poor relevancy ranking and precision, and difficulties with spamming techniques. Meta search engines have been introduced which address some of these and other difficulties in searching

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles



A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs



Emerging MRI Methods in Translational Cardiovascular Research  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a reference standard modality for imaging of left ventricular (LV) structure and function, and, using late gadolinium enhancement, for imaging myocardial infarction. Emerging CMR techniques enable a more comprehensive examination of the heart, making CMR an excellent tool for use in translational cardiovascular research. Specifically, emerging CMR methods have been developed to measure the extent of myocardial edema, changes in ventricular mechanics, changes in tissue composition as a result of fibrosis, and changes in myocardial perfusion as a function of both disease and infarct healing. New CMR techniques also enable the tracking of labeled cells, molecular imaging of biomarkers of disease, and changes in calcium flux in cardiomyocytes. In addition, MRI can quantify blood flow velocity and wall shear stress in large blood vessels. Almost all of these techniques can be applied in both pre-clinical and clinical settings, enabling both the techniques themselves and the knowledge gained using such techniques in pre-clinical research to be translated from the lab bench to the patient bedside. PMID:21452060

Vandsburger, Moriel H; Epstein, Frederick H



Searching the Web by Constrained Spreading Activation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of intelligent information retrieval focuses on the use of Constrained Spreading Activation (CSA) techniques to search on the World Wide Web. Highlights include associative and ostensive information retrieval; hypertext links; query formulation; a prototype system that used CSA to search the Web; and results of an evaluation. (LRW)

Crestani, Fabio; Lee, Puay Leng



Learning to cluster web search results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizing Web search results into clusters facilitates users' quick browsing through search results. Traditional clustering techniques are inadequate since they don't generate clusters with highly readable names. In this paper, we reformalize the clustering problem as a salient phrase ranking problem. Given a query and the ranked list of documents (typically a list of titles and snippets) returned by a

Hua-Jun Zeng; Qi-Cai He; Zheng Chen; Wei-Ying Ma; Jinwen Ma



Penn State Search Strategy Committee: Search Recommendations  

E-print Network

Custom Search Engine (CSE), Apache Lucene/Solr with Heritrix crawler, WebSolr, Verity, and Thunderstone. Provide access to research search engines for analysis of Penn State's Web presence. 4. CommunicatePenn State Search Strategy Committee: Search Recommendations Penn State Search Collaboration

Maroncelli, Mark


Using OneSearch for Everyday Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits of using DIALOG's OneSearch in conjunction with DIALINDEX when searching online databases. Interdisciplinary searching on multiple databases is discussed, time and cost comparisons are briefly addressed, and steps involved in a simple search and in a complex search are detailed. (LRW)

Chadwick, Terry Brainerd



NSDL National Science Digital Library allows you to search over 800 engines, listed by subject areas from arts to Web. Each subject area presents a list of search forms, along with very brief annotations and "search tips." While there is no way to do a multiple engine search with a single command, the organization of allows the user to determine which engines might be appropriate. also allows you to set up a "personal" search page, based on subjects and searching engines chosen. Searching help is also provided, as is a "meta-search" to find useful engines before starting a search.



Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis  

PubMed Central

Foodborne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, particularly in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. We summarize the complex life cycle of foodborne trematodes and discuss its contextual determinants. Currently, 601.0, 293.8, 91.1, and 79.8 million people are at risk for infection with Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus spp., Fasciola spp., and Opisthorchis spp., respectively. The relationship between diseases caused by trematodes and proximity of human habitation to suitable freshwater bodies is examined. Residents living near freshwater bodies have a 2.15-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.38–3.36) for infections than persons living farther from the water. Exponential growth of aquaculture may be the most important risk factor for the emergence of foodborne trematodiasis. This is supported by reviewing aquaculture development in countries endemic for foodborne trematodiasis over the past 10–50 years. Future and sustainable control of foodborne trematodiasis is discussed. PMID:16318688

Utzinger, Jürg



Search Standard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sherlock, first described in the October 16, 1998 Scout Report, is the new search tool provided by Mac OS 8.5 which allows users to perform searches of Websites without opening a browser. One of the great advantages of Sherlock is its ability to create a plug-in for any Web-based search engine. Since the release, the collection of Sherlock plug-ins has grown to number over 250. A few sites have taken up the task of collecting and organizing these plug-ins. While the Apple-Donuts site is a bit more polished than the others, all three of these sites provide fairly complete listings of the available plug-ins.


Emerging Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging fungal pathogens have been increasingly reported as causes of pneumonia in severely immunocompromised patients. These\\u000a include Fusarium species, Zygomycetes, the agents of phaeohyphomycosis and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species. Hematologic patients at high risk to develop these infections are those with prolonged neutropenia and\\/or severe\\u000a T-cell immunodeficiency, typically patients with acute leukemia receiving chemotherapy for induction of remission, allogeneic\\u000a stem cell

Marcia Garnica; Marcio Nucci


Emerging Digital Economy II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An update of the 1998 US Department of Commerce document Emerging Digital Economy (reviewed in the April 17, 1998 Scout Report), the second volume of this annual report shows that, although ecommerce remains less than one percent of the retail share of the economy, it continues to grow, "outpacing last year's most optimistic projections." New chapters and analyses include "Contribution of Information Technology to Gross Product Originating Per Worker" and "Labor Markets in the Digital Economy."

Buckley, Patricia.; Cooke, Sandra.; Dumagan, Jess.; Gill, Gurmukh.; Henry, David.; Pastore, Dennis.


Local Emergency Management Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Two days after Hurricane Andrew struck the southeastern coast of Florida, the emergency manager of Dade County asked in desperation,\\u000a “Where the hell is the cavalry on this one?” Pleas for help are common in most widespread disasters as municipal and county\\u000a governments may not have sufficient material and human resources to deal with the devastation and disruption they leave

David A. McEntire


Emerging drugs of abuse.  


Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:24275167

Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E



Emergent Infectious Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah



Cockpit emergency safety system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

Keller, Leo



Emergency Response Guideline Development  

SciTech Connect

Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

Gary D. Storrick



Test of emergent gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we examine a small but detailed test of the emergent gravity picture with explicit solutions in gravity and gauge theory. We first derive symplectic U(1) gauge fields starting from the Eguchi-Hanson metric in four-dimensional Euclidean gravity. The result precisely reproduces the U(1) gauge fields of the Nekrasov-Schwarz instanton previously derived from the top-down approach. In order to clarify the role of noncommutative spacetime, we take the Braden-Nekrasov U(1) instanton defined in ordinary commutative spacetime and derive a corresponding gravitational metric. We show that the Kähler manifold determined by the Braden-Nekrasov instanton exhibits a spacetime singularity while the Nekrasov-Schwarz instanton gives rise to a regular geometry—the Eguchi-Hanson space. This result implies that the noncommutativity of spacetime plays an important role for the resolution of spacetime singularities in general relativity. We also discuss how the topological invariants associated with noncommutative U(1) instantons are related to those of emergent four-dimensional Riemannian manifolds according to the emergent gravity picture.

Lee, Sunggeun; Roychowdhury, Raju; Yang, Hyun Seok



Park Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Its never too early to begin planning your summer vacation, especially in the depths of winter; those with cabin fever can get a jump on their outdoor recreation plans at this site, provided by L.L. Bean. Users can search this database of over 1,400 state and national parks, forests, and wildlife refuges by state, region, and/or activities in which they are interested (including winter sports for all-season recreators). Search returns include contact information, an overview of the park/ forest and its highlights, photos, and a list of approved or available activities.


Searching for converging research using field to field citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define converging research as the emergence of an interdisciplinary research area from fields that did not show interdisciplinary\\u000a connections before. This paper presents a process to search for converging research using journal subject categories as a\\u000a proxy for fields and citations to measure interdisciplinary connections, as well as an application of this search. The search\\u000a consists of two phases:

Reindert K. ButerEd; Ed. C. M. Noyons; Anthony F. J. van Raan



Emergency Victim Care. A Textbook for Emergency Medical Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook for emergency medical personnel should be useful to fire departments, private ambulance companies, industrial emergency and rescue units, police departments, and nurses. The 30 illustrated chapters cover topics such as: (1) Emergency Medical Service Vehicles, (2) Safe Driving Practices, (3) Anatomy and Physiology, (4) Closed Chest…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.


Optimizing exoplanet transit searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exoplanet searches using the transit technique are nowadays providing a great number of findings. Most exoplanet transit detection programs that are currently underway are focused on large catalogs of stars with no pre-selection. This necessarily makes such surveys quite inefficient, because huge amounts of data are processed for a relatively low transiting planet yield. In this work we investigate a method to increase the efficiency of a targeted exoplanet search with the transit technique by preselecting a subset of candidates from large catalogs of stars. Assuming spin-orbit alignment, this can be done by considering stars that have higher probability to be oriented nearly equator-on (inclination close to 90°). We use activity-rotation velocity relations for low-mass stars to study the dependence of the position in the activity - v sin(i) diagram on the stellar axis inclination. We compose a catalog of G-, K-, M-type main sequence simulated stars using isochrones, an isotropic inclination distribution and empirical relations to obtain their rotation periods and activity indexes. Then the activity-vsini diagram is filled and statistics are applied to trace the areas containing the higher ratio of stars with inclinations above 80°. A similar statistics is applied to stars from real catalogs with log(R'_{HK}) and v sin(i) data to find their probability of being equator-on. We present the method used to generate the simulated star catalog and the subsequent statistics to find the highly inclined stars from real catalogs using the activity-v sin(i) diagram. Several catalogs from the literature are analysed and a subsample of stars with the highest probability of being equator-on is presented. Assuming spin-orbit alignment, the efficiency of an exoplanet transit search in the resulting subsample of probably highly inclined stars is estimated to be two to three times higher than with a global search with no pre-selection.

Herrero, E.; Ribas, I.; Jordi, C.



Information Retrieval in Folksonomies: Search and Ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social bookmark tools are rapidly emerging on the Web. In such sys- tems users are setting up lightweight conceptual structures called folksonomies. The reason for their immediate success is the fact that no specific skills are needed for participating. At the moment, however, the information retrieval support is lim- ited. We present a formal model and a new search algorithm

Andreas Hotho; Robert Jäschke; Christoph Schmitz; Gerd Stumme



Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.



Visual Diagnosis: Pediatric Airway Emergency  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a potentially difficult airway emergency in a pediatric patient. After presentation, we briefly review critical differences between pediatric and adult airways and management of the airway during these emergencies. PMID:23326717

Desai, Bobby; Beattie, Lars; Ryan, Matthew F.; Falgiani, Michael



Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases  


... more information on enabling JavaScript. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...


The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

Fernandez, Thomas


Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics  


... Avoid high potassium fruit juices (orange juice). THREE-DAY DIABETIC GROCERY LIST FOR EMERGENCIES Item Amount (per ... Other Distilled water 5 one gallon jugs THREE-DAY DIABETIC MEAL PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES The sample meal ...


Meta Search Engines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

Garman, Nancy



Evaluating Server Selection for Federated Search Paul Thomas1  

E-print Network

Evaluating Server Selection for Federated Search Paul Thomas1 and Milad Shokouhi2 1 CSIRO paul for feder- ated search have either used metrics which are unconnected with user satisfaction, or have for evaluating federated search server selec- tion techniques. In our model, we isolate the effect of other

Thomas, Paul


Agglomerative clustering of a search engine query log  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a technique for mining a collection ofuser transactions with an Internet search engine to discoverclusters of similar queries and similar URLs. The informationwe exploit is "clickthrough data": each record consistsof a user's query to a search engine along with the URLwhich the user selected from among the candidates offeredby the search engine. By viewing this dataset as

Doug Beeferman; Adam L. Berger



PatternHunter: faster and more sensitive homology search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Genomics and proteomics studies routinely depend on homology searches based on the strategy of finding short seed matches which are then extended. The exploding genomic data growth presents a dilemma for DNA homology search techniques: increasing seed size decreases sensitivity whereas decreasing seed size slows down computation. Results: We present a new homology search algorithm 'PatternHunter' that uses a

Bin Ma; John Tromp; Ming Li



Combining Semantic and Multilingual Search to Databases with Recommender Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR is a difficult task to do when dealing with free text fields of databases. This paper describes, through Seman-Query, how a search system can be combined with a recommender system in order to make it easier. The search part provides a solution to improve the functionality of database search techniques when dealing with IR from the text fields of

Luchiana Cezara Brodeala; Maria J. Martin-Bautista; Richard J. Gil




EPA Science Inventory

A new library searching technique is reported that relies on Fourier transforms of infrared (IR) absorbance spectra. Searching in the time domain is shown to be more tolerant to noise than searches in the spectral domain and fewer points are required to encode the unique characte...


A Loopaware Search Strategy for Automated Performance Analysis  

E-print Network

A Loop­aware Search Strategy for Automated Performance Analysis Eli D. Collins and Barton P. Miller on­ line search, i.e., refining the search to bottlenecks localized to loops. The ability to insert that are infeasible using other performance diagnosis techniques. We automatically detect loops in a program's binary

Miller, Barton P.


A Loop-aware Search Strategy for Automated Performance Analysis  

E-print Network

A Loop-aware Search Strategy for Automated Performance Analysis Eli D. Collins and Barton P. Miller on- line search, i.e., refining the search to bottlenecks localized to loops. The ability to insert that are infeasible using other performance diagnosis techniques. We automatically detect loops in a program's binary

Miller, Barton P.


Attractor of Local Search Space in the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local search technique usually is locally convergent and, as result, outputs a local optimum. For many optimization problems, there is an attractor in the search space that drives the local search trajectories to converge into a small region. To gain insight into the basic properties of the attractor, this paper presents a framework for studying the attractor of local



Savvy Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes indexes to Web resources that have been created by librarians to be more discriminating than the usual Web search engines, some of which are organized by standard classification systems. Includes indexes by solo librarians as well as by groups of librarians, some in public libraries and some in higher education. (LRW)

Jacso, Peter



Biomedical Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wading through the tremendous online resource that is the BioMed archive can be a bit tricky at times. This process just got much easier through the creation of the BioMedSearch feature. The goal of this work is "to make these important works available to the community in a way that is fast and easy, while still offering the advanced features demanded by power users such as portfolios, collaboration features, bibliographical citation export, alerts, and more." Their search engine contains all of the data in Pub Med/Medline, along with additional full-text documents, and a large database of theses and dissertations. Many users will find the "Clusters" section of the site most useful. Here, visitors can view "clusters" of documents grouped together thematically into topics such as clinical trials, exercises, diet and cholesterol, and medical imagining. The homepage contains a basic search engine, and visitors may also wish to use the "Search Tutorial" to gain a better understanding of how best to use the archive.


Protocols for Teaching Students How to Search for, Discover, and Evaluate Innovations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors introduce and develop protocols to guide aspiring entrepreneurs' behaviors in searching for and discovering innovative ideas that may have commercial potential. Systematic search has emerged as a theory-based, prescriptive framework to guide innovative behavior. Grounded in Fiet's theory of search and discovery, this article provides…

Norton, William I., Jr.; Hale, Dena H.



Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications  

SciTech Connect

The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J. [Depto. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, Sevilla E-41092 (Spain)



Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation  

E-print Network

It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.

R. Cowsik




E-print Network

/area off limits 3. Contact EHS or UD Public Safety for emergency assistance 4. If imminent danger exists and personal items while in shower · Contact UD Public Safety for emergency medical assistance or contact(s) open between finger and thumb · Contact UD Public Safety for emergency assistance CHEMICAL SPILL

Firestone, Jeremy


Emergency medicine: A comprehensive review  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 91 chapters divided among 14 sections. Some of the chapter titles are: Transfusions; Minor Lacerations and Abrasions; Diabetic Emergencies; Adrenal Insufficiency; Hypercalcemia; Medical Genetics; Burns; Hazardous Materials; Gastrointestinal Emergencies; Infectious Disease Emergencies; Reye's Syndrome; Bites and Stings; and Hypothermia.

Kravis, T.C.; Warner, C.G.



Emerging Adulthood: Resilience and Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article provides an overview of emerging adulthood, recentering, and resilience of youth with disabilities. Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which individuals experience delays in attainment of adult roles and social expectations. Recentering is a process that emerging adults experience as they make distinct shifts…

Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jill



Emergency Health Services Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography contains books, journal articles, visual aids, and other documents pertaining to emergency health care, which are organized according to: (1) publications dealing with day-to-day health emergencies that occur at home, work, and play, (2) documents that will help communities prepare for emergencies, including natural…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.


Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…

Koplowitz, Brad; And Others


Synchronization of Periodical Cicada Emergences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronized insect emergences are shown to be a possible consequence of predation in the presence of a limited environmental carrying capacity through a mathematical model for cicada populations that includes these two features. Synchronized emergences, like those observed in 13- and 17-year cicadas, are predicted for insects with sufficiently long life-spans. Balanced solutions, in which comparable emergences occur each year,

Frank C. Hoppensteadt; Joseph B. Keller



Emerging drug problems in Asia  

PubMed Central

This session, “Emerging Drug Problems in Asia,” focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Tomás-Rosselló discussed “East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response” and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed “Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making.” PMID:25267884

Bart, Gavin



Vasectomy surgical techniques: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outcomes in terms of occlusive and contraceptive effectiveness, and complications. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1966-June 2003), EMBASE (1980-June 2003), reference lists of retrieved articles, urology

Michel Labrecque; Caroline Dufresne; Mark A Barone; Karine St-Hilaire



Emerging Propulsion Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

Keys, Andrew S.



[Emergency blood picture].  


Assessment of peripheral blood counts and blood film analysis are frequently performed as diagnostic procedures in emergency medicine. Far fewer situations exist, however, in which these analyses are the main clue in establishing an emergency diagnosis. Artifacts can lead to wrong diagnosis, e.g. pseudo-thrombocytopenia, which is defined as a low platelet count resulting from a laboratory artifact. Severe neutropenia (agranulocytosis) and extreme hyperleukocytosis, as well as suspicion of acute leukemia, require a rapid diagnostic work-up. A newly detected anemia should not necessarily be treated by packed red cell transfusions. The decision whether an anemic patient ought to receive transfusions should be based on the speed with which the anemia has developed, as well as on clinical judgement. As a rule a chronic anemia patient with hemoglobin above 70 g/l does not need transfusions. An uncritical transfusion policy can even cause emergencies, e.g. in patients with megaloblastic anemia or in anemic multiple myeloma patients with a hyperviscosity syndrome. An elevated hematocrit requires prompt further investigations. This is of utmost importance if one considers the diagnosis of polycythemia vera rubra, a disease in which patients are particularly prone to thrombotic complications. Fragmented red cells (schistocytes) on peripheral blood smears constitute a cardinal diagnostic clue for the detection of microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHA), in particular for the diagnosis of the life-threatening thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Malaria is another example for a chief role of blood smears examination in achieving a rapid diagnosis. If one encounters an unexpected severe thrombocytopenia, a marrow examination reveals whether it is due to rapid peripheral destruction, or due to a marrow failure. Furthermore, in any patients with an unanticipated thrombocytopenia, a disseminated intravascular coagulation and a MAHA should be ruled out. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare, but possibly fatal complication of therapy with heparins. PMID:8488374

Tobler, A



International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.


Emerging Markets Data Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touted as the "The World's Leading Source of Information of Stock Markets in the Developing World," Emerging Markets Data Base (EMDB) offers up-to-date market data from countries including Indonesia, Pakistan, Jordon, Greece, and Zimbabwe. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) started collecting data for EMDB in 1975 and data currently cover 51 markets and over 2,000 stocks. Monthly data, organized by region, include IFC price indexes and exchange rates against the dollar. Spread sheets of countries's performances, as well as in-depth summaries, also help to illustrate their market conditions. EMDB also includes a daily feed of IFC Investible Indexes.


Proteogenomics: emergence and promise.  


Proteogenomics, or the integration of proteomics with genomics and transcriptomics, is emerging as the next step towards a unified understanding of cellular functions. Looking globally and simultaneously at gene structure, RNA expression, protein synthesis and post-translational modifications have become technically feasible and offer a new perspective to molecular processes. Recent publications have highlighted the value of proteogenomics in oncology for defining the molecular signature of human tumors, and translation to other areas of biomedicine and life sciences is anticipated. This mini-review will discuss recent developments, challenges and perspectives in proteogenomics. PMID:25609363

Faulkner, Sam; Dun, Matthew D; Hondermarck, Hubert



Emergency Response Health Physics  

SciTech Connect

Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

Mena, R., Pemberton, W., Beal, W.



FLOOD! Emergency Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.



Earthquakes and emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.


Human Freedom ``Emergence''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether free will is a reality is an increasingly urgent problem, both from a scientific and a social point of view. An ability to make judgments and take actions that are "free" in some meaningful sense would seem a prerequisite for the process of scientific reasoning and for our ability to behave morally. How are we to reconcile the "autonomy" of a reasoning intellect with our scientific conviction that all behavior is mediated by mechanistic interactions between cells of the central nervous system? It seems that answers will ultimately lie in a deeper understanding of emergent phenomena in complex systems. This will help enrich our impoverished standard notions of causation in physical systems.

Newsome, William T.


Empirical evaluation of the tarantula automatic fault-localization technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high cost of locating faults in programs has motivated the development of techniques that assist in fault localiza- tion by automating part of the process of searching for faults. Empirical studies that compare these techniques have re- ported the relative eectiv eness of four existing techniques on a set of subjects. These studies compare the rankings that the techniques

James A. Jones; Mary Jean Harrold



Aseptic Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into aseptic technique and how to work under a laminar airflow hood. Using animations, quizzes, games, and a final evaluation, this interactive lesson will help students understand the lab and important techniques for biology technicians.


Miscellaneous Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

Jha, Shyam N.


Abdominal vascular emergencies: US and CT assessment  

PubMed Central

Acute vascular emergencies can arise from direct traumatic injury to the vessel or be spontaneous (non-traumatic). The vascular injuries can also be divided into two categories: arteial injury and venous injury. Most of them are life-treatening emergencies, sice they may cause an important ipovolemic shock or severe ischemia in their end organ and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. In the different clinical scenarios, the correct diagnostic approach to vascular injuries isn’t firmly established and advantages of one imaging technique over the other are not obvious. Ultrasound (US) is an easy accessible, safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality but Computed Tomography (CT) with multiphasic imaging study is an accurate modality to evaluate the abdominal vascular injuries therefore can be considered the primary imaging modality in vascular emergencies. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of abdominal vascular emergencies, including traumatic and non traumatic vessel injuries, focusing of US and CT modalities. PMID:23902665



Communicating the Threat of Emerging Infections to the Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication theory and techniques, aided by the electronic revolution, provide new opportunities and challenges for the effective transfer of laboratory, epidemiologic, surveillance, and other public health data to the public who funds them. We review the applicability of communication theory, particularly the audience-source-message- channel meta-model, to emerging infectious disease issues. Emergence of new infectious organisms, microbial resistance to therapeutic drugs,

Vicki Freimuth; Huan W. Linnan; Polyxeni Potter



Modems for emerging digital cellular-mobile radio system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital modem techniques for emerging digital cellular telecommunications-mobile radio system applications are described and analyzed. In particular, theoretical performance, experimental results, principles of operation, and various architectures of pi\\/4-QPSK (pi\\/4-shifted coherent or differential QPSK) modems for second-generation US digital cellular radio system applications are presented. The spectral\\/power efficiency and performance of the pi\\/4-QPSK modems (American and Japanese digital cellular emerging

Kamilo Feher



Emergence of the Second Law out of Reversible Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

If one demystifies entropy the second law of thermodynamics comes out as an emergent property entirely based on the simple\\u000a dynamic mechanical laws that govern the motion and energies of system parts on a micro-scale. The emergence of the second\\u000a law is illustrated in this paper through the development of a new, very simple and highly efficient technique to compare

L. G. Van Willigenburg; W. L. De Koning



Table Search (or Ranking Tables)  

E-print Network

;Table Search #3 #12;Outline · Goals of table search · Table search #1: Deep Web · Table search #3 search Table search #1: Deep Web · Table search #3: (setup): Fusion Tables · Table search #2: WebTables ­Version 1: modify document search ­Version 2: recover table semantics #12;Searching the Deep Web store

Halevy, Alon


Emergency Response Health Physics  

SciTech Connect

Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

Mena, RaJah [National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis; Pemberton, Wendy [National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis; Beal, William [Remote Sensing Laboratory at Andrews



Tactical emergency medical support.  


As increases in criminal activity collide with more aggressive law enforcement postures, there is more contact between police officers and violent felons. Civilian law enforcement special operations teams routinely engage suspects in these violent, dynamic, and complex interdiction activities. Along with these activities comes the substantial and foreseeable risk of death or grievous harm to law officers, bystanders, hostages, or perpetrators. Further, law enforcement agencies who attempt to apprehend dangerous, heavily armed criminals with a special operations team that lacks the expertise to treat the medical consequences that may arise from such a confrontation may be negligent of deliberate indifference. Meanwhile, evidence exists within the military, civilian law enforcement, and medical literature that on-scene TEMS serves to improve mission success and team safety and health, while decreasing morbidity and mortality in the event of an injury or illness suffered during operations. National professional organizations within law enforcement and emergency medicine have identified and support the fundamental need for mission safety and the development of a standard model to train and incorporate TEMS into law enforcement special operations. The overall objective of TEMS is to minimize the potential for injury and illness and to promote optimal medical care from the scene of operations to a definitive care facility. The design, staffing, and implementation of a TEMS program that maximally uses the community resources integrates previously disparate law enforcement, EMS, and emergency medical/trauma center functions to form a new continuum of care [55]. PMID:12476888

Rinnert, Kathy J; Hall, William L



Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.



Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.



Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

Konsin, Larry S.



Emerging infections: a perpetual challenge  

PubMed Central

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and their determinants, have recently attracted substantial scientific and popular attention. HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, H5N1 avian influenza, and many other emerging diseases have either proved fatal or caused international alarm. Common and interactive co-determinants of disease emergence, including population growth, travel, and environmental disruption, have been increasingly documented and studied. Are emerging infections a new phenomenon related to modern life, or do more basic determinants, transcending time, place, and human progress, govern disease generation? By examining a number of historically notable epidemics, we suggest that emerging diseases, similar in their novelty, impact, and elicitation of control responses, have occurred throughout recorded history. Fundamental determinants, typically acting in concert, seem to underlie their emergence, and infections such as these are likely to continue to remain challenges to human survival. PMID:18992407

Morens, David M; Folkers, Gregory K; Fauci, Anthony S



Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.  


Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state. PMID:11174243

Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S



Drug Information Related to Radiation Emergencies  


... Radiation Emergencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Radiation Emergencies Drug Information Related to Radiation Emergencies Potassium Iodide ("KI") Information . Potassium Iodide (KI) ...


An efficient search method for job-shop scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient search method for job-shop scheduling problems. Our technique is based on an innovative way of relaxing and subsequently reimposing the capacity constraints on some critical operations. We integrate this technique into a fast tabu search algorithm. Our computational results on benchmark problems show that this approach is very effective. Upper bounds for 11 well-known test problems

Leyuan Shi; Yunpeng Pan



Addiction Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Subtitled "a gateway to research-based addiction information for health consumers, health professionals, educators, students, and researchers," this Website offers a directory of annotated links to materials relating to various addictions. Categories include news, the addictions, statistics, populations, treatment, prevention, social issues, organizations, and harm reduction. These main headings break down into a second level of subheadings, and a search engine -- with date and cataloging parameters -- is also provided. While we would not call Addiction Search a comprehensive gateway, its hundreds of frequently updated links serve as an excellent starting point for investigation into any of the commonly recognized addictive conditions. The site is maintained by Emil Chiauzzi, a published clinical psychologist who is currently involved with "developing multimedia and Internet-based addictions interventions."


Search UGA News Go Advanced Search  

E-print Network

Search Search UGA News Go Advanced Search Search all UGA Web sites Go UGA News Bureau Top News the most efficient use of it. The purpose of this interdisciplinary grant is to make some fundamental is designated for a NIRT, a Nanoscale Interdisciplinary Research Team. Because of the wide-scale potential

Geller, Michael R.


Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

Ojala, Marydee



A Survey of Shape Parameterization Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of shape parameterization techniques for multidisciplinary optimization and highlights some emerging ideas. The survey focuses on the suitability of available techniques for complex configurations, with suitability criteria based on the efficiency, effectiveness, ease of implementation, and availability of analytical sensitivities for geometry and grids. The paper also contains a section on field grid regeneration, grid deformation, and sensitivity analysis techniques.

Samareh, Jamshid A.



CrowdSearch: exploiting crowds for accurate real-time image search on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile phones are becoming increasingly sophisticated with a rich set of on-board sensors and ubiquitous wireless connectivity. However, the ability to fully exploit the sensing capabilities on mobile phones is stymied by limitations in multimedia processing techniques. For example, search using cellphone images often encounters high error rate due to low image quality. In this paper, we present CrowdSearch, an

Tingxin Yan; Vikas Kumar; Deepak Ganesan



The Virtual Learning Commons: An Emerging Technology for Learning About Emerging Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of semantic, visualization, and social media tools that support knowledge sharing and innovation across research disciplines. The explosion of new scientific tools and techniques challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of emerging technologies that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about emerging technologies to become potential adopters or re-users. Often, emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to collectively organize Web resources through social bookmarking, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant technologies that are emerging; and b) get feedback from other researchers on innovative ideas and designs. Concurrently, developers of emerging technologies can learn about potential users and the issues they encounter, and they can analyze the impact of their tools on other projects. The VLC aims to support the 'fuzzy front end' of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. This presentation will discuss the innovation theories that have informed design of the VLC, and hypotheses about the flow of information in virtual settings that can enable the process of innovation. The presentation will include a brief demonstration of key capabilities within the VLC that enable learning about emerging technologies, including the technologies that are presented in this session.

Pennington, D. D.; Del Rio, N.; Fierro, C.; Gandara, A.; Garcia, A.; Garza, J.; Giandoni, M.; Ochoa, O.; Padilla, E.; Salamah, S.



Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications  

SciTech Connect

We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed



Data structuring and classification in newly-emerging scientific fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The article addresses a methodological procedure,based on keyword,analysis and structuring of data into information systems in the field of functional foods as a newly emerging,scientific field within the broader scope of food sciences and technology. Experiment was based on selection of a research field or research subject, selection of search profile, selection and processing of relevant databases, keyword analysis,

Simona Juvan; Tomaz Bartol; Bojana Boh



Emergent Horava gravity in graphene  

SciTech Connect

First of all, we reconsider the tight-binding model of monolayer graphene, in which the variations of the hopping parameters are allowed. We demonstrate that the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry as well as the emergent U(1) gauge field appear. The emergent gauge field is equal to the linear combination of the components of the zweibein. Therefore, we actually deal with the gauge fixed version of the emergent 2+1 D teleparallel gravity. In particular, we work out the case, when the variations of the hopping parameters are due to the elastic deformations, and relate the elastic deformations with the emergent zweibein. Next, we investigate the tight-binding model with the varying intralayer hopping parameters for the multilayer graphene with the ABC stacking. In this case the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry and the emergent U(1) gauge field appear as well, and the emergent low energy effective field theory has the anisotropic scaling. -- Highlights: •The tight-binding model for graphene with varying hopping parameters is considered. •The emergent gravity and emergent gauge fields are derived. •For the case of the multilayer graphene we obtain the analogue of Horava gravity with anisotropic scaling.

Volovik, G.E. [Low Temperature Laboratory, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland) [Low Temperature Laboratory, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygina 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zubkov, M.A., E-mail: [ITEP, B.Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation)



Nanofabrication Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Foothill-De Anza Community College describes a course on nanoscience for those who need an introduction to the subject. This course is the fifth in a five course series that leads to a certificate in nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nanomaterials engineering. Students will obtain a survey of fabrication techniques as well as "hands-on experience creating thin film materials, and quality control 'shadowing' in a clean energy technology fabrication facility." The projects required by the class are also described.



China's emerging vaccine industry.  


The Chinese vaccine industry is developing rapidly due to an emerging and large market for current and new vaccines, a large potential for local vaccine manufacturing both in the public and private domain, and a governmental orientation towards national vaccine self-sufficiency. There are currently over 40 companies and institutions manufacturing a large variety of traditional (EPI) and some new vaccines. The innovative development capacity of state vaccine institutions is stimulated by significant government investments. Various Chinese influenza manufacturers were in 2009 among the first worldwide to obtain national license for their pandemic H1N1 flu vaccines. It is of interest to note that private but also governmental entities are committed to raise manufacturing quality standards to reach WHO prequalification. It is expected that WHO prequalification for at least one product from a Chinese manufacturer will have been obtained by 2011. This will open the door to the global market for Chinese vaccines. PMID:20523120

Hendriks, Jan; Liang, Yan; Zeng, Bing



Ten Emerging Technologies 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology Review, published by MIT, presents their list of the ten technologies that they think are most likely to change the way we live. It includes the ten most exciting, world-changing technologies of the year. Each of the 10 technologies has a downloadable PDF description. The website also list Past 10 Emerging Techologies back to 2001. This is fun to read and may also start some interesting classroom discussions as you look back and to the future. Some of the topics include modeling surprise, probabilistic chips, nanoradio, wireless power, atomic magnetometers, offline web applications, graphene transistors, connectomics, reality mining, and cellulolytic enzymes. The resource is translated into Spanish, German, Italian and Japanese.



Naturalness in emergent spacetime  

E-print Network

Effective field theories (EFTs) have been widely used as a framework in order to place constraints on the Planck suppressed Lorentz violations predicted by various models of quantum gravity. There are however technical problems in the EFT framework when it comes to ensuring that small Lorentz violations remain small -- this is the essence of the "naturalness" problem. Herein we present an "emergent" space-time model, based on the "analogue gravity'' programme, by investigating a specific condensed-matter system that is in principle capable of simulating the salient features of an EFT framework with Lorentz violations. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model explicitly avoids the "naturalness problem", and makes specific suggestions regarding how to construct a physically reasonable quantum gravity phenomenology.

Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner



Personnel emergency carrier vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

Owens, Lester J. (inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (inventor)



Emerging small molecule drugs.  


Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacological lowering of LDL-C levels using statins reduces cardiovascular risk. However, a substantial residual risk persists especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies of HDL-C with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, novel therapeutic strategies to raise HDL-C levels or improve HDL functionality are developed as complementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases. However, until now most therapies targeting HDL-C levels failed in clinical trials because of side effects or absence of clinical benefits. This chapter will highlight the emerging small molecules currently developed and tested in clinical trials to pharmacologically modulate HDL-C and functionality including new CETP inhibitors (anacetrapib, evacetrapib), novel PPAR agonists (K-877, CER-002, DSP-8658, INT131 and GFT505), LXR agonists (ATI-111, LXR-623, XL-652) and RVX-208. PMID:25523004

Colin, Sophie; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; Staels, Bart



Emergency/Night Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.



Radon assay and purification techniques  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)



Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.  


Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24698045

Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S



Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula



What is a Pediatric Emergency Physician?  


... emergency can cause families. Research and education in pediatric emergency medicine. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Emergency Physicians ... Two or more years of fellowship training in pediatric emergency medicine Certification by either the American Board of Pediatrics ...


44 CFR 59.3 - Emergency program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency program. 59.3 Section 59.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...



44 CFR 10.13 - Emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergencies. 10.13 Section 10.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...



Theoretical Runtime Analyses of Search Algorithms on the Test Data Generation for the Triangle Classification Problem  

E-print Network

Classification program. The search algorithms that we analyse are Random Search, Hill Climbing and Alternating Engineering community to better understand the role of Search Based Techniques applied to software testing. 1Theoretical Runtime Analyses of Search Algorithms on the Test Data Generation for the Triangle

Yao, Xin


Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.  


As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it. PMID:8547913

Francis, B W; Fisher, C C



Bariatric emergencies: current evidence and strategies of management  

PubMed Central

Background The demand for bariatric surgery is increasing and the postoperative complications are seen more frequently. The aim of this paper is to review the current outcomes of bariatric surgery emergencies and to formulate a pathway of safe management. Methods The PubMed and Google search for English literatures relevant to emergencies of bariatric surgery was made, 6358 articles were found and 90 papers were selected based on relevance, power of the study, recent papers and laparoscopic workload. The pooled data was collected from these articles that were addressing the complications and emergency treatment of bariatric patients. 830,998 patients were included in this review. Results Bariatric emergencies were increasingly seen in the Accident and Emergency departments, the serious outcomes were reported following complex operations like gastric bypass but also after gastric band and the causes were technical errors, suboptimal evaluation, failure of effective communication with bariatric teams who performed the initial operation, patients factors, and delay in the presentation. The mortality ranged from 0.14%-2.2% and increased for revisional surgery to 6.5% (p?=?0.002). Inspite of this, mortality following bariatric surgery is still less than that of control group of obese patients (p?=?value 0.01). Conclusions Most mortality and catastrophic outcomes following bariatric surgery are preventable. The awareness of bariatric emergencies and its effective management are the gold standards for best outcomes. An algorithm is suggested and needs further evaluation. PMID:24373182



Editorial to the special issue of Computers & Operations Research on Search-Based Software Engineering  

E-print Network

on the application of optimization and metaheuristic search techniques to problems in software engineering. Optimization and search based techniques have been applied to a wide range of software engineering problems as Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) [5, 10]. The past five years have wit- ness a dramatic growth

Gutjahr, Walter


Emergency management of atrial fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia managed by emergency and acute general physicians. There is increasing evidence that selected patients with acute atrial fibrillation can be safely managed in the emergency department without the need for hospital admission. Meanwhile, there is significant variation in the current emergency management of acute atrial fibrillation. This review discusses evidence based emergency management of atrial fibrillation. The principles of emergency management of acute atrial fibrillation and the subset of patients who may not need hospital admission are reviewed. Finally, the need for evidence based guidelines before emergency department based clinical pathways for the management of acute atrial fibrillation becomes routine clinical practice is highlighted. PMID:12840118

Wakai, A; O'Neill, J



The Web Beyond Google: Innovative Search Tools and Their Implications for Reference Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores Internet search tools that harness emerging technologies and user-centric features such as Web 2.0 sites, mobile applications, metasearching, real-time information, peer-to-peer searches, visual interfaces, and computational abilities. Reference librarians everywhere have incorporated Google into their searching repertoires, but what about other search engines that feature “bleeding edge” technologies and human-friendly designs? Our article is a concise guide

Brett Spencer; Lauren B. Dodd; William C. Friedman; Qiong Xu



State-space search strategies gleaned from animal behavior: a traveling salesman experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A widespread search strategy employed by predators in both vertebrate and invertebrate phyla is the well-known area-restricted\\u000a search strategy. The generality, simplicity, and effectiveness of this strategy have made it emerge many times during the\\u000a course of natural selection. In this work, an artificial intelligence state-space search procedure is developed using search\\u000a guidelines gleaned from the foraging behavior of

Alexandre Linhares



Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique  

E-print Network

We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand



Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.  


There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation. PMID:25316538

Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A



Nanoparticle characterization: State of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles have received enormous attention as a promising tool to enhance target-specific drug delivery and diagnosis. Various in vitro and in vivo techniques are used to characterize a new system and predict its clinical efficacy. These techniques enable efficient comparison across nanoparticles and facilitate a product optimization process. On the other hand, we recognize their limitations as a prediction tool, which owe to inadequate applications and overly simplified test conditions. This article provides a critical review of in vitro and in vivo techniques currently used for evaluation of nanoparticles and introduces emerging techniques and models that may be used complementarily. PMID:23461379

Cho, Eun Jung; Holback, Hillary; Liu, Karen C.; Abouelmagd, Sara A.; Park, Joonyoung; Yeo, Yoon



Linda Pagli Search Engines  

E-print Network

Linda Pagli Search Engines Abstract The so called Search Engines are basic tools to search in the memories of the search engines; the incoming requests are then processed into these enormous indices of keywords. The first search engines did not function very well: after a query one was submerged of useless

Qian, Ning


The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci



Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

Hill, Tara



Emergency Management of Hypertension in Children  

PubMed Central

Systemic arterial hypertension in children has traditionally been thought to be secondary in origin. Increased incidence of risk factors like obesity, sedentary life-styles, and faulty dietary habits has led to increased prevalence of the primary arterial hypertension (PAH), particularly in adolescent age children. PAH has become a global epidemic worldwide imposing huge economic constraint on health care. Sudden acute increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure can lead to hypertensive crisis. While it generally pertains to secondary hypertension, occurrence of hypertensive crisis in PAH is however rare in children. Hypertensive crisis has been further subclassified depending on presence or absence of end-organ damage into hypertensive emergency or urgency. Both hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing awareness among the physicians, targeted at investigation of the pathophysiology of hypertension and its complications, better screening methods, generation, and implementation of novel treatment modalities will impact overall outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and management of hypertensive crisis in children. An extensive database search using keywords was done to obtain the information. PMID:22577545

Singh, Dinesh; Akingbola, Olugbenga; Yosypiv, Ihor; El-Dahr, Samir



The Emerging Life Era: A Cosmological Imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic evolution is the study of the many varied changes in the assembly and composition of radiation, matter and life throughout the Universe. At one and the same time, cosmic evolution represents a search for our cosmic heritage, for a principle of cosmic selection that transcends neo-Darwinism, indeed for a holistic cosmology wherein life plays an integral role. This paper sketches the grand scenario of cosmic evolution by mathematically examining the temporal dependence of various energy densities in current cosmological models. The early Universe is shown to have been flooded with radiation whose energy density was so severe as to preclude the existence of any appreciable structures. As the Universe cooled and thinned, a preeminent phase change occurred about 100,000 years after creation, at which time matter's energy density overthrew the early primacy of radiation. Only with the emergence of technologically manipulative beings (on Earth and perhaps elsewhere) has the energy density contained within matter become locally exceeded by the flux of free energy density flowing through open organic structures. Using aspects of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we argued that it is the contrasting temporal behavior of various energy densities that have given rise to galaxies, stars, planets, and life forms. We furthermore argue that a necessary (though perhaps not sufficient) condition--a veritable prime mover--for the emergence of such ordered structures is the expansion of the Universe itself.

Chaisson, Eric


Collaborative search in electronic health records  

PubMed Central

Objective A full-text search engine can be a useful tool for augmenting the reuse value of unstructured narrative data stored in electronic health records (EHR). A prominent barrier to the effective utilization of such tools originates from users' lack of search expertise and/or medical-domain knowledge. To mitigate the issue, the authors experimented with a ‘collaborative search’ feature through a homegrown EHR search engine that allows users to preserve their search knowledge and share it with others. This feature was inspired by the success of many social information-foraging techniques used on the web that leverage users' collective wisdom to improve the quality and efficiency of information retrieval. Design The authors conducted an empirical evaluation study over a 4-year period. The user sample consisted of 451 academic researchers, medical practitioners, and hospital administrators. The data were analyzed using a social-network analysis to delineate the structure of the user collaboration networks that mediated the diffusion of knowledge of search. Results The users embraced the concept with considerable enthusiasm. About half of the EHR searches processed by the system (0.44 million) were based on stored search knowledge; 0.16 million utilized shared knowledge made available by other users. The social-network analysis results also suggest that the user-collaboration networks engendered by the collaborative search feature played an instrumental role in enabling the transfer of search knowledge across people and domains. Conclusion Applying collaborative search, a social information-foraging technique popularly used on the web, may provide the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of information retrieval in healthcare. PMID:21486887

Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A



Emergency department use  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine if having a primary care provider is an important factor in frequency of emergency department (ED) use. Design Analysis of a central computerized health network database. Setting Three EDs in southern New Brunswick. Participants All ED visits during 1 calendar year to an urban regional hospital (URH), an urban urgent care centre (UCC), and a rural community hospital (RCH) were captured. Main outcome measures Patients with and without listed primary care providers were compared in terms of number of visits to the ED. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors predictive of frequent attendance. Results In total, 48 505, 41 004, and 27 900 visits were made to the URH, UCC, and RCH, respectively, in 2009. The proportion of patients with listed primary care providers was 36.6% for the URH, 37.1% for the UCC, and 89.4% for the RCH. Among ED patients at all sites, frequent attenders (4 or more visits to an ED in 1 year) were significantly more likely (59.6% vs 45.1%, P < .001) to have listed primary care providers. Other factors that predicted frequent use included attendance at a rural ED, female sex, and older age. Conclusion This study characterizes attendance rates for 3 EDs in southern New Brunswick. Our findings highlight interesting differences between urban and rural ED populations, and suggest that frequent use of the ED might not be related to lack of a listed primary care provider. PMID:24733342

Palmer, Erin; Leblanc-Duchin, Denise; Murray, Joshua; Atkinson, Paul



Emerging Vaccine Informatics  

PubMed Central

Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. PMID:21772787

He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.



Emerging Biomarkers in Cognition  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The field of aging and dementia is rapidly evolving with the aim of identifying individuals in the earliest stages of disease processes. Biomarkers allow the clinician to demonstrate the presence of an underlying pathologic process and resultant synapse dysfunction and neurodegeneration, even in those earliest stages. For example, PET amyloid imaging and CSF A?42 provide direct evidence of amyloid deposition and structural MRI, FDG-PET or SPECT and CSF tau provide indirect evidence of synapse dysfunction and neurodegeneration when the pathologic process is due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). While this review will focus on biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, structural MRI, FDG-PET or SPECT, and PET with dopamine ligands are also valuable in suggesting non-AD pathologic processes. While these biomarkers are very useful and can even be applied to diagnostic criteria in MCI, several limitations exist. As the field continues to grow, several new biomarkers are emerging and ultimately, a more biological characterization of subjects’ underlying pathophysiologic spectra will be possible. PMID:24094298

Wicklund, Meredith; Petersen, Ronald C.



Saving lives: a computer simulation game for public education about emergencies  

SciTech Connect

One facet of the Information Revolution in which the nation finds itself involves the utilization of computers, video systems, and a variety of telecommunications capabilities by those who must cope with emergency situations. Such technologies possess a significant potential for performing emergency public education and transmitting key information that is essential for survival. An ''Emergency Public Information Competitive Challenge Grant,'' under the aegis of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), has sponsored an effort to use computer technology - both large, time-sharing systems and small personal computers - to develop computer games which will help teach techniques of emergency management to the public at large. 24 references.

Morentz, J.W.



Emerging Drugs for Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Importance of the Field Uveitis is a challenging disease covering both infectious and noninfectious conditions. The current treatment strategies are hampered by the paucity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and few trials comparing efficacy of different agents. Areas Covered in this Review This review describes the current and future treatments of uveitis. A literature search was performed in PUBMED from 1965 to 2010 on drugs treating ocular inflammation with emphasis placed on more recent, larger studies. What the Reader Will Gain Readers should gain a basic understanding of current treatment strategies beginning with corticosteroids and transitioning to steroid sparing agents. Steroid sparing agents include the antimetabolites which include methotrexate, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil; the calcineurin inhibitors which include cyclosporine, tacrolimus; alkylating agents which include cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil; and biologics which include the TNF-? inhibitors infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept; daclizumab, interferon ?2a, and rituximab. Take Home Message Newer agents are typically formulated from existing drugs or developed based on new advances in immunology. Future treatment will require a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in autoimmune diseases and better delivery systems in order to provide targeted treatment with minimal side effects. PMID:21210752

Larson, Theresa; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Sen, H. Nida



State Statutes Search  


... Systemwide Laws & Policies State Statutes Search State Statutes Search Find information in the State Statutes database in ... Place a Child for Adoption 3. Begin Your Search Children’s Bureau Child Welfare Information Gateway is a ...


NCI Search Results

$data$data NCI Search Results More Search Tools Cancer Genetics Services Directory Clinical Trial Results by Type of Cancer or Topic Clinical Trial Search NCI Fact Sheets NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary NCI Publications Locator National


Searching for Birth Relatives  


... Home Pubs Searching for Birth Relatives Searching for Birth Relatives Series Title Factsheets for Families Author(s) Child ... This factsheet provides guidance to adopted persons and birth families on the search process and information access, ...


Management Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball Aerospace Systems Division developed a highly efficient management method known as the "total integrated systems approach" a technique developed of necessity for managing extremely complex aerospace programs involving integration of a great many individual systems. These systems, developed at different times by many different companies, must not only work perfectly when separately tested, they must also perform compatibly when integrated into the complete prime system. Systems approach is essentially a carefully considered, painstakingly executed master plan for coordinated design, development and assembly of the multitude of elements that constitute the end product. Intent is to eliminate problems that may occur when specific parts of total functioning system fail to come together to provide the requisite performance of the prime system.



Working With Staff, Emergency Management  

E-print Network

Working With Staff, Emergency Management and Professional Development Mary Anne Berzins #12;Emergency Management #12;Professional Development #12;Dual Career Resources #12;Resources · HR Resources and 801-585-9911 #12;Administrative Staff · Possible unfamiliarity

Tipple, Brett


Emergence and Levels of Abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notions of emergence and emergent properties have a long history in science, and have recently regained popularity in systems science fuelled largely by the growth of computer simulation as an exploratory and investigative tool. Unfortunately, the notions and terms are not especially well defined: ideas of evolution, self-organization, collec- tive ('systemic') properties and cooperative behaviour are all involved to

R. I. Damper



Emerging Scholars: Class of 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents "Diverse"'s 2011 Emerging Scholars. This year's class of award-winning academics consists of twelve gifted and passionate scholars who make their mark with relevant, impactful scholarship. The 2011 Emerging Scholars are: (1) Dr. Guillermina G. Nunez-Mchiri; (2) Dr. Ashlesh Murthy; (3) Charles O. Anderson; (4) Chekesha M.…

Menard, Valerie; Oguntoyinbo, Lekan; Davis, Crystal D.; Hawkins, B. Denise; Lum, Lydia; Cooper, Kenneth; Pluviose, David; Pember, Mary Annette; Watson, Jamal Eric; Nealy, Michelle J.; Hernandez, Christina



Volatility in Emerging Stock Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines what kinds of events cause large shifts in the volatility of emerging stockmarkets. We first determine when large changes in the volatility of emerging stock market returnsoccur and then examine global and local events (social, political, and economic) during the periodsof increased volatility. An iterated cumulative sums of squares (ICSS) algorithm is used to identifythe points of

Reena Aggarwal; Carla Inclan; Ricardo Leal



Preparing Your Staff for Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camps should have emergency protocols in place and involve appropriate personnel in their development. Staff should be certified in first aid and CPR, a recordkeeping system should be established, and mock emergencies should be practiced during staff orientation. It may also be advisable to involve campers in practice situations. First aid/CPR…

Maurer-Starks, Suanne



Emergence and Creativity Peter Cariani  

E-print Network

the creation of new points of view: the evolution of new sensors in biological evolution, the addition of new measurements and observables in scientific models, the creation of new concepts and meanings. In art, epistemic or whether they enlarge such spaces. Varieties of emergence Emer