Science.gov

Sample records for emergency search techniques

  1. Quantify uncertain emergency search techniques (QUEST) -- Theory and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Porter, T.L.; West, T.H.; Wilcox, W.B.; Hensley, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to the national security. Sandia National laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Bechtel Nevada, Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response for various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables, including source type, search location and structure geometry (including shielding), search dynamics (path and speed), and detector type and size. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used as a tool to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training.

  2. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  3. Improved Search Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  4. Lidar techniques for search and rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the uv. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

  5. Fast Search Techniques for High Energy Pulsars

    E-print Network

    Scott M. Ransom

    2001-12-01

    Modified versions of two "standard" pulsar search techniques are presented that allow large-scale searches for pulsations in long duration high-energy data sets using relatively modest amounts of computer time. For small numbers of photons (N_phot <~ 10^4), optimized brute-force epoch folding searches are preferred. For larger numbers of photons, advanced Fourier domain acceleration searches are used. Using these techniques, my collaborators and I have searched Chandra observations of the CasA supernova remnant (SNR) point source and the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754 for pulsations, and confirmed the 65.6 ms pulsar in the 3C 58 SNR during a blind search of archival RXTE data.

  6. Search for an Emergency Contraception Provider in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the "Morning After" Search for an Emergency Contraception (Plan B) Provider in the United States Looking for Emergency ... age restrictions to women and men. Look for Plan B One-Step, Take Action, Next Choice One-Dose, ...

  7. A Fast Search Technique for Binary Pulsars

    E-print Network

    Scott M. Ransom

    1999-11-05

    I describe a computationally simple, efficient, and sensitive method to search long observations for pulsars in binary systems. The technique looks for orbitally induced sidebands in the power spectrum around a nominal spin frequency, enabling it to detect pulsars in high- or low-mass binaries with short orbital periods (P_orb <~ 5 h).

  8. Emergent Behaviour, Population-based Search and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    emergent organism is proportional to the gradient of a modified food distribution. This is the result, we have found kernels (via genetic programming) that allow the single organism model to track entities. The model is a modified spring mass model where the masses can perceive the environment

  9. Sarcopenia--The search for emerging biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kalinkovich, Alexander; Livshits, Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function, dramatically affects the life quality of elder people. In view of increasing life expectancy, sarcopenia renders a heavy burden on the health care system. However, although there is a consensus that sarcopenia is a multifactorial syndrome, its etiology, underlying mechanisms, and even definition remain poorly delineated, thus, preventing development of a precise treatment strategy. The main aim of our review is to critically analyze potential sarcopenia biomarkers in light of the molecular mechanisms of their involvement in sarcopenia pathogenesis. Normal muscle mass and function maintenance are proposed to be dependent on the dynamic balance between the positive regulators of muscle growth such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), follistatin (FST) and irisin, and negative regulators including TGF?, myostatin, activins A and B, and growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). We hypothesize that the shift in this balance to muscle growth inhibitors, along with increased expression of the C- terminal agrin fragment (CAF) associated with age-dependent neuromuscular junction (NMJ) dysfunction, as well as skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), a key component of contractile machinery, is a main mechanism underlying sarcopenia pathogenesis. Thus, this review proposes and emphasizes that these molecules are the emerging sarcopenia biomarkers. PMID:25962896

  10. Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound: Assessment Techniques In The Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Joshua; Nelson, Bret P

    2016-01-01

    Emergency ultrasound is performed at the point of care to answer focused clinical questions in a rapid manner. Over the last 20 years, the use of this technique has grown rapidly, and it has become a core requirement in many emergency medicine residencies and in some pediatric emergency medicine fellowships. The use of emergency ultrasound in the pediatric setting is increasing due to the lack of ionizing radiation with these studies, as compared to computed tomography. Utilizing diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department can allow clinicians to arrive at a diagnosis at the bedside rather than sending the patient out of the department for another study. This issue focuses on common indications for diagnostic ultrasound, as found in the pediatric literature or extrapolated from adult literature where pediatric evidence is scarce. Limitations, current trends, controversies, and future directions of diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department are also discussed. PMID:26682501

  11. Information Spread of Emergency Events: Path Searching on Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan

    2014-01-01

    Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning. PMID:24600323

  12. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  13. Enhanced Visual Search in Infancy Predicts Emerging Autism Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gliga, Teodora; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-06-29

    In addition to core symptoms, i.e., social interaction and communication difficulties and restricted and repetitive behaviors, autism is also characterized by aspects of superior perception. One well-replicated finding is that of superior performance in visual search tasks, in which participants have to indicate the presence of an odd-one-out element among a number of foils. Whether these aspects of superior perception contribute to the emergence of core autism symptoms remains debated. Perceptual and social interaction atypicalities could reflect co-expressed but biologically independent pathologies, as suggested by a "fractionable" phenotype model of autism. A developmental test of this hypothesis is now made possible by longitudinal cohorts of infants at high risk, such as of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Around 20% of younger siblings are diagnosed with autism themselves, and up to another 30% manifest elevated levels of autism symptoms. We used eye tracking to measure spontaneous orienting to letter targets (O, S, V, and +) presented among distractors (the letter X; Figure 1). At 9 and 15 months, emerging autism symptoms were assessed using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI;), and at 2 years of age, they were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS;). Enhanced visual search performance at 9 months predicted a higher level of autism symptoms at 15 months and at 2 years. Infant perceptual atypicalities are thus intrinsically linked to the emerging autism phenotype. PMID:26073135

  14. Teaching Web Search Skills: Techniques and Strategies of Top Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    2006-01-01

    Here is a unique and practical reference for anyone who teaches Web searching. Greg Notess shares his own techniques and strategies along with expert tips and advice from a virtual "who's who" of Web search training: Joe Barker, Paul Barron, Phil Bradley, John Ferguson, Alice Fulbright, Ran Hock, Jeff Humphrey, Diane Kovacs, Gary Price, Danny…

  15. Single-cell epigenomics: techniques and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, Omer; Tanay, Amos

    2015-12-01

    Epigenomics is the study of the physical modifications, associations and conformations of genomic DNA sequences, with the aim of linking these with epigenetic memory, cellular identity and tissue-specific functions. While current techniques in the field are characterizing the average epigenomic features across large cell ensembles, the increasing interest in the epigenetics within complex and heterogeneous tissues is driving the development of single-cell epigenomics. We review emerging single-cell methods for capturing DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, chromosome conformation and replication dynamics. Together, these techniques are rapidly becoming a powerful tool in studies of cellular plasticity and diversity, as seen in stem cells and cancer. PMID:26460349

  16. Enhanced Visual Search in Infancy Predicts Emerging Autism Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gliga, Teodora; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Cheung, Celeste; Davies, Kim; Liew, Michelle; Fernandes, Janice; Gammer, Issy; Maris, Helen; Salomone, Erica; Pasco, Greg; Pickles, Andrew; Ribeiro, Helena; Tucker, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Summary In addition to core symptoms, i.e., social interaction and communication difficulties and restricted and repetitive behaviors, autism is also characterized by aspects of superior perception [1]. One well-replicated finding is that of superior performance in visual search tasks, in which participants have to indicate the presence of an odd-one-out element among a number of foils [2–5]. Whether these aspects of superior perception contribute to the emergence of core autism symptoms remains debated [4, 6]. Perceptual and social interaction atypicalities could reflect co-expressed but biologically independent pathologies, as suggested by a “fractionable” phenotype model of autism [7]. A developmental test of this hypothesis is now made possible by longitudinal cohorts of infants at high risk, such as of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Around 20% of younger siblings are diagnosed with autism themselves [8], and up to another 30% manifest elevated levels of autism symptoms [9]. We used eye tracking to measure spontaneous orienting to letter targets (O, S, V, and +) presented among distractors (the letter X; Figure 1). At 9 and 15 months, emerging autism symptoms were assessed using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI; [10]), and at 2 years of age, they were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; [11]). Enhanced visual search performance at 9 months predicted a higher level of autism symptoms at 15 months and at 2 years. Infant perceptual atypicalities are thus intrinsically linked to the emerging autism phenotype. PMID:26073135

  17. Combining local search and backtracking techniques for constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao

    1996-12-31

    Backtracking techniques are well-known traditional methods for solving many constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) including the satisfiability (SAT) problem in the propositional logic. In recent years, it has been reported that local search techniques are very effective in solving some large-scale instances of the SAT problem. In this research, we combine the backtracking and local search techniques into a single method for solving SAT and CSPs. When setting a parameter of the method to either of its two extreme values, we obtain the ordinary backtracking procedure or the local search procedure. For some problems, if the parameter takes values in the middle of the two extremes, the new method is much more effective than either backtracking or local search. We tested the method with classical problems like the n-Queens and random SAT instances, as well as some difficult problems from finite mathematics. In particular, using the new method, we solved four open problems in design theory.

  18. Automatic search of geospatial features for disaster and emergency management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Zhao, Tian; Li, Weidong

    2010-12-01

    Although the fast development of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) WFS (Web Feature Service) technologies has undoubtedly improved the sharing and synchronization of feature-level geospatial information across diverse resources, literature shows that there are still apparent limitations in the current implementation of OGC WFSs. Currently, the implementation of OGC WFSs only emphasizes syntactic data interoperability via standard interfaces and cannot resolve semantic heterogeneity problems in geospatial data sharing. To help emergency responders and disaster managers find new ways of efficiently searching for needed geospatial information at the feature level, this paper aims to propose a framework for automatic search of geospatial features using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies and natural language interfaces. We focus on two major tasks: (1) intelligent geospatial feature retrieval using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies; (2) a natural language interface to a geospatial knowledge base and web feature services over the Semantic Web. Based on the proposed framework we implemented a prototype. Results show that it is practical to directly discover desirable geospatial features from multiple semantically heterogeneous sources using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies and natural language interfaces.

  19. New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J Grant

    2012-02-01

    Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future. PMID:22265377

  20. Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

  1. Forward pruning and other heuristic search techniques in tsume go

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Thomas

    Forward pruning and other heuristic search techniques in tsume go Thomas Wolf Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London Abstract GoTools is the name of a computer program to analyse life & death fights in the game of go. First, a motivation for programing go is given. General aspects

  2. Comparison of Two Interactive Search Refinement Techniques Olga Vechtomova

    E-print Network

    formulations and their evaluation in the new High Accuracy Retrieval from Documents (HARD) track of TREC-12 from Documents (HARD) track of TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). 1.1 HARD track The main goal of the new HARD track in TREC-12 is to explore what techniques could be used to improve search results

  3. Towards Optimal Circuit Layout Using Advanced Search Techniques

    E-print Network

    Areibi, Shawki M

    Towards Optimal Circuit Layout Using Advanced Search Techniques by Shawki Areibi A thesis presented be computationally fast but also generate layouts close to optimal. The work in this thesis involves exploring algorithmic solutions to the problem of circuit layout in VLSI design. The exploration is an attempt

  4. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates. PMID:21798084

  5. Mobile Visual Search: Architectures, Technologies, and the Emerging

    E-print Network

    Girod, Bernd

    -reality applications are beginning to emerge on mobile platforms. Such applications impose unique requirements a new standard that is being developed to address the functionality and interoperability needs

  6. Analysis of Piezoelectric Structural Sensors with Emergent Computing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramers, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to try to interpret the results of some tests that were performed earlier this year and to demonstrate a possible use of emergence in computing to solve IVHM problems. The test data used was collected with piezoelectric sensors to detect mechanical changes in structures. This project team was included of Dr. Doug Ramers and Dr. Abdul Jallob of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, Arnaldo Colon-Lopez - a student intern from the University of Puerto Rico of Turabo, and John Lassister and Bob Engberg of the Structural and Dynamics Test Group. The tests were performed by Bob Engberg to compare the performance two types of piezoelectric (piezo) sensors, Pb(Zr(sub 1-1)Ti(sub x))O3, which we will label PZT, and Pb(Zn(sub 1/3)Nb(sub 2/3))O3-PbTiO, which we will label SCP. The tests were conducted under varying temperature and pressure conditions. One set of tests was done by varying water pressure inside an aluminum liner covered with carbon-fiber composite layers (a cylindrical "bottle" with domed ends) and the other by varying temperatures down to cryogenic levels on some specially prepared composite panels. This report discusses the data from the pressure study. The study of the temperature results was not completed in time for this report. The particular sensing done with these piezo sensors is accomplished by the sensor generating an controlled vibration that is transmitted into the structure to which the sensor is attached, and the same sensor then responding to the induced vibration of the structure. There is a relationship between the mechanical impedance of the structure and the resulting electrical impedance produced in the in the piezo sensor. The impedance is also a function of the excitation frequency. Changes in the real part of impendance signature relative to an original reference signature indicate a change in the coupled structure that could be the results of damage or strain. The water pressure tests were conducted by pressurizing the bottle on a test stand, and running sweeps of excitations frequencies for each of the piezo sensors and recording the resulting impedance. The sweeps were limited to 401 points by the available analyzer, and it was decided to perform individual sweeps at five different excitation frequency ranges. The frequency ranges used for the PZTs were different in two of the five ranges from the ranges used for the SCP. The bottles were pressurized to empty (no water), 0psig, 77 psig, 155 psig, 227 psig in nearly uniform increments of about 77psi. One of each of the two types of piezo sensors was fastened on to the bottle surface at two locations: about midway between the ends on cylindrical portion of the bottle and at the very edge of one of the end domes. The data was collected in files by sensor type (2 cases), by location (2 cases), by frequency range (5 cases), and pressure (5cases) to produce 100 data sets of 401 impedances. After familiarization with the piezo sensing technology and obtaining the data, the team developed a set of questions to try to answer regarding the data and made assignments of responsibilities. The next section lists the questions, and the remainder of the report describes the data analysis work performed by Dr. Ramers. This includes a discussion of the data, the approach to answering the question using statistical techniques, the use of an emergent system to investigate the data where statistical techniques were not usable, conclusions regarding the data, and recommendations.

  7. Discovery Mode Search Techniques For Gamma-Ray Miguel F. Morales for the Milagro Collaboration

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Discovery Mode Search Techniques For Gamma-Ray Telescopes Miguel F. Morales for the Milagro in developing the weighted analysis technique was to perform a near optimal discovery mode search for point that our discovery mode search is not biased by an assumed signal type. The weighted analysis technique

  8. Stochastic Leader Gravitational Search Algorithm for Enhanced Adaptive Beamforming Technique

    PubMed Central

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Kibria, Salehin; Singh, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA. PMID:26552032

  9. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  10. Application of multivariable search techniques to structural design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.; Hague, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Multivariable optimization techniques are applied to a particular class of minimum weight structural design problems: the design of an axially loaded, pressurized, stiffened cylinder. Minimum weight designs are obtained by a variety of search algorithms: first- and second-order, elemental perturbation, and randomized techniques. An exterior penalty function approach to constrained minimization is employed. Some comparisons are made with solutions obtained by an interior penalty function procedure. In general, it would appear that an interior penalty function approach may not be as well suited to the class of design problems considered as the exterior penalty function approach. It is also shown that a combination of search algorithms will tend to arrive at an extremal design in a more reliable manner than a single algorithm. The effect of incorporating realistic geometrical constraints on stiffener cross-sections is investigated. A limited comparison is made between minimum weight cylinders designed on the basis of a linear stability analysis and cylinders designed on the basis of empirical buckling data. Finally, a technique for locating more than one extremal is demonstrated.

  11. Search for Chameleon Particles Using a Photon-Regeneration Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, A. S.; Wester, W.; Baumbaugh, A.; Irizarry-Valle, Y.; Mazur, P. O.; Steffen, J. H.; Tomlin, R.; Yang, X.; Yoo, J.; Gustafson, H. R.; Upadhye, A.; Weltman, A.

    2009-01-23

    We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.

  12. A search for chameleon particles using a photon regeneration technique

    E-print Network

    A. S. Chou; W. Wester; A. Baumbaugh; H. R. Gustafson; Y. Irizarry-Valle; P. O. Mazur; J. H. Steffen; R. Tomlin; A. Upadhye; A. Weltman; X. Yang; J. Yoo

    2009-02-02

    We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.

  13. Search for Chameleon Particles Using a Photon-Regeneration Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, A. S.; Wester, W.; Baumbaugh, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Irizarry-Valle, Y.; Mazur, P. O.; Steffen, J. H.; Tomlin, R.; Upadhye, A.; Weltman, A.; Yang, X.; Yoo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. Chameleons are hypothesized scalar fields that could explain the dark energy problem. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.

  14. The search for common ground: developing emergency medicine in Iran.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey P; Shokoohi, Hamid; Holliman, James C

    2007-05-01

    Academic ties between Iran and the United States were extensive before the 1979 revolution in Iran. After 20 years of negligible academic exchanges, there has been a growing trend of professional contacts between the two countries over the past few years. The genuine warmth of friendship and commitment to excellence in emergency medicine (EM) among Iranians has transcended the political barriers to allow international contribution of EM development in the country. Since 1999, there has been a successful academic collaboration between Iranian and U.S. universities to help develop EM in Iran. Today, remarkable progresses have been achieved through recognition of EM as a distinct profession, developing EM residency programs, improving emergency medical services, establishing qualified emergency departments, training faculty and staff, starting physician exchange programs, and building mutual contributions with professionals throughout the world. A supportive policy environment and a high-quality health care system have had incredible impacts on EM development in the country. PMID:17456557

  15. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-05-01

    Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  16. Surface space : digital manufacturing techniques and emergent building material

    E-print Network

    Ho, Joseph Chi-Chen, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explores tectonic possibilities of new material and forming techniques. The design process is catalyzed by experimenting different configurations of the material.This project attempts to develop inventive ways ...

  17. Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, Maurice A.

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical exploration is an important part of copper-resource evaluation. A large number of geochemical exploration techniques, both proved and untried, are available to the geochemist to use in the search for new copper deposits. Analyses of whole-rock samples have been used in both regional and local geochemical exploration surveys in the search for copper. Analyses of mineral separates, such as biotite, magnetite, and sulfides, have also been used. Analyses of soil samples are widely used in geochemical exploration, especially for localized surveys. It is important to distinguish between residual and transported soil types. Orientation studies should always be conducted prior to a geochemical investigation in a given area in order to determine the best soil horizon and the best size of soil material for sampling in that area. Silty frost boils, caliche, and desert varnish are specialized types of soil samples that might be useful sampling media. Soil gas is a new and potentially valuable geochemical sampling medium, especially in exploring for buried mineral deposits in arid regions. Gaseous products in samples of soil may be related to base-metal deposits and include mercury vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxysulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the noble gases, the halogens, and many hydrocarbon compounds. Transported materials that have been used in geochemical sampling programs include glacial float boulders, glacial till, esker gravels, stream sediments, stream-sediment concentrates, and lake sediments. Stream-sediment sampling is probably the most widely used and most successful geochemical exploration technique. Hydrogeochemical exploration programs have utilized hot- and cold-spring waters and their precipitates as well as waters from lakes, streams, and wells. Organic gel found in lakes and at stream mouths is an unproved sampling medium. Suspended material and dissolved gases in any type of water may also be useful media. Samples of ice and snow have been used for limited geochemical surveys. Both geobotanical and biogeochemical surveys have been successful in locating copper deposits in many parts of the world. Micro-organisms, including bacteria and algae, are other unproved media that should be studied. Animals can be used in geochemical-prospecting programs. Dogs have been used quite successfully to sniff out hidden and exposed sulfide minerals. Tennite mounds are commonly composed of subsurface material, but have not as yet proved to be useful in locating buried mineral deposits. Animal tissue and waste products are essentially unproved but potentially valuable sampling media. Knowledge of the location of areas where trace-element-associated diseases in animals and man are endemic as well as a better understanding of these diseases, may aid in identifying regions that are enriched in or depleted of various elements, including copper. Results of analyses of gases in the atmosphere are proving valuable in mineral-exploration surveys. Studies involving metallic compounds exhaled by plants into the atmosphere, and of particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere are reviewed these methods may become important in the future. Remote-sensing techniques are useful for making indirect measurements of geochemical responses. Two techniques applicable to geochemical exploration are neutron-activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry. Aerial photography is especially useful in vegetation surveys. Radar imagery is an unproved but potentially valuable method for use in studies of vegetation in perpetually clouded regions. With the advent of modern computers, many new techniques, such as correlation analysis, regression analysis, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, trend-surface analysis, and moving-average analysis can be applied to geochemical data sets. Selective use of these techniques can provide new insights into the interpretatio

  18. EMERGING EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES FOR MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will summarize data from the latest techniques that are being studied for ex-situ treatment of MTBE-contaminated groundwater. Most of the presentation will focus on bioremediation technologies. Researchers' work that will be summarized include that of Chang et al...

  19. In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary C.

    There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

  20. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ?V?3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015

  1. Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.

    2009-04-01

    Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are recorded by a microphone and constitute the PAS signal. The major advantage of this method is that it is suitable for highly absorbing solid samples such as soils without any special pretreatment. This method has been applied successfully to soil classification and to quantitative determination of soil properties such as available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter or calcium carbonate content [2-4]. 3. FTIR-based determination of ion concentration using ion-exchange membranes In addition to the previous direct methods, mid-infrared spectroscopy can also be used to estimate nutrient availability or ion availability indirectly by combining FTIR with ion-exchange membranes. Such membranes are commonly used in studies dealing with nutrient availability, in which standard chemical methods are used to determine the amount of nutrients sorbed onto the membranes. Chemical analysis can be replaced by mid-IR spectroscopy of the loaded membrane, using either the transmittance or photo-acoustic technique depending on the type of membrane [9, 11]. The present work reviews these techniques and the chemometrics tools required for accurate interpretation of the spectra and discusses the potentials and limitations of each method. References 1. Borenstein A., R. Linker, I. Shmulevich and A. Shaviv (2006). Determination of soil nitrate and water content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 60: 1267-1272. 2. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2007). Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 61: 1063-1067. 3. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2008). Identification of agricultural Mediterranean soils using mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Geoderma, 143: 85-90. 4. Du, C., J. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Chen, A. Zhu and J. Zhang (2008). Determiantion of soil properties using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy (In press). 5. Du, C., R. Linker, A. Shaviv and Z. Jianmin. In situ evaluation of net nitrification rate in Terra rossa soil using FTIR-ATR

  2. EMERGING TECHNIQUES Challenges of metagenomics and single-cell genomics approaches

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    EMERGING TECHNIQUES Challenges of metagenomics and single-cell genomics approaches for exploring and their innovative uses in genomics and metagenomics. Next, we focus on current cell capture technologies device, lysed, and subjected to whole genome amplification by multiple displacement amplifi- cation. We

  3. Categorizing Web Search Results into Meaningful and Stable Categories Using Fast-Feature Techniques

    E-print Network

    Shneiderman, Ben

    Measurement, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords Classification, Categorization, BrowsingCategorizing Web Search Results into Meaningful and Stable Categories Using Fast-Feature Techniques Bill Kules, Jack Kustanowitz and Ben Shneiderman Human-Computer Interaction Lab and Department

  4. Review of neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques: new needs for emerging fields.

    PubMed

    Gressier, V

    2014-10-01

    Neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques have been developed since the middle of the 20th century to support research and nuclear power energy development. The technical areas needing reference neutron fields and related instruments were mainly cross section measurements, radiation protection, dosimetry and fission reactors, with energy ranging from a few millielectronvolts to about 20 MeV. The reference neutron fields and calibration techniques developed for these purposes will be presented in this paper. However, in recent years, emerging fields have brought new needs for calibration facilities and monitoring techniques. These new challenges for neutron metrology will be exposed with their technical difficulties. PMID:24344349

  5. Techniques used in astrobiology to search for past or present extraterrestrial life, in particular on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, F.; Westall, F.

    2013-09-01

    The search for life on other bodies than Earth implies use of a wide range of techniques from radioastronomy to in situ molecular analyses. We have constructed a poster providing an overview of more than 10 observation and more than 30 analytical techniques used in different domains of astrobiology. The physical principle and the kinds of data that can obtained by each technique are describe. The possibility to use these techniques for space exploration, in particular for Mars, is also discussed

  6. Techniques used in astrobiology to search for past or present extraterrestrial life, in particular on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, F.; Westall, F.

    2014-04-01

    The search for life on other bodies than Earth implies use of a wide range of techniques from radioastronomy to in situ molecular analyses. We have constructed a poster providing an overview of more than 10 observation and more than 30 analytical techniques used in different domains of astrobiology. The physical principle and the kinds of data that can obtained by each technique are describe. The possibility to use these techniques for space exploration, in particular for Mars, is also discussed.

  7. AR-CITE: Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-15

    The Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence (AR-CITE) computer code examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e. scholarly publications and citation, world patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the subject domain to be clarified and identified.

  8. AR-CITE: Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-06-15

    The Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence (AR-CITE) computer code examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct andmore »separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e. scholarly publications and citation, world patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the subject domain to be clarified and identified.« less

  9. Emerging mass spectrometry techniques for the direct analysis of microbial colonies

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinshu; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the emerging areas in microbiology is detecting specialized metabolites produced by microbial colonies and communities with mass spectrometry. In this review/perspective, we illustrate the emerging mass spectrometry methodologies that enable the interrogation of specialized metabolites directly from microbial colonies. Mass spectrometry techniques such as imaging mass spectrometry and real-time mass spectrometry allow two and three dimensional visualization of the distribution of metabolites, often with minimal sample pretreatment. The speed in which molecules are captured using these methods requires the development of new molecular visualization tools such as molecular networking. Together, these tools are beginning to provide unprecedented insight into the chemical world that microbes experience. PMID:25064218

  10. Tabu search techniques for large high-school timetabling problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, A.

    1996-12-31

    The high-school timetabling problem consists in assigning all the lectures of a high school to the time periods in such a way that no teacher (or class) is involved in more than one lecture at a time and other side constraints are satisfied. The problem is NP-complete and is usually tackled using heuristic methods. This paper describes a solution algorithm (and its implementation) based on Tabu Search. The algorithm interleaves different types of moves and makes use of an adaptive relaxation of the hard constraints. The implementation of the algorithm has been successfully experimented in some large high schools with various kinds of side constraints.

  11. New International Program to Asses the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-01-25

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of the PARENT is to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks (PWSCC) and applying the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

  12. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  13. Search for life on Mars: evaluation of techniques.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D E; Mancinelli, R L; White, M R

    1995-03-01

    An important question for exobiology is, did life evolve on Mars? To answer this question, experiments must be conducted on the martian surface. Given current mission constraints on mass, power, and volume, these experiments can only be performed using proposed analytical techniques such as: electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, alpha-proton backscatter, gamma-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and specific element detectors. Using prepared test samples consisting of 1% organic matter (bovine serum albumin) in palagonite and a mixture of palagonite, clays, iron oxides, and evaporites, it was determined that a combination of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography provides the best insight into the chemistry, mineralogy, and geological history of the samples. PMID:11539224

  14. Emerging Techniques in Stratified Designs and Continuous Gradients for Tissue Engineering of Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial tissue engineering is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine, where engineers are faced with developing methods for the repair of one or many functional tissue systems simultaneously. Early and recent solutions for complex tissue formation have utilized stratified designs, where scaffold formulations are segregated into two or more layers, with discrete changes in physical or chemical properties, mimicking a corresponding number of interfacing tissue types. This method has brought forth promising results, along with a myriad of regenerative techniques. The latest designs, however, are employing “continuous gradients” in properties, where there is no discrete segregation between scaffold layers. This review compares the methods and applications of recent stratified approaches to emerging continuously graded methods. PMID:20411333

  15. A SOUND SOURCE LOCALIZATION TECHNIQUE TO SUPPORT SEARCH AND RESCUE IN LOUD NOISE ENVIRONMENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    At some sites of earthquakes and other disasters, rescuers search for people buried under rubble by listening for the sounds which they make. Thus developing a technique to localize sound sources amidst loud noise will support such search and rescue operations. In this paper, we discuss an experiment performed to test an array signal processing technique which searches for unperceivable sound in loud noise environments. Two speakers simultaneously played a noise of a generator and a voice decreased by 20 dB (= 1/100 of power) from the generator noise at an outdoor space where cicadas were making noise. The sound signal was received by a horizontally set linear microphone array 1.05 m in length and consisting of 15 microphones. The direction and the distance of the voice were computed and the sound of the voice was extracted and played back as an audible sound by array signal processing.

  16. Research Patents 1. S. Rajasekaran and R. Varadarajan, Techniques for searching encrypted

    E-print Network

    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    Research Patents 1. S. Rajasekaran and R. Varadarajan, Techniques for searching encrypted files, US Patent 7,484,092, January 27, 2009. 2. S. Rajasekaran, G.R. Hird, and B.N. Kausik, Method and system for camouflaging access-controlled data, US Patent 7,454,782, November 18, 2008. 3. S. Rajasekaran, Efficient

  17. Multi-Database Searching in the Behavioral Sciences--Part I: Basic Techniques and Core Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Jennifer J.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines practical searching techniques in seven core behavioral science databases accessing psychological literature: Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Biosis, Medline, Excerpta Medica, Sociological Abstracts, ERIC. Use of individual files is discussed and their relative strengths/weaknesses are compared. Appended is a list…

  18. Application of multivariable search techniques to the optimization of airfoils in a low speed nonlinear inviscid flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    Multivariable search techniques are applied to a particular class of airfoil optimization problems. These are the maximization of lift and the minimization of disturbance pressure magnitude in an inviscid nonlinear flow field. A variety of multivariable search techniques contained in an existing nonlinear optimization code, AESOP, are applied to this design problem. These techniques include elementary single parameter perturbation methods, organized search such as steepest-descent, quadratic, and Davidon methods, randomized procedures, and a generalized search acceleration technique. Airfoil design variables are seven in number and define perturbations to the profile of an existing NACA airfoil. The relative efficiency of the techniques are compared. It is shown that elementary one parameter at a time and random techniques compare favorably with organized searches in the class of problems considered. It is also shown that significant reductions in disturbance pressure magnitude can be made while retaining reasonable lift coefficient values at low free stream Mach numbers.

  19. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  20. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  1. Context-dependent interaction leads to emergent search behavior in social aggregates

    E-print Network

    Colin Torney; Zoltan Neufeld; Iain D. Couzin

    2009-09-21

    Locating the source of an advected chemical signal is a common challenge facing many living organisms. When the advecting medium is characterized by either high Reynolds number or high Peclet number the task becomes highly non-trivial due to the generation of heterogenous, dynamically changing filamental concentrations which do not decrease monotonically with distance to the source. Defining search strategies which are effective in these environments has important implications for the understanding of animal behavior and for the design of biologically inspired technology. Here we present a strategy which is able to solve this task without the higher intelligence required to assess spatial gradient direction, measure the diffusive properties of the flow field or perform complex calculations. Instead our method is based on the collective behavior of autonomous individuals following simple social interaction rules which are modified according to the local conditions they are experiencing. Through these context-dependent interactions the group is able to locate the source of a chemical signal and in doing so displays an awareness of the environment not present at the individual level. Our model demonstrates the ability of decentralized information processing systems to solve real world problems and also illustrates an alternative pathway to the evolution of higher cognitive capacity via the emergent, group level intelligence which can result from local interactions.

  2. Context-dependent interaction leads to emergent search behavior in social aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Torney, Colin; Neufeld, Zoltan; Couzin, Iain D.

    2009-01-01

    Locating the source of an advected chemical signal is a common challenge facing many living organisms. When the advecting medium is characterized by either high Reynolds number or high Peclet number, the task becomes highly nontrivial due to the generation of heterogeneous, dynamically changing filamental concentrations that do not decrease monotonically with distance to the source. Defining search strategies that are effective in these environments has important implications for the understanding of animal behavior and for the design of biologically inspired technology. Here we present a strategy that is able to solve this task without the higher intelligence required to assess spatial gradient direction, measure the diffusive properties of the flow field, or perform complex calculations. Instead, our method is based on the collective behavior of autonomous individuals following simple social interaction rules which are modified according to the local conditions they are experiencing. Through these context-dependent interactions, the group is able to locate the source of a chemical signal and in doing so displays an awareness of the environment not present at the individual level. This behavior illustrates an alternative pathway to the evolution of higher cognitive capacity via the emergent, group-level intelligence that can result from local interactions. PMID:20018696

  3. Developing Knowledge Representation in Emergency Medical Assistance by Using Semantic Web Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manica, Heloise; Rocha, Cristiano C.; Todesco, José Leomar; Dantas, M. A. R.

    In this research, a knowledge-based architecture for a mobile emergency medical assistance system is presented. It is based on the France SAMU model and dopts the ontology and mobile computing approaches. The contribution is characterized for providing routines and medical protocol specifications for specialists through the use of their natural language, collecting elements from this language to develop an ontology domain, and using a semantic cache for an enhanced utilization of mobile devices. A prototype of the proposal was implemented in order to support specialists during a day-to-day basis considering knowledge engineering aided by mobile computing techniques. These differentiated characteristics have proved to be successfully at early experiments utilizing the implemented prototype.

  4. Data classification using metaheuristic Cuckoo Search technique for Levenberg Marquardt back propagation (CSLM) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawi, Nazri Mohd.; Khan, Abdullah; Rehman, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    A nature inspired behavior metaheuristic techniques which provide derivative-free solutions to solve complex problems. One of the latest additions to the group of nature inspired optimization procedure is Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) training is an optimization task since it is desired to find optimal weight set of a neural network in training process. Traditional training algorithms have some limitation such as getting trapped in local minima and slow convergence rate. This study proposed a new technique CSLM by combining the best features of two known algorithms back-propagation (BP) and Levenberg Marquardt algorithm (LM) for improving the convergence speed of ANN training and avoiding local minima problem by training this network. Some selected benchmark classification datasets are used for simulation. The experiment result show that the proposed cuckoo search with Levenberg Marquardt algorithm has better performance than other algorithm used in this study.

  5. A technique to search for functional similarities in protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Fionda, Valeria; Palopoli, Luigi; Panni, Simona; Rombo, Simona E

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to search for similarities across protein-protein interaction networks of different organisms. The technique core consists in computing a maximum weight matching of bipartite graphs resulting from comparing the neighbourhoods of proteins belonging to different networks. Both quantitative and reliability information are exploited. We tested the method on the networks of S. cerevisiae, D. melanogaster and C. elegans. The experiments showed that the technique is able to detect functional orthologs when the sole sequence similarity does not prove itself sufficient. They also demonstrated the capability of our approach in discovering common biological processes involving uncharacterised proteins. PMID:20052906

  6. An Adaptive Image Enhancement Technique by Combining Cuckoo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  7. An adaptive image enhancement technique by combining cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  8. Cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based axion and weakly interacting slim particle searches

    E-print Network

    Stephen R. Parker; Ben McAllister; Eugene N. Ivanov; Michael E. Tobar

    2015-10-20

    Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), such as axions, are highly motivated dark matter candidates. The most sensitive experimental searches for these particles exploit WISP-to-photon conversion mechanisms and use resonant cavity structures to enhance the resulting power signal. For WISPs to constitute Cold Dark Matter their required masses correspond to photons in the microwave spectrum. As such, searches for these types of WISPs are primarily limited by the thermal cavity noise and the broadband first-stage amplifier noise. In this work we propose and then verify two cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based WISP searches. These are two channel measurement schemes where the cross-spectrum is computed, rejecting uncorrelated noise sources while still retaining correlated signals such as those generated by WISPs. The first technique allows for the cavity thermal spectrum to be observed with an enhanced resolution. The second technique cross-correlates two individual cavity/amplifier systems that can be spatially well-separated, thereby opening up opportunities for characterizing candidate dark matter WISP signals.

  9. Intervention in HCM: patient selection, procedural approach and emerging techniques in alcohol septal ablation

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Adeel; Stables, Rodney H

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a highly heterogeneous disease with varied patterns of hypertrophy. Basal septal hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve (MV) are the key pathophysiological components to left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in HCM. LVOT is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with HCM. Percutaneous septal reduction therapy with alcohol septal ablation (ASA) can lead to a significant improvement in left ventricle haemodynamics, patient symptoms and perhaps prognosis. ASA delivers pure alcohol to an area of myocardium via septal coronary arteries; this creates damage to tissue akin to a myocardial infarction. The basal septal myocardium involved in SAM–septal contact is the target for this iatrogenic infarct. Appropriate patient selection and accurate delivery of alcohol are critical to safe and effective ASA. Securing the correct diagnosis and ensuring suitable cardiac anatomy are essential before considering ASA. Pre-procedural planning and intra-procedural imaging guidance are important to delivering precise damage to the desired area. The procedure is performed worldwide and is generally safe; the need for a pacemaker is the most prominent complication. It is successful in the majority of patients but room for improvement exists. New techniques have been proposed to perform percutaneous septal reduction. We present a review of the relevant pathophysiology, current methods and a summary of available evidence for ASA. We also provide a glimpse into emerging techniques to deliver percutaneous septal reduction therapy. PMID:26693329

  10. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Evaluation of Maternal-Fetal Outcomes After Emergency Vaginal Cerclage Performed With Shirodkar-McDonald Combined Modified Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ciancimino, Leonarda; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Imbesi, Giovanna; Chiofalo, Benito; Mancuso, Alfredo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Background Several techniques of emergency vaginal cerclage have been proposed in case of unexpected and abrupt cervical incompetence (CI), in order to prolong the pregnancy as much as possible and to reduce the adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency cervical cerclage, performed with the combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique. Methods We selected 12 cases of emergency vaginal cerclage, performed between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2013. The age of the patients was between 20 and 38 years (mean 29.0 ± standard deviation (SD) 5.69), parity between 0 and 2 (mean 0.7 ± SD 0.65), and gestational age at the time of admission ranged between 17 and 26 weeks (mean 21.0 ± SD 3.44). In all these cases, we used a combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique to perform the procedure. Results The neonatal survival rate was 83.3%. The cesarean section rate was 16.7%. The average pregnancy prolongation was 89.9 days, higher than that reported for other studies in the literature. Conclusions We can assume that the emergency vaginal cerclage performed with the combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique is the best option of surgical therapy for the treatment of unexpected and abrupt CI. PMID:25780480

  12. Functional MRI has rapidly emerged as a powerful non-invasive technique for studying brain function with

    E-print Network

    Deouell, Leon Y.

    REVIEWS Functional MRI has rapidly emerged as a powerful non-invasive technique for studying brain potential to provide insight into the neural mechanisms that underlie normal development, ageing individuals,little attention has focused on the effects of changes in the cerebro- vascular system on the BOLD

  13. An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogle, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging technique in remote sensing data processing that expands and improves capability of multispectral image analysis. It takes advantage

    E-print Network

    Chang, Chein-I

    role than does noise in hyperspectral image analysis. More importantly, the detection techniques in hyperspectral image analysis, specifically, subpixel detection and mixed pixel classificationvii PREFACE Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging technique in remote sensing data processing

  15. IESIP - AN IMPROVED EXPLORATORY SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR PURE INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogle, F. R.

    1994-01-01

    IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.

  16. Geoacoustic inversion techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 global search (GS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Peter; Muncill, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Geoacoustic Inversion Techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 is a PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 funded product that accepts measured acoustic data and produces an optimized estimate of the bottom environment that produced the observed acoustic data. The Global Search (GS) segment of GAIT pairs the Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) algorithm with a variety of Navy standard propagation loss models (PE, ASTRAL and Nautilus) and an active sonar performance prediction model (ASPM). The goal of the GS segment of GAIT is to provide a best estimate of the geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom that, when paired with a selected model, result in the observed acoustic data. An overview of the GS segment of GAIT 1.0 will be presented with details on the ASA algorithm, component models, cost functions and geoacoustic parametrizations. Inversion results will be shown for synthetic test cases from the Inversion Technique Workshop (ITW) held in May 2001 and from both narrowband and broadband measured data test cases. [Work supported by PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 and uses the products of a Phase I and II SBIR from the ONR (Code 321US).

  17. The Communication Model: An Emerging Systems Analysis Technique for Continuing Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, H. Griffin

    Continuing educators can gain knowledge about their programs' environments, as well as predict the outcomes of change processes, by utilizing an emerging systems concept called the communication model. Utilization of the communication model involves three steps: (1) diagramming the perceived reality of the organizational system, (2) using the…

  18. Choosing a DIVA: a comparison of emerging digital imagery vegetation analysis techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Stutzman, Ryan J.; Anderson, Lars C.; Decker, Suzanne E.; Powell, Larkin A.; Schacht, Walter H.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Question: What is the precision of five methods of measuring vegetation structure using ground-based digital imagery and processing techniques? Location: Lincoln, Nebraska, USA Methods: Vertical herbaceous cover was recorded using digital imagery techniques at two distinct locations in a mixed-grass prairie. The precision of five ground-based digital imagery vegetation analysis (DIVA) methods for measuring vegetation structure was tested using a split-split plot analysis of covariance. Variability within each DIVA technique was estimated using coefficient of variation of mean percentage cover. Results: Vertical herbaceous cover estimates differed among DIVA techniques. Additionally, environmental conditions affected the vertical vegetation obstruction estimates for certain digital imagery methods, while other techniques were more adept at handling various conditions. Overall, percentage vegetation cover values differed among techniques, but the precision of four of the five techniques was consistently high. Conclusions: DIVA procedures are sufficient for measuring various heights and densities of standing herbaceous cover. Moreover, digital imagery techniques can reduce measurement error associated with multiple observers' standing herbaceous cover estimates, allowing greater opportunity to detect patterns associated with vegetation structure.

  19. Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence (AR-CITE)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2013-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that clarifies and identifies the technology of emergence from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries(via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. The purpose of this study therefore, is to address the relationships among multiple disparate sources of information as a way to explain systematically the emergence of new technologies from innovation on through to commercial application. In one example, we investigate the combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) as they are assembled to become one collective network (a data set for analysis of relations). In another example, we investigate the combinations of five distinct sources (i.e., university R&D, industry R&D, product emergence, and two levels of annual market revenue [$1B and $10B]). These established networks and relationship become the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for multiple example subject domains we investigated.

  20. Comparative evaluation of differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy as a technique to discriminate emerging skin pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozikowski, Raymond T.; Smith, Sarah E.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Castleman, William L.; Sorg, Brian S.; Hahn, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely investigated as a technique for identifying pathological tissue; however, unrelated subject-to-subject variations in spectra complicate data analysis and interpretation. We describe and evaluate a new biosensing technique, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), based on deep ultraviolet (UV) photochemical perturbation in combination with difference spectroscopy. This technique combines sequential fluorescence probing (pre- and post-perturbation) with sub-ablative UV perturbation and difference spectroscopy to provide a new spectral dimension, facilitating two improvements over fluorescence spectroscopy. First, the differential technique eliminates significant variations in absolute fluorescence response within subject populations. Second, UV perturbations alter the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly coupling the DLIPS response to the biological structure. Improved biosensing with DLIPS is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of chemically induced skin lesion development. Component loading analysis of the data indicates that the DLIPS technique couples to structural proteins in the ECM. Analysis of variance shows that DLIPS has a significant response to emerging pathology as opposed to other population differences. An optimal likelihood ratio classifier for the DLIPS dataset shows that this technique holds promise for improved diagnosis of epithelial pathology. Results further indicate that DLIPS may improve diagnosis of tissue by augmenting fluorescence spectra (i.e. orthogonal sensing).

  1. Overviews of Emerging Research Techniques in Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics: Proceedings of the 1981 Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    These proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics cover topics of emerging research in several areas of interest to the Committee. Topics covered include: hair cell function; transduction process of hair cells; speech synthesis; machine recognition of words; neuromagnetic analysis of sensory systems; tinnitus; tactile communication of speech; and biodynamic research at the Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.

  2. Established and Emerging Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Pasilis, Sofie P; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2008-01-01

    The number and type of atmospheric pressure techniques suitable for sampling analytes from surfaces, forming ions from those analytes, and subsequently transporting those ions into vacuum for interrogation by mass spectrometry has rapidly expanded over the last several years. Moreover, the literature in this area is complicated by an explosion in acronyms for these techniques, many of which provide no information relating to the chemical or physical processes involved. In this review, we sort this vast array of techniques into a relatively few categories on the basis of the approaches used for surface sampling and ionization. For each technique, we explain, as best known, many of the underlying principles of operation, describe representative applications, and in some cases, discuss needed research or advancements and attempt to forecast their future analytical utility.

  3. Lean techniques for the improvement of patients’ flow in emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chan, HY; Lo, SM; Lee, LLY; Lo, WYL; Yu, WC; Wu, YF; Ho, ST; Yeung, RSD; Chan, JTS

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) face problems with overcrowding, access block, cost containment, and increasing demand from patients. In order to resolve these problems, there is rising interest to an approach called “lean” management. This study aims to (1) evaluate the current patient flow in ED, (2) to identify and eliminate the non-valued added process, and (3) to modify the existing process. METHODS: It was a quantitative, pre- and post-lean design study with a series of lean management work implemented to improve the admission and blood result waiting time. These included structured re-design process, priority admission triage (PAT) program, enhanced communication with medical department, and use of new high sensitivity troponin-T (hsTnT) blood test. Triage waiting time, consultation waiting time, blood result time, admission waiting time, total processing time and ED length of stay were compared. RESULTS: Among all the processes carried out in ED, the most time consuming processes were to wait for an admission bed (38.24 minutes; SD 66.35) and blood testing result (mean 52.73 minutes, SD 24.03). The triage waiting time and end waiting time for consultation were significantly decreased. The admission waiting time of emergency medical ward (EMW) was significantly decreased from 54.76 minutes to 24.45 minutes after implementation of PAT program (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of lean management can improve the patient flow in ED. Acquiescence to the principle of lean is crucial to enhance high quality emergency care and patient satisfaction. PMID:25215143

  4. Emerging techniques in the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles and their roles in cancer diagnostics and prognostics.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Woo, Hyun-Kyung; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived nanovesicles, present in almost all types of body fluids, which play an important role in intercellular communication and are involved in the transport of biological signals for regulating diverse cellular functions. Due to the increasing clinical interest in the role of EVs in tumor promotion, various techniques for their isolation, detection, and characterization are being developed. In this review, we present an overview of the current EV isolation and characterization methods in addition to their applications and limitations. Furthermore, EVs as the potential emerging biomarkers in cancer management and their clinical implementation are briefly discussed. PMID:26535415

  5. Techniques for improving efficiency in the emergency department for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jauch, Edward C; Holmstedt, Christine; Nolte, Justin

    2012-09-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed significant strides in the management of acute stroke. The most significant advance, reperfusion therapy, has changed relatively little, but the integrated healthcare systems-stroke systems-established to effectively and safely administer stroke treatments have evolved greatly. Driving change is the understanding that "time is brain." Data are compelling that the likelihood of improvement is directly tied to time of reperfusion. Regional stroke systems of care ensure patients arrive at the most appropriate stroke-capable hospital in which intrahospital systems have been created to process the potential stroke patient as quickly as possible. The hospital-based systems are comprised of prehospital care providers, emergency department physicians and nurses, stroke team members, and critical ancillary services such as neuroimaging and laboratory. Given their complexity, these systems of care require maintenance. Through teamwork and ownership of the process, more patients will be saved from potential death and long-term disability. PMID:22994222

  6. Inhaled Foreign Bodies In Pediatric Patients: Proven Management Techniques In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Maraynes, Megan; Agoritsas, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Foreign body inhalation affects thousands of children every year, and it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Inhaled organic or inorganic foreign bodies can become lodged in the posterior nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, or bronchi. Presentation of foreign body inhalation can range from nonspecific respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure associated with a choking episode. In this issue, an in-depth review of the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of inhaled foreign bodies is presented. Risk factors for foreign body inhalation and clinical clues to diagnosis, as well as emergent management of inhaled foreign bodies are reviewed. A systematic approach, as described in this issue, will aid in timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of inhaled foreign bodies, thereby limiting future complications and morbidity. PMID:26510331

  7. Robust Requirements Tracing via Internet Search Technology: Improving an IV and V Technique. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Jane; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2004-01-01

    There are three major objectives to this phase of the work. (1) Improvement of Information Retrieval (IR) methods for Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) requirements tracing. Information Retrieval methods are typically developed for very large (order of millions - tens of millions and more documents) document collections and therefore, most successfully used methods somewhat sacrifice precision and recall in order to achieve efficiency. At the same time typical IR systems treat all user queries as independent of each other and assume that relevance of documents to queries is subjective for each user. The IV&V requirements tracing problem has a much smaller data set to operate on, even for large software development projects; the set of queries is predetermined by the high-level specification document and individual requirements considered as query input to IR methods are not necessarily independent from each other. Namely, knowledge about the links for one requirement may be helpful in determining the links of another requirement. Finally, while the final decision on the exact form of the traceability matrix still belongs to the IV&V analyst, his/her decisions are much less arbitrary than those of an Internet search engine user. All this suggests that the information available to us in the framework of the IV&V tracing problem can be successfully leveraged to enhance standard IR techniques, which in turn would lead to increased recall and precision. We developed several new methods during Phase II; (2) IV&V requirements tracing IR toolkit. Based on the methods developed in Phase I and their improvements developed in Phase II, we built a toolkit of IR methods for IV&V requirements tracing. The toolkit has been integrated, at the data level, with SAIC's SuperTracePlus (STP) tool; (3) Toolkit testing. We tested the methods included in the IV&V requirements tracing IR toolkit on a number of projects.

  8. Exploring Halo Substructure with Giant Stars. I. Survey Description and Calibration of the Photometric Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Kunkel, William E.; Patterson, Richard J.

    2000-11-01

    We have begun a survey of the structure of the Milky Way halo, as well as the halos of other Local Group galaxies, as traced by their constituent giant stars. These giant stars are identified via large-area, CCD photometric campaigns. Here we present the basis for our photometric search method, which relies on the gravity sensitivity of the Mg I triplet+MgH features near 5150 Å in F-K stars, and which is sensed by the flux in the intermediate-band DDO51 filter. Our technique is a simplified variant of the combined Washington/DDO51 four-filter technique described by Geisler, which we modify for the specific purpose of efficiently identifying distant giant stars for follow-up spectroscopic study: We show here that for most stars the Washington T1-T2 color is correlated monotonically with the Washington M-T2 color with relatively low scatter; for the purposes of our survey, this correlation obviates the need to image in the T1 filter, as originally proposed by Geisler. To calibrate our (M-T2, M-DDO51) diagram as a means to discriminate field giant stars from nearby dwarfs, we utilize new photometry of the main sequences of the open clusters NGC 3680 and NGC 2477 and the red giant branches of the clusters NGC 3680, Melotte 66, and ? Centauri, supplemented with data on field stars, globular clusters and open clusters by Doug Geisler and collaborators. By combining the data on stars from different clusters, and by taking advantage of the wide abundance spread within ? Centauri, we verify the primary dependence of the M-DDO51 color on luminosity and demonstrate the secondary sensitivity to metallicity among giant stars. Our empirical results are found to be generally consistent with those from analysis of synthetic spectra by Paltoglou & Bell. Finally, we provide conversion formulae from the (M, M-T2) system to the (V, V-I) system, corresponding reddening laws, as well as empirical red giant branch curves from ? Centauri stars for use in deriving photometric parallaxes for giant stars of various metallicities (but equivalent ages) to those of ? Centauri giants.

  9. A model undergraduate research institute for study of emerging non-contact measurement technologies and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvonch, Curt; Smith, Christopher; Bourne, Stefanie; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2006-04-01

    The Infrared Development and Thermal Structures Laboratory (IDTSL) is an undergraduate research laboratory in the College of Integrated Science and Technology (CISAT) at James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia. During the 1997-98 academic year, Dr. Jonathan Miles established the IDTSL at JMU with the support of a collaborative research grant from the NASA Langley Research Center and with additional support from the College of Integrated Science and Technology at JMU. The IDTSL supports research and development efforts that feature non-contact thermal and mechanical measurements and advance the state of the art. These efforts all entail undergraduate participation intended to significantly enrich their technical education. The IDTSL is funded by major government organizations and the private sector and provides a unique opportunity to undergraduates who wish to participate in projects that push the boundaries of non-contact measurement technologies, and provides a model for effective hands-on, project oriented, student-centered learning that reinforces concepts and skills introduced within the Integrated Science and Technology (ISAT) curriculum. The lab also provides access to advanced topics and emerging measurement technologies; fosters development of teaming and communication skills in an interdisciplinary environment; and avails undergraduates of professional activities including writing papers, presentation at conferences, and participation in summer internships. This paper provides an overview of the Infrared Development and Thermal Structures Laboratory, its functionality, its record of achievements, and the important contribution it has made to the field of non-contact measurement and undergraduate education.

  10. Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2013-12-01

    Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

  11. [Use of the induced membrane technique for the treatment of bone defects in the hand or wrist, in emergency].

    PubMed

    Flamans, B; Pauchot, J; Petite, H; Blanchet, N; Rochet, S; Garbuio, P; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2010-10-01

    A prospective study is reported concerning 11 cases of bone defect of the hand and wrist treated by the induced membrane technique. Ten men and one woman with an average age of 49 yrs (17-72) sustained a high-energy trauma with severe mutilation of digit and hand but with intact pulp. Eight cases of open finger fractures with composite loss of substance and three cases of bone and joint infection (thumb, wrist, fifth finger) were included. All cases were treated by the induced membrane technique which consists in stable fixation, flap if necessary, and in filling the bone defect by a cement methyl methacrylate polymere (PMMA) spacer. A secondary procedure at two months is needed where the cement is removed and the void is filled by cancellous bone. The key point of this induced membrane technique is to respect the foreign body membrane which formed around the cement spacer creating a biologic chamber. Bone union was evaluated prospectively by X-ray and CT scan by a surgeon not involved in the treatment. Failure was defined as non-union at one year, or uncontrolled sepsis at one month. Two cases failed to achieve bone union. No septic complications occurred and all septic cases were controlled. In nine cases, bone union was achieved within four months (three to 12). Evidence of osteoid formation was determined by a bone biopsy in one case. Masquelet first reported 35 cases of large tibial non-union defects treated by the induced membrane technique. The cement spacer promotes foreign body membrane induction constituting a biological chamber. Works on animal models reported by Pellissier and Viateau demonstrated membrane properties: secretion of growths factors (VEGF, TGF beta1, BMP2) and osteoinductive cellular activity. The induced membrane seems to mimic a neoperiosteum. This technique is useful in emergency or septic conditions where bone defects cannot be treated by shortening. It avoids microsurgery and is limited by availability of cancellous bone. PMID:20728395

  12. In-Cell Solid-State NMR: An Emerging Technique for the Study of Biological Membranes.

    PubMed

    Warnet, Xavier L; Arnold, Alexandre A; Marcotte, Isabelle; Warschawski, Dror E

    2015-12-15

    Biological molecular processes are often studied in model systems, which simplifies their inherent complexity but may cause investigators to lose sight of the effects of the molecular environment. Information obtained in this way must therefore be validated by experiments in the cell. NMR has been used to study biological cells since the early days of its development. The first NMR structural studies of a protein inside a cell (by solution-state NMR) and of a membrane protein (by solid-state NMR) were published in 2001 and 2011, respectively. More recently, dynamic nuclear polarization, which has been used to enhance the signal in solid-state NMR, has also been applied to the study of frozen cells. Much progress has been made in the past 5 years, and in this review we take stock of this new technique, which is particularly appropriate for the study of biological membranes. PMID:26682804

  13. The risks to healthy tissues from the use of existing and emerging techniques for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, Andrea; Smyth, Vere; Trott, Klaus R

    2011-02-01

    As radical radiotherapy treatments become more effective, more and more cancer patients are becoming cured of their disease and surviving for decades. Damage to exposed healthy tissues that becomes manifest in the medium-to-long-term is becoming a more significant factor in the choice of individual treatment plans and treatment modality. However, currently there are no reliable objective methods for predicting in an individual patient the occurrence of normal tissue complications, or second cancers caused by radiation. This is especially needed as new competing techniques and modalities become available, such as IMRT, protons, carbon ions, etc., all advancing the ability to focus the radiation dose on the target while sparing normal tissue. ALLEGRO is a Euratom-funded project that is currently investigating the current state of knowledge, and attempting to define the priority research areas. Preliminary considerations of the problems to be solved and research priorities are presented. PMID:21199824

  14. A simulation study of emergency lunar escape to orbit using several simplified manual guidance and control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, D. B.; Hurt, G. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A fixed-base piloted simulator investigation has been made of the feasibility of using any of several manual guidance and control techniques for emergency lunar escape to orbit with very simplified, lightweight vehicle systems. The escape-to-orbit vehicles accommodate two men, but one man performs all of the guidance and control functions. Three basic attitude-control modes and four manually executed trajectory-guidance schemes were used successfully during approximately 125 simulated flights under a variety of conditions. These conditions included thrust misalinement, uneven propellant drain, and a vehicle moment-of-inertia range of 250 to 12,000 slugs per square foot. Two types of results are presented - orbit characteristics and pilot ratings of vehicle handling qualities.

  15. A Study on Active Disaster Management System for Standardized Emergency Action Plan using BIM and Flood Damage Estimation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C.; Om, J.; Hwang, J.; Joo, K.; Heo, J.

    2013-12-01

    In recent, the frequency of extreme flood has been increasing due to climate change and global warming. Highly flood damages are mainly caused by the collapse of flood control structures such as dam and dike. In order to reduce these disasters, the disaster management system (DMS) through flood forecasting, inundation mapping, EAP (Emergency Action Plan) has been studied. The estimation of inundation damage and practical EAP are especially crucial to the DMS. However, it is difficult to predict inundation and take a proper action through DMS in real emergency situation because several techniques for inundation damage estimation are not integrated and EAP is supplied in the form of a document in Korea. In this study, the integrated simulation system including rainfall frequency analysis, rainfall-runoff modeling, inundation prediction, surface runoff analysis, and inland flood analysis was developed. Using this system coupled with standard GIS data, inundation damage can be estimated comprehensively and automatically. The standard EAP based on BIM (Building Information Modeling) was also established in this system. It is, therefore, expected that the inundation damages through this study over the entire area including buildings can be predicted and managed.

  16. From Propagation to Structure: The Experimental Technique of Bombardment as a Contributing Factor to the Emerging Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Giora

    I observe that quantum physics emerged at the turn of the last century when physics had shifted its concern from propagation phenomena to questions of structure. This transition materialized with the development of a new experimental technique, the bombardment method. The transition is well exemplified by the move from the experimental studies of Heinrich Hertz to those of Ernest Rutherford, and from those of Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard to those of James Franck and Gustav Hertz. I trace the history of Rutherford's experimental bombardment method as it emerged from nineteenth-century propagation studies. I then demonstrate the use of the bombardment method in another experimental context, namely, in the celebrated experiment of Franck and Hertz. I locate the root of this experiment in Lenard's experimental studies and analyze Franck and Hertz's flawed interpretation of it. I conclude by underlining the crucial role that Bohr's quantum theory of the atom played in helping to establish these bombardment experiments as milestones of modern physics.

  17. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  18. Similarity Search and Data Mining: Database Techniques Supporting Next Decade's Applications

    E-print Network

    Kriegel, Hans-Peter

    involving com- plex objects such as Multimedia, CAD, Molecular Biology, Sequence Analysis, etc. Search Price Analysis. We show that existing feature based similarity models fail due to different reasons, e in the contemporary information society. "Only who can apply the newest information for his product development

  19. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    E-print Network

    LHCb collaboration; R. Aaij; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; S. Akar; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; S. Ali; G. Alkhazov; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; S. Amerio; Y. Amhis; L. An; L. Anderlini; J. Anderson; M. Andreotti; J. E. Andrews; R. B. Appleby; O. Aquines Gutierrez; F. Archilli; P. d'Argent; A. Artamonov; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; M. Baalouch; S. Bachmann; J. J. Back; A. Badalov; C. Baesso; W. Baldini; R. J. Barlow; C. Barschel; S. Barsuk; W. Barter; V. Batozskaya; V. Battista; A. Bay; L. Beaucourt; J. Beddow; F. Bedeschi; I. Bediaga; L. J. Bel; I. Belyaev; E. Ben-Haim; G. Bencivenni; S. Benson; J. Benton; A. Berezhnoy; R. Bernet; A. Bertolin; M. -O. Bettler; M. van Beuzekom; A. Bien; S. Bifani; T. Bird; A. Birnkraut; A. Bizzeti; T. Blake; F. Blanc; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; M. Borsato; T. J. V. Bowcock; E. Bowen; C. Bozzi; D. Brett; M. Britsch; T. Britton; J. Brodzicka; N. H. Brook; A. Bursche; J. Buytaert; S. Cadeddu; R. Calabrese; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; P. Campana; D. Campora Perez; L. Capriotti; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; R. Cardinale; A. Cardini; P. Carniti; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; R. Casanova Mohr; G. Casse; L. Cassina; L. Castillo Garcia; M. Cattaneo; Ch. Cauet; G. Cavallero; R. Cenci; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; M. Chefdeville; S. Chen; S. -F. Cheung; N. Chiapolini; M. Chrzaszcz; X. Cid Vidal; G. Ciezarek; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; V. Coco; J. Cogan; E. Cogneras; V. Cogoni; L. Cojocariu; G. Collazuol; P. Collins; A. Comerma-Montells; A. Contu; A. Cook; M. Coombes; S. Coquereau; G. Corti; M. Corvo; I. Counts; B. Couturier; G. A. Cowan; D. C. Craik; A. Crocombe; M. Cruz Torres; S. Cunliffe; R. Currie; C. D'Ambrosio; J. Dalseno; P. N. Y. David; A. Davis; K. De Bruyn; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; W. De Silva; P. De Simone; C. -T. Dean; D. Decamp; M. Deckenhoff; L. Del Buono; N. Déléage; D. Derkach; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; B. Dey; A. Di Canto; F. Di Ruscio; H. Dijkstra; S. Donleavy; F. Dordei; M. Dorigo; A. Dosil Suárez; D. Dossett; A. Dovbnya; K. Dreimanis; G. Dujany; F. Dupertuis; P. Durante; R. Dzhelyadin; A. Dziurda; A. Dzyuba; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; S. Eidelman; S. Eisenhardt; U. Eitschberger; R. Ekelhof; L. Eklund; I. El Rifai; Ch. Elsasser; S. Ely; S. Esen; H. M. Evans; T. Evans; A. Falabella; C. Färber; C. Farinelli; N. Farley; S. Farry; R. Fay; D. Ferguson; V. Fernandez Albor; F. Ferrari; F. Ferreira Rodrigues; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; M. Fiore; M. Fiorini; M. Firlej; C. Fitzpatrick; T. Fiutowski; P. Fol; M. Fontana; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; O. Francisco; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; J. Fu; E. Furfaro; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; S. Gallorini; S. Gambetta; M. Gandelman; P. Gandini; Y. Gao; J. García Pardiñas; J. Garofoli; J. Garra Tico; L. Garrido; D. Gascon; C. Gaspar; R. Gauld; L. Gavardi; G. Gazzoni; A. Geraci; D. Gerick; E. Gersabeck; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; A. Gianelle; S. Gianì; V. Gibson; L. Giubega; V. V. Gligorov; C. Göbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; C. Gotti; M. Grabalosa Gándara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugés; E. Graverini; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; E. Greening; S. Gregson; P. Griffith; L. Grillo; O. Grünberg; B. Gui; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; T. Gys; C. Hadjivasiliou; G. Haefeli; C. Haen; S. C. Haines; S. Hall; B. Hamilton; T. Hampson; X. Han; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; N. Harnew; S. T. Harnew; J. Harrison; J. He; T. Head; V. Heijne; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; L. Henry; J. A. Hernando Morata; E. van Herwijnen; M. Heß; A. Hicheur; D. Hill; M. Hoballah; C. Hombach; W. Hulsbergen; T. Humair; N. Hussain; D. Hutchcroft; D. Hynds; M. Idzik; P. Ilten; R. Jacobsson; A. Jaeger; J. Jalocha; E. Jans; A. Jawahery; F. Jing; M. John; D. Johnson; C. R. Jones; C. Joram; B. Jost; N. Jurik; S. Kandybei; W. Kanso; M. Karacson; T. M. Karbach; S. Karodia; M. Kelsey; I. R. Kenyon; M. Kenzie; T. Ketel; B. Khanji; C. Khurewathanakul; S. Klaver; K. Klimaszewski; O. Kochebina; M. Kolpin; I. Komarov; R. F. Koopman; P. Koppenburg; L. Kravchuk; K. Kreplin; M. Kreps; G. Krocker; P. Krokovny; F. Kruse; W. Kucewicz; M. Kucharczyk; V. Kudryavtsev; K. Kurek; T. Kvaratskheliya; V. N. La Thi; D. Lacarrere; G. Lafferty; A. Lai; D. Lambert; R. W. Lambert; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; B. Langhans; T. Latham; C. Lazzeroni; R. Le Gac; J. van Leerdam; J. -P. Lees; R. Lefèvre; A. Leflat; J. Lefrançois; O. Leroy; T. Lesiak; B. Leverington; Y. Li; T. Likhomanenko; M. Liles; R. Lindner; C. Linn; F. Lionetto; B. Liu; S. Lohn; I. Longstaff; J. H. Lopes; D. Lucchesi; H. Luo; A. Lupato; E. Luppi; O. Lupton; F. Machefert; I. V. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; S. Malde; A. Malinin; G. Manca; G. Mancinelli; P. Manning; A. Mapelli; J. Maratas

    2015-11-14

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions collected at $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkovdetectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, $1.8 < \\eta < 4.9$. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95\\% CL) for masses between 124 and 309 GeV/c$^2$.

  20. Injuries and illnesses among Federal Emergency Management Agency-certified search-and-recovery and search-and-rescue dogs deployed to Oso, Washington, following the March 22, 2014, State Route 530 landslide.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Lori E

    2015-10-15

    Objective-To establish types and rates of injuries and illnesses among search-and-recovery and search-and-rescue dogs deployed to Oso, Wash, following the March 22, 2014, State Route 530 landslide. Design-Medical records review and cross-sectional survey. Animals-25 Federal Emergency Management Agency-certified search dogs. Procedures-On-site medical records and postdeployment laboratory test results were reviewed and an electronic survey was distributed to handlers within 8 days after demobilization. Results-Dogs worked a total of 244 search shifts totaling 2,015 hours. Injuries and illnesses were reported in 21 (84%) dogs. Wounds (abrasions, pad wear, paw pad splits, and lacerations) were the most common injury, with an incidence rate of 28.3 wounds/1,000 hours worked. Dehydration was the most common illness, with an incidence rate of 10.4 cases of dehydration/1,000 hours worked. Total incidence rate for all health events was 66.5 events/1,000 hours worked. Two search dogs were removed from search operations for 2 days because of health issues. All others continued search operations while receiving treatment for their medical issues. All health issues were resolved during the deployment or within 2 weeks after demobilization. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results revealed that search dogs deployed to the Oso, Wash, landslide incurred injuries and illnesses similar to those reported following other disasters (dehydration, wounding, vomiting, and diarrhea) but also incurred medical issues not previously documented (acute caudal myopathy, cutaneous mass ruptures, and fever). The reported medical issues were minor; however, prompt veterinary care helped prevent them from developing into more serious conditions. PMID:26421402

  1. Precision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gary Chia Li

    A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Deltam 2=0.1--100 eV2 region.

  2. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Development of a Navigator and Imaging Techniques for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilen, Chris; /Carleton Coll. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-06-22

    This project contributes to the detection of flaws in the germanium detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Specifically, after imaging the detector surface with a precise imaging and measuring device, they developed software to stitch the resulting images together, applying any necessary rotations, offsets, and averaging, to produce a smooth image of the whole detector that can be used to detect flaws on the surface of the detector. These images were also tiled appropriately for the Google Maps API to use as a navigation tool, allowing viewers to smoothly zoom and pan across the detector surface. Automated defect identification can now be implemented, increasing the scalability of the germanium detector fabrication.

  10. PSO-based support vector machine with cuckoo search technique for clinical disease diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyong; Fu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Disease diagnosis is conducted with a machine learning method. We have proposed a novel machine learning method that hybridizes support vector machine (SVM), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and cuckoo search (CS). The new method consists of two stages: firstly, a CS based approach for parameter optimization of SVM is developed to find the better initial parameters of kernel function, and then PSO is applied to continue SVM training and find the best parameters of SVM. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CS-PSO-SVM model achieves better classification accuracy and F-measure than PSO-SVM and GA-SVM. Therefore, we can conclude that our proposed method is very efficient compared to the previously reported algorithms. PMID:24971382

  11. A combinatorial technique for the search of solid state gas sensor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidtmann, Jens; Frantzen, Andreas; Frenzer, Gerald; Maier, Wilhelm F.

    2005-01-01

    A complete high throughput assembly for the search for electrochemical sensor materials is described. It is a primary screening device, whose sole purpose is to locate most efficiently new materials with potential sensor properties. The set-up consists of a gas tight reactor for the sensor libraries, an IR-camera, a switching multimeter for dc-resistance measurements, a test gas supply array for different test gases, software for control of experimental flow, data recording, data evaluation, data mining and a database. The sensor libraries consist of a ceramic alumina plate with 64 interdigital electrodes and associated contact pads arranged on the outer rim of the library. The materials are deposited on top of the electrodes and calcined before use. The reactor houses 128 spring loaded electrodes for electrochemical monitoring and a sapphire plate for IR-monitoring of materials responses to exposure to test gases. Data are evaluated automatically and stored in a database for visualization and data mining.

  12. Inversion of seismological data using a controlled random search global optimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, K.; Mohan, C.; Khattri, K. N.

    1991-11-01

    Inversion problems in seismology deal with the estimation of the location and the time of occurrence of an earthquake from observations of the arrival time of the body waves. These problems can be regarded as non-linear optimization problems in which the objective function to be minimized is the discrepancy between the recorded arrival times and the calculated arrival times at a prescribed set of observation stations, as a function of the hypocentral parameters and the wave speed structure of the Earth. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a controlled random search algorithm of global optimization (Shanker and Mohan, 1987; Mohan and Shanker, 1988) in solving such types of inversion problems. The performance of the algorithm has been tested on earthquake arrival time data of earthquakes recorded in the vicinity of local networks in the Garhwal Kumaon region of the Himalayas.

  13. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    During the last two decades, cosmology has become a precision observational science thanks (in part) to the incredible number of experiments performed to better understand the composition of the universe. The large amount of data accumulated strongly indicates that the bulk of the universe's matter is in the form of non-baryonic matter that does not interact electromagnetically. Combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters confirms that most of the mass in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis and many other experiments indicate that ˜80% of the matter in the universe is dark, non-relativistic and cold. The dark matter resides in the halos surrounding galaxies, galaxy clusters and other large-scale structures. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are well motivated class of dark matter candidates that arise naturally in supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model of particles physics, and can be produced as non-relativistic thermal relics in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment seeks to directly detect the keV-scale energy deposited by WIMPs in the galactic halo when they scatter from nuclei in the crystalline detectors made of germanium and silicon. These detectors, called Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon detectors (ZIPs) are operated at ˜ 45 mK and simultaneously measure the ionization and the (athermal) phonons produced by particle interactions. The ratio of ionization and phonon energies allows discrimination of a low rate of nuclear recoils (expected for WIMPs) from an overwhelming rate of electron recoils (expected for most backgrounds). Phonon-pulse shape and timing enables further suppression of lower-rate interactions at the detector surfaces. This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This data-analysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a background-discrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data. This analysis achieved the best expected sensitivity of the three techniques developed for the reanalysis and so was chosen as the primary timing analysis whose limit will be quoted in a on-going publication paper which is currently in preparation. For this analysis, a total raw exposure of 612.17 kg-days are analyzed for this work. No candidate events was observed, and a corresponding upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of WIMP mass is defined. These data set a 90% upper limit on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic-scattering cross section of 3.19 × 10-44 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 60 GeV c 2. Combining this result with all previous CDMS II data gives an upper limit of 1.96 ×10-44 cm2 for a WIMP of mass 60 GeV/c2 (a factor of 2 better than the original analysis). At the moment this analysis is being written, the WIMP-search results ob

  14. Advancements in Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring CH4 Release from Remote Permafrost Regions: Principles, Emerging Research, and Latest Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Budishchev, Artem; Gioli, Beniamino; Haapanala, Sami; Helbig, Manuel; Losacco, Salvatore; Mammarella, Ivan; Moreaux, Virginie; Murphy, Patrick; Oechel, Walter; Peltola, Olli; Rinne, Janne; Sonnentag, Oliver; Sturtevant, Cove; Vesala, Timo; Zona, Donatella; Zulueta, Rommel

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor release and uptake rates of CO2, CH4, H2O and other gases from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of gas exchange at time scales ranging from 15 or 30 minutes to multiple years, and at spatial scales ranging from thousands m2 to multiple km2, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in gas release due to weather or man-triggered events (pressure changes, ice breakage and melts, ebullition events, etc.). They can also detect slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and man-triggered processes (seasonal freeze and thaw, long-term permafrost degradation, etc.). From 1980s to mid-2000s, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular researcher. In the past 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional flux networks and technological developments, the methodology became fairly standardized. Majority of current stations compute gas emission and uptake rates using eddy covariance method, as one of the most direct micrometeorological techniques. Over 600 such flux stations operate in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, ships, etc.). With increasing atmospheric temperatures in the Arctic likely resulting in a higher rate of permafrost degradation, measurements of gas exchange dynamics become particularly important. The permafrost regions store a significant amount of organic materials under anaerobic conditions, leading to large CH4 production and accumulation in the upper layers of bedrock, soil and ice. These regions may become a significant potential source of global CH4 release under a warming climate over the following decades and centuries. Present measurements of CH4 release in permafrost regions have mostly been made with static chamber techniques, and few were done with the eddy covariance approach using closed-path analyzers. Although chambers and closed-path analyzers have advantages, both techniques have significant limitations, especially for remote or portable research in cold regions. Static chamber measurements are discrete in time and space, and particularly difficult to use over polygonal tundra with highly non-uniform micro-topography and active soil layer. Closed-path gas analyzers for measuring CH4 eddy fluxes require climate control, employ high-power pumps, and generally require grid power and infrastructure. As a result, spatial coverage of eddy covariance CH4 flux measurements in cold regions remains limited. Existing stations are often located near grid power sources and roads rather than in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem, while those that are placed appropriately may require extraordinary efforts to build and maintain them, with large investments into manpower and infrastructure. In this presentation, basic principles of eddy covariance flux measurements are explained, along with details on the CH4, CO2 and H2O exchange measurements using low-power flux stations. Also included are latest updates on the emerging research utilizing such stations in remote permafrost regions, and on the 2013-2014 development of fully automated remote unattended flux station capable of processing data on-the-go to continuously output final CH4 release rates.

  15. A Photometric Technique to Search for Be Stars in Open Clusters

    E-print Network

    M. Virginia McSwain; Douglas R. Gies

    2004-12-17

    We describe a technique to identify Be stars in open clusters using Stromgren b, y, and narrow-band Halpha photometry. We first identify the B-type stars of the cluster using a theoretical isochrone fit to the (b-y, y) color-magnitude diagram. The strongest Be stars are easily identified in a (b-y, y-Halpha) color-color diagram, but those with weaker Halpha emission (classified as possible Be star detections) may be confused with evolved or foreground stars. Here we present such photometry plus Halpha spectroscopy of members of the cluster NGC 3766 to demonstrate the accuracy of our technique. Statistical results on the relative numbers of Be and B-type stars in additional clusters will be presented in a future paper.

  16. Development of mass spectrometric techniques applicable to the search for organic matter in the lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biemann, K.

    1973-01-01

    Data processing techniques were developed to measure with high precision and sensitivity the line spectra produced by a high resolution mass spectrometer. The most important aspect of this phase was the interfacing of a modified precision microphotometer-comparator with a computer and the improvement of existing software to serve the special needs of the investigation of lunar samples. In addition, a gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer system was interfaced with the same computer to allow continuous recording of mass spectra on a gas chromatographic effluent and efficient evaluation of the resulting data. These techniques were then used to detect and identify organic compounds present in the samples returned by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions.

  17. The Search for Astrophysical Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos Using Radio Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, Abigail Goodhue

    Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino astronomy would allow for the highest energy observation of extragalactic sources and the observation of extremely distant sources in the universe. A flux of UHE neutrinos is expected from interactions of UHE cosmic-ray protons with the cosmic microwave background. The ANITA (ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna) experiment. a NASA Long Duration Balloon omission, searches for radio emission arising from the Askaryan charge excess that develops in electromagnetic particle cascades induced by UHE neutrinos with energy greater than 1018 eV interacting in Antarctic ice. The second flight of the ANITA experiment launched on December 21st, 2008, and collected data for 31 days. In Chapters 2 and 3, I describe the ANITA-II instrument and the calibration of the instrument in detail. Chapters 4 and 5 contain a discussion of a blind analysis of ANITA-II data in which I find 2 surviving neutrino candidate events on a background (anthropogenic and thermal noise) of 0.97+/-0.42 events. I set the strongest limit to dare for 1018 -- 1021 eV cosmic neutrinos, excluding several current cosmogenic neutrino models. In Chapters 6 and 7, I investigate possibilities for next-generation experiments for radio detection of UHE neutrinos. In Chapter 6. I discuss the results of radio attenuation length measurements of rock salt taken at two different salt mines. Chapter 7 is a description of a simulation for a next-generation, ground-based experiment in Antarctica.

  18. A search for small solar-system bodies near the earth using a ground-based telescope - Technique and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Yeates, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A large, previously undetected flux of small bodies near earth is identified by employing the standard technique of detection of an individual object in two consecutive frames. The observational periods and viewing coordinates for the search for small bodies are presented. A null test is performed in order to further demonstrate that the signatures in the images are not due to instrumental artifacts. The observed fluxes, orbital motions, and radii of the small bodies detected are in agreement with those for the small cometlike objects previously reported. It is pointed out that the radii of the small bodies would be in the range of meters. Since an alternative interpretation of the small bodies is possible, it is suggested that the use of a telescope with larger aperture and/or array detectors with lesser noise levels is necessary to confirm the present observations.

  19. Endmember search techniques based on lattice auto-associative memories: a case on vegetation discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urcid, Gonzalo; Valdiviezo-N., Juan Carlos; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    2009-09-01

    Recent developments, based on lattice auto-associative memories, have been proposed as novel and alternative techniques for endmember determination in hyperspectral imagery. The present paper discusses and compares three such methods using, as a case study, the generation of vegetation abundance maps by constrained linear unmixing. The first method uses the canonical min and max autoassociative memories as detectors for lattice independence between pixel spectra; the second technique scans the image by blocks and selects candidate spectra that satisfies the strong lattice independence criteria within each block. Both methods give endmembers which correspond to pixel spectra, are computationally intensive, and the number of final endmembers are parameter dependent. The third method, based on the columns of the matrices that define the scaled min and max autoassociative memories, gives an approximation to endmembers that do not always correspond to pixel spectra; however, these endmembers form a high-dimensional simplex that encloses all pixel spectra. It requires less computations and always gives a fixed number of endmembers, from which final endmembers can be selected. Besides a quantification of computational performance, each method is applied to discriminate vegetation in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve geographical area.

  20. Searching For Planets Around M Dwarfs Using the Radial Velocity Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Ge, J.; Wan, X.

    2012-01-01

    M dwarfs account for 70% of stars in the solar neighborhood, but less than 5% of the known exoplanets orbit these cool, red stars. Despite the overwhelming success of the radial-velocity method in detecting more than 500 planets to date, not a single planet has been found to orbit a late-type M dwarf. I conducted simulations to investigate the photon-limited performance of RV instruments using two methods, the dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) method and the traditional echelle method. I found that the instrument using the DFDI method is more advantageous in the multi-object survey at a low-median spectral resolution. I used the EXPERT spectrograph (R=27,000) at the 2.1 m telescope on Kitt Peak to demonstrate the feasibility of telluric-line modeling with a telluric standard star. The featureless spectrum of a fast-rotating hot star is observed nearby the science star in order to obtain a telluric-line absorption spectrum, which is later used to remove the telluric-line contamination from the spectrum of the science star. A signicant innovation of my PhD work is the development of a portable inexpensive wavelength calibration source with the potential of reaching better than 10 cm/s precision. I have compared this source to an Iodine cell and a Th-Ar emission lamp in the optical wavelength. The results show that different sources track each other to within 10 m/s. The number is expected to be decreased once the radial-velocity code is improved. The proposed wavelength calibration source provides an alternative to the expensive laser comb technology, which is the only technique that offers a comparable precision in the I band (0.7-0.9 micron).

  1. Search for fucose binding domains in recently sequenced hypothetical proteins using molecular modeling techniques and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Sujata; Patra, Madhumita; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2006-05-01

    The crystal structure of a fucose-binding lectin from the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with alpha-L-fucose has been recently determined. It is a tetramer; each monomer displays a nine-stranded, antiparallel, beta-sandwiched arrangement and contains two calcium ions that mediate the binding of fucose in a recognition mode unique among protein-carbohydrate interactions. In search of this type of unique interactions in other newly discovered protein sequences, we have used molecular modeling techniques to predict and analyze the 3-D structures of some proteins, which exhibited reasonable degree of homology with the amino acid sequence of the bacterial protein. A BLAST search with the sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as query in the non-redundant sequence database identified four proteins from different species, three organisms from bacteria and one from archaea. We have modeled the structures of these proteins as well as those of the complexes with carbohydrates and studied the nature of physicochemical forces involved in the complex formation both in presence and absence of calcium. The calcium-binding loops have been found to be highly conserved both in terms of primary and tertiary structures in these proteins, although a less acidic character is observed in Photorhabdus lectin due to the absence of two aspartic acid residues on the calcium-binding loop which also resulted in lower binding affinity. All these structures exhibited highly negative electrostatic environment in the vicinity of the calcium-binding loops which was essential for neutralizing the positive charges of two closely situated Ca(+2) ions. The comparison of the binding affinities of some monosaccharides other than fucose, e.g. mannose and fructose, showed higher binding energies confirming the fucose specificity of these proteins. PMID:16691508

  2. Tracheal Intubation through the I-gel for Emergency Cesarean Section in a Patient with Multidrug Hypersensitivity: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Samala, Kartika Balaji; Uchiyama, Yuri; Tokinaga, Yasuyuki; Niiyama, Yukitoshi; Iwasaki, Soshi; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2014-01-01

    31-year-old female with hypersensitivity to local anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents presented for emergency Cesarean section. We successfully performed I-gel-assisted tracheal intubation without using neuromuscular blockers. We believe this method would be helpful in selected situations. PMID:25147741

  3. Searching for Criteria in Evaluating the Monofin Swimming Turn from the Perspective of Coaching and Improving Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rejman, Marek; Borowska, Gra?yna

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analysise the selected kinematic parameters of the monofin swimming turn. The high complexity of performing turns is hindered by the large surface of the monofin, which disturbs control and sense of the body in water. A lack of objective data available on monofin swimming turns has resulted in field research connected with the specification of parameters needed for the evaluation of the technique. Therefore, turns observed in elite swimmers contain underlying conclusions for objective criteria, ensuring the highest level of coaching and the improving of turns in young swimmers. Six, high level, male swimmers participated in the study. The subject of the analysis was the fastest turn, from one out of three trial turns made after swimming a distance of 25 m. Images of the turns were collected from two cameras located under water in accordance with the procedures of the previous analyses of freestyle turns. The images were digitized and analysed by the SIMI®- Movement Analysis System. The interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded parameters, constituted the basis for analysis of the kinematic parameters of five turn phases. The interdependency was measured using r- Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The novel character of the subject covered in this study, forced interpretation of the results on the basis of turn analyses in freestyle swimming. The results allow for the creation of a diagram outlinig area of search for an effective and efficient monofin swimming turn mechanism. The activities performed from the moment of wall contact until the commencement of stroking seem to be crucial for turn improvement. A strong belief has resulted that, the correct monofin swimming turn, is more than just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its components. The most important criteria in evaluating the quality of the monofin swimming turn are: striving for the optimal extension of wall contact time, push-off time and glide time. Key pointsShort time and large surface of the monofin additionally hinders complexity of the turn performance by disturbance in sensing and controlling body in water. Availability of no objective data on monofin swimming turns resulted in research in the field connected with specifying parameters needed for the technique evaluation.Correct turn technique may help to improve swimming race results.The diagram constructed on the basis of the interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded kinematic parameters should establish the areas of searching for mechanism of effective and efficient monofin swimming turn.The most crucial, from the coaching and improving point of view, seem to be activities which take place from the moment of feet wall contact till the first propulsive movements. Therefore, the high quality of the monofin swimming turn technique is not just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its component parts.The most important criteria of the quality in the monofin swimming turn technique are: striving for extending in the optimum scope of wall contact time, the time of the push-off phase and the glide time. PMID:24150136

  4. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Poppi, Nilson Tavares; Guimarães, Hélio Penna

    2008-09-01

    Emergencies and hypertensive crises are clinical situations which may represent more than 25% of all medical emergency care. Considering such high prevalence, physicians should be prepared to correctly identify these crises and differentiate between urgent and emergent hypertension. Approximately 3% of all visits to emergency rooms are due to significant elevation of blood pressure. Across the spectrum of blood systemic arterial pressure, hypertensive emergency is the most critical clinical situation, thus requiring special attention and care. Such patients present with high blood pressure and signs of acute specific target organ damage (such as acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pulmonary edema, eclampsia, and stroke). Key elements of diagnosis and specific treatment for the different presentations of hypertensive emergency will be reviewed in this article. The MedLine and PubMed databases were searched for pertinent abstracts, using the key words "hypertensive crises" and "hypertensive emergencies". Additional references were obtained from review articles. Available English language clinical trials, retrospective studies and review articles were identified, reviewed and summarized in a simple and practical way. The hypertensive crisis is a clinical situation characterized by acute elevation of blood pressure followed by clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms may be mild (headache, dizziness, tinnitus) or severe (dyspnea, chest pain, coma or death). If the patient presents with mild symptoms, but without acute specific target organ damage, diagnosis is hypertensive urgency. However, if severe signs and symptoms and acute specific target organ damage are present, then the patient is experiencing a hypertensive emergency. Some patients arrive at the emergency rooms with high blood pressure, but without any other sign or symptom. In these cases, they usually are not taking their medications correctly. Therefore, this is not a hypertensive crisis, but rather non-controlled chronic hypertension. This type of distinction is important for those working in emergency rooms and intensive care unit. Correct diagnosis must be made to assure the most appropriate treatment. PMID:25307099

  5. Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2012-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (?400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (?900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for PARENT round-robin tests.

  6. [Emergencies and continuous care: overload of the current on-call system and search for new models].

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Navascués, Jose M

    2008-04-01

    Emergency surgical care is still provided by means of an 24 hours physical presence "on-call" model (encompassing a normal day followed by "on call"), and is obligatory for all staff. This defective organisation of work has become unsustainable with the acceptance of the European 48 hours Directive, and is gruelling due to the excessive night work and feeling of being locked in that it entails. Emergency general and digestive system surgery care cannot be provided by a single organisational model, but has to be adapted to local circumstances. It is important to separate scheduled activity from urgent, and whereas increasingly more resources are dedicated to scheduled care, sufficient resources are also required for urgent activities, that cannot be considered as simply an "on call" or a fleeting stop in scheduled activity. Core subjects in residency, creating different levels of provision and activities, the analysis of urgent activity per work period and the identification of foreseeable activity, to maintain a pro-active mentality, and the disappearance of the "overtime" concept, should help provide another care model and method of remuneration. PMID:18358176

  7. Infodemiology and Infoveillance: Framework for an Emerging Set of Public Health Informatics Methods to Analyze Search, Communication and Publication Behavior on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include: the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza); monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance; detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability; identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports); automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized. PMID:19329408

  8. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  9. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Pedro Schwaller; Daniel Stolarski; Andreas Weiler

    2015-05-11

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  10. Hodgkin’s lymphoma emerging radiation treatment techniques: trade-offs between late radio-induced toxicities and secondary malignant neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Purpose of this study is to explore the trade-offs between radio-induced toxicities and second malignant neoplasm (SMN) induction risk of different emerging radiotherapy techniques for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) through a comprehensive dosimetric analysis on a representative clinical model. Methods Three different planning target volume (PTVi) scenarios of a female patient with supradiaphragmatic HL were used as models for the purpose of this study. Five treatment radiation techniques were simulated: an anterior-posterior parallel-opposed (AP-PA), a forward intensity modulated (FIMRT), an inverse intensity modulated (IMRT), a Tomotherapy (TOMO), a proton (PRO) technique. A radiation dose of 30 Gy or CGE was prescribed. Dose-volume histograms of PTVs and organs-at-risk (OARs) were calculated and related to available dose-volume constraints. SMN risk for breasts, thyroid, and lungs was estimated through the Organ Equivalent Dose model considering cell repopulation and inhomogeneous organ doses. Results With similar level of PTVi coverage, IMRT, TOMO and PRO plans generally reduced the OARs’ dose and accordingly the related radio-induced toxicities. However, only TOMO and PRO plans were compliant with all constraints in all scenarios. For the IMRT and TOMO plans an increased risk of development of breast, and lung SMN compared with AP-PA and FIMRT techniques was estimated. Only PRO plans seemed to reduce the risk of predicted SMN compared with AP-PA technique. Conclusions Our model–based study supports the use of advanced RT techniques to successfully spare OARs and to reduce the risk of radio-induced toxicities in HL patients. However, the estimated increase of SMNs’ risk inherent to TOMO and IMRT techniques should be carefully considered in the evaluation of a risk-adapted therapeutic strategy. PMID:23360559

  11. The binary fraction of planetary nebula central stars - II. A larger sample and improved technique for the infrared excess search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douchin, Dimitri; De Marco, Orsola; Frew, D. J.; Jacoby, G. H.; Jasniewicz, G.; Fitzgerald, M.; Passy, Jean-Claude; Harmer, D.; Hillwig, Todd; Moe, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    There is no conclusive explanation of why ˜80 per cent of planetary nebulae (PNe) are non-spherical. In the Binary Hypothesis, a binary interaction is a preferred channel to form a non-spherical PN. A fundamental step to corroborate or disprove the Binary Hypothesis is to estimate the binary fraction of central stars of PNe (CSPNe) and compare it with a prediction based on the binary fraction of the progenitor, main-sequence population. In this paper, the second in a series, we search for spatially unresolved I- and J-band flux excess in an extended sample of 34 CSPN by a refined measurement technique with a better quantification of the uncertainties. The detection rate of I- (J-)band flux excess is 32 ± 16 per cent (50 ± 24 per cent). This result is very close to what was obtained in Paper I with a smaller sample. We account conservatively for unobserved cool companions down to brown dwarf luminosities, increasing these fractions to 40 ± 20 per cent (62 ± 30 per cent). This step is very sensitive to the adopted brightness limit of our survey. Accounting for visual companions increases the binary fraction to 46 ± 23 per cent (71 ± 34 per cent). These figures are lower than in Paper I. The error bars are better quantified, but still unacceptably large. Taken at face value, the current CSPN binary fraction is in line with the main-sequence progenitor population binary fraction. However, including white dwarfs companions could increase this fraction by as much as 13 (21) per cent points.

  12. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its clustering in 2D.

  13. Examination of the capability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as the emerging laser-based analytical tool for analyzing trace elements in coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, N.; Ramli, M.; Mahidin, Hedwig, R.; Lie, Z. S.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its superior advantageous over the conventional analytical tools, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique nowadays is becoming an emerging analytical tools and it is expected to be new future super star of analytical tool. This technique is based on the use of optical emission from the laser-induced plasma for analyzing spectrochemically the constituent and content of the sampled object. The capability of this technique is examined on analysis of trace elements in coal sample. Coal is one difficult sample to analyze due to its complex chemical composition and physical properties. It is inherent that coal contains trace element including heavy metal, thus mining, beneficiation and utilization poses hazard to environment and to human beings. The LIBS apparatus used was composed by a laser system (Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and optical detector (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny-Turner) equipped with Andor I*Star intensified CCD 1024×256 pixels. The emitted laser was focused onto coal sample with a focusing lens of +250 mm. The plasma emission was collected by a fiber optics and sent to the the spectrograph. The coal samples were taken from Province of Aceh. As the results, several trace elements including heavy metal (As, Mn, Pb) can surely be observed, implying the eventuality of LIBS technique to analysis the presence of trace element in coal.

  14. Simultaneous Recordings of Human Microsaccades and Drifts with a Contemporary Video Eye Tracker and the Search Coil Technique

    PubMed Central

    McCamy, Michael B.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Leigh, R. John; King, Susan A.; Schneider, Rosalyn M.; Macknik, Stephen L.; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These “fixational eye movements” (FEMs) include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift) and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs. PMID:26035820

  15. Unplanned, urgent and emergency care: what are the roles EMS provide for older people with dementia? An integrative review of policy, professional recommendations and evidence

    E-print Network

    Buswell, Marina; Lumbard, Philip; Prothero, Larissa; Lee, Caroline; Martin, Steven; Fleming, Jane; Goodman, Claire

    2014-12-02

    and HMIC) using terms to encompass the context – pre-hospital urgent or emergency care – and the condition – dementia. End of life (EoL) was used as a search term alongside dementia. We knew from recent publications and discussions with paramedic... colleagues that, there might be relevant observations about EoL care for OPWD in pre-hospital EoL literature (Table 1). Iterative search techniques included recommendations from colleagues, forward citation searching, searching references of selected...

  16. Search 3.0: Present, Personal, Precise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivack, Nova

    The next generation of Web search is already beginning to emerge. With it we will see several shifts in the way people search, and the way major search engines provide search functionality to consumers.

  17. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  18. Searching for Non-Sense: Identification of Pacemaker Non-Sense and Non-Capture Failures using Machine Learning Techniques

    E-print Network

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    failures of the battery and electrodes, or physiological failures to respond to the stimulus may cause harmSearching for Non-Sense: Identification of Pacemaker Non-Sense and Non-Capture Failures using Abnormal or unexpected function of pacemakers due to mechanical failure of the implantation, electrical

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012102 (2013) Techniques used to search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the 199

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    2013-01-01

    . Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009)]. The upper bound, d(199 Hg) 3.1 × 10-29 e cm (95% C.L.), is a factor article [7] we reported the results from a new search for the EDM of the 199 Hg atom: d(199 Hg) 3.1 × 10

  20. Creating collaboration opportunities for marine research across the Arctic: The SEARCH-ACCESS partnership and an emerging sea ice prediction research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Bitz, C. M.; Gascard, J.; Kaminski, T.; Karcher, M. J.; Kauker, F.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid Arctic environmental and socio-economic change presents major challenges and opportunities to Arctic residents, government agencies and the private sector. The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover, in particular, are in the midst of transformative change, ranging from declines in sea-ice thickness and summer ice extent to threats to coastal communities and increases in maritime traffic and offshore resource development. The US interagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and the European Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) project are addressing both scientific research needs and stakeholder information priorities to improve understanding and responses to Arctic change. Capacity building, coordination and integration of activities at the international level and across sectors and stakeholder groups are major challenges that have to be met. ACCESS and SEARCH build on long-standing collaborations with a focus on environmental change in the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system and the most pressing research needs to inform marine policy, resource management and threats to Arctic coastal communities. To illustrate the approach, key results and major conclusions from this international coordination and collaboration effort, we focus on a nascent sea-ice prediction research network. This activity builds on the Arctic Sea Ice Outlook that was initiated by SEARCH and the European DAMOCLES project (a precursor to ACCESS) and has now grown into an international community of practice that synthesizes, evaluates and discusses sea-ice predictions on seasonal to interannual scales. Key goals of the effort which is now entering into a new phase include the comparative evaluation of different prediction approaches, including the combination of different techniques, the compilation of reference datasets and model output, guidance on the design and implementation of observing system efforts to improve predictions and information transfer into private industry and the broader public. The latter relies on informal focus groups convened by ACCESS that help identify stakeholder priorities and provide feedback on science and policy documents resulting from this work. Most important, the research network effort explores the nature and ramifications of sea ice in an ice-diminished Arctic.

  1. The Application of an Emerging Technique for Protein–Protein Interaction Interface Mapping: The Combination of Photo-Initiated Cross-Linking Protein Nanoprobes with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ptá?ková, Renata; Je?men, Tomáš; Novák, Petr; Hude?ek, Ji?í; Stiborová, Marie; Šulc, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction was investigated using a protein nanoprobe capable of photo-initiated cross-linking in combination with high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry. This emerging experimental approach introduces photo-analogs of amino acids within a protein sequence during its recombinant expression, preserves native protein structure and is suitable for mapping the contact between two proteins. The contact surface regions involved in the well-characterized interaction between two molecules of human 14-3-3? regulatory protein were used as a model. The employed photo-initiated cross-linking techniques extend the number of residues shown to be within interaction distance in the contact surface of the 14-3-3? dimer (Gln8–Met78). The results of this study are in agreement with our previously published data from molecular dynamic calculations based on high-resolution chemical cross-linking data and Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The observed contact is also in accord with the 14-3-3? X-ray crystal structure (PDB 3dhr). The results of the present work are relevant to the structural biology of transient interaction in the 14-3-3? protein, and demonstrate the ability of the chosen methodology (the combination of photo-initiated cross-linking protein nanoprobes and mass spectrometry analysis) to map the protein-protein interface or regions with a flexible structure. PMID:24865487

  2. Results from the ANITA search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays using the Radio detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzberg, David

    2010-02-01

    ANITA is a balloon-borne radio telescope flown on Long Duration Balloons in Antarctica. The payload looks for Ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos striking the ice via their emission of radio-Cherenkov radiation. I will present the results of our neutrino searches in the data from ANITA's two full flights. In a different polarization, ANITA observes the radio emission of extensive air showers via their radio emission in the atmosphere below the payload. I will present evidence for these events being induced by cosmic rays and discuss their properties. )

  3. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A.

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  4. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  5. A preliminary study of head-up display assessment techniques. 2: HUD symbology and panel information search time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guercio, J. G.; Haines, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve commercial pilots were shown 50 high-fidelity slides of a standard aircraft instrument panel with the airspeed, altitude, ADI, VSI, and RMI needles in various realistic orientations. Fifty slides showing an integrated head-up display (HUD) symbology containing an equivalent number of flight parameters as above (with flight path replacing VSI) were also shown. Each subject was told what flight parameter to search for just before each slide was exposed and was given as long as needed (12 sec maximum) to respond by verbalizing the parameter's displayed value. The results for the 100-percent correct data indicated that: there was no significant difference in mean reaction time (averaged across all five flight parameters) between the instrument panel and HUD slides; and a statistically significant difference in mean reaction time was found in responding to different flight parameters.

  6. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson associated with a W Boson using Matrix Element Technique in the CDF detector at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; /Oviedo U.

    2010-05-01

    In this thesis a direct search for the Standard Model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson at the CDF detector in the Tevatron is presented. This search contributes predominantly in the region of low mass Higgs region, when the mass of Higgs boson is less than about 135 GeV. The search is performed in a final state where the Higgs boson decays into two b quarks, and the W boson decays leptonically, to a charged lepton (it can be an electron or a muon) and a neutrino. This work is organized as follows. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the Standard Model theory of particle physics and presents the SM Higgs boson search results at LEP, and the Tevatron colliders, as well as the prospects for the SM Higgs boson searches at the LHC. The dataset used in this analysis corresponds to 4.8 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity of p{bar p} collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. That is the luminosity acquired between the beginning of the CDF Run II experiment, February 2002, and May 2009. The relevant aspects, for this analysis, of the Tevatron accelerator and the CDF detector are shown in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the particles and observables that make up the WH final state, electrons, muons, E{sub T}, and jets are presented. The CDF standard b-tagging algorithms to identify b jets, and the neural network flavor separator to distinguish them from other flavor jets are also described in Chapter 4. The main background contributions are those coming from heavy flavor production processes, such as those coming from Wbb, Wcc or Wc and tt. The signal and background signatures are discussed in Chapter 5 together with the Monte CArlo generators that have been used to simulate almost all the events used in this thesis. WH candidate events have a high-p{sub T} lepton (electron or muon), high missing transverse energy, and two or more than two jets in the final state. Chapter 6 describes the event selection applied in this analysis and the method used to estimate the background contribution. The Matrix Element method, that was successfully used in the single t0p discovery analysis and many other analyses within the CDF collaboration, is the multivariate technique used in this thesis to discriminate signal from background events. With this technique is possible to calculate a probability for an event to be classified as signal or background. These probabilities are then combined into a discriminant function called the Event Probability Discriminant, EPD, which increases the sensitivity of the WH process. This method is described in detail in Chapter 7. As no evidence for the signal has been found, the results obtained with this work are presented in Chapter 8 in terms of exclusion regions as a function of the mass of the Higgs boso, taking into account the full systematics. The conclusions of this work to obtain the PhD are presnted in Chapter 9.

  7. Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leman, Steven W.

    2012-09-15

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  8. Invited review article: physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors.

    PubMed

    Leman, Steven W

    2012-09-01

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models. PMID:23020355

  9. Visualization Tools and Techniques for Search and Validation of Large Earth Science Spatial-Temporal Metadata Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Herbert, A.; Kusterer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial-temporal metadata databases are critical components of interactive data discovery services for ordering Earth Science datasets. The development staff at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) works closely with satellite Earth Science mission teams such as CERES, CALIPSO, TES, MOPITT, and CATS to create and maintain metadata databases that are tailored to the data discovery needs of the Earth Science community. This presentation focuses on the visualization tools and techniques used by the ASDC software development team for data discovery and validation/optimization of spatial-temporal objects in large multi-mission spatial-temporal metadata databases. The following topics will be addressed: Optimizing the level of detail of spatial temporal metadata to provide interactive spatial query performance over a multi-year Earth Science mission Generating appropriately scaled sensor footprint gridded (raster) metadata from Level1 and Level2 Satellite and Aircraft time-series data granules Performance comparison of raster vs vector spatial granule footprint mask queries in large metadata database and a description of the visualization tools used to assist with this analysis

  10. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Walsh, S.T.

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  11. Sources of error in emergency ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography. Methods The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed. Results Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one’s own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques. Conclusions To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities. PMID:23902656

  12. The emergence of emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    Using chemical intuition often allows one to predict what might transpire on throwing a batch of chemicals into a beaker, but sometimes the unexpected can occur. Bruce C. Gibb discusses how you define an 'emergent phenomenon', recognizing that it's not a simple exercise and can actually be different for each of us.

  13. In search of the 'at risk' population: A review of quantitative social vulnerability techniques in the River Parrett catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Iain; Fitton, James

    2015-04-01

    In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), disparate research agendas have led to an increasing divergence in the quantitative approaches used to define community social vulnerability in hazardous places. Though the output of such research methods have been aligned in their aim of producing a universal risk classification or Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI), the conceptual and statistical approaches have often varied greatly. Methodologies have differed in their use of multivariate statistics to classify small area census data, often making use of techniques such as Pareto ranking, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or more recently, cluster analysis, to derive geodemographic-based assessments. In this research, two alternative paradigms were applied and contrasted to review community social vulnerability to flooding within the River Parrett catchment area, Somerset, UK. The UK experienced unprecedented rainfall during the winter of 2013/14 resulting in the flooding of 65 km2 of the River Parrett catchment area, Somerset. Approximately 600 properties were flooded and a number of towns cut off due to high floodwaters. It has been estimated that 3,300 properties are potentially exposed to a 1% annual probability flood event within the catchment, with this thought to rise to over 6,600 in the future, due to the impacts of climate change. Since the recent flooding, an action plan has been developed by Somerset County Council. However, the focus is predominantly on the physical aspects of the flooding hazard, with very little consideration for the social vulnerability of the communities affected. Within the catchment there are a range of socioeconomic profiles, including highly urbanised areas such as Yeovil, Taunton and Bridgewater, as well as numerous villages and hamlets. Therefore, the catchment provided an ideal case study area to model two divergent approaches for assessing social vulnerability to flooding. UK Census output information (2011) was used as the primary data source and scale for producing two vulnerability models. The relative weighting, displacement and granularity of both indices was then compared and contrasted to assess social vulnerability to flood risk within the towns and villages of the catchment at census output area level. Research findings highlight the complexity of defining single solutions as well as the importance of understanding social vulnerability within the site-specific context in which it is assessed. Furthermore, this paper questions whether the merits of social vulnerability measures are perhaps better assessed on the use and realistic application such models may hold in disaster communication, preparedness and mitigation.

  14. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  15. A Visualization System Using Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence

    The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with information visualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…

  16. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  17. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Emergency Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call the ... visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you in the event of a ...

  19. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... progesterone called progestins. This is the most common method. Having an IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. Plan ...

  20. Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonaceous Chondrite Using a New X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early solar system aqueous fluids are preserved in some H chondrites as aqueous fluid inclusions in halite (e.g., [1]). Although potential fluid inclusions are also expected in carbonaceous chondrites [2], they have not been surely confirmed. In order to search for these fluid inclusions, we have developped a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling and applied this techniqu to a carbanaceous chondrite. Experimental: A polished thin section of Sutter's Mill meteorite (CM) was observed with an optical microscope and FE-SEM (JEOL 7001F) for chosing mineral grains of carbonates (mainly calcite) and sulfides (FeS and ZnS) 20-50 microns in typical size, which may have aqueous fluid inclusions. Then, a "house" similar to a cube with a roof (20-30 microns in size) is sampled from the mineral grain by using FIB (FEI Quanta 200 3DS). Then, the house was atached to a thin W-needle by FIB and imaged by a SR-based imaging microtomography system with a Fresnel zone plate at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. One sample was imaged at two X-ray energies, 7 and 8 keV, to identify mineral phases (dual-enegy microtomography: [3]). The size of voxel (pixel in 3D) was 50-80 nm, which gave the effective spatial resolution of approx. 200 nm. A terrestrial quartz sample with an aqueous fluid inclusion with a bubble was also examined as a test sample by the same method. Results and discussion: A fluid inclusion of 5-8 microns in quartz was clearly identified in a CT image. A bubble of approx. 4 microns was also identified as refraction contrast although the X-ray absorption difference between fluid and bubble is small. Volumes of the fluid and bubble were obtained from the 3D CT images. Fourteen grains of calcite, two grains of iron sulfide and one grain of (Zn,Fe)S were examined. Ten calcite, one iron sulfide and one (Zn,Fe)S grains have inclusions >1 micron in size (the maximum: approx. 5 microns). The shapes are spherical or irregular. Tiny inclusions (<1 micron) are also present in all the grains examined. These results show that mineral grains have more inclusions than expected from 2D observations. The X-ray absorption of the inclusions shows that they are not solid inclusions. No bubbles were observed inside, indicating that we cannot determine whether they are really aqueous fluids or merely voids. One calcite grain has an inclusion approx. 2 microns in size, which seems to have a bubble and a tiny solid daughter crystal inside (three-phase inclusion). As we know the exact 3D position of the inclusion, we will anlyze the inclusion by SIMS after freezing the sample as has been done for a halite sample [3]. The present technique is useful for finding small inclusions not only in carbonaceous chondrites but also for terrestrial materials.

  1. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  2. Optimization technique for problems with an inequality constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, K. J.

    1972-01-01

    General technique uses a modified version of an existing technique termed the pattern search technique. New procedure called the parallel move strategy permits pattern search technique to be used with problems involving a constraint.

  3. Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation a. In the event of an emergency situation it may be necessary to evacuate the building. Causes for evacuation may be fire, hazardous chemical evacuation alarm systems that include wall-mounted pull stations. Smoke and heat activated alarms are present

  4. Role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac amyloidosis: state of the art review and focus on emerging nuclear techniques.

    PubMed

    Aljaroudi, Wael A; Desai, Milind Y; Tang, W H Wilson; Phelan, Dermot; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Jaber, Wael A

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis is an infiltrative disease characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils within the extracellular tissue of one or multiple organs. Involvement of the heart, cardiac amyloidosis, is recognized as a common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The two major types of cardiac amyloidosis are cardiac amyloid light-chain (AL) and transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR, mutant and wild types) (Nat Rev Cardiol 2010;7:398-408). While early recognition of cardiac amyloidosis is of major clinical importance, so is the ability to differentiate between subtypes. Indeed, both prognosis and therapeutic options vary drastically depending on the subtype. While endomyocardial biopsy with immunostaining is considered the gold standard, advances in imaging provide an attractive non-invasive alternative. Currently, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are all used in the evaluation of cardiac amyloidosis with varying diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. Yet, none of these modalities can effectively differentiate the cardiac amyloid subtypes. Recent data with (99m)Tc-phosphate derivatives, previously used as bone seeking radioactive tracers, have shown promising results; these radiotracers selectively bind ATTR, but not AL subtype, and can differentiate subtypes with high diagnostic accuracy. This review will initially present the non-radionuclide imaging techniques and then focus on the radionuclide imaging techniques, particularly (99m)Tc-DPD and (99m)Tc-PYP, mechanism of action, performance and interpretation of the study, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value, future clinical perspective, and outlook. PMID:24347127

  5. Current and emerging MR imaging techniques for the diagnosis and management of CSF flow disorders: a review of phase-contrast and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Tsuchiya, K; Bradley, W G; Law, M; Winkler, M L; Borzage, M T; Miyazaki, M; Kelly, E J; McComb, J G

    2015-04-01

    This article provides an overview of phase-contrast and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse MR imaging techniques to assess CSF movement in the CNS under normal and pathophysiologic situations. Phase-contrast can quantitatively measure stroke volume in selected regions, notably the aqueduct of Sylvius, synchronized to the heartbeat. Judicious fine-tuning of the technique is needed to achieve maximal temporal resolution, and it has limited visualization of CSF motion in many CNS regions. Phase-contrast is frequently used to evaluate those patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus and a Chiari I malformation. Correlation with successful treatment outcome has been problematic. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse, with a high signal-to-noise ratio, assesses linear and turbulent motion of CSF anywhere in the CNS. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse can qualitatively visualize whether CSF flows between 2 compartments and determine whether there is flow through the aqueduct of Sylvius or a new surgically created stoma. Cine images reveal CSF linear and turbulent flow patterns. PMID:25012672

  6. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives. PMID:23184108

  7. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2005-10-01

    Teen birth rates in the United States have declined during the last decade but remain much higher than rates in other developed countries. Reduction of unintended pregnancy during adolescence and the associated negative consequences of early pregnancy and early childbearing remain public health concerns. Emergency contraception has the potential to significantly reduce teen-pregnancy rates. This policy statement provides pediatricians with a review of emergency contraception, including a definition of emergency contraception, formulations and potential adverse effects, efficacy and mechanisms of action, typical use, and safety issues, including contraindications. This review includes teens' and young adults' reported knowledge and attitudes about hormonal emergency contraception and issues of access and availability. The American Academy of Pediatrics, as well as other professional organizations, supports over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception. In previous publications, the American Academy of Pediatrics has addressed the issues of adolescent pregnancy and other methods of contraception. PMID:16147972

  8. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bayrakal, S

    1972-06-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry.The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.)In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  9. The evolution of emergent computation.

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, J P; Mitchell, M

    1995-01-01

    A simple evolutionary process can discover sophisticated methods for emergent information processing in decentralized spatially extended systems. The mechanisms underlying the resulting emergent computation are explicated by a technique for analyzing particle-based logic embedded in pattern-forming systems. Understanding how globally coordinated computation can emerge in evolution is relevant both for the scientific understanding of natural information processing and for engineering new forms of parallel computing systems. PMID:11607588

  10. In Search for Instructional Techniques to Maximize the Use of Germane Cognitive Resources: A Case of Teaching Complex Tasks in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of…

  11. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland which are so severe that require admission to intensive care units (ICU) frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency. Data Source: We searched the electronic MEDLINE database on September 2013. Data Selection and Data Extraction: Reviews, original articles, and case reports on “myxedematous coma,” “HC,” “thyroid storm,” “TS,” “massive goiter,” “huge goiter,” “prevalence,” “etiology,” “diagnosis,” “therapy,” and “prognosis” were selected. Data Synthesis and Conclusion: Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone is rare conditions, which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are high-dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia); treatment of hypothermia; often, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose of iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation – are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation. PMID:25071718

  12. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... levonorgestrel (some brand names: My Way, Next Choice, Plan B One-Step). This is most effective if it ... of pregnancy more effectively than pills that contain levonorgestrel. It is important to remember that emergency contraceptive ...

  13. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  14. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management. PMID:26099604

  15. Emergent Spacetime

    E-print Network

    Robert de Mello Koch; Jeff Murugan

    2009-12-16

    We give an introductory account of the AdS/CFT correspondence in the 1/2-BPS sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.Six of the dimensions of the string theory are emergent in the Yang-Mills theory. In this article we suggest how these dimensions and local physics in these dimensions emerge. The discussion is aimed at non-experts.

  16. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Two oral postcoital contraceptive agents are currently available. The first is a 2 x 2 pill; the second is a 5 x 5. Both release a higher dose of hormones than conventional contraceptive pills. Success rates range between 96% and 99%. They must be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. Side effects include nausea and vomiting. Contraindications are the same as for the common oral contraceptives. The contraceptive mode of action can be any of the following: 1) by making the lining of the uterus unreceptive; 2) by slowing the movement of the egg in the fallopian tube; or 3) by affecting the release of the egg. Emergency contraceptive pills have no effect once implantation takes place. The IUD can be used as an emergency postcoital contraceptive method if placed within 10 days of coitus. They are usually placed within 5-7 days because of laws regarding when birth control becomes abortion. One failure has been reported in Great Britain (December, 1993). Side effects are the same as with regular use. RU486/PG may be used in the future as an emergency contraceptive agent. Research is in progress on success rates and side effects. This agent could potentially be used at any time. Currently, emergency contraception can only be obtained by prescription. Limited hours and interrogating staff are obstacles in such emergencies. British women's groups are asking that emergency oral contraceptive pills be made available over the counter with advice from the pharmacist. PMID:12318714

  17. Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a $W$ Boson Using a Matrix Element Technique at CDF in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb{sup -1}. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} WH) x {Beta}(H {yields} b{bar b}). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between m{sub H} = 100 GeV/c{sup 2} and m{sub H} = 150 GeV/c{sup 2}. The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.

  18. Search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using a matrix element technique at CDF in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.

    2012-04-02

    This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb?¹. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on ?(pp??WH)×B(H?bb¯). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between mH=100 GeV/c² and mH=150 GeV/c². The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.

  19. Search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using a matrix element technique at CDF in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; et al

    2012-04-02

    This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb?¹. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limitsmore »are set on ?(pp??WH)×B(H?bb¯). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between mH=100 GeV/c² and mH=150 GeV/c². The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.« less

  20. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  1. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  2. Teaching emergency room psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shwed, H

    1980-08-01

    Concepts of crisis intervention and community psychiatry have greatly increased the importance of the emergency room rotation in a psychiatric residency program. Many of the techniques most appropriate to the emergency room are contrary to those taught in the traditional curriculum. The author outlines basic didactic principles to be taught in emergency room psychiatry in the areas of interviewing, communication skills, and medical skills. They include the need to develop a crisp, direct interviewing style, to seek information from a wide range of informants, to rely heavily on a formal mental status examination, and to use a concerned, supportive manner. The resident also must develop a knowledge of community resources and an understanding of bureaucracies. He must be alert for medical or neurological problems even if the problem appears to be psychiatric. The author briefly outlines management priniciples for the violent patient, the drifter, and the drug addict. PMID:7399429

  3. Emerging phleboviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  4. EMERGING INFRARED LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC

    E-print Network

    -reflector), such as light detection and ranging (LIDAR), differential optical ab- sorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laserCHAPTER 4 EMERGING INFRARED LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FOR GAS ANALYSIS Frank K, Aiken, SC 4.1 Introduction Laser based spectroscopic techniques are useful for the quantitative

  5. Search Cloud

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... of Top 110 zoloft Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  6. [Emergency contraception].

    PubMed

    Aubény, Elisabeth

    2008-01-15

    Emergency contraception is indicated when no birth control is used or in case of contraception failure. To day, two methods of emergency contraception are available. The hormonal method consists in taking a tablet of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg (NorLevo), as soon as possible following the contraceptive failure since its efficiency decreases rapidly as time goes by. No contraindication is associated with this contraceptive; however, it cannot be used as a regular contraception method since it is not 100% efficient (from 95.5 to 89% according to the authors). Apparently, this contraceptive acts by delaying ovulation. Mechanical contraceptives, such as intra-uterine devices, are extremely efficient (99.5%) and can be used up to 5 days after the estimated ovulation date. However, surveys conducted by the Inserm have revealed that in France, women are not aware of or lack of knowledge about emergency contraception and have many misconceptions. Moreover, many of them do not use emergency contraception since they do not feel concerned by the risk of pregnancy following contraception failure. PMID:18326361

  7. [Outpatient emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient. PMID:24979919

  8. Emergent neutrality.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert D

    2006-10-01

    Community ecology is in a current state of creative ferment, stimulated by the development of neutral models of community organization. Here, I reflect on recent papers by Scheffer and van Nes, and by Gravel et al., which illuminate how neutrality can emerge from ecological and evolutionary processes, thus suggesting ways to unify neutral and niche perspectives. PMID:16901580

  9. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  10. ["Emergency measures"].

    PubMed

    Louis, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime. PMID:22693924

  11. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  12. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. PMID:26380364

  13. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. PMID:26380364

  14. Emergent spin

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

  15. Demystifying the Search Button

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Liam; Nguyen, Van; Peterson, Sarah J.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A thorough review of the literature is the basis of all research and evidence-based practice. A gold-standard efficient and exhaustive search strategy is needed to ensure all relevant citations have been captured and that the search performed is reproducible. The PubMed database comprises both the MEDLINE and non-MEDLINE databases. MEDLINE-based search strategies are robust but capture only 89% of the total available citations in PubMed. The remaining 11% include the most recent and possibly relevant citations but are only searchable through less efficient techniques. An effective search strategy must employ both the MEDLINE and the non-MEDLINE portion of PubMed to ensure all studies have been identified. The robust MEDLINE search strategies are used for the MEDLINE portion of the search. Usage of the less robust strategies is then efficiently confined to search only the remaining 11% of PubMed citations that have not been indexed for MEDLINE. The current article offers step-by-step instructions for building such a search exploring methods for the discovery of medical subject heading (MeSH) terms to search MEDLINE, text-based methods for exploring the non-MEDLINE database, information on the limitations of convenience algorithms such as the “related citations feature,” the strengths and pitfalls associated with commonly used filters, the proper usage of Boolean operators to organize a master search strategy, and instructions for automating that search through “MyNCBI” to receive search query updates by email as new citations become available. PMID:26129895

  16. In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was determined that time had a positive effect on such quality. The research question that investigated learners' attitudes towards the instructions revealed that experimental groups understood the main idea behind the suggested technique and positively reacted to it. The results of the study support the conclusions that (a) prompting learners to self-explain while independently solving problems can increase performance, especially on far transfer questions; (b) better performance is achieved in combination with increased mental effort; (c) self-explanations do not increase time on task; and (d) quality of self-explanations can be improved with time. Results based on the analyses of learners' attitudes further support that learners in the experimental groups understood the main idea behind the suggested techniques and positively reacted to them. The study also raised concern about application of efficiency formula for instructional conditions that increase both performance and mental effort in CLT. As a result, an alternative model was suggested to explain the relationship between performance and mental effort based on Yerkes-Dodson law (1908). Keywords: instructional design, cognitive load, complex tasks, problem-solving, self-explanation.

  17. A Survey in Indexing and Searching XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Robert W. P.; Leong, H. V.; Dillon, Tharam S.; Chan, Alvin T. S.; Croft, W. Bruce; Allan, James

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on indexing techniques for XML documents, grouping them into flat-file, semistructured, and structured indexing paradigms. Highlights include searching techniques, including full text search and multistage search; search result presentations; database and information retrieval system integration; XML query languages; and…

  18. Neuromuscular Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bucelli, Robert; Harms, Matthew B

    2015-12-01

    Although most neuromuscular disorders are recognized and treated in the outpatient clinic, a subset can present with rapidly advancing or severe weakness and constitute true emergencies by threatening respiratory and bulbar function. This review focuses on the recognition, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular diseases most likely to present in the inpatient setting: infectious motor neuronopathies, inflammatory polyradiculopathies, and disorders of neuromuscular transmission. In each, the prompt recognition, diagnosis, and institution of specific therapies or supportive care can prevent mortality and mitigate morbidity. PMID:26595869

  19. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  20. LUNASKA experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos and develop technology for the lunar Cherenkov technique

    SciTech Connect

    James, C. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Phillips, C. J.; Roberts, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Bray, J. D.; McFadden, R. A.

    2010-02-15

    We describe the design, performance, sensitivity and results of our recent experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) for lunar Cherenkov observations with a very wide (600 MHz) bandwidth and nanosecond timing, including a limit on an isotropic neutrino flux. We also make a first estimate of the effects of small-scale surface roughness on the effective experimental aperture, finding that contrary to expectations, such roughness will act to increase the detectability of near-surface events over the neutrino energy-range at which our experiment is most sensitive (though distortions to the time-domain pulse profile may make identification more difficult). The aim of our 'Lunar UHE Neutrino Astrophysics using the Square Kilometre Array' (LUNASKA) project is to develop the lunar Cherenkov technique of using terrestrial radio telescope arrays for ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) and neutrino detection, and, in particular, to prepare for using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its path-finders such as the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for lunar Cherenkov experiments.

  1. Methods for Parallelizing Search Paths in Phrasing

    E-print Network

    Marcken, Carl de

    1994-01-01

    Many search problems are commonly solved with combinatoric algorithms that unnecessarily duplicate and serialize work at considerable computational expense. There are techniques available that can eliminate redundant ...

  2. Distributed Search and Pattern Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Reaz; Boutaba, Raouf

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has triggered a wide range of distributed applications including file-sharing, distributed XML databases, distributed computing, server-less web publishing and networked resource/service sharing. Despite of the diversity in application, these systems share common requirements for searching due to transitory nodes population and content volatility. In such dynamic environment, users do not have the exact information about available resources. Queries are based on partial information. This mandates the search mechanism to be emphflexible. On the other hand, the search mechanism is required to be bandwidth emphefficient to support large networks. Variety of search techniques have been proposed to provide satisfactory solution to the conflicting requirements of search efficiency and flexibility. This chapter highlights the search requirements in large scale distributed systems and the ability of the existing distributed search techniques in satisfying these requirements. Representative search techniques from three application domains, namely, P2P content sharing, service discovery and distributed XML databases, are considered. An abstract problem formulation called Distributed Pattern Matching (DPM) is presented as well. The DPM framework can be used as a common ground for addressing the search problem in these three application domains.

  3. Search Recipes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Recipes Household Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Search Recipes 1 - 20 of 787 results Sort by ... 5 … next › last » Skip to top of page Search Recipes Sort by Items per page Sort by ...

  4. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  5. Personalized Search

    E-print Network

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  6. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  7. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  8. Emergency Management Guide EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Dahlquist, Kam D.

    Emergency Management Guide provides guidance to the LMU community to prevent, plan for and respond to eventsEmergency Management Guide #12;EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 that become emergency incidents. Emer- gency incidents are defined as events that may impact the life safety

  9. Fast Search for Dynamic Multi-Relational Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Holder, Larry; Chin, George; Feo, John T.

    2013-06-23

    Acting on time-critical events by processing ever growing social media or news streams is a major technical challenge. Many of these data sources can be modeled as multi-relational graphs. Continuous queries or techniques to search for rare events that typically arise in monitoring applications have been studied extensively for relational databases. This work is dedicated to answer the question that emerges naturally: how can we efficiently execute a continuous query on a dynamic graph? This paper presents an exact subgraph search algorithm that exploits the temporal characteristics of representative queries for online news or social media monitoring. The algorithm is based on a novel data structure called the that leverages the structural and semantic characteristics of the underlying multi-relational graph. The paper concludes with extensive experimentation on several real-world datasets that demonstrates the validity of this approach.

  10. Spinning a Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Mark A.

    This paper focuses on techniques for retrieval used in information sciences and in World Wide Web search engines. The purpose of reference service and information science is to provide useful information in response to a query. The two metrics of recall and precision serve to express information retrieval performance. There are two major…

  11. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

    1996-07-01

    Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

  12. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  13. Hierarchical random walks in trace fossils and the origin of optimal search behavior.

    PubMed

    Sims, David W; Reynolds, Andrew M; Humphries, Nicolas E; Southall, Emily J; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Metcalfe, Brett; Twitchett, Richard J

    2014-07-29

    Efficient searching is crucial for timely location of food and other resources. Recent studies show that diverse living animals use a theoretically optimal scale-free random search for sparse resources known as a Lévy walk, but little is known of the origins and evolution of foraging behavior and the search strategies of extinct organisms. Here, using simulations of self-avoiding trace fossil trails, we show that randomly introduced strophotaxis (U-turns)--initiated by obstructions such as self-trail avoidance or innate cueing--leads to random looping patterns with clustering across increasing scales that is consistent with the presence of Lévy walks. This predicts that optimal Lévy searches may emerge from simple behaviors observed in fossil trails. We then analyzed fossilized trails of benthic marine organisms by using a novel path analysis technique and find the first evidence, to our knowledge, of Lévy-like search strategies in extinct animals. Our results show that simple search behaviors of extinct animals in heterogeneous environments give rise to hierarchically nested Brownian walk clusters that converge to optimal Lévy patterns. Primary productivity collapse and large-scale food scarcity characterizing mass extinctions evident in the fossil record may have triggered adaptation of optimal Lévy-like searches. The findings suggest that Lévy-like behavior has been used by foragers since at least the Eocene but may have a more ancient origin, which might explain recent widespread observations of such patterns among modern taxa. PMID:25024221

  14. Hierarchical random walks in trace fossils and the origin of optimal search behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sims, David W.; Reynolds, Andrew M.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Southall, Emily J.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Metcalfe, Brett; Twitchett, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient searching is crucial for timely location of food and other resources. Recent studies show that diverse living animals use a theoretically optimal scale-free random search for sparse resources known as a Lévy walk, but little is known of the origins and evolution of foraging behavior and the search strategies of extinct organisms. Here, using simulations of self-avoiding trace fossil trails, we show that randomly introduced strophotaxis (U-turns)—initiated by obstructions such as self-trail avoidance or innate cueing—leads to random looping patterns with clustering across increasing scales that is consistent with the presence of Lévy walks. This predicts that optimal Lévy searches may emerge from simple behaviors observed in fossil trails. We then analyzed fossilized trails of benthic marine organisms by using a novel path analysis technique and find the first evidence, to our knowledge, of Lévy-like search strategies in extinct animals. Our results show that simple search behaviors of extinct animals in heterogeneous environments give rise to hierarchically nested Brownian walk clusters that converge to optimal Lévy patterns. Primary productivity collapse and large-scale food scarcity characterizing mass extinctions evident in the fossil record may have triggered adaptation of optimal Lévy-like searches. The findings suggest that Lévy-like behavior has been used by foragers since at least the Eocene but may have a more ancient origin, which might explain recent widespread observations of such patterns among modern taxa. PMID:25024221

  15. Electronic search and rescue aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    There are two elements to the basic electronic search and rescue problem: a means for immediately alerting potential rescuers and an effective method to guide the rescue forces to the scene of the emergency. An Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) used by aircraft or an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) used by maritime vessels has the capability of providing for both an immediate alert and a homing signal to assist rescue forces in locating the site of the distress. This paper describes the development of ELT/EPIRB systems. Emphasis is placed on the SARSAT project, the COSPAS/SARSAT project, and an experimental 406 MHz ELT/EPIRB system.

  16. NOVEL TECHNIQUES IN ULTRASONIC CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY

    E-print Network

    Page, John

    1 NOVEL TECHNIQUES IN ULTRASONIC CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY: Characterizing the Dynamics of Strongly or inclusions), traditional ultrasonic imaging techniques break down, motivating the search for other approaches together collectively throughout the scattering volume probed by the ultrasonic beam. However

  17. EMERGENT SEMANTICS Philippe Cudre-Mauroux

    E-print Network

    EMERGENT SEMANTICS Philippe Cudr´e-Mauroux MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Cambridge, MA ­ USA pcm@csail.mit.edu SYNONYMS Bottom-Up Semantics; Evolutionary Semantics DEFINITION Emergent semantics refers to a set of principles and techniques analyzing the evolution

  18. Introducing Emergency Preparedness in Childbirth Education Classes

    PubMed Central

    DeWald, Lauren; Fountain, Lily

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of recent natural and man-made disasters and emergency situations, pregnant women are especially vulnerable. The authors of this column encourage childbirth educators to include disaster preparedness instruction and emergency childbirth techniques in their class content. PMID:17322945

  19. 1 Verification Techniques software testing: search bugs

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    static and dynamic testing 2 Programming by Contract assert statements in Python using preconditions objectives and requirements of software verification Software is a product, subject to quality control is part of the software development process (be it waterfall or spiral): 1 companies often employ as many

  20. Novel techniques to search for neutron radioactivity

    E-print Network

    M. Thoennessen; G. Christian; Z. Kohley; T. Baumann; M. Jones; J. K. Smith; J. Snyder; A. Spyrou

    2013-07-08

    Two new methods to observe neutron radioactivity are presented. Both methods rely on the production and decay of the parent nucleus in flight. The relative velocity measured between the neutron and the fragment is sensitive to half-lives between ~1 and ~100 ps for the Decay in Target (DiT) method. The transverse position measurement of the neutron in the Decay in a Magnetic Field (DiMF) method is sensitive to half-lives between 10 ps and 1 ns.

  1. Fixed Phase Quantum Search Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Ahmed Younes

    2007-10-15

    Building quantum devices using fixed operators is a must to simplify the hardware construction. Quantum search engine is not an exception. In this paper, a fixed phase quantum search algorithm that searches for M matches in an unstructured search space of size N will be presented. Selecting phase shifts of 1.91684\\pi in the standard amplitude amplification will make the technique perform better so as to get probability of success at least 99.58% in O(sqrt(N/M)) better than any know fixed operator quantum search algorithms. The algorithm will be able to handle either a single match or multiple matches in the search space. The algorithm will find a match in O(sqrt(N/M)) whether the number of matches is known or not in advance.

  2. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  3. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances in ... supporting such research. NIAID Category A-C Priority Pathogens and Additional Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens List of ...

  4. Are search committees really searching?

    PubMed

    Hoffmeir, Patricia A

    2003-02-01

    Academic chair searches are admittedly a labor-intensive process, but they are made more difficult and often lead to less-than-optimal outcomes because search committees spend their time "advertising," "looking," but not truly searching for academic chairs. At the onset, certain "realities" must be acknowledged, including (1) understanding that unless your organization is renowned in the specialty for which you are conducting the search, candidates won't be pounding at your door for a job, (2) searches that fail to include an overall assessment of the department in question are likely to miss the mark, (3) chairs must have demonstrated not only clinical expertise but also business savvy, (4) the best candidate is not necessarily someone who is already a department chair, (5) when it comes to chair searches, it's a buyer's market, and (6) the search process is inextricably linked to the success of the search. Key to the process of conducting an academic chair search are the judicious formation of the search committee; committee members' willingness to do their homework, attend all committee meeting, and keep the committee's activities confidential; crafting, not revising, the current job description for the open chair position; interviewing viable candidates rather than all candidates and adhering to a coordinated interviewing process; and evaluating internal and external candidates according to the same parameters. PMID:12584089

  5. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  6. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  7. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  8. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  9. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  10. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  11. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  12. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  13. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  14. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  15. Towards Graph Containment Search and Indexing Xifeng Yan2

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xiaohui "Helen"

    or networked data accumulated in large databases, supporting scalable graph search be- comes an emerging database system research problem. Given a graph database and a graph query, one could formulate two basic search problems: (1) (traditional) graph search: Given a graph database D = {g1, . . . , gn} and a graph

  16. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  17. Chemistry Department Emergency Action &

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ting

    ;2 Introduction An Emergency Action & Evacuation Plan (herein referred to as an EAP) covers designated actions and notify employees of an emergency Evacuation procedures and emergency escape routes A procedure

  18. Power Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, David

    1997-01-01

    Compares six leading Web search engines (AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light), looking at the breadth of their coverage, accuracy, and ease of use, and finds a clear favorite of the six. Includes tips that can improve search results. (AEF)

  19. Keeping Dublin Core Simple: Cross-Domain Discovery or Resource Description?; First Steps in an Information Commerce Economy: Digital Rights Management in the Emerging E-Book Environment; Interoperability: Digital Rights Management and the Emerging EBook Environment; Searching the Deep Web: Direct Query Engine Applications at the Department of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagoze, Carl; Neylon, Eamonn; Mooney, Stephen; Warnick, Walter L.; Scott, R. L.; Spence, Karen J.; Johnson, Lorrie A.; Allen, Valerie S.; Lederman, Abe

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss Dublin Core metadata, digital rights management and electronic books, including interoperability; and directed query engines, a type of search engine designed to access resources on the deep Web that is being used at the Department of Energy. (LRW)

  20. A Task-Based Evaluation of an Aggregated Search Interface

    E-print Network

    Lalmas, Mounia

    . Federated search, distributed information retrieval, and metasearch engines are the techniques that aimA Task-Based Evaluation of an Aggregated Search Interface Shanu Sushmita, Hideo Joho, and Mounia that evaluated the effective- ness of an aggregated search interface in the context of non-navigational search

  1. Evil Searching: Compromise and Recompromise of Internet Hosts for Phishing

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    1 Evil Searching: Compromise and Recompromise of Internet Hosts for Phishing Tyler Moorea, is to ask an Internet search engine to perform carefully crafted searches. This leverages the scanning which the search engine has already performed, a technique that was dubbed `Google hacking' by Long [16]. He

  2. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  3. 1 INTRODUCTION Effective emergency response plays an important

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    Search and rescue Medical aid and care Earthquake fire and other secondary hazards Evacuation1 INTRODUCTION Effective emergency response plays an important role in mitigation of earthquake-planed emergency response is an only essential way to disaster relief, when action of the earthquake is strong

  4. Verification of NASA Emergent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

  5. Information Systems Coordinate Emergency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The rescue crews have been searching for the woman for nearly a week. Hurricane Katrina devastated Hancock County, the southernmost point in Mississippi, and the woman had stayed through the storm in her beach house. There is little hope of finding her alive; the search teams know she is gone because the house is gone. Late at night in the art classroom of the school that is serving as the county s emergency operations center, Craig Harvey is discussing the search with the center s commander. Harvey is the Chief Operating Officer of a unique company called NVision Solutions Inc., based at NASA s Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, only a couple of miles away. He and his entire staff have set up a volunteer operation in the art room, supporting the emergency management efforts using technology and capabilities the company developed through its NASA partnerships. As he talks to the commander, Harvey feels an idea taking shape that might lead them to the woman s location. Working with surface elevation data and hydrological principles, Harvey creates a map showing how the floodwaters from the storm would have flowed along the topography of the region around the woman s former home. Using the map, search crews find the woman s body in 15 minutes. Recovering individuals who have been lost is a sad reality of emergency management in the wake of a disaster like Hurricane Katrina in 2005. But the sooner answers can be provided, the sooner a community s overall recovery can take place. When damage is extensive, resources are scattered, and people are in dire need of food, shelter, and medical assistance, the speed and efficiency of emergency operations can be the key to limiting the impact of a disaster and speeding the process of recovery. And a key to quick and effective emergency planning and response is geographic information. With a host of Earth-observing satellites orbiting the globe at all times, NASA generates an unmatched wealth of data about our ever-changing planet. This information can be captured, analyzed, and visualized by geographic information systems (GIS) to produce maps, charts, and other tools that can reveal information essential to a wide variety of applications including emergency management. Knowing precise, real-time information about the size, location, environmental conditions, and resulting damage of an event like a flood or wildfire as well as the location and numbers of emergency responders and other resources contributes directly to the effectiveness of disaster mitigation. The need for such information is also evident when responding to homeland security threats, such as a terrorist attack. Recognizing the value of its geospatial information resources for this and other purposes, in 1998 Stennis and the state of Mississippi partnered to form what became the Enterprise for Innovative Geospatial Solutions (EIGS) industry cluster, supporting the growth of remote sensing and GIS-based research and business. As part of EIGS, several companies partnered with NASA through dual use and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. Among those was NVision.

  6. Collection Ranking and Selection for Federated Entity Search

    E-print Network

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    sources--some of which may not be crawleable at all--distributed information retrieval (DIR) (or federated search) techniques directly pass the query to the search interface of multiple, suitable collections

  7. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  8. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  9. Supersymmetry Searches at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Oleg Brandt

    2008-08-21

    The search for Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics is one of the major tasks of the LHC, CERN. In these proceedings, I review the status of searches for Supersymmetry by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The efforts in both the hadronic and leptonic search channels are presented. A special focus is placed on the treatment of approximately one inverse femtobarn of early LHC data, and examples of background estimation techniques in such a dataset are given. Phenomenologically, besides "typical" mSUGRA scenarios, signatures based on prompt and non-pointing photons, as well as long-lived leptons and hadrons (R-hadrons) are covered.

  10. Search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using a matrix element technique at CDF in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV

    E-print Network

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo

    This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6??fb[superscript ...

  11. Sensor-Based Data Storage for Search and Rescue Sanem Sariel Talay1

    E-print Network

    Talay, Sanem Sarýel

    , according to Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) search and rescue guidelines [3], oneSensor-Based Data Storage for Search and Rescue Sanem Sariel Talay1 , Esin Ergen 2 , Gurhan Avdan1 available and easily accessible to search and rescue team members following an earthquake. The Search

  12. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135...135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  13. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135...135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  14. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135...135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  15. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135...135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  16. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135...135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  17. Springer Catalogue Search Last Result Last Search New Search Help

    E-print Network

    Dehene, Frank

    Springer Catalogue Search Last Result Last Search New Search Help Show Shopping Bag Available of Contents (PDF) Available online Recommend this Title Put in Bag Dehne, F., Carleton University, Ottawa, Ont Science. 1663 Last update: 05.09.2003 Last Result Last Search New Search Help Show Shopping Bag * Pricing

  18. Emergency Procedures In an emergency call

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    , as far as practicable, the safety, health and wellbeing of staff, students, contractors and visitors during emergencies at The University of Western Australia. To comply with relevant Western Australian warning systems installed in most buildings and an Emergency Control Organisation (ECO) is organised

  19. Emergent topological phenomena in thin films of pyrochlore iridates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-20

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena. PMID:24996097

  20. Exploring Machine Learning Techniques For Dynamic Modeling on Future Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shuaiwen; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2013-09-23

    Future exascale systems must be optimized for both power and performance at scale in order to achieve DOE’s goal of a sustained petaflop within 20 Megawatts by 2022 [1]. Massive parallelism of the future systems combined with complex memory hierarchies will form a barrier to efficient application and architecture design. These challenges are exacerbated with emerging complex architectures such as GPGPUs and Intel Xeon Phi as parallelism increases orders of magnitude and system power consumption can easily triple or quadruple. Therefore, we need techniques that can reduce the search space for optimization, isolate power-performance bottlenecks, identify root causes for software/hardware inefficiency, and effectively direct runtime scheduling.

  1. A Hybrid Search Algorithm for Swarm Robots Searching in an Unknown Environment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoutao; Li, Lina; Lee, Gordon; Zhang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to improve the efficiency of a swarm of robots searching in an unknown environment. The approach focuses on the process of feeding and individual coordination characteristics inspired by the foraging behavior in nature. A predatory strategy was used for searching; hence, this hybrid approach integrated a random search technique with a dynamic particle swarm optimization (DPSO) search algorithm. If a search robot could not find any target information, it used a random search algorithm for a global search. If the robot found any target information in a region, the DPSO search algorithm was used for a local search. This particle swarm optimization search algorithm is dynamic as all the parameters in the algorithm are refreshed synchronously through a communication mechanism until the robots find the target position, after which, the robots fall back to a random searching mode. Thus, in this searching strategy, the robots alternated between two searching algorithms until the whole area was covered. During the searching process, the robots used a local communication mechanism to share map information and DPSO parameters to reduce the communication burden and overcome hardware limitations. If the search area is very large, search efficiency may be greatly reduced if only one robot searches an entire region given the limited resources available and time constraints. In this research we divided the entire search area into several subregions, selected a target utility function to determine which subregion should be initially searched and thereby reduced the residence time of the target to improve search efficiency. PMID:25386855

  2. A hybrid search algorithm for swarm robots searching in an unknown environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Shoutao; Li, Lina; Lee, Gordon; Zhang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to improve the efficiency of a swarm of robots searching in an unknown environment. The approach focuses on the process of feeding and individual coordination characteristics inspired by the foraging behavior in nature. A predatory strategy was used for searching; hence, this hybrid approach integrated a random search technique with a dynamic particle swarm optimization (DPSO) search algorithm. If a search robot could not find any target information, it used a random search algorithm for a global search. If the robot found any target information in a region, the DPSO search algorithm was used for a local search. This particle swarm optimization search algorithm is dynamic as all the parameters in the algorithm are refreshed synchronously through a communication mechanism until the robots find the target position, after which, the robots fall back to a random searching mode. Thus, in this searching strategy, the robots alternated between two searching algorithms until the whole area was covered. During the searching process, the robots used a local communication mechanism to share map information and DPSO parameters to reduce the communication burden and overcome hardware limitations. If the search area is very large, search efficiency may be greatly reduced if only one robot searches an entire region given the limited resources available and time constraints. In this research we divided the entire search area into several subregions, selected a target utility function to determine which subregion should be initially searched and thereby reduced the residence time of the target to improve search efficiency. PMID:25386855

  3. Costs of Emergency Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to our communities and must be adequately funded. Q. What are the costs of emergency care? The ... visit. The hospital fees make up the difference. Q. Is emergency care cost effective? Yes: The fact ...

  4. Patient Emergency Grants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Street, Suite G Freehold, NJ 07728 Patient Emergency Grants The Kidney & Urology Foundation of America, now in ... Kidney & Urology Foundation of America’s (KUFA) PATIENT EMERGENCY GRANT PROGRAM (PEG) provides financial assistance to End Stage ...

  5. EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and phar...

  6. Emergency preparedness and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Monsanto's emergency response plan in dealing with hazardous materials at their facilities is presented. Topics discussed include the following: CPR training; emergency medial training; incident reports; contractor injuries; hazardous materials transport; evacuation; and other industrial safety concerns.

  7. Teaching Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    that you know each member. Teaching Techniques Several teaching techniques are available: lecture, illus- trated talk, discussion, question and answer, demonstra- tion, work session or practical exercise, experimentation, tours and home visits..., and exhibits. Experience in the use of these techniques comes only with practice. 1. Lecture For this technique, the teacher usually speaks to groups from prepared notes without visual aids or opportunity for group questions. This method is useful when new...

  8. Searching for people on Web search engines

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    Searching for people on Web search engines Amanda Spink and Bernard J. Jansen School of Information search for information on other people, using personal names, via Web search engines. Explores the nature is a common but not a major part of Web searching with few people seeking information on celebrities via Web

  9. Planning for School Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel E.

    This document is designed to provide civil leaders and school administrators with a resource that will enable them to develop comprehensive contingency plans for specific emergency situations. A discussion of disaster and emergency management planning includes an outline of the objectives of emergency planning that were established for this guide.…

  10. Emergency Medical Treatment Required

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Emergency Medical Treatment Required Non-Emergency Medical Treatment Required If possible, get help present if possible AmeriSys will complete the "First Report of Injury or Illness" and authorize medical Investigation Report" to Environmental Health & Safety within 48 hours Emergency Medical Treatment Required

  11. Emergent gravity in graphene

    E-print Network

    M. A. Zubkov; G. E. Volovik

    2013-08-09

    We reconsider monolayer graphene in the presence of elastic deformations. It is described by the tight - binding model with varying hopping parameters. We demonstrate, that the fermionic quasiparticles propagate in the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry and in the presence of the emergent U(1) gauge field. Both emergent geometry and the gauge field are defined by the elastic deformation of graphene.

  12. Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 205 NIST/ARPA-E Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials (Web, free access)   The NIST/ARPA-E Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials is a free, web-based catalog of adsorbent materials and measured adsorption properties of numerous materials obtained from article entries from the scientific literature. Search fields for the database include adsorbent material, adsorbate gas, experimental conditions (pressure, temperature), and bibliographic information (author, title, journal), and results from queries are provided as a list of articles matching the search parameters. The database also contains adsorption isotherms digitized from the cataloged articles, which can be compared visually online in the web application or exported for offline analysis.

  13. CDF Searches for New Physics with Photons

    E-print Network

    Andrey Loginov

    2007-10-10

    We present results of searches for new physics in final states with photons at CDF in approximately 1 fb-1 of ppbar collisions at 1.96 TeV. We give an overview of the data-driven photon background estimation techniques used for the analyses. We report on a search for diphoton peaks and signature-based searches for diphoton+X, lepton+photon+X (X = electron, muon, missing transverse energy, photon) and ttbar+photon.

  14. Targeting Transmission Pathways for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance and Control.

    PubMed

    Loh, Elizabeth H; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Olival, Kevin J; Bogich, Tiffany L; Johnson, Christine K; Mazet, Jonna A K; Karesh, William; Daszak, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We used literature searches and a database of all reported emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to analyze the most important transmission pathways (e.g., vector-borne, aerosol droplet transmitted) for emerging zoonoses. Our results suggest that at the broad scale, the likelihood of transmission occurring through any one pathway is approximately equal. However, the major transmission pathways for zoonoses differ widely according to the specific underlying drivers of EID events (e.g., land-use change, agricultural intensification). These results can be used to develop better targeting of surveillance for, and more effective control of newly emerged zoonoses in regions under different underlying pressures that drive disease emergence. PMID:26186515

  15. Endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms: techniques, current evidence and recent experience.

    PubMed

    Siauw, Ray; Koh, Eng H; Walker, Stuart R

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms is a new technique, which has emerged as an alternative to open surgical bypass. However, evidence to support its use is limited. We present a review of current literature relevant to this technique. The MEDLINE search terms were popliteal artery, aneurysm, endovascular, endoluminal and stent. Fifty-eight articles were yielded, of which 21 were studies of endovascular repair by implantation of stent or stent graft of true aneurysms of the popliteal artery. There was only one randomized study. Small numbers of endovascular interventions are reported, with variations in study design and endovascular techniques. Long-term follow-up data is lacking; however, early results have been promising with high rates of initial treatment success. Early thrombosis of stent grafts occurs in approximately 10%, but this does not herald limb loss. Endovascular treatment offers potential benefits over traditional surgery, but needs to be studied further with a large-scale multicentre randomized trial. PMID:16768779

  16. Dismantling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  17. Superintendent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boring, Michael R.

    This guide is intended to be a tool to help those involved in the superintendent selection process. Section titles reflect the guide's contents. "The Decision to Seek a Superintendent"; "The Case for Using a Search Consultant"; "Setting a Timeline"; "Involvement of Parents, Citizens, Students and Staff"; "Describing the Person Sought and the…

  18. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Describes indexes to Web resources that have been created by librarians to be more discriminating than the usual Web search engines, some of which are organized by standard classification systems. Includes indexes by solo librarians as well as by groups of librarians, some in public libraries and some in higher education. (LRW)

  19. Bioinformatics Workshop #3 Database Similarity Searching

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Bioinformatics Workshop #3 Database Similarity Searching: What's available -- the algorithms of the computational techniques is magnified. Fall 2006; a GCG¥ Wisconsin PackageTM SeqLab® tutorial for Florida State

  20. The search for a heavy Higgs boson

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.

    1989-02-01

    Theoretical limits on the mass of the Higgs boson from vacuum stability and perturbative unitarity are examined. Search techniques for heavy Higgs bosons, M/sub H/ > 200 GeV, are also reviewed. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Natural language search of structured documents

    E-print Network

    Oney, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on techniques with which natural language can be used to search for specific elements in a structured document, such as an XML file. The goal is to create a system capable of being trained to identify ...

  2. Complete Search in Continuous Global Optimization

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Complete Search in Continuous Global Optimization and Constraint Satisfaction Arnold Neumaier of techniques for solving general purpose con- strained global optimization problems and continuous constraint as a text for teaching constrained global optimization. After motivation for and important examples

  3. Image analysis tools and emerging algorithms for expression proteomics

    PubMed Central

    English, Jane A.; Lisacek, Frederique; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Dunn, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Since their origins in academic endeavours in the 1970s, computational analysis tools have matured into a number of established commercial packages that underpin research in expression proteomics. In this paper we describe the image analysis pipeline for the established 2-D Gel Electrophoresis (2-DE) technique of protein separation, and by first covering signal analysis for Mass Spectrometry (MS), we also explain the current image analysis workflow for the emerging high-throughput ‘shotgun’ proteomics platform of Liquid Chromatography coupled to MS (LC/MS). The bioinformatics challenges for both methods are illustrated and compared, whilst existing commercial and academic packages and their workflows are described from both a user’s and a technical perspective. Attention is given to the importance of sound statistical treatment of the resultant quantifications in the search for differential expression. Despite wide availability of proteomics software, a number of challenges have yet to be overcome regarding algorithm accuracy, objectivity and automation, generally due to deterministic spot-centric approaches that discard information early in the pipeline, propagating errors. We review recent advances in signal and image analysis algorithms in 2-DE, MS, LC/MS and Imaging MS. Particular attention is given to wavelet techniques, automated image-based alignment and differential analysis in 2-DE, Bayesian peak mixture models and functional mixed modelling in MS, and group-wise consensus alignment methods for LC/MS. PMID:21046614

  4. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  5. 28 CFR 511.16 - How searches will be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and cavities. (ii) Visual searches of your person must always be authorized by the Warden or his/her... the opposite sex in emergency situations with the Warden's authorization. (iv) Body cavity...

  6. 28 CFR 511.16 - How searches will be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and cavities. (ii) Visual searches of your person must always be authorized by the Warden or his/her... the opposite sex in emergency situations with the Warden's authorization. (iv) Body cavity...

  7. 28 CFR 511.16 - How searches will be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and cavities. (ii) Visual searches of your person must always be authorized by the Warden or his/her... the opposite sex in emergency situations with the Warden's authorization. (iv) Body cavity...

  8. NASA's Search-and-Rescue Technology - Duration: 37 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the next-generation search and rescue system, the DASS. Under this system, instruments used to relay emergency beacon signals will be installed on GPS satellites. When one em...

  9. Springer Catalogue Search Last Result Last Search New Search Help

    E-print Network

    Dehene, Frank

    Springer Catalogue Search Last Result Last Search New Search Help Show Shopping Bag Available p. Also available online. Softcover 3-540-40545-3 Recommended Retail Price: EUR 62.00 * The refereed Shopping Bag http://www.springer.de/cgi/svcat/search_book.pl?isbn=3-540-40545-3 #12;

  10. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  11. FOURIER ENCODED DATA SEARCHING OF INFRARED SPECTRA (FEDS/IRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new library searching technique is reported that relies on Fourier transforms of infrared (IR) absorbance spectra. Searching in the time domain is shown to be more tolerant to noise than searches in the spectral domain and fewer points are required to encode the unique characte...

  12. Evaluating Server Selection for Federated Search Paul Thomas1

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Paul

    Evaluating Server Selection for Federated Search Paul Thomas1 and Milad Shokouhi2 1 CSIRO paul for evaluating federated search server selec- tion techniques. In our model, we isolate the effect of other be obscured by ineffective merging. 1 Introduction Federated search attempts to provide a single interface

  13. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  14. Table Search (or Ranking Tables)

    E-print Network

    Halevy, Alon

    ;Table Search #3 #12;Outline · Goals of table search · Table search #1: Deep Web · Table search #3 search Table search #1: Deep Web · Table search #3: (setup): Fusion Tables · Table search #2: WebTables ­Version 1: modify document search ­Version 2: recover table semantics #12;Searching the Deep Web store

  15. Search UGA News Go Advanced Search

    E-print Network

    Geller, Michael R.

    Search Search UGA News Go Advanced Search Search all UGA Web sites Go UGA News Bureau Top News/340-6021, mgeller@physast.uga.edu May 27, 2004, 8:25 am Email this article Printer friendly page ATHENS, Ga

  16. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  17. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment. PMID:8363690

  18. Neuro-Oncologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Cancer can have diverse and widespread effects on the nervous system. Knowledge of the most common characteristic mechanisms by which cancer impacts the nervous system enables prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. Here, a variety of neuro-oncologic emergencies are reviewed. Mass effect, status epilepticus, pituitary apoplexy, and metastatic epidural spinal cord compression are emergencies that arise from direct effects of central nervous system neoplasms. Limbic encephalitis may result in hospitalization and at times critical illness, and is usually caused by antibody-mediated reactions to neoplasms. Treatment-related neuro-oncologic emergencies from the effects of radiation and chemotherapy in severe cases may also result in medical emergencies. PMID:26595868

  19. An Impact-Based Filtering Approach for Literature Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vista, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to present an alternative and simple method to improve the filtering of search results so as to increase the efficiency of literature searches, particularly for individual researchers who have limited logistical resources. The method proposed here is scope restriction using an impact-based filter, made possible by the emergence of…

  20. Professional Education in Expert Search: A Content Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Catherine L.; Roseberry, Martha I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive model of the subject matter taught in courses on expert search in ALA-accredited programs, answering the question: What is taught in formal professional education on search expertise? The model emerged from a grounded content analysis of 44 course descriptions and 16 syllabi, and was validated via a review of…

  1. Modeling Emergence in Neuroprotective Regulatory Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Haack, Jereme N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary

    2013-01-05

    The use of predictive modeling in the analysis of gene expression data can greatly accelerate the pace of scientific discovery in biomedical research by enabling in silico experimentation to test disease triggers and potential drug therapies. Techniques that focus on modeling emergence, such as agent-based modeling and multi-agent simulations, are of particular interest as they support the discovery of pathways that may have never been observed in the past. Thus far, these techniques have been primarily applied at the multi-cellular level, or have focused on signaling and metabolic networks. We present an approach where emergence modeling is extended to regulatory networks and demonstrate its application to the discovery of neuroprotective pathways. An initial evaluation of the approach indicates that emergence modeling provides novel insights for the analysis of regulatory networks that can advance the discovery of acute treatments for stroke and other diseases.

  2. Transportation Networks for Emergency Evacuations

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Liu, Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Evacuation modeling systems (EMS) have been developed to facilitate the planning, analysis, and deployment of emergency evacuation of populations at risk. For any EMS, data such as road network maps, traffic control characteristics, and population distribution play critical roles in delineating emergency zones, estimating population at risk, and determining evacuation routes. There are situations in which it is possible to plan in advance for an emergency evacuation including, for example, an explosion at a chemical processing facility or a radiological accident at a nuclear plant. In these cases, if an accident or a terrorist attack were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other instances -for example, the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials-, there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on if and how to identify and proceed with the best course of action to minimize losses. Although both cases require as a starting point the development of a transportation network model of the area at risk, which must include road capacity and topology, in the latter the available time to generate this network is extremely limited. This time constraint precludes the use of any traditional data gathering methodology and the network generation process has to rely on the use of GIS and stochastic modeling techniques. The generation of these transportation networks in real time is the focus of this entry.

  3. Optical Techniques in Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially-controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities. PMID:26412943

  4. Microlensing Planet Search Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David; Rhie, Sun Hong; Han, Cheongho; Meintjes, Pieter; Cook, Kem; Minniti, Dante

    2001-02-01

    The Microlensing Planet Search Project (MPS) requests observing time on the CTIO 0.9m telescope for optical photometry of ongoing gravitational microlensing events in order to discover the gravitational lensing signal from planets which may orbit one of the faint lens stars. The gravitational microlensing technique is sensitive to planets of lower mass than other ground based planet search techniques. However, 24-hour coverage of the microlensing lightcurves is necessary for high sensitivity to low mass planets. Therefore, MPS is now expanding so as to observe from all three Southern temperate continents. MPS will have nearly dedicated time on the Mt. Stromlo 1.9m telescope and the Boyden Observatory 1.5m telescope in South Africa. We are requesting a smaller amount of time in Chile, but we would like to request that one week of our request be awarded as target-of-opportunity time to be allocated at short notice when planetary signals are likely to be detectable.

  5. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 11--Childbirth, Pediatric Emergencies. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers childbirth and pediatric emergencies. Objectives stated for the two chapters are for the students to be able to describe: emergency procedures for normal childbirth, unusual childbirth emergencies, emergency care for…

  6. The CRESST Dark Matter Search

    E-print Network

    CRESST-Collaboration; :; M. Bravin; M. Bruckmayer; C. Bucci

    1999-04-06

    The current status of CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search using Superconducting Thermometers) and new results concerning the detector development are presented. The basic technique of CRESST is to search for particle Dark Matter (WIMPS, Weakly Interacting Massive particles) by the measurement of non-thermal phonons as created by WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Combined with the newly developed method of simultaneous measurement of scintillation light, strong background discrimination is possible, resulting in a substantial increase in WIMP detection sensitivity. The short and long term perspectives of CRESST are discussed.

  7. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. PMID:26227137

  8. [Ambulatory emergency surgery].

    PubMed

    Triboulet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Development of outpatient cases in emergency is still a controversy. Ambulatory surgery is possible in ambulatory surgical unit (ASU), or in emergency surgical units (ESU). Quality of care and safety need to be associated to patients' ambulatory management without impairment of ASU and ESU organization. Patient eligibility concerns not only traumatic hand surgery but also general or visceral surgery. PMID:24530140

  9. Emergency Medical Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of emergency medical technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 4 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

  10. [Ultrasound in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Deltour, S; Petrovic, T

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound has revolutionized the practice of emergency medicine, particularly in prehospital setting. About a patient with dyspnea, we present the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and emergency treatment. Echocardiography, but also hemodynamic ultrasound (vena cava) and lung exam are valuable tools. Achieving lung ultrasound and diagnostic value of B lines B are detailed. PMID:26574136

  11. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  12. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  13. Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan

    E-print Network

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan Civil and Environmental Engineering More Hall 2015 #12;1 Introduction Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) developed this model Emergency Evacuation and Operations for use by multiple departments and may be completed as a departmental or building evacuation plan

  14. School Emergency Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetto, Harry J.

    This guide was prepared to assist Pennsylvania schools and communities in the development of comprehensive emergency plans. Procedures for identifying and responding to potential community and school emergency situations are presented. A plan for developing and organizing mass care centers utilizing school and community facilities and resources is…

  15. Stapedectomy technique.

    PubMed

    House, J W

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo. PMID:8341570

  16. Demography and Public Health Emergency Preparedness: Making the Connection.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heather; Katz, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    THE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF POPULATION SCIENCES ARE EXTREMELY RELEVANT TO THE DISCIPLINE OF PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS: protecting and securing the population's health requires information about that population. While related fields such as security studies have successfully integrated demographic tools into their research and literature, the theoretical and practical connection between the methods of demography and the practice of public health emergency preparedness is weak. This article suggests the need to further the interdisciplinary use of demography by examining the need for a systematic use of population science techniques in public health emergency preparedness. Ultimately, we demonstrate how public health emergency preparedness can incorporate demography to develop more effective preparedness plans. Important policy implications emerge: demographers and preparedness experts need to collaborate more formally in order to facilitate community resilience and mitigate the consequences of public health emergencies. PMID:20694030

  17. Electric power emergency handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  18. Quantization of Emergent Gravity

    E-print Network

    Hyun Seok Yang

    2014-12-24

    Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as spacetime admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic spacetime becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC spacetime, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing spacetime itself, leading to a dynamical NC spacetime. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background independent formulation where spacetime as well as matter fields is equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.

  19. Quantization of Emergent Gravity

    E-print Network

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as spacetime admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic spacetime becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC spacetime, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing spacetime itself, leading to a dynamical NC spacetime. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background independent formulation where spacetime as well as matter fields is equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.

  20. Murine Kidney Transplant Technique.

    PubMed

    Plenter, Robert; Jain, Swati; Ruller, Chelsea M; Nydam, Trevor L; Jani, Alkesh H

    2015-01-01

    The first mouse kidney transplant technique was published in 1973(1) by the Russell laboratory. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique using the donor aorta to form the arterial anastomosis instead of the renal artery was developed and reported in 1993 by Kalina and Mottram (2) with a further advancement coming from the same laboratory in 1999 (3). While one can become proficient in this model, a search of the literature reveals that many labs still experience a high proportion of graft loss due to arterial thrombosis. We describe here a technique that was devised in our laboratory that vastly reduces the arterial thrombus reported by others (4,5). This is achieved by forming a heel-and-toe cuff of the donor infra-renal aorta that facilitates a larger anastomosis and straighter blood flow into the kidney. PMID:26555373

  1. Protocols for Teaching Students How to Search for, Discover, and Evaluate Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, William I., Jr.; Hale, Dena H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors introduce and develop protocols to guide aspiring entrepreneurs' behaviors in searching for and discovering innovative ideas that may have commercial potential. Systematic search has emerged as a theory-based, prescriptive framework to guide innovative behavior. Grounded in Fiet's theory of search and discovery, this article provides…

  2. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  3. Recommended Procedures for Handling Emergency Illnesses and Accidents at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Health, Bismarck.

    Recommended procedures for handling emergency illnesses and accidents are provided in this guide for school personnel prepared by the North Dakota State Department of Health. Following five general recommendations for steps to take in emergency situations, advice and techniques are given for handling: nose bleeds; abdominal pain; toothaches and…

  4. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  5. Emergency control practices

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, L.H.; Badley, D.E.; Koehler, J.E.; McInnis, D.A.; Redmond, O.H.

    1985-09-01

    The Emergency Control Task Force was formed in February 1982. In order to clarify and focus its efforts, the Task Force adopted the following definitions as a basis for its deliberations: Power system emergency: A condition or state of system operation characterized by one or more violations of ''hard'' inequality constraints (e.g., short or long term emergency ratings) on the bulk power system. An emergency generally is an indication of a viability crisis and/or a stability crisis. A viability crisis results from an imbalance between generation, loads, and transmission, whether local or system-wide. A stability crisis results from energy accumulated at sufficient level in swings of the system to disrupt its integrity. Power system failure: A condition or state of system operation characterized by loss of system integrity involving uncontrolled islanding (fragmentation) of the system and/or uncontrolled loss of large blocks of load. The body of this report consists of four short-note papers which describe emergency control procedures responsive to system conditions consonant with the above definition of Power System Emergency. It is the desire of the Task Force that presentation of this paper shall stimulate written discussions which will round out a comprehensive account of industry emergency state control practice throughout North America. Subsequent Task Force efforts will include exploration of relevant research activity and consideration of research needs.

  6. Emergent cosmology revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri; Unnikrishnan, Sanil E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: sanil@lnmiit.ac.in

    2014-07-01

    We explore the possibility of emergent cosmology using the effective potential formalism. We discover new models of emergent cosmology which satisfy the constraints posed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We demonstrate that, within the framework of modified gravity, the emergent scenario can arise in a universe which is spatially open/closed. By contrast, in general relativity (GR) emergent cosmology arises from a spatially closed past-eternal Einstein Static Universe (ESU). In GR the ESU is unstable, which creates fine tuning problems for emergent cosmology. However, modified gravity models including Braneworld models, Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Asymptotically Free Gravity result in a stable ESU. Consequently, in these models emergent cosmology arises from a larger class of initial conditions including those in which the universe eternally oscillates about the ESU fixed point. We demonstrate that such an oscillating universe is necessarily accompanied by graviton production. For a large region in parameter space graviton production is enhanced through a parametric resonance, casting serious doubts as to whether this emergent scenario can be past-eternal.

  7. Role of Recipient-site Preparation Techniques and Post-operative Wound Dressing in the Surgical Management of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below. PMID:26157306

  8. Coping with Noisy Search Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champin, Pierre-Antoine; Briggs, Peter; Coyle, Maurice; Smyth, Barry

    The so-called Social Web has helped to change the very nature of the Internet by emphasising the role of our online experiences as new forms of content and service knowledge. In this paper we describe an approach to improving mainstream Web search by harnessing the search experiences of groups of like-minded searchers.We focus on the HeyStaks system ( www.heystaks.com ) and look in particular at the experiential knowledge that drives its search recommendations. Specifically we describe how this knowledge can be noisy, and we describe and evaluate a recommendation technique for coping with this noise and discuss how it may be incorporated into HeyStaks as a useful feature.

  9. Pediatric Respiratory Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Richards, Amber M

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory emergencies are 1 of the most common reasons parents seek evaluation for the their children in the emergency department (ED) each year, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in pediatric patients. Whereas many respiratory illnesses are mild and self-limiting, others are life threatening and require prompt diagnosis and management. Therefore, it is imperative that emergency clinicians be able to promptly recognize and manage these illnesses. This article reviews ED diagnosis and management of foreign body aspiration, asthma exacerbation, epiglottitis, bronchiolitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and pertussis. PMID:26614243

  10. Search BCSC Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Search this comprehensive bibliography of BCSC Publications. Consult the help page for detailed instructions and searching tips. If available, links to PubMed and abstracts will be provided in the search results.

  11. Editorial to the special issue of Computers & Operations Research on Search-Based Software Engineering

    E-print Network

    Gutjahr, Walter

    on the application of optimization and metaheuristic search techniques to problems in software engineering. Optimization and search based techniques have been applied to a wide range of software engineering problems as Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) [5, 10]. The past five years have wit- ness a dramatic growth

  12. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed. PMID:26053399

  13. Emergency Preparedness--Beyond the Written Plan. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozanski, Maryann

    1996-01-01

    A staff development program at California State University at Long Beach trains faculty and other personnel to participate in earthquake-related search and rescue operations on campus if needed. Vendor-trained staff members prepared a campus training program in emergency operations, fire suppression and protection, casualty assessment, urban…

  14. The Emergence of Public Health Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, C.; Hartwell, H.; Hemingway, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify key concepts in the literature relating to the release of open educational resources (OER), with specific reference to the emergence of public health OER. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature relating to the development of OER was followed by an online search for OER literature…

  15. Reduction, Emergence and Renormalization

    E-print Network

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, I described several examples combining reduction and emergence: where reduction is understood a la Ernest Nagel, and emergence is understood as behaviour or properties that are novel (by some salient standard). Here, my aim is again to reconcile reduction and emergence, for a case which is apparently more problematic than those I treated before: renormalization. Renormalization is a vast subject. So I confine myself to emphasizing how the modern approach to renormalization (initiated by Wilson and others between 1965 and 1975), when applied to quantum field theories, illustrates both Nagelian reduction and emergence. My main point is that the modern understanding of how renormalizability is a generic feature of quantum field theories at accessible energies gives us a conceptually unified family of Nagelian reductions. That is worth saying since philosophers tend to think of scientific explanation as only explaining an individual event, or perhaps a single law, or at most deducing one theory ...

  16. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight. PMID:17239732

  17. Emergency Lightning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Super Vacuum Manufacturing Company's Stem-Lite Emergency Lighting System is widely used by fire, police, ambulance and other emergency service departments. The lights -- four floodlights which provide 2,000 watts of daytime equivalent visibility and a high-intensity flashing beacon can be elevated 10 feet above the roof of an emergency vehicle by means of an extendible mast. The higher elevation expands the effective radius of the floodlights and increases the beacon's visibility to several miles affording extra warning time to approaching traffic. When not in use, the light can be retracted into the compact rooftop housing. Stem-Lite also includes a generator which can serve to power such emergency equipment as pumps and drills, and a dashboard-mounted control panel for switching the lights and extending or retracting the mast.

  18. SECOND FLOOR EMERGENCY EXIT

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    SECOND FLOOR EXHIBITION AREAS EMERGENCY EXIT ASIAN ART 18TH- CENTURY EUROPEAN ART ANCIENT EGYPT on Rochester FORMAN GALLERY Admission Desk mag.rochester.edu ARTS OF AFRICA, OCEANIA AND THE AMERICAS ANCIENT

  19. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stopping the fire quickly . El Niño and Severe Weather El Niño events for the 80s, 90s, and ... the FEMA App Receive alerts from the National Weather Service, customize your emergency checklist, submit disaster related ...

  20. Wireless Emergency Alerts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What types of alerts will I receive? Extreme weather, and other threatening emergencies in your area AMBER ... What types of WEA messages will the National Weather Service (NWS) send? Tsunami Warnings Tornado and Flash ...

  1. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  2. Emergency Preparedness at NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Information to help prepare for an emergency. Includes resources for patients and health care providers to continue cancer care, NCI contacts for grantees, and resources to prepare and update NCI employees and contractors.

  3. SESSION: EMERGING POLLUTANT ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES TITLE: BACTERIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination of surface waters used for recreation, drinking water and aquaculture are a continuous environmental problem and pose significant human health risks. An alarming amount of the United States rivers/streams (39%), lakes (45%), and estuaries (51%) are not safe f...

  4. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter generally includes dust, smoke, soot, or aerosol particles. Environmental research addresses the origin, size, chemical composition, and the formation mechanics of aerosols. In the troposphere, fine aerosols (e.g. with diameters < 2.5 um) remain suspended until...

  5. Emergency Communications Console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA has applied its communications equipment expertise to development of a communications console that provides, in a compact package only slightly larger than an electric typewriter, all the emergency medical services communications functions needed for a regional hospital. A prototype unit, built by Johnson Space Center, has been installed in the Odessa (Texas) Medical Center Hospital. The hospital is the medical control center for the 17-county Permian Basin Emergency Medical System in west Texas. The console project originated in response to a request to NASA from the Texas governor's office, which sought a better way of providing emergency medical care in rural areas. Because ambulance travel time is frequently long in remote areas of west Texas, it is important that treatment begin at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital emergency room. A radio and telephone system linking ambulance emergency technicians and hospital staff makes this possible. But earlier equipment was complex, requiring specialized operators. A highly reliable system was needed to minimize breakdowns and provide controls of utmost simplicity, so that the system could be operated by physicians and nurses rather than by communications specialists. The resulting console has both radio and telephone sections. With the radio equipment, hospital personnel can communicate with ambulance drivers and paramedics, receive incoming electrocardiagrams, consult with other hospitals, page hospital staff and set up a radio-to-telephone "patch." The telephone portion of the system includes a hotline from the Permian Basin Emergency Medical Service's resource control center, an automatic dialer for contacting special care facilities in the Permian Basin network, a hospital intercom terminal and a means of relaying cardioscope displays and other data between hospitals. The integrated system also provides links with local disaster and civil defense organizations and with emergency "Dial 911" control points.

  6. Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan

    E-print Network

    Noble, James S.

    ......................................................................................9 Floor Plan#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan?.........................................................................................2 Four Steps to Disaster Planning .......................................................3 Disaster

  7. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  8. Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation

    E-print Network

    R. Cowsik

    1999-11-08

    It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.

  9. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 7--Medical Emergencies. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers medical emergencies. The objectives for the chapter are for students to be able to describe the causes, signs, and symptoms for specified medical emergencies and to describe emergency care for them. Informative…

  10. Next-generation emergency response robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Forrest; Paul, George; Dunten, Seth; Kennedy, William; Dietsch, Jeanne A.

    2004-09-01

    As reported by Blitch, current Search and Rescue robots have proven inadequate in the field. Shortfalls in mobility include: inadequate relationship between traction and drag, inadequate self-righting, inadequate sensor protection and too many protrusions to snag. Because autonomous navigation is often impossible but tele-operation may be difficult, sliding autonomy is critical. In addition, next generation SR robots need plug-n-play sensor options and modular cargo holds to deliver daughter-bots or other specialized rescue equipment. Finally, dust and smoke have caused both sensors and robots to fail in the field. Many of the needs of Search and Rescue teams are shared by all Emergency Response robots: EOD, SWAT, HazMat and other law enforcement officers. We discuss how next-generation designs solve many of the problems currently facing ER robots.

  11. MEDICAL AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION FORM

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Daniel

    MEDICAL AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION FORM Field Trip Name: __________________________ Trip Dates from information about your medical coverage that might be useful. Emergency Contact Information Emergency Personal;___________________________________________________________________________________ Please return completed form to the trip coordinator two weeks prior to departure. Known Medical

  12. Directional navigation improves opportunistic communication for emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kokuti, Andras; Gelenbe, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  13. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Kokuti, Andras.; Gelenbe, Erol.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  14. Aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes. PMID:19016438

  15. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  16. Radon assay and purification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2013-08-08

    Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

  17. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  18. SEARCH, blackbox optimization, and sample complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Kargupta, H.; Goldberg, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) framework developed elsewhere (Kargupta, 1995; Kargupta and Goldberg, 1995) offered an alternate perspective toward blackbox optimization -- optimization in presence of little domain knowledge. The SEARCH framework investigates the conditions essential for transcending the limits of random enumerative search using a framework developed in terms of relations, classes and partial ordering. This paper presents a summary of some of the main results of that work. A closed form bound on the sample complexity in terms of the cardinality of the relation space, class space, desired quality of the solution and the reliability is presented. This also leads to the identification of the class of order-k delineable problems that can be solved in polynomial sample complexity. These results are applicable to any blackbox search algorithms, including evolutionary optimization techniques.

  19. Like a Hurricane: A Citation Analysis of Emergency Management Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Jennifer; Furay, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This bibliometric study used citation analysis to uncover citing characteristics in the burgeoning academic field of emergency management. Of the 281 degree programs listed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency nationwide, those at community colleges accounted for 17% of the total. Using the interdisciplinary database of Academic Search

  20. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 5. CPR, Oxygen Therapy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the fifth in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains two sections covering the following course content; cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (including artificial ventilation, foreign body obstructions, adjunctive equipment and special techniques, artificial…

  1. No Optimisation Without Representation: A Knowledge Based Systems View of Evolutionary/Neighbourhood Search Optimisation 

    E-print Network

    Tuson, Andrew Laurence

    In recent years, research into ‘neighbourhood search’ optimisation techniques such as simulated annealing, tabu search, and evolutionary algorithms has increased apace, resulting in a number of useful heuristic solution ...

  2. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26527261

  3. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    E-print Network

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  4. Faculty Search Committee Briefings

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Issues Legal interview questions; meeting State and Federal requirements The Process: The roles of searchFaculty Search Committee Briefings As a reminder, all members of the Search Committee are required to attend a Faculty Search Committee Briefing. 2015-2016 Briefing Sessions RSVP to Brandie Henderson

  5. Text + Time Search & Analytics

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Text + Time Search & Analytics Klaus Berberich (kberberi@mpi-inf.mpg.de) #12;Text + Time Search & Analytics ­ Klaus Berberich / 40 Text + Time 2 The New York Times June 2nd, 1889 #12;Text + Time Search & Analytics ­ Klaus Berberich / 40 Text + Time 2 Wikipedia April 23rd, 2001 #12;Text + Time Search & Analytics

  6. Sure success partial search

    E-print Network

    Byung-Soo Choi; Thomas A. Walker; Samuel L. Braunstein

    2006-03-15

    Partial search has been proposed recently for finding the target block containing a target element with fewer queries than the full Grover search algorithm which can locate the target precisely. Since such partial searches will likely be used as subroutines for larger algorithms their success rate is important. We propose a partial search algorithm which achieves success with unit probability.

  7. Search Alternatives and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

  8. Mirador: A Simple, Fast Search Interface for Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Strub, Richard; Seiler, Edward; Joshi, Talak; MacHarrie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for remote sensing science researchers is searching and acquiring relevant data files for their research projects based on content, space and time constraints. Several structured query (SQ) and hierarchical navigation (HN) search interfaces have been develop ed to satisfy this requirement, yet the dominant search engines in th e general domain are based on free-text search. The Goddard Earth Sci ences Data and Information Services Center has developed a free-text search interface named Mirador that supports space-time queries, inc luding a gazetteer and geophysical event gazetteer. In order to compe nsate for a slightly reduced search precision relative to SQ and HN t echniques, Mirador uses several search optimizations to return result s quickly. The quick response enables a more iterative search strateg y than is available with many SQ and HN techniques.

  9. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  10. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    SciTech Connect

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-02-02

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms. Sufficient light for egress is provided by existing lights located in the hallways.

  11. Pediatric cardiac emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Mason, L J

    2001-06-01

    Successful management of pediatric cardiac emergencies requires an accurate diagnosis to institute an appropriate plan of therapy. The diagnosis, however, is not always straightforward, as evidenced by the nonspecific clinical picture that can be presented by congenital heart defects. Entertaining the possibility of a cardiac problem in neonates with pulmonary symptoms unresponsive to standard therapies is crucial for successful management of patients with congenital heart disease. In addition to ventilatory support, prostaglandin E1 infusions or emergency interventional cardiac catheterization is often a life-saving initial measure in patients with acutely decompensated congenital cardiac lesions that require a patent ductus arteriosus for survival. Pericardial tamponade is associated with various acquired and iatrogenic causes. Emergent pericardiocentesis is mandatory when cardiovascular compromise occurs. The goal of anesthetic management is to maintain cardiac output. With the increasing use of central venous catheters in neonatal ICUs and the high mortality rate for central venous catheter-related cardiac tamponade, the diagnosis must be considered in any patient with a central venous catheter in situ who acutely develops unexplained hypotension, bradycardia, and diminished pulses. Arrhythmias also can cause hemodynamic instability in infants and children. Supraventricular tachycardia is by far the most common emergently presenting arrhythmia in the pediatric population. Unstable patients require immediate intravenous adenosine or synchronized cardioversion. Complete heart block is rare, but it can lead to congestive heart failure and occasionally to cardiovascular collapse and sudden death. Emergency treatment of complete heart block includes pharmacologic support and temporary or permanent pacemaker placement as indicated. In infants, congestive heart failure usually is related to congenital heart disease, whereas in older children, it tends to be secondary to an acquired cause. Supportive measures, fluid restriction, and inotropic support are the principles of initial treatment. Prompt recognition and initiation of appropriate therapy in pediatric cardiac emergencies are essential for favorable outcomes. PMID:11469066

  12. [Respiratory emergencies in childhood].

    PubMed

    Rossi, R; Altemeyer, K H

    1991-04-20

    The most important maneuvers of primary treatment of respiratory emergencies in childhood are the securement of free airways, provision of oxygen and (medicamentous) tranquilization of the child. The most common causes of these emergencies are fulminant (infectious) diseases of the upper and lower airways, a particularly significant aspect being the considerable mucosal swelling as compared with adults. Aspiration of foreign bodies is a further cause of acute, life-threatening respiratory distress. Treatment requires a systematic examination and circumspection to achieve in the shortest time adequate temporary improvement until more extensive measures can be performed in the hospital. PMID:1855754

  13. Building Emergency Plan Summer 2012

    E-print Network

    Building Emergency Plan Project Summer 2012 #12;Building Emergency Plan Project We will be going over: · Introductions · What a Building Emergency Plan (BEP) is · The project and goals · Why? · Gives instructions and guidance to building tenants · Lets tenants know what to do in any emergency

  14. Emerging Ceramic-based Materials for Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Denry, I.; Kelly, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to give an overview of a selection of emerging ceramics and issues for dental or biomedical applications, with emphasis on specific challenges associated with full-contour zirconia ceramics, and a brief synopsis on new machinable glass-ceramics and ceramic-based interpenetrating phase composites. Selected fabrication techniques relevant to dental or biomedical applications such as microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, and additive manufacturing are also reviewed. Where appropriate, the authors have added their opinions and guidance. PMID:25274751

  15. Emerging ceramic-based materials for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Denry, I; Kelly, J R

    2014-12-01

    Our goal is to give an overview of a selection of emerging ceramics and issues for dental or biomedical applications, with emphasis on specific challenges associated with full-contour zirconia ceramics, and a brief synopsis on new machinable glass-ceramics and ceramic-based interpenetrating phase composites. Selected fabrication techniques relevant to dental or biomedical applications such as microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, and additive manufacturing are also reviewed. Where appropriate, the authors have added their opinions and guidance. PMID:25274751

  16. Searching for Dark Matter with PICASSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Behnke, E.; Besnier, M.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Dai, X.; Das, M.; Davour, A.; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Gagnebin, S.; Giroux, G.; Grace, E.; Jackson, C. M.; Kamaha, A.; Krauss, C.; Kumaratunga, S.; Lafrenière, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Lessard, L.; Levine, I.; Levy, C.; Marlisov, D.; Martin, J.-P.; Mitra, P.; Noble, A. J.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, A.; Podviyanuk, R.; Pospisil, S.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Wichoski, U.; Xie, T.; Zacek, V.

    The Project In CAnada to Search for Supersymmetric Objects (PICASSO) at SNOLAB searches for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) interactions with 19F. It is particularly sensitive to spin-dependent particle interactions. It uses a droplet technique, based on the principle of a bubble chamber, in which phase transitions in superheated liquids can be triggered by WIMP induced nuclear recoils. The detection process allows a highly efficient suppression of backgrounds from cosmic muons, ? rays and electrons. Recent results and progress are presented and future plans to scale this technique to large masses with the PICO collaboration are briefly discussed.

  17. Fast search for Dirichlet process mixture models

    E-print Network

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    Dirichlet process (DP) mixture models provide a flexible Bayesian framework for density estimation. Unfortunately, their flexibility comes at a cost: inference in DP mixture models is computationally expensive, even when conjugate distributions are used. In the common case when one seeks only a maximum a posteriori assignment of data points to clusters, we show that search algorithms provide a practical alternative to expensive MCMC and variational techniques. When a true posterior sample is desired, the solution found by search can serve as a good initializer for MCMC. Experimental results show that using these techniques is it possible to apply DP mixture models to very large data sets.

  18. Reduction, Emergence and Renormalization

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Butterfield

    2014-06-17

    In previous work, I described several examples combining reduction and emergence: where reduction is understood a la Ernest Nagel, and emergence is understood as behaviour or properties that are novel (by some salient standard). Here, my aim is again to reconcile reduction and emergence, for a case which is apparently more problematic than those I treated before: renormalization. Renormalization is a vast subject. So I confine myself to emphasizing how the modern approach to renormalization (initiated by Wilson and others between 1965 and 1975), when applied to quantum field theories, illustrates both Nagelian reduction and emergence. My main point is that the modern understanding of how renormalizability is a generic feature of quantum field theories at accessible energies gives us a conceptually unified family of Nagelian reductions. That is worth saying since philosophers tend to think of scientific explanation as only explaining an individual event, or perhaps a single law, or at most deducing one theory as a special case of another. Here we see a framework in which there is a space of theories endowed with enough structure that it provides a family of reductions.

  19. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  20. EMERGENCY RESPONSE SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergency response program provides trained personnel and mobile and fixed laboratory resources to address radiological incidents or events that result in potential or actual radiation exposure of the public or environment. The primary product of the program is high quality,...

  1. Emerging supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will examine the current and near future trends for commercially available high-performance computers with architectures that differ from the mainstream ''supercomputer'' systems in use for the last few years. These emerging supercomputer architectures are just beginning to have an impact on the field of high performance computing. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  2. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26562229

  3. Emergency response health physics.

    PubMed

    Mena, Rajah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. This paper aims to illustrate the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. PMID:22469932

  4. Serving Emerging Majority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the demographic shifts occurring in the United States and discusses the associated rapid increase in the number of community college students from diverse racial backgrounds. Profiles of two community colleges offer examples of timely responses to emerging majority students' academic, economic, and social…

  5. An emerging star.

    PubMed

    Grove, Jane

    2015-12-01

    AN EYE for detail landed Judy Coyle the moniker 'Eagle Eye' and won her a prestigious prize. Named Scottish Clinical Research Nurse of the Year 2015, Ms Coyle has been rewarded for 20 years of pioneering work in clinical research and for her contribution to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh's (RIE) emergency department (ED). PMID:26638757

  6. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  7. Emerging foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of new foodborne pathogens is due to a number of factors. An important factor is the globalization of the food supply with the possibility of the introduction of foodborne pathogens from other countries. Animal husbandry, food production, food processing, and food distribution system...

  8. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future. PMID:25751222

  9. Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan

    E-print Network

    Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan Appendix M Evacuation Director Post-Earthquake Checklist 2012 1 #12;Appendix M Evacuation Director Post-Earthquake Checklist Buildings with Special Considerations After a mild earthquake (gentle rolling motion), the Evacuation Director may use the attached checklist

  10. Is it an Emergency?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... operator the location of the emergency, because a cell tower provides only very general information about the location of a caller. Some cars now are equipped with "smart" technologies that use global positioning system satellites and cellular technology to link vehicles to direct ...

  11. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  12. COMPREHENSIVE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    E-print Network

    COMMAND SYSTEM) 12 5.3 COORDINATION (EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTER / DEPT. OPERATIONS CENTER) 14 6.3 DISSEMINATION 17 6.4 PUBLIC INFORMATION 20 6.5 SPECIAL EVENTS COMMUNICATION 20 6.6 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, FINANCE AND LOGISTICS 22 9.0 PLAN DEVELOPMENT, AND MAINTENANCE 23 9.1 PLAN DEVELOPMENT 23 9.2 PLAN

  13. Method of searching for neutron clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatskii, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.

    2014-10-01

    A new method of searching for neutron clusters (multineutrons) composed of neutrons bound by nuclear forces has been introduced and implemented. The method is based on the search for daughter nuclei that emerge at the nuclei cluster decay of 252Cf to neutron clusters. The effect of long-time build-up of daughter nuclei with a high atomic number and long half-life was utilized. The results are interpreted as evidence of the cluster decay of 252Cf to daughter nucleus 232U (half-life of T1/2= 68.9 years). The emergence of 232U is attributed to emission of neutron clusters consisting of eight neutrons - octaneutrons. The emission probability of octaneutrons against ?-decay probability of 252Cf is defined equal to ?C/??=1.74×10-6.

  14. Search for superconductivity in micrometeorites.

    PubMed

    Guénon, S; Ramírez, J G; Basaran, Ali C; Wampler, J; Thiemens, M; Taylor, S; Schuller, Ivan K

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10(-12) cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:25476841

  15. Search for Superconductivity in Micrometeorites

    PubMed Central

    Guénon, S.; Ramírez, J. G.; Basaran, Ali C.; Wampler, J.; Thiemens, M.; Taylor, S.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10?12?cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:25476841

  16. Search for Superconductivity in Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guénon, S.; Ramírez, J. G.; Basaran, Ali C.; Wampler, J.; Thiemens, M.; Taylor, S.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10-12 cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures.

  17. Session C--Aerial Mulching Techniques--Faust Aerial Mulching Techniques--Trough Fire1

    E-print Network

    to be a superior method in protecting soil from raindrop impact, surface runoff and erosion. However, hand mulchingSession C--Aerial Mulching Techniques--Faust Aerial Mulching Techniques--Trough Fire1 Robert Faust2. A burned area emergency rehabilitation team evaluated the fire effects on the watershed. Concerns were soil

  18. Emergency Department Physician Internet Use during Clinical Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Robin; Finnell, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the Internet log files from emergency department workstations to determine search patterns, compared them to discharge diagnoses, and the emergency medicine curriculum as a way to quantify physician search behaviors. Methods: The log files from the computers from January 2006 to March 2010 were mapped to the EM curriculum and compared to discharge diagnoses to explore search terms and website usage by physicians and students. Results: Physicians in the ED averaged 1.35 searches per patient encounter using Google.com and UpToDate.com 83.9% of the time. The most common searches were for drug information (23.1%) by all provider types. The majority of the websites utilized were in the third tier evidence level for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Conclusion: We have shown a need for a readily accessible drug knowledge base within the EMR for decision support as well as easier access to first and second tier EBM evidence. PMID:23304394

  19. Entity Search and the Web of Data Centralised Entity Search Federated Entity Search P2P Entity Search Conclusions and Future Semantic and Distributed Entity Search in

    E-print Network

    Entity Search and the Web of Data Centralised Entity Search Federated Entity Search P2P Entity/48 #12;Entity Search and the Web of Data Centralised Entity Search Federated Entity Search P2P Entity are Entities? 2. Centralised Entity Search Entity Modelling Experiments 3. Federated Entity Search Introduction

  20. Comparison of endmember extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipar, John J.; Meidunas, Eduardo C.; Bassett, Edward M., III

    2002-08-01

    Image pixels represent either distinct materials (end members) that are present in the image, or mistures of two or more of these pure materials. Estimates of pure end member spectra are needed for spectral libraries and for input into pixel unmixing codes. We investigate three algorithms for estimating end member spectra: (1) the convex hull method in which an n-dimensional surface is shrink- wrapped around the data cloud; (2) a pixel-by-pixel search method in which pixels that have sufficiently different spectral angles are declared end members; (3) a pixel-by- pixel search method using Euclidean distance as a measure, followed by clustering to improve the estimate of the spectra. The convex hull technique should provide an estimate of pure end member spectra while the pixel-by-pixel search methods should find both distinct end members and distinct mixtures. Each method requires user-set thresholds to find distinct spectra, which can be expressed in spectral angle degrees or image-dependent units for Euclidean distance. Estimates for the lower threshold (below which two spectra are considered to be the same material) and the upper threshold (above which two spectra are definitely different materials) are derived empirically. Low-altitude AVIRIS data will be used to demonstrate the utility of these end member extraction methods. We will illusxtrate how well each technique compare to the other, and compare how well individual algorithms work across adjacent scenes.

  1. [Emergency indications of EEG in the situation of a head injury in children and adults].

    PubMed

    Farnarier, G

    1998-05-01

    After initial loss of consciousness following brain injury, background EEG may show slowing and posterior slow waves are observed, consistent with the existence of commotio cerebri, particularly in children. However, discrepancies between cerebral electrogenesis and the clinical condition may also persist for several weeks. As EEG is correlated with the stage of posttraumatic coma, its reactivity to stimuli is of value. While important EEG impairment with paroxysmal abnormalities is frequent in children, the patients' outcome is poorly correlated with initial EEG record. In intensive care units, the use of continuous digitized EEG techniques has opened new avenues. Though in case of mild risks, EEG and clinical follow-up may be sufficient after brain injury, EEG recording is recommended when computerized tomography (CT-scan) is normal in case of severe risks. When consciousness impairment is unexplained by the importance of the brain injury, emergency CT-scan is recommended, searching for intracranial hematoma. If CT-scan proves to be normal EEG should then be recorded, searching for local injury. EEG may uncover non-convulsive status epilepticus, mainly in elderly patients. In case of early seizures, EEG recording should be done within the first 24 hours following brain injury. In the post-ictal period, EEG should be recorded in emergency in case of confusional state lasting more than 30 minutes, as potential non-convulsive status epilepticus should not be underestimated. EEG is not of good predictive value for posttraumatic epilepsy; however, the existence of paroxysmal, local abnormalities is a risk factor. Recording of abnormalities may be useful for the medico-legal expert. PMID:9622805

  2. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  3. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  4. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency...emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without...requirements of § 109.19. (c) Recalls. PHMSA's Associate...

  5. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency...emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without...requirements of § 109.19. (c) Recalls. PHMSA's Associate...

  6. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency...emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without...requirements of § 109.19. (c) Recalls. PHMSA's Associate...

  7. Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; Senter, James K; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-10-01

    This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  8. Searching for Fundamentals and Commonalities of Search

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    animal genetics, From "Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain," edited by Peter M. Todd commonly appeal to optimality or game-theo- retical models, and these models, along with knowledge about, phylogeny and development, have guided our think- ing about search. For example, a classic optimality model

  9. [Emergency Department Interfaces].

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Departments ED may be an exceptionally good example of an interface within a hospital. EDs have no patients of their own but pass them over to other institutions, either to specialist departments within the hospital or to primary care providers. Moreover, many doctors, nurses, attendants and institutions take part in the care of emergency department patients, and thus the number of its interfaces is very high. The characteristics of working in an ED, for example shortage of time, high work load, taking care of several patients at the same time and frequently crowding, may compromise the transfer of information via interfaces, sometimes including even vital data. The best way to secure handoff of information may be the formalization and standardization of this process, assuring patient safety and quality of care. Further study is required. PMID:26710198

  10. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215 km(2)) with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophilic Aedes aegypti. Infected humans or animals may come into these cities from ecological-epidemiological settings where arbovirus zoonoses occur. This study analyzes the risk of emergence of the alphaviruses Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Chikungunya; the flaviviruses yellow fever, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile; and the orthobunyavirus Oropouche. PMID:17568894

  11. How emergent is gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2015-10-01

    General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a spacelike hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this paper, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and hence gravity is truly emergent.

  12. Notes on Emergent Gravity

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sunggeun; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2012-01-01

    Emergent gravity is aimed at constructing a Riemannian geometry from U(1) gauge fields on a noncommutative spacetime. But this construction can be inverted to find corresponding U(1) gauge fields on a (generalized) Poisson manifold given a Riemannian metric (M, g). We examine this bottom-up approach with the LeBrun metric which is the most general scalar-flat Kahler metric with a U(1) isometry and contains the Gibbons-Hawking metric, the real heaven as well as the multi-blown up Burns metric which is a scalar-flat Kahler metric on C^2 with n points blown up. The bottom-up approach clarifies some important issues in emergent gravity.

  13. Notes on Emergent Gravity

    E-print Network

    Sunggeun Lee; Raju Roychowdhury; Hyun Seok Yang

    2012-09-11

    Emergent gravity is aimed at constructing a Riemannian geometry from U(1) gauge fields on a noncommutative spacetime. But this construction can be inverted to find corresponding U(1) gauge fields on a (generalized) Poisson manifold given a Riemannian metric (M, g). We examine this bottom-up approach with the LeBrun metric which is the most general scalar-flat Kahler metric with a U(1) isometry and contains the Gibbons-Hawking metric, the real heaven as well as the multi-blown up Burns metric which is a scalar-flat Kahler metric on C^2 with n points blown up. The bottom-up approach clarifies some important issues in emergent gravity.

  14. Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, Jürg

    2005-01-01

    Foodborne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, particularly in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. We summarize the complex life cycle of foodborne trematodes and discuss its contextual determinants. Currently, 601.0, 293.8, 91.1, and 79.8 million people are at risk for infection with Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus spp., Fasciola spp., and Opisthorchis spp., respectively. The relationship between diseases caused by trematodes and proximity of human habitation to suitable freshwater bodies is examined. Residents living near freshwater bodies have a 2.15-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.38–3.36) for infections than persons living farther from the water. Exponential growth of aquaculture may be the most important risk factor for the emergence of foodborne trematodiasis. This is supported by reviewing aquaculture development in countries endemic for foodborne trematodiasis over the past 10–50 years. Future and sustainable control of foodborne trematodiasis is discussed. PMID:16318688

  15. How Emergent is Gravity?

    E-print Network

    Swastik Bhattacharya; S. Shankaranarayanan

    2015-05-15

    General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a space-like hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this essay, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and, hence gravity is truly emergent.

  16. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  17. Medical/Emergency Crisis Life-Threatening Emergency

    E-print Network

    Haesemeyer, Christian

    : Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center Emergency Room (310-825-2111) (Map on next page) If an ambulance Charles E. Young South Ronald Reagan Medical Center ER Directions from The Ashe Center to the Emergency

  18. Emerging Contaminant Issues, Including Management Of Emerging Contaminants In Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pha...

  19. Emerging Vaccine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has proven to be an invaluable means of preventing infectious diseases by reducing both incidence of disease and mortality. However, vaccines have not been effectively developed for many diseases including HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), tuberculosis and malaria, among others. The emergence of new technologies with a growing understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immunity may lead to efficacious vaccines against pathogens, previously thought impossible. PMID:26343196

  20. [Emergencies in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Töteberg-Harms, Marc; Eisenack, Johannes; Funk, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Acute vision loss, a painful eye, or a red/pink eye are typical symptoms of an ophthalmic emergency. Ascertain a thorough medical history concerning type, duration, and location of visual loss to point out the etiology of the disease. With simple diagnostic tools the differential diagnosis can be narrowed down even by non-ophthalmologists. This first differential diagnosis shows how urgent the patient has to be referred to an ophthalmologist. PMID:26242419

  1. Emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Townes, D A; Lee, T E; Gulo, S; VanRooyen, M J

    1998-08-01

    Russia has undergone sweeping political and social reforms within the past 5 years. The economic and social reforms heralded by the "new openness" of perestroika have led to a restructuring of medicine as well. Changes include the emergence of "for profit" organizations and acute care facilities, the introduction of private health insurance, modifications in the medical education system, and realignment of health priorities with a new trend toward primary care. PMID:9701309

  2. Emergency flare tip repair

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.A.

    1982-07-01

    Two damaged propane storage tank flares serving a large LPG storage facility near the Arabian Gulf were given emergency service. A diagram of over-all layout and spatial relationships between tanks and piping, and tables with general information relevant to selecting an acceptable radiant heat load factor and flare line flow characteristics were presented. The general equation for predicting radiant heat flux from a point source was used. The ignition of the temporary flare was discussed.

  3. EMERGE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhoe, Robert H.

    2002-03-12

    EMERGE had two basic goals: (1) To ensure that the DOE-funded labs at UW-Madison, U of Chicago, and UIUC were connected to the DOE National Labs at the highest available speeds. EMERGE grantees were to work with DOE network engineers to achieve this goal. (2) Establish a testbed for DiffServ networking, develop monitoring, measuring and, visualization tools, develop a grid services package, cooperate with Internet2's Quality DiffServ efforts, and deploy results. For the most part these goals have been achieved, although there were some gaps. By the same token there were also some achievements that came about beyond expectations. The EMERGE testbed was established and extended to Internet2 and, via STAR TAP, to CERN. Additionally, software was developed. Differentiated Services (DiffServ) is a mechanism for supporting network Quality of Service (or QoS) whereby packets that are transmitted by a client program are marked with a priority setting that can be interpreted by the router to effect special treatment of the packet. In particular the marked packets are promoted to a higher priority queue in the router and, as a result, spend a minimum amount of time in the router. Packets that are not marked are attached to a lower priority queue, and in some cases may be dropped when congestion arises.

  4. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  5. Test of emergent gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunggeun; Roychowdhury, Raju; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we examine a small but detailed test of the emergent gravity picture with explicit solutions in gravity and gauge theory. We first derive symplectic U(1) gauge fields starting from the Eguchi-Hanson metric in four-dimensional Euclidean gravity. The result precisely reproduces the U(1) gauge fields of the Nekrasov-Schwarz instanton previously derived from the top-down approach. In order to clarify the role of noncommutative spacetime, we take the Braden-Nekrasov U(1) instanton defined in ordinary commutative spacetime and derive a corresponding gravitational metric. We show that the Kähler manifold determined by the Braden-Nekrasov instanton exhibits a spacetime singularity while the Nekrasov-Schwarz instanton gives rise to a regular geometry—the Eguchi-Hanson space. This result implies that the noncommutativity of spacetime plays an important role for the resolution of spacetime singularities in general relativity. We also discuss how the topological invariants associated with noncommutative U(1) instantons are related to those of emergent four-dimensional Riemannian manifolds according to the emergent gravity picture.

  6. Justification-Based Local Search with Adaptive Noise Strategies

    E-print Network

    Niemelä, Ilkka

    study a framework called BC SLS for a novel type of stochastic lo- cal search (SLS) for propositional and justification guided search heuristics in SLS by applying the circuit-level SAT technique of justification frontiers. In this paper we extend the BC SLS approach first by de- veloping generalizations of BC SLS which

  7. JustificationBased Local Search with Adaptive Noise Strategies

    E-print Network

    Niemelä, Ilkka

    study a framework called BC SLS for a novel type of stochastic lo­ cal search (SLS) for propositional and justification guided search heuristics in SLS by applying the circuit­level SAT technique of justification frontiers. In this paper we extend the BC SLS approach first by de­ veloping generalizations of BC SLS which

  8. A School District's Search for a New Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Mary P.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the process one school district employed in its search for, and selection of, a new superintendent. The research design is a single site case study using qualitative methods. Data collection techniques include observation in the form of "shadowing" a search consultant, document analysis, and open-ended interviews of key…

  9. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  10. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  11. Search the PAQ Database

    Cancer.gov

    Use this interface to search through all the physical activity-related questions in our database. See below for some tips on how to search. If you have any comments concerning this database, please e-mail David Berrigan.

  12. Covariance Updates for Discriminative Training by Constrained Line Search 

    E-print Network

    Bell, Peter; King, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the recent Constrained Line Search algorithm for discriminative training of HMMs and propose an alternative formula for variance update. We compare the method to standard techniques on a phone recognition task.

  13. Emerging correlation optics.

    PubMed

    Angelsky, Oleg V; Gbur, Gregory J; Polyanskii, Peter; Hanson, Steen G; Volyar, Alexander; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A; Mokhun, Igor

    2012-04-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques. PMID:22505120

  14. Emergency Victim Care. A Textbook for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    This textbook for emergency medical personnel should be useful to fire departments, private ambulance companies, industrial emergency and rescue units, police departments, and nurses. The 30 illustrated chapters cover topics such as: (1) Emergency Medical Service Vehicles, (2) Safe Driving Practices, (3) Anatomy and Physiology, (4) Closed Chest…

  15. NCI Visuals Online: Search

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation NCI Visuals Online Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Search Search for: Date Created: Any 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 to Any 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Image

  16. 40 CFR 312.25 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. 312.25 Section 312.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND...

  17. 40 CFR 312.25 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. 312.25 Section 312.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND...

  18. Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, S; Rivers, E P

    2003-09-01

    Numerous reports have questioned the ability of United States emergency departments to handle the increasing demand for emergency services. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is widespread in US cities and has reportedly reached crisis proportions. The purpose of this review is to describe how ED overcrowding threatens patient safety and public health, and to explore the complex causes and potential solutions for the overcrowding crisis. A review of the literature from 1990 to 2002 identified by a search of the Medline database was performed. Additional sources were selected from the references of the articles identified. There were four key findings. (1) The ED is a vital component of America's health care "safety net". (2) Overcrowding in ED treatment areas threatens public health by compromising patient safety and jeopardising the reliability of the entire US emergency care system. (3) Although the causes of ED overcrowding are complex, the main cause is inadequate inpatient capacity for a patient population with an increasing severity of illness. (4) Potential solutions for ED overcrowding will require multidisciplinary system-wide support. PMID:12954674

  19. Search Applied Research Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Use this page to search our bibliography of publications from the Applied Research Program and its initiatives. Consult the help page for detailed instructions and searching tips. If available, links to abstracts and to PubMed or other Web pages for these publications will be provided in the search results.

  20. CRN Publication Search

    Cancer.gov

    Use this page to search our bibliography of Cancer Research Network publications. Consult the help page for detailed instructions and searching tips. If available, links to abstracts and to PubMed or other Web pages for these publications will be provided in the search results.

  1. Inside a Search. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Lou Marinoff's article, "Inside a Search," discusses the issues college search committees face in the pursuit of qualified faculty members that will be a good fit for their institutions. More often than not, faculty searches are more complex and challenging than the featured article suggests. The economic downturn facing the nation has resulted in…

  2. The Information Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  3. The Shortcut Search. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Faced with a late-season superintendent search, many districts defer the formal search-and-hire process and entice a senior administrator or former superintendent to serve a one- or two-year stint. One appealing alternative is an abbreviated search. Boards should advertise immediately and efficiently, develop their own criteria, recruit…

  4. Search ICSN Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Use this page to search our bibliography of International Cancer Screening Network publications. Consult the help page for detailed instructions and searching tips. If available, links to abstracts and to PubMed or other Web pages for these publications will be provided in the search results.

  5. Conducting a Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    Keyword and text string searches of online library catalogs often provide different results according to library and database used and depending upon how books and journals are indexed. For this reason, online databases such as ERIC often provide tutorials and recommendations for searching their site, such as how to use Boolean search strategies.…

  6. Basics of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.; Cochrane, Pauline (Atherton)

    Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters address (1) relevant definitions and vocabulary; (2) the conceptual facets of database searching,…

  7. The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

  8. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Avoid high potassium fruit juices (orange juice). THREE-DAY DIABETIC GROCERY LIST FOR EMERGENCIES Item Amount (per ... Other Distilled water 5 one gallon jugs THREE-DAY DIABETIC MEAL PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES The sample meal ...

  9. Emergent Horava gravity in graphene

    E-print Network

    G. E. Volovik; M. A. Zubkov

    2013-07-07

    First of all, we reconsider the tight - binding model of monolayer graphene, in which the variations of the hopping parameters are allowed. We demonstrate that the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry as well as the emergent U(1) gauge field appear. The emergent gauge field is equal to the linear combination of the components of the zweibein. Therefore, we actually deal with the gauge fixed version of the emergent 2+1 D teleparallel gravity. In particular, we work out the case, when the variations of the hopping parameters are due to the elastic deformations, and relate the elastic deformations with the emergent zweibein. Next, we investigate the tight - binding model with the varying intralayer hopping parameters for the multilayer graphene with the ABC stacking. In this case the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry and the emergent U(1) gauge field appear as well, the emergent low energy effective field theory has the anisotropic scaling.

  10. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  11. VisSearch: A Collaborative Web Searching Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2005-01-01

    VisSearch is a collaborative Web searching environment intended for sharing Web search results among people with similar interests, such as college students taking the same course. It facilitates students' Web searches by visualizing various Web searching processes. It also collects the visualized Web search results and applies an association rule…

  12. How Do Children Reformulate Their Search Queries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Sophie; Ford, Nigel; Clough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper investigates techniques used by children in year 4 (age eight to nine) of a UK primary school to reformulate their queries, and how they use information retrieval systems to support query reformulation. Method: An in-depth study analysing the interactions of twelve children carrying out search tasks in a primary school…

  13. Outcome of Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Han; Liao, Shou-Fu; Wu, Ching-Feng; Li, Ping-Chun; Li, Ming-Li

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute aortic dissections of Stanford type A require emergency surgery repair and present challenges to surgeons. The frozen elephant technique is one of several approaches used to treat aortic arch dissection. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of the frozen elephant technique for treating acute type A aortic dissection. Medline, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to March 31, 2014, for studies that assessed the use of frozen elephant trunk technique for treating acute type A aortic dissection. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included rate of stroke, spinal cord injury, renal failure, and reoperations for bleeding. Eleven studies were included in the analysis that encompassed 881 patients. The mean age ranged from 45.4 to 66.8 years, and the proportion of the population that was male ranged from 45 to 85%. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 8%. The rate of stroke, spinal cord injury, renal failure, and frequency of reoperations for bleeding were 3, 4, 5, and 5, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the findings are robust and there was no publication bias. These findings indicate that the frozen elephant techniques does not bring unacceptable mortality or morbidity risk for treating acute type A aortic dissection. PMID:25906096

  14. Emerging Adulthood: Resilience and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an overview of emerging adulthood, recentering, and resilience of youth with disabilities. Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which individuals experience delays in attainment of adult roles and social expectations. Recentering is a process that emerging adults experience as they make distinct shifts…

  15. Emergency Health Services Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography contains books, journal articles, visual aids, and other documents pertaining to emergency health care, which are organized according to: (1) publications dealing with day-to-day health emergencies that occur at home, work, and play, (2) documents that will help communities prepare for emergencies, including natural…

  16. Emergency Medical Services Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard emergency medical services curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the emergency medical services field, and includes job skills in six emergency medical services divisions outlined in the national curriculum:…

  17. Emergency medicine: A comprehensive review

    SciTech Connect

    Kravis, T.C.; Warner, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 91 chapters divided among 14 sections. Some of the chapter titles are: Transfusions; Minor Lacerations and Abrasions; Diabetic Emergencies; Adrenal Insufficiency; Hypercalcemia; Medical Genetics; Burns; Hazardous Materials; Gastrointestinal Emergencies; Infectious Disease Emergencies; Reye's Syndrome; Bites and Stings; and Hypothermia.

  18. Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplowitz, Brad; And Others

    This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…

  19. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  20. Abdominal vascular emergencies: US and CT assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute vascular emergencies can arise from direct traumatic injury to the vessel or be spontaneous (non-traumatic). The vascular injuries can also be divided into two categories: arteial injury and venous injury. Most of them are life-treatening emergencies, sice they may cause an important ipovolemic shock or severe ischemia in their end organ and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. In the different clinical scenarios, the correct diagnostic approach to vascular injuries isn’t firmly established and advantages of one imaging technique over the other are not obvious. Ultrasound (US) is an easy accessible, safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality but Computed Tomography (CT) with multiphasic imaging study is an accurate modality to evaluate the abdominal vascular injuries therefore can be considered the primary imaging modality in vascular emergencies. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of abdominal vascular emergencies, including traumatic and non traumatic vessel injuries, focusing of US and CT modalities. PMID:23902665

  1. Pediatric mental health emergencies in the emergency medical services system.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Margaret A; Mace, Sharon E

    2006-10-01

    Emergency departments are vital in the management of pediatric patients with mental health emergencies. Pediatric mental health emergencies are an increasing part of emergency medical practice because emergency departments have become the safety net for a fragmented mental health infrastructure that is experiencing critical shortages in services in all sectors. Emergency departments must safely, humanely, and in a culturally and developmentally appropriate manner manage pediatric patients with undiagnosed and known mental illnesses, including those with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and those experiencing a behavioral crisis. Emergency departments also manage patients with suicidal ideation, depression, escalating aggression, substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder, and maltreatment and those exposed to violence and unexpected deaths. Emergency departments must address not only the physical but also the mental health needs of patients during and after mass-casualty incidents and disasters. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency Physicians support advocacy for increased mental health resources, including improved pediatric mental health tools for the emergency department, increased mental health insurance coverage, and adequate reimbursement at all levels; acknowledgment of the importance of the child's medical home; and promotion of education and research for mental health emergencies. PMID:17015573

  2. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  3. Emerging Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

  4. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  5. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, R., Pemberton, W., Beal, W.

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  6. Emerging developmental model systems.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2006-10-01

    This primer briefly describes four emerging animal model systems that promise to provide insights into specific aspects of developmental biology. Highlighted here are two relatively well-characterized model systems, Gasterosteus aculeatus (three-spine stickleback fish) and Schmidtea mediterranea (planarian), as well as two organisms on which research is in its infancy, Carollia perspicillata (short-tailed fruit bat), and the basal metazoan, Trichoplax adhaerens. Scientists who helped develop these species into model systems discuss why they chose to research these animals. PMID:16881053

  7. [Emergency medicine: updates 2013].

    PubMed

    Marti, Christophe; Grosgurin, Olivier; Beysard, Nicolas; Dami, Fabrice; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Rutschmann, Olivier

    2014-01-15

    New evidences published this year are susceptible to change the management of several medical emergencies. Combined antiplatelet therapy might be beneficial for the management of TIA or minor stroke and rapid blood pressure lowering might improve the outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A restrictive red cell transfusion strategy is indicated in case of upper digestive bleeding and coagulation factors concentrates are superior to fresh frozen plasma for urgent warfarin reversal. Prolonged systemic steroid therapy is not warranted in case of acute exacerbation of BPCO, and iterative physiotherapy is not beneficial after acute whiplash. Finally, family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder among relatives. PMID:24558903

  8. Towards Lightweight and Robust Large Scale Emergent Knowledge Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nová?ek, Vít; Decker, Stefan

    We present a lightweight framework for processing uncertain emergent knowledge that comes from multiple resources with varying relevance. The framework is essentially RDF-compatible, but allows also for direct representation of contextual features (e.g., provenance). We support soft integration and robust querying of the represented content based on well-founded notions of aggregation, similarity and ranking. A proof-of-concept implementation is presented and evaluated within large scale knowledge-based search in life science articles.

  9. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  10. Dark matter searches

    E-print Network

    Laura Baudis

    2015-09-02

    One of the major challenges of modern physics is to decipher the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations provide ample evidence for the existence of an invisible and dominant mass component in the observable universe, from the scales of galaxies up to the largest cosmological scales. The dark matter could be made of new, yet undiscovered elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths with normal matter spanning an enormous range. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early universe, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which froze out of thermal equilibrium with a relic density matching the observations, represent two well-motivated, generic classes of dark matter candidates. Dark matter axions could be detected by exploiting their predicted coupling to two photons, where the highest sensitivity is reached by experiments using a microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. WIMPs could be directly observed via scatters off atomic nuclei in underground, ultra low-background detectors, or indirectly, via secondary radiation produced when they pair annihilate. They could also be generated at particle colliders such as the LHC, where associated particles produced in the same process are to be detected. After a brief motivation and an introduction to the phenomenology of particle dark matter detection, I will discuss the most promising experimental techniques to search for axions and WIMPs, addressing their current and future science reach, as well as their complementarity.

  11. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data. PMID:25472861

  12. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1?s after receiving the long-period surface wave data. PMID:25472861

  13. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  14. Neuro-Ophthalmological Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, João

    2015-01-01

    Neuro-ophthalmological emergencies constitute vision or life-threatening conditions if diagnosis and treatment are not promptly undertaken. Even with immediate therapy, these clinical entities carry a high rate of morbidity. They may present with diplopia, visual loss, and/or anisocoria. Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is an ominous condition, which can cause permanent and severe vision loss, stroke, or aortic dissection, requiring immediate steroid therapy. Pituitary apoplexy may go unnoticed if only computed axial tomography is performed. Diseases affecting the cavernous sinus and orbital apex region, such as cavernous sinus thrombosis or mucormycosis, can give rise to simultaneous vision loss and diplopia and, if not treated, may extend to the brain parenchyma causing permanent neurological sequela. An isolated third nerve palsy may be the harbinger of a cerebral aneurysm, carrying a significant risk of mortality. Horner syndrome can be the initial presentation of a carotid dissection, an important cause of stroke in the young adult. The neurohospitalist should be familiar with the workup and management of neuro-ophthalmological emergencies. PMID:26425250

  15. [Emergency in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Campailla, G

    1977-03-31

    Any form of intervention carried out with various means that cannot be put off may be described as urgent. The differences between urgency in psychiatry and in general medicine are recalled. A distinction is drawn between real psychiatric, real pseudopsychiatric, and psychiatric pseudourgency due to pathomimesis. The first category includes cases of anxiety crisis, suicidal tendency, widespread pathological depression, and mental confusion, the second those in which the main psychotic symptom masks a somatic disease, and the third cases brought into being by the patient because his ambient, family or precarious economic position offer no other solution to his problem than the mimicking of a disease and its dramatisation to the point of an emergency. General hospital should deal with psychiatric urgency in cooperation with psychiatric divisions or clinic, since resort may have to be made to resuscitation centres, toxicological laboratories, intensive cares departments, cardiology departments, etc. Emergency patients can be handled at the out-patient level, or by means of a short period of hospitalisation. PMID:854219

  16. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-05-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  17. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  18. Cardiac emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, M S

    1996-06-01

    Pediatric cardiac emergencies require very specific treatment in the emergency room setting. Considering the possibility of a cardiac problem as the cause for the presenting symptoms is the initial step in successful management. Many patients present with what is initially considered a primary pulmonary disorder such as pneumonia, asthma, or bronchiolitis. Airway stabilization and ventilatory support, if needed, remain the first steps in stabilizing the patient. Many neonates with acutely decompensating heart disease may require the patency of the ductus arteriosus for survival. Prostaglandin E given as continuous infusion is the treatment of choice. Congestive heart failure can present at any age. In older patients, it is often due to myocarditis and is characterized by low cardiac output. Supportive measures, fluid restriction, and inotropic support are the basic concepts for initial treatment. Supraventricular tachycardia is a frequent arrhythmia, especially in young children. If the patient is unstable, immediate intravenous administration of adenosine or synchronized cardioversion are the initial interventions. In stable patients, vagal maneuvers may be attempted to abort the arrhythmia. PMID:8793920

  19. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  20. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  1. Emerging double helical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-07-01

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on `bottom-up' and `top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  2. Nagging: A Scalable Fault-Tolerant Paradigm for Distributed Search Alberto Maria Segre Sean Forman

    E-print Network

    of a diverse set of projects, including SETI@Home, the search for radio signal evidence of extraterrestrialNagging: A Scalable Fault-Tolerant Paradigm for Distributed Search Alberto Maria Segre Sean Forman, Italy Stony Brook, NY 11794 Abstract This paper describes nagging, a technique for parallelizing search

  3. Internet Power Searching: The Advanced Manual. 2nd Edition. Neal-Schuman NetGuide Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Phil

    This handbook provides information on how Internet search engines and related software and utilities work and how to use them in order to improve search techniques. The book begins with an introduction to the Internet. Part 1 contains the following chapters that cover mining the Internet for information: "An Introduction to Search

  4. Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: effect of JPEG image enhancement

    E-print Network

    Peli, Eli

    Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: effect of JPEG image enhancement Gang & Peli E. Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: effect of JPEG image enhancement the performance effect for a JPEG based image enhancement technique using the visual search task. Methods: One

  5. An Integrated Framework for Spatio-Temporal-Textual Search and Mining

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    An Integrated Framework for Spatio-Temporal-Textual Search and Mining Bingsheng Wang1 , Haili Dong1 and implement a search and mining system that adapts to the needs of both desktop and mobile users. Although there exist search engines [2] and pattern mining techniques [3] for crime incidents and terrorism threats

  6. Engineering Your Job Search: A Job-Finding Resource for Engineering Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This guide, which is intended for engineering professionals, explains how to use up-to-date job search techniques to design and conduct an effective job hunt. The first 11 chapters discuss the following steps in searching for a job: handling a job loss; managing time and financial resources while conducting a full-time job search; using objective…

  7. How to Find More Supernovae with Less Work: Object Classification Techniques for Difference Imaging

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Wong, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    machine learning techniques to the supernova search pipeline of the Nearby Supernova Factory (machine learning techniques. §3 describes the Nearby Supernova FactoryMachines provide dramatically better object discrimination. At the Nearby Supernova Factory,

  8. Emerging infections: a perpetual challenge

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M; Folkers, Gregory K; Fauci, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and their determinants, have recently attracted substantial scientific and popular attention. HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, H5N1 avian influenza, and many other emerging diseases have either proved fatal or caused international alarm. Common and interactive co-determinants of disease emergence, including population growth, travel, and environmental disruption, have been increasingly documented and studied. Are emerging infections a new phenomenon related to modern life, or do more basic determinants, transcending time, place, and human progress, govern disease generation? By examining a number of historically notable epidemics, we suggest that emerging diseases, similar in their novelty, impact, and elicitation of control responses, have occurred throughout recorded history. Fundamental determinants, typically acting in concert, seem to underlie their emergence, and infections such as these are likely to continue to remain challenges to human survival. PMID:18992407

  9. Radial-Velocity Searches for Exoplanets in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Bun'ei

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been discovered around various types of stars by various techniques during the past decade. Among them precise radial velocity measurements for stars are fundamental technique to detect and confirm exoplanets. In this paper activities in East-Asian region in this research field are introduced: East-Asian Planet Search Network, which is a network searching for planets around evolved intermediate-mass stars, and Subaru/IRD project, which will search for habitable planets around M-type dwarfs using infrared radial-velocity method.

  10. Direct detection searches for axion dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybka, Gray

    2014-09-01

    The axion is both a compelling dark matter candidate and provides an elegant solution to the strong CP problem. The axion haloscope technique has the potential to detect dark matter axions. ADMX (the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment) is an implementation of the axion haloscope technique, and has undergone a series of sensitivity-improving upgrades. With the impending addition of a dilution refrigerator, ADMX is poised to search a large region of plausible dark matter axion masses. Meanwhile, a number of other axion experimental techniques are being considered to explore other axion masses relevant to dark matter.

  11. Nanoparticle characterization: State of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jung; Holback, Hillary; Liu, Karen C.; Abouelmagd, Sara A.; Park, Joonyoung; Yeo, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have received enormous attention as a promising tool to enhance target-specific drug delivery and diagnosis. Various in vitro and in vivo techniques are used to characterize a new system and predict its clinical efficacy. These techniques enable efficient comparison across nanoparticles and facilitate a product optimization process. On the other hand, we recognize their limitations as a prediction tool, which owe to inadequate applications and overly simplified test conditions. This article provides a critical review of in vitro and in vivo techniques currently used for evaluation of nanoparticles and introduces emerging techniques and models that may be used complementarily. PMID:23461379

  12. The Virtual Learning Commons: An Emerging Technology for Learning About Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, D. D.; Del Rio, N.; Fierro, C.; Gandara, A.; Garcia, A.; Garza, J.; Giandoni, M.; Ochoa, O.; Padilla, E.; Salamah, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of semantic, visualization, and social media tools that support knowledge sharing and innovation across research disciplines. The explosion of new scientific tools and techniques challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of emerging technologies that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about emerging technologies to become potential adopters or re-users. Often, emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to collectively organize Web resources through social bookmarking, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant technologies that are emerging; and b) get feedback from other researchers on innovative ideas and designs. Concurrently, developers of emerging technologies can learn about potential users and the issues they encounter, and they can analyze the impact of their tools on other projects. The VLC aims to support the 'fuzzy front end' of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. This presentation will discuss the innovation theories that have informed design of the VLC, and hypotheses about the flow of information in virtual settings that can enable the process of innovation. The presentation will include a brief demonstration of key capabilities within the VLC that enable learning about emerging technologies, including the technologies that are presented in this session.

  13. Private Information Disclosure from Web Searches (The case of Google Web History)

    E-print Network

    Castelluccia, Claude

    .inrialpes.fr/projects/private-information-disclosure-from-web-searches 1 Introduction With the emergence of cloud-based computing, users store an increasing amountPrivate Information Disclosure from Web Searches (The case of Google Web History) Claude.castelluccia, daniele.perito}@inrialpes.fr 2 Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine edecrist

  14. Storage Techniques in Flash Memories and Phase-change Memories 

    E-print Network

    Li, Hao

    2010-10-12

    Non-volatile memories are an emerging storage technology with wide applica- tions in many important areas. This study focuses on new storage techniques for flash memories and phase-change memories. Flash memories are ...

  15. Shuttle abort landing site emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.

  16. Emerging multidisciplinary research across database management systems

    E-print Network

    Nica, Anisoara; Varde, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    The database community is exploring more and more multidisciplinary avenues: Data semantics overlaps with ontology management; reasoning tasks venture into the domain of artificial intelligence; and data stream management and information retrieval shake hands, e.g., when processing Web click-streams. These new research avenues become evident, for example, in the topics that doctoral students choose for their dissertations. This paper surveys the emerging multidisciplinary research by doctoral students in database systems and related areas. It is based on the PIKM 2010, which is the 3rd Ph.D. workshop at the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM). The topics addressed include ontology development, data streams, natural language processing, medical databases, green energy, cloud computing, and exploratory search. In addition to core ideas from the workshop, we list some open research questions in these multidisciplinary areas.

  17. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, B W; Fisher, C C

    1995-01-01

    As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it. PMID:8547913

  18. Dealing with office emergencies. Stepwise approach for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Sempowski, Ian P.; Brison, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple stepwise approach to initial management of emergencies in family physicians' offices; to review how to prepare health care teams and equipment; and to illustrate a general approach to three of the most common office emergencies. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1980 to December 2001. Articles were selected based on their clinical relevance, quality of evidence, and date of publication. We reviewed American family medicine, pediatric, dental, and dermatologic articles, but found that the area has not been well studied from a Canadian family medicine perspective. Consensus statements by specialty professional groups were used to identify accepted emergency medical treatments. MAIN MESSAGE: Family medicine offices are frequently poorly equipped and inadequately prepared to deal with emergencies. Straightforward emergency response plans can be designed and tailored to an office's risk profile. A systematic team approach and effective use of skills, support staff, and equipment is important. The general approach can be modified for specific patients or conditions. CONCLUSION: Family physicians can plan ahead and use a team approach to develop a simple stepwise response to emergency situations in the office. PMID:12371305

  19. Emergent Horava gravity in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Volovik, G.E.; L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygina 2, 119334 Moscow ; Zubkov, M.A.

    2014-01-15

    First of all, we reconsider the tight-binding model of monolayer graphene, in which the variations of the hopping parameters are allowed. We demonstrate that the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry as well as the emergent U(1) gauge field appear. The emergent gauge field is equal to the linear combination of the components of the zweibein. Therefore, we actually deal with the gauge fixed version of the emergent 2+1 D teleparallel gravity. In particular, we work out the case, when the variations of the hopping parameters are due to the elastic deformations, and relate the elastic deformations with the emergent zweibein. Next, we investigate the tight-binding model with the varying intralayer hopping parameters for the multilayer graphene with the ABC stacking. In this case the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry and the emergent U(1) gauge field appear as well, and the emergent low energy effective field theory has the anisotropic scaling. -- Highlights: •The tight-binding model for graphene with varying hopping parameters is considered. •The emergent gravity and emergent gauge fields are derived. •For the case of the multilayer graphene we obtain the analogue of Horava gravity with anisotropic scaling.

  20. Emerging small molecule drugs.

    PubMed

    Colin, Sophie; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; Staels, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacological lowering of LDL-C levels using statins reduces cardiovascular risk. However, a substantial residual risk persists especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies of HDL-C with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, novel therapeutic strategies to raise HDL-C levels or improve HDL functionality are developed as complementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases. However, until now most therapies targeting HDL-C levels failed in clinical trials because of side effects or absence of clinical benefits. This chapter will highlight the emerging small molecules currently developed and tested in clinical trials to pharmacologically modulate HDL-C and functionality including new CETP inhibitors (anacetrapib, evacetrapib), novel PPAR agonists (K-877, CER-002, DSP-8658, INT131 and GFT505), LXR agonists (ATI-111, LXR-623, XL-652) and RVX-208. PMID:25523004