Sample records for emergent realist evaluation

  1. Perceptual Evaluation of Video-Realistic Speech

    E-print Network

    Geiger, Gadi

    2003-02-28

    abstract With many visual speech animation techniques now available, there is a clear need for systematic perceptual evaluation schemes. We describe here our scheme and its application to a new video-realistic ...

  2. Realistic electric vehicle battery evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, W.A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The STM-5-140 Nickel Cadmium electric vehicle battery was tested under actual operating conditions using the UMASS Lowell battery evaluation laboratory. The battery evaluation system uses battery current data taken from an EV using its on board data acquisition system. The car is driven on a typical commute while battery current as well as other data are taken at one second intervals. In the battery evaluation lab, individual batteries are subjected to the same operating conditions as those in the car. This procedure uses fewer batteries and allows the same commute to be repeated exactly. Three test procedures using 0, 20, and 40 degree centigrade controlled environment temperatures were implemented. Measured data consisted of voltage, current, and temperature. Test cycle, capacity and round trip efficiency data are presented.

  3. Making Evaluations Realistic: The Challenge of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmins, Paul; Miller, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Evaluations of practice have often adopted experimental or quasi-experimental approaches and have focused heavily on outcomes of innovative programmes. This creates problems in replicating studies and effectively creates obstacles to the sharing of good practice. In this paper, ideas from Pawson and Tilley's (1997) approach to Realistic Evaluation

  4. Faculty Development for Educators: A Realist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorinola, Olanrewaju O.; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Davies, David; Peile, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities for educators in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study used a realist approach to evaluate FD and to test the hypothesis that motivation, engagement and perception are key mechanisms of effective FD activities. The authors observed and interviewed 33 course participants at one…

  5. Performance Evaluation of Realistic Vanet Using Traffic Light Scenario

    E-print Network

    Nidhi,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is attracting considerable attention from the research community and the automotive industry to improve the services of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). As today's transportation system faces serious challenges in terms of road safety, efficiency, and environmental friendliness, the idea of so called "ITS" has emerged. Due to the expensive cost of deployment and complexity of implementing such a system in real world, research in VANET relies on simulation. This paper attempts to evaluate the performance of VANET in a realistic environment. The paper contributes by generating a real world road Map of JNU using existing Google Earth and GIS tools. Traffic data from a limited region of road Map is collected to capture the realistic mobility. In this work, the entire region has been divided into various smaller routes. The realistic mobility model used here considers the driver's route choice at the run time. It also studies the clustering effect caused by traffic lights...

  6. A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on understanding how context influences evidence-based practice. The strengths and limitations of the approach are considered, including how to operationalise it and some of the challenges. This approach provided a useful interpretive framework with which to make sense of the multiple factors that were simultaneously at play and being observed through various data sources, and for developing explanatory theory about using standardised care approaches in practice. PMID:20504293

  7. OpenAirInterface Traffic Generator (OTG): A Realistic Traffic Generation Tool for Emerging

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    it is capable of generating mixed human and machine type traffic patterns. Furthermore, it has a dual operationOpenAirInterface Traffic Generator (OTG): A Realistic Traffic Generation Tool for Emerging, Sophia Antipolis, France firstname.name@eurecom.fr Abstract--Traffic generation represents one

  8. Realistic quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interaction emerge in the generic static structure

    E-print Network

    Bashinsky, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as fitting functions for the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state of fields unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every conceivable Hamiltonian for the fields. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient local symmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabi...

  9. Employment advice in primary care: a realistic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pittam, Gail; Boyce, Melanie; Secker, Jenny; Lockett, Helen; Samele, Chiara

    2010-11-01

    Every organisation in the UK is affected by mental distress and ill-health in the workforce. The first point of contact for most people with common mental health problems, such as mild to moderate anxiety or depression, is their general practitioner. The location of specialist employment advisers in GP surgeries is therefore a logical attempt to address the issue of people falling out of the workplace, through the provision of early intervention and combined vocational and psychological treatment packages. In 2007 the Richmond Fellowship, a national mental health charity, received a grant to provide four employment advisers to work with GP surgeries in Eastern England. The aim was to help people with mental health problems gain work (Regain clients) or retain their current employment (Retain clients). In this study a realistic evaluation framework was applied to address the question of what works, for whom and in which contexts through interviews with key stakeholders including 22 clients of the project, five primary health care staff and the four employment advisers. The interventions that Retain clients found most helpful were careers guidance (including psychological profiling) and developing strategies to negotiate and communicate with employers. These appeared to help individuals to take control, broaden their horizons and move forward. In many cases this was supported by assistance in helping clients think through whether they wanted to consider a career change. For Regain clients the most important interventions were help with interview skills, CV writing and assertiveness training. Employment outcomes were considerably higher for the Retain clients than for the Regain clients. The study indicates that it could be more effective for Retain and Regain services to be delivered through different care pathways to avoid diluting the services offered and consequently reducing their effectiveness. PMID:20500226

  10. Evaluation of health promotion in schools: a realistic evaluation approach using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schools are key settings for health promotion (HP) but the development of suitable approaches for evaluating HP in schools is still a major topic of discussion. This article presents a research protocol of a program developed to evaluate HP. After reviewing HP evaluation issues, the various possible approaches are analyzed and the importance of a realistic evaluation framework and a mixed methods (MM) design are demonstrated. Methods/Design The design is based on a systemic approach to evaluation, taking into account the mechanisms, context and outcomes, as defined in realistic evaluation, adjusted to our own French context using an MM approach. The characteristics of the design are illustrated through the evaluation of a nationwide HP program in French primary schools designed to enhance children's social, emotional and physical health by improving teachers' HP practices and promoting a healthy school environment. An embedded MM design is used in which a qualitative data set plays a supportive, secondary role in a study based primarily on a different quantitative data set. The way the qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined through the entire evaluation framework is detailed. Discussion This study is a contribution towards the development of suitable approaches for evaluating HP programs in schools. The systemic approach of the evaluation carried out in this research is appropriate since it takes account of the limitations of traditional evaluation approaches and considers suggestions made by the HP research community. PMID:20109202

  11. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David, Ed.; Hricko, Mary, Ed.; Howell, Scott, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" provides a view of the possibilities and challenges facing online educators and evaluators in the 21st Century. As technology evolves and online measurement and assessment follow, "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" uses established evaluation

  12. Towards realistic artificial benchmark for community detection algorithms evaluation

    E-print Network

    Orman, Günce Keziban; Cherifi, Hocine

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the partitioning performance of community detection algorithms is one of the most important issues in complex network analysis. Artificially generated networks are often used as benchmarks for this purpose. However, previous studies showed their level of realism have a significant effect on the algorithms performance. In this study, we adopt a thorough experimental approach to tackle this problem and investigate this effect. To assess the level of realism, we use consensual network topological properties. Based on the LFR method, the most realistic generative method to date, we propose two alternative random models to replace the Configuration Model originally used in this algorithm, in order to increase its realism. Experimental results show both modifications allow generating collections of community-structured artificial networks whose topological properties are closer to those encountered in real-world networks. Moreover, the results obtained with eleven popular community identification algorith...

  13. Sonar authentication performance evaluation under realistically simulated undersea channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasseri, Bijan G.; Lynch, Robert S.

    2010-04-01

    Undersea communication channels are filled with acoustic emissions of various kinds. From sonar to the signals used in acoustic communications, man-made noise, and biological signals generated by marine life, the ocean is a complex conduit for diverse emissions. In this work we propose an algorithm in which an acoustic emission such as a sonar signal is transparently and securely embedded with signatures known as a digital watermark. Extracting the watermark helps to distinguish, for example, a friendly sonar from other acoustic emissions that may exist as part of the natural undersea environment, or from pings that may have originated from hostile forces or echoes fabricated by an adversary. We have adopted spread spectrum as an embedding technique. Spread spectrum allows for matching the watermark to propagation, multipath, and noise profiles of the channel. The sonar is first characterized by its spectrogram and divided up into non-overlapping blocks in time. Each block is individually embedded with a single bit drawn from the watermark payload. The seeds used to generate the spreading codes are the keys used by authorized receivers to recover the watermark. The detector is a maximum likelihood detector using test statistics obtained by integrating a correlation detector output over the entire sonar pulse width. Performance of the detector is controlled by signal-to-watermark ratio, specific frequency bands selected for watermarking, watermark payload, and processing gain. For validation, we use Sonar Simulation Toolset (SST). SST is a software tool that is custom-made for the simulation of undersea channels using realistic propagation properties in oceans. Probabilities of detection and false alarm rates, as well as other performance boundaries, are produced for a shallow water channel subject to multipath and additive noise.

  14. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  15. A New Realistic Evaluation Analysis Method: Linked Coding of Context, Mechanism, and Outcome Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Suzanne F.; Kolla, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    In attempting to use a realistic evaluation approach to explore the role of Community Parents in early parenting programs in Toronto, a novel technique was developed to analyze the links between contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) directly from experienced practitioner interviews. Rather than coding the interviews into themes in terms of…

  16. Using Lazy Evaluation to Simulate Realistic-Size Repertoires in Models of the Immune System1

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    repertoires of vertebrate immune systems can recognize and respond to almost all foreign antigens, evenUsing Lazy Evaluation to Simulate Realistic-Size Repertoires in Models of the Immune System1 Derek@lanl.gov Abstract We describe a method of implementing efficient computer simulations of immune systems that have

  17. Evaluating Emergency Physicians: Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fiallos, Javier; Farion, Ken; Michalowski, Wojtek; Patrick, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation tool to assess performance of Emergency Physicians according to such criteria as resource utilization, patient throughput and the quality of care. Evaluation is conducted using a mathematical programming model known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Use of this model does not require the subjective assignment of weights associated with each criterion – a feature typical of methodologies that rely on composite scores. The DEA model presented in this paper was developed using a hypothetical data set describing a representative set of profiles of Emergency Physicians. The solution to the model relates the performance of each Emergency Physician in relation to the others and to a benchmark. We discuss how such an evaluation tool can be used in practice. PMID:24551348

  18. Realistic numerical simulations of solar convection: emerging flux, pores, and Stokes spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgobiani, D.; Stein, R.; Nordlund, A.

    2012-12-01

    We report on magneto-convection simulations of magnetic flux emerging through the upper layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Simulations by Georgobiani, Stein and Nordlund start from minimally structured, uniform, untwisted horizontal field advected into the computational domain by supergranule scale inflows at 20 Mm depth. At the opposite extreme, simulations by Cheung (2007, 2008, 2011) start with a coherent flux tube inserted into or forced into the bottom of the computational domain. Several robust results have emerged from the comparison of results from these two very different initial states. First, rising magnetic flux gets deformed into undulating, serpentine shapes by the influence of the convective up- and down-flows. The flux develops fine structure and appears at the surface first as a "pepper and salt" pattern of mixed polarity. Where magnetic flux approaches the surface, granules become darker and elongated in the direction of the field. Subsequently, the underlying large scale magnetic structures make the field collect into unipolar regions. Magneto-convection produces a complex, small-scale magnetic field topology, whatever the initial state. A heirarchy of magnetic loops corresponding to the different scales of convective motions are produced. Vertical vortex tubes form at intergranule lane vertices which can lead to tornado-like magnetic fields in the photosphere. Gradients in field strength and velocity produce asymmetric Stokes spectra. Where emerging Omega loops leave behind nearly vertical legs, long lived pores can spontaneously form. The field in the pores first becomes concentrated and evacuated near the surface and the evacuated flux concentration then extends downward.

  19. Region of interest evaluation of SPECT image reconstruction methods using a realistic brain phantom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weishi Xia; Stephen J. Glick; Tin-Su Pan; Edward J. Soares; Der-Shan Luo

    1996-01-01

    A realistic numerical brain phantom, developed by Zubal et al. (1994), was used for a region-of-interest evaluation of the accuracy and noise variance of the following SPECT reconstruction methods: (1) Maximum-Likelihood reconstruction using the Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm; (2) an EM algorithm using ordered-subsets (OS-EM); (3) a re-scaled block iterative EM algorithm (RBI-EM); and (4) a filtered backprojection algorithm that uses

  20. Conditions for production of interdisciplinary teamwork outcomes in oncology teams: protocol for a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary teamwork (ITW) is designed to promote the active participation of several disciplines in delivering comprehensive cancer care to patients. ITW provides mechanisms to support continuous communication among care providers, optimize professionals’ participation in clinical decision-making within and across disciplines, and foster care coordination along the cancer trajectory. However, ITW mechanisms are not activated optimally by all teams, resulting in a gap between desired outcomes of ITW and actual outcomes observed. The aim of the present study is to identify the conditions underlying outcome production by ITW in local oncology teams. Methods This retrospective multiple case study will draw upon realist evaluation principles to explore associations among context, mechanisms and outcomes (CMO). The cases are nine interdisciplinary cancer teams that participated in a previous study evaluating ITW outcomes. Qualitative data sources will be used to construct a picture of CMO associations in each case. For data collection, reflexive focus groups will be held to capture patients’ and professionals’ perspectives on ITW, using the guiding question, ‘What works, for whom, and under what circumstances?’ Intra-case analysis will be used to trace associations between context, ITW mechanisms, and patient outcomes. Inter-case analysis will be used to compare the different cases’ CMO associations for a better understanding of the phenomenon under study. Discussion This multiple case study will use realist evaluation principles to draw lessons about how certain contexts are more or less likely to produce particular outcomes. The results will make it possible to target more specifically the actions required to optimize structures and to activate the best mechanisms to meet the needs of cancer patients. This project could also contribute significantly to the development of improved research methods for conducting realist evaluations of complex healthcare interventions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use CMO associations to improved empirical and theoretical understanding of interdisciplinary teamwork in oncology, and its results could foster more effective implementation in clinical practice. PMID:24938443

  1. The power of the context map: Designing realistic outcome evaluation strategies and other unanticipated benefits.

    PubMed

    Renger, Ralph; Foltysova, Jirina; Becker, Karin L; Souvannasacd, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Developing a feasible evaluation plan is challenging when multiple activities, often sponsored by multiple agencies, work together toward a common goal. Often, resources are limited and not every agency's interest can be represented in the final evaluation plan. The article illustrates how the Antecedent Target Measurement (ATM) approach to logic modeling was adapted to meet this challenge. The key adaptation is the context map generated in the first step of the ATM approach. The context map makes visually explicit many of the underlying conditions contributing to a problem as possible. The article also shares how a prioritization matrix can assist the evaluator in filtering through the context map to prioritize the outcomes to be included in the final evaluation plan as well as creating realistic outcomes. This transparent prioritization process can be especially helpful in managing evaluation expectations of multiple agencies with competing interests. Additional strategic planning benefits of the context map include pinpointing redundancies caused by overlapping collaborative efforts, identifying gaps in coverage, and assisting the coordination of multiple stakeholders. PMID:26036610

  2. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of realistic emission source aerosols (TERESA): introduction and overview.

    PubMed

    Godleski, John J; Rohr, Annette C; Kang, Choong M; Diaz, Edgar A; Ruiz, Pablo A; Koutrakis, Petros

    2011-08-01

    Determining the health impacts of sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is an important scientific goal. PM(2.5) is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents that are likely to differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study focused on two PM sources--coal-fired power plants and mobile sources--and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to emissions from these sources. The set of papers published here document the power plant experiments. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. TERESA involved withdrawal of emissions from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the United States. The emissions were aged and atmospherically transformed in a mobile laboratory simulating downwind power plant plume processing. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in laboratory rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. The approach employed in TERESA was ambitious and innovative. Technical challenges included the development of stack sampling technology that prevented condensation of water vapor from the power plant exhaust during sampling and transfer, while minimizing losses of primary particles; development and optimization of a photochemical chamber to provide an aged aerosol for animal exposures; development and evaluation of a denuder system to remove excess gaseous components; and development of a mobile toxicology laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, design, and methods employed in the study. PMID:21639692

  4. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA): Introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, John J.; Rohr, Annette C.; Kang, Choong M.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Determining the health impacts of sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents that are likely to differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study focused on two PM sources—coal-fired power plants and mobile sources—and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to emissions from these sources. The set of papers published here document the power plant experiments. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. TERESA involved withdrawal of emissions from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the United States. The emissions were aged and atmospherically transformed in a mobile laboratory simulating downwind power plant plume processing. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in laboratory rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. The approach employed in TERESA was ambitious and innovative. Technical challenges included the development of stack sampling technology that prevented condensation of water vapor from the power plant exhaust during sampling and transfer, while minimizing losses of primary particles; development and optimization of a photochemical chamber to provide an aged aerosol for animal exposures; development and evaluation of a denuder system to remove excess gaseous components; and development of a mobile toxicology laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, design, and methods employed in the study. PMID:21639692

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-01-01

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired

  6. Region of interest evaluation of SPECT image reconstruction methods using a realistic brain phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Weishi; Glick, S.J.; Soares, E.J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A realistic numerical brain phantom, developed by Zubal et al, was used for a region-of-interest evaluation of the accuracy and noise variance of the following SPECT reconstruction methods: (1) Maximum-Likelihood reconstruction using the Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm; (2) an EM algorithm using ordered-subsets (OS-EM); (3) a re-scaled block iterative EM algorithm (RBI-EM); and (4) a filtered backprojection algorithm that uses a combination of the Bellini method for attenuation compensation and an iterative spatial blurring correction method using the frequency-distance principle (FDP). The Zubal phantom was made from segmented MRI slices of the brain, so that neuro-anatomical structures are well defined and indexed. Small regions-of-interest (ROIs) from the white matter, grey matter in the center of the brain and grey matter from the peripheral area of the brain were selected for the evaluation. Photon attenuation and distance-dependent collimator blurring were modeled. Multiple independent noise realizations were generated for two different count levels. The simulation study showed that the ROI bias measured for the EM-based algorithms decreased as the iteration number increased, and that the OS-EM and RBI-EM algorithms (16 and 64 subsets were used) achieved the equivalent accuracy of the ML-EM algorithm at about the same noise variance, with much fewer number of iterations. The Bellini-FDP restoration algorithm converged fast and required less computation per iteration. The ML-EM algorithm had a slightly better ROI bias vs. variance trade-off than the other algorithms.

  7. Advertising emergency contraception using local radio: an evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Hall; Philip Milner

    1996-01-01

    Emergency contraception offers considerable potential for reducing un wanted pregnancies, yet knowledge about its availability and use remains poor. This paper describes a radio advertising campaign in Rotherham and surrounding areas to promote the use of emergency contraception. The effectiveness of the campaign was evaluated by comparing the prescribing of emergency contraception in the districts participating in the campaign with

  8. An evaluation of dipole reconstruction accuracy with spherical and realistic head models in MEG.

    PubMed

    Crouzeix, A; Yvert, B; Bertrand, O; Pernier, J

    1999-12-01

    MEG forward problem has been solved for about 2000 dipoles placed on the brain surface using a very fine 3-layer realistic model of the head and the boundary element method (BEM). For each dipole, spherical models, one-layer realistic BEM models and coarser 3-layer realistic BEM models, were used to reconstruct the dipole. It was found that the localization bias induced by using a spherical model of the head increased from 2.5 mm in the upper part of the head to 12 mm in the lower part, on average. It was also found that, for the same computing time, a 3-layer model of the head gave on average 2 mm better localization errors than a one-layer model of the head. Orientation errors of less than 20 degrees could only be retrieved with a 3-layer realistic model. Localization and orientation errors highly depended on the dipole position in the brain. PMID:10616124

  9. Evaluation of Emerging Diagnostic Tools for Commercial HVAC Systems 

    E-print Network

    Friedman, H.; Piette, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates the capabilities of six emerging diagnostic tools for commercial HVAC systems. We present a brief description of the diagnostic tools, and then focus on evaluating the features of the tools. We include the following...

  10. Implementing accountability for reasonableness framework at district level in Tanzania: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the growing importance of the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework in priority setting worldwide, there is still an inadequate understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying its influence on legitimacy and fairness, as conceived and reflected in service management processes and outcomes. As a result, the ability to draw scientifically sound lessons for the application of the framework to services and interventions is limited. This paper evaluates the experiences of implementing the A4R approach in Mbarali District, Tanzania, in order to find out how the innovation was shaped, enabled, and constrained by the interaction between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Methods This study draws on the principles of realist evaluation -- a largely qualitative approach, chiefly concerned with testing and refining programme theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual interviews, non-participant observation, and document reviews. A thematic framework approach was adopted for the data analysis. Results The study found that while the A4R approach to priority setting was helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability, stakeholder engagement, and fairness, the efforts at integrating it into the current district health system were challenging. Participatory structures under the decentralisation framework, central government's call for partnership in district-level planning and priority setting, perceived needs of stakeholders, as well as active engagement between researchers and decision makers all facilitated the adoption and implementation of the innovation. In contrast, however, limited local autonomy, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, inadequate accountability mechanisms, and limited local resources were the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation. Conclusion This study documents an important first step in the effort to introduce the ethical framework A4R into district planning processes. This study supports the idea that a greater involvement and accountability among local actors through the A4R process may increase the legitimacy and fairness of priority-setting decisions. Support from researchers in providing a broader and more detailed analysis of health system elements, and the socio-cultural context, could lead to better prediction of the effects of the innovation and pinpoint stakeholders' concerns, thereby illuminating areas that require special attention to promote sustainability. PMID:21310021

  11. Evaluation of two mobile telemedicine systems in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun K; Park, In-Cheol; Kim, Seung-Ho; Jo, Jin-Ho; Chun, Hye Jung; Jung, Suck-Myung; Kim, Dong-Keun

    2003-01-01

    Two different prototype mobile telemedicine systems were constructed for use in the emergency room. They could transmit physiological signals as well as video pictures and sound. One device, the mobile emergency bed (MEB), was powered by battery and had a wireless connection to the local-area network (LAN). For the other, the mobile emergency server (MES), a patient monitor, video-camera and microphone were connected by a radio-frequency link to a server. A functional evaluation and a clinical evaluation (by 12 emergency doctors in six emergency centres) were performed on both prototypes. The bandwidth and the video quality of the MEB were better than those of the MES, because of the digital transmission of the wireless LAN. The MES was better for directing patient treatment and teleconsultation; the MEB was better for static patients in the emergency centre. In general, the MES was more suitable for practical emergency telemedicine work. PMID:14728772

  12. A realistic simulator for the design and evaluation of intelligent vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Gowal; Yizhen Zhang; Alcherio Martinoli

    2010-01-01

    The number of vehicles hitting the road each day is rapidly increasing, and several problems, such as traffic congestion or driver safety, can no longer be solved in the same fashion as before. Intelligent transportation systems could potentially solve part of these problems, but prototyping, designing and testing cooperative smart vehicles is a cumbersome task. This paper presents a realistic

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EVALUATION METHODS OF EMERGENCY VENTILATION STRATEGIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Zhao; Xianting Li

    With the occurrence of indoor terrorism attacks and the accidental release of toxic chemicals, people have paid more attentions on such emergency events in recent years. The effective evaluation method of emergency ventilation strategies could help people find out the accurate way to control the ventilation system, and reduce the total loss during the event. In this article, two methods

  14. Emergency department evaluation and management of foot and ankle pain.

    PubMed

    Wedmore, Ian; Young, Scott; Franklin, Jill

    2015-05-01

    Foot and ankle injuries are a frequent cause for a visit to the Emergency Department. A thorough evaluation and treatment of these injuries needs to be an area of in-depth familiarity for the Emergency Medicine physician. The key to proper evaluation is first a history and physical examination that focuses on determining what, if any, imaging is required. Subsequently, a focused history, physical examination, and imaging will then determine if an injury is stable or unstable, requiring operative intervention. PMID:25892727

  15. Evaluation of semidecentralized emergency drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Eloidin, Océane; Dorea, Caetano C

    2015-08-24

    This study evaluates the potential for a novel semidecentralized approach that uses coagulant disinfectant products (CDPs) for humanitarian water treatment, by testing two commercially available products (CDP-W and CDP-T). Their performances were evaluated against the relevant water quality treatment objectives (The Sphere Project) under laboratory conditions, using a standardized testing protocol with both synthetic and natural surface test waters. Tests indicated a satisfactory performance by one of the products (CDP-W) with respect to humanitarian water quality objectives, (i.e., free chlorine residual, pH, and turbidity) that was dependent on initial water quality characteristics. Adequate bacterial inactivation (final thermotolerant coliform concentration of < 1 cfu/100 mL) was always attained and log reductions of up to 5 were achieved. The other product (CDP-T) did not exhibit any measurable coagulation and disinfection properties, indicating the variability of product quality and the need to conduct evaluations such as the ones presented in this study. Such results are of relevance to relief agencies delivering water supply interventions. PMID:26121019

  16. Realistic evaluation of hull performance for rowing shells, canoes, and kayaks in unsteady flow.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander; Campbell, Ian; Clelland, David; Doctors, Lawrence J; Cichowicz, Jakub

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of hull dynamics in shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of rowing shells as well as canoes and kayaks. An approach was developed to generate data in a towing tank using a test rig capable of reproducing realistic speed profiles. The impact of unsteady shallow-water effects on wave-making resistance was examined via experimental measurements on a benchmark hull. The data generated were used to explore the validity of a computational approach developed to predict unsteady shallow-water wave resistance. Comparison of measured and predicted results showed that the computational approach correctly predicted complex unsteady wave-resistance phenomena at low oscillation frequency and speed, but that total resistance was substantially under-predicted at moderate oscillation frequency and speed. It was postulated that this discrepancy arose from unsteady viscous effects. This was investigated via hot-film measurements for a full-scale single scull in unsteady flow in both towing-tank and field-trial conditions. Results suggested a strong link between acceleration and turbulence and demonstrated that the measured real-world viscous-flow behaviour could be successfully reproduced in the tank. Thus a suitable tank-test approach could provide a reliable guide to hull performance characterization in unsteady flow. PMID:21756127

  17. Using the Co-Production of Knowledge for Developing Realistic Natural Disaster Scenarios for Small-to-Medium Scale Emergency Management Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T.; Wilson, T. M.; Davies, T. R.; Orchiston, C.; Thompson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster scenarios for Emergency Management (EM) exercises are a widely-used and effective tool for communicating hazard information to policy makers, EM personnel, lifelines operators and communities in general. It is crucial that the scenarios are as realistic as possible. Major disasters however, contain a series of cascading consequences, both environmental and social, which are difficult to model. Consequently, only recently have large-scale exercises included such processes; incorporating these in small- and medium-scale scenarios has yet to be attempted. This study details work undertaken in a recent medium-scale earthquake exercise in New Zealand to introduce such cascading processes into the disaster scenario. Given limited time, data, and funding, we show that the co-production of knowledge between natural disaster scientists, EM personnel, and governance and lifelines organisations can yield detailed, realistic scenarios. Using the co-production process, scenario development was able to identify where the pre-exercise state of knowledge was insufficient. This enabled a focussed research response driven by end-user needs. This found that in general, seismic hazard (ground shaking) and its likely impacts were well known and understood by all parties. However, subsequent landsliding and associated effects were poorly known and understood and their potential impacts unconsidered. Scenario development therefore focussed primarily on understanding these processes and their potential effects. This resulted in cascading hazards being included in a medium-scale NZ exercise for the first time. Further, all participants were able to focus on the potential impacts on their specific sectors, increasing the level of knowledge of cascading processes across all parties. Using group based discussions throughout the design process allowed a detailed scenario to be created, fostered stronger inter-disciplinary relationships, and identified areas for further research. Consequently, further detailed research has begun specifically into the impacts from secondary effects in an effort to further increase resilience to future events.

  18. The New Mexico School Nurse and Emergency Medical Services Emergency Preparedness Course: Program Description and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgie, Robert; Sapien, Robert E.; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    Illness and injuries are common among students and school staff. Therefore, school nurses must be prepared. In this study, a 16-hour scenario-based emergency preparedness course for school nurses was evaluated for its effectiveness. Effectiveness was measured by (a) traditional methods (written exams and confidence surveys) and (b) skills and…

  19. Prospective evaluation of emerging bacteria in cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Steinkamp; B. Wiedemann; E. Rietschel; A. Krahl; J. Gielen; H. Bärmeier; F. Ratjen

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundBacteria contribute considerably to the progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. In this prospective, multi-centre study, we aimed to evaluate the occurrence of emerging bacteria and the physicians' assessments of the clinical importance of these findings.

  20. EVALUATING EMERGENCY RESPONSE MODELS OF RADIOLOGICAL DISPERSION IN COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Dyer; J. H. Pascoe

    Operational airborne releases of trace quantities of the radioactive noble gas Ar-41 from the HIFAR Nuclear Research Reactor located in Sydney, Australia are valuable for evaluating emergency response models incorporating radiological dispersion. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), where the reactor is located, has a network of meteorological stations and GR-150 environmental gamma dose detectors placed in complex

  1. Evaluating phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of ornamental plants as phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail emergence, and compared their performance with predictions based upon calendar date, cumulative growing degree-days (GDD) and the WeedCast program. From 1997 to 2001, we monitored giant foxtail emergenc...

  2. Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Newby; D. Morton

    2008-01-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is

  3. Evaluation of emergency tourniquets for prehospital use in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-yan GUO; Yu LIU; Yan-lan MA; Hong-ying PI; Jian-rong WANG

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveMassive hemorrhage is life-threatening during armed conflicts. Tourniquets are important medical devices used to reduce severe bleeding in trauma. The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate the current tourniquets used in China and provide information to emergency nurses in selecting the appropriate tourniquet.

  4. A Realist Evaluation Approach to Unpacking the Impacts of the Sentencing Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kim Steven; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of complex interventions such as sentencing guidelines provide an opportunity to understand the mechanisms by which policies and programs can impact intermediate and long-term outcomes. There is limited previous discussion of the underlying frameworks by which sentencing guidelines can impact outcomes such as crime rates. Guided by a…

  5. Method to Filter ECGs and Evaluate Clinical Parameter Distortion using Realistic ECG Model Parameter Fitting

    E-print Network

    McSharry, Patrick E.

    is then added to the ECG in order to evaluate the fit- ting accuracy under a variety of recording conditions sensitive to noise due to the low amplitude nature of the P-wave. In general, the filter performance extra parameter per asymmetric wave (only the T- wave in this paper). Each symmetrical feature

  6. Creating realistic, scenario-based synthetic data for test and evaluation of information analytics software

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Varley, Caroline F.

    2008-04-10

    The Threat Stream Generator (TSG) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing synthetic datasets to test and evaluate visual analytics tools for the past four years. Our activities have ranged from supporting the evaluation of major U.S. Government analytical frameworks to creating four datasets for the IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) contest over the past two years. We have developed a reasonable method and supporting toolset for creating believable synthetic data sets for different uses. A key differentiator for our datasets is that they contain data concerning one or more invented threats, based on a scenario. Embedding a known threat into the data provides ground truth for analytic tools to work against in evaluating their performance, as well as new opportunities for evaluation researchers to explore techniques given ground truth exists. We describe the process of creating the scenarios and threats and the process of transforming them into data elements, and then we describe how this data is embedded in other data to form a TSG dataset.

  7. Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography

    PubMed Central

    Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper’s ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as ? exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography. PMID:21158272

  8. Evaluation of emergency ambulance characteristics under several criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Siler, K F

    1979-01-01

    A methodology and analysis are presented for evaluating response time characteristics of emergency ambulance systems. The methodology is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique and a heuristic optimal-seeking technique for locating emergency ambulances under several criteria based on response time distribution. Optimization criteria include minimum mean system response time, minimum system fractile response time and minimum level-loaded response time. The evaluation methodology is applied to the metropolitan area of Los Angeles County. Ambulance response characteristics and loads are discussed in detail. From these results alternative dispatch polices can be evaluated. Complementing the analysis is a presentation of a sensitivity analysis and an analysis of existing ambulance sites. Unique to the methodology is the adaption of the heuristic optimal-seeking technique to include any of the three criteria and the effectiveness of the methodology for analyzing small or large ambulance systems. PMID:511579

  9. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)—Power plant studies: assessment of breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Coull, Brent; Long, Mark S.; Rohr, Annette C.; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Our approach to study multi-pollutant aerosols isolates a single emissions source, evaluates the toxicity of primary and secondary particles derived from this source, and simulates chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere after emission. Three U.S. coal-fired power plants utilizing different coals and with different emission controls were evaluated. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from ?-pinene and/or ammonia was added in some experiments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Scenarios studied at each plant included the following: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + SOA (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS); additional control scenarios were also studied. Continuous respiratory data were obtained during exposures using whole body plethysmography chambers. Of the 12 respiratory outcomes assessed, each had statistically significant changes at some plant and with some of the 4 scenarios. The most robust outcomes were found with exposure to the PO scenario (increased respiratory frequency with decreases in inspiratory and expiratory time); and the PONS scenario (decreased peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50%). PONS findings were most strongly associated with ammonium, neutralized sulfate, and elemental carbon (EC) in univariate analyses, but only with EC in multivariate analyses. Control scenario O (oxidized without primary particles) had similar changes to PO. Adjusted R2 analyses showed that scenario was a better predictor of respiratory responses than individual components, suggesting that the complex atmospheric mixture was responsible for respiratory effects. PMID:21639693

  10. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  11. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    PubMed Central

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C.; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

  12. Towards a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: i) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; ii) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; iii) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; iv) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; v) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and vi) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems.

  13. Realistic Subscale Evaluations of the Mechanical Properties of Advanced Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Konkel, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of experimental powder metallurgy disk alloys were evaluated for their processing characteristics and high temperature mechanical properties. Powder of each alloy was hot compacted, extruded, and isothermally forged into subscale disks. Disks were subsolvus and supersolvus heat treated, then quenched using procedures designed to reproduce the cooling paths expected in large-scale disks. Mechanical tests were then performed at 538, 704, and 815 C. Several alloys had superior tensile and creep properties at 704 C and higher temperatures, but were difficult to process and prone to quench cracking, chiefly due to their high gamma prime solvus temperature. Several other alloys had more favorable processing characteristics due to their lower gamma prime solvus temperature and balanced time-dependent properties at 704 C. Results indicate an experimental low solvus, high refractory alloy can build upon the best attributes of all these alloys, giving exceptional tensile and creep properties at high temperatures with good processing characteristics due to a low gamma prime solvus.

  14. Information technology model for evaluating emergency medicine teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbach, James; Ryan, James

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes work in progress to develop an Information Technology (IT) model and supporting information system for the evaluation of clinical teaching in the Emergency Medicine (EM) Department of North Shore University Hospital. In the academic hospital setting student physicians, i.e. residents, and faculty function daily in their dual roles as teachers and students respectively, and as health care providers. Databases exist that are used to evaluate both groups in either academic or clinical performance, but rarely has this information been integrated to analyze the relationship between academic performance and the ability to care for patients. The goal of the IT model is to improve the quality of teaching of EM physicians by enabling the development of integrable metrics for faculty and resident evaluation. The IT model will include (1) methods for tracking residents in order to develop experimental databases; (2) methods to integrate lecture evaluation, clinical performance, resident evaluation, and quality assurance databases; and (3) a patient flow system to monitor patient rooms and the waiting area in the Emergency Medicine Department, to record and display status of medical orders, and to collect data for analyses.

  15. Rapid Generation of Realistic Mobility Models for VANET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feliz Kristianto Karnadi; Zhi Hai Mo; Kun-chan Lan

    2007-01-01

    One emerging, new type of ad-hoc network is the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), in which vehicles constitute the mobile nodes in the network. Due to the prohibitive cost of deploying and implementing such a system in real world, most research in VANET relies on simulations for evaluation. A key component for VANET simulations is a realistic vehicular mobility model that

  16. PET and MRI based treatment planning systems: a methodology for a realistic evaluation of the dose and fluence distributions in BNCT and in GdNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerullo, N.; Daquino, G. G.; Bufalino, D.

    2006-05-01

    The article focuses on the methodology for a realistic evaluation of the dose and fluence distributions in Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), based on the Treatment Planning System (TPS) that takes into account the real macroscopic distribution of the neutron capturer. The neutron capturers considered in the present study are 10B and 157Gd, used in BNCT and GdNCT respectively.

  17. Differential Evaluations of Alcohol-related Consequences Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Ray, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) to reduce drinking in college students often provide feedback about negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by students to motivate them to drink less. Yet, there is evidence which suggests that not everyone perceives consequences as negative and raises questions regarding the utility of consequence-specific feedback for some individuals. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research to examine salience of consequences among both college and non-college emerging adults, differences in ratings by sex, age, and frequency of experiencing consequences, and the relationship between salience measured in emerging adulthood and drinking patterns in young adulthood. Data were from an accelerated cohort study of males and females (N = 1308), who were either age 18, 21, or 24 years at the time of consequence evaluation and followed up 7 years later. Most experienced consequences were rated as at least a little bothersome. Regression analyses indicated that females, older participants, and those who experienced a consequence more often evaluated consequences as more bothersome but there were no differences by college status. Mean ratings of bother did not predict quitting drinking or alcohol problems 7 years later, whereas the number of consequences experienced did. Overall, the results suggest that most consequences are rated similarly by emerging adults regardless of college attendance but that feedback on consequences may be more salient for females and older emerging adults. PFIs may need to differ in the types of feedback they provide depending on demographic characteristics and baseline level of alcohol problems. PMID:23412945

  18. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

  19. Emergency department evaluation and treatment of the shoulder and humerus.

    PubMed

    Bonz, James; Tinloy, Bradford

    2015-05-01

    Shoulder injuries are among the most common musculoskeletal complaints seen in US emergency departments (EDs). ED evaluation of the shoulder must account for the broad range of potential fracture patterns seen in the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Acromioclavicular dislocation is often encountered in the ED and treatment varies by severity. Dislocation of the shoulder is frequently seen, and the ED physician must be skilled in several reduction techniques to optimize a successful reduction. An understanding of when orthopedic consultation is appropriate and when patients can be dispositioned with timely follow-up are integral to complete patient recovery. PMID:25892723

  20. More than a checklist: a realist evaluation of supervision of mid-level health workers in rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mid-level health workers (MLHWs) form the front-line of service delivery in many low- and middle-income countries. Supervision is a critical institutional intervention linking their work to the health system, and it consists of activities intended to support health workers’ motivation and enable them to perform. However its impact depends not only on the frequency of these activities but also how they are carried out and received. This study aims to deepen understanding of the mechanisms through which supervision activities support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of MLHWs, in rural Guatemala. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to examine the operation of supervision of five health posts using a realist evaluation approach. A program theory was formulated describing local understanding of how supervision activities are intended to work. Data was collected through interviews and document review to test the theory. Analysis focused on comparison of activities, outcomes, mechanisms and the influence of context across cases, leading to revision of the program theory. Results The supervisor’s orientation was identified as the main mechanism contributing to variation observed in activities and their outcomes. Managerial control was the dominant orientation, reflecting the influence of standardized performance criteria and institutional culture. Humanized support was present in one case where the auxiliary nurse was motivated by the sense that the full scope of her work was valued. This orientation reflected the supervisor’s integration of her professional identity as a nurse. Conclusions The nature of the support health workers received was shaped by supervisors’ orientation, and in this study, nursing principles were central to humanized support. Efforts to strengthen the support that supervision provides to MLHWs should promote professional ethos as a means of developing shared performance goals and orient supervisors to a more holistic view of the health worker and their work. PMID:24602196

  1. Integration of robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration, and decision making: a realist process evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery offers many potential benefits for patients. While an increasing number of healthcare providers are purchasing surgical robots, there are reports that the technology is failing to be introduced into routine practice. Additionally, in robotic surgery, the surgeon is physically separated from the patient and the rest of the team, with the potential to negatively impact teamwork in the operating theatre. The aim of this study is to ascertain: how and under what circumstances robotic surgery is effectively introduced into routine practice; and how and under what circumstances robotic surgery impacts teamwork, communication and decision making, and subsequent patient outcomes. Methods and design We will undertake a process evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and robotic surgery for the curative treatment of rectal cancer. Realist evaluation provides an overall framework for the study. The study will be in three phases. In Phase I, grey literature will be reviewed to identify stakeholders’ theories concerning how robotic surgery becomes embedded into surgical practice and its impacts. These theories will be refined and added to through interviews conducted across English hospitals that are using robotic surgery for rectal cancer resection with staff at different levels of the organisation, along with a review of documentation associated with the introduction of robotic surgery. In Phase II, a multi-site case study will be conducted across four English hospitals to test and refine the candidate theories. Data will be collected using multiple methods: the structured observation tool OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery); video recordings of operations; ethnographic observation; and interviews. In Phase III, interviews will be conducted at the four case sites with staff representing a range of surgical disciplines, to assess the extent to which the results of Phase II are generalisable and to refine the resulting theories to reflect the experience of a broader range of surgical disciplines. The study will provide (i) guidance to healthcare organisations on factors likely to facilitate successful implementation and integration of robotic surgery, and (ii) guidance on how to ensure effective communication and teamwork when undertaking robotic surgery. PMID:24885669

  2. Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Young; Alan M Snyder

    2007-11-01

    During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the fundamentals of this emerging technology, applciations for emergency response and specific results of the technology evaluation conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. Project REALISTIC: Evaluation and Modification of REAding, LIStening, and ArithmeTIC Needs in Military Jobs Having Civilian Counterparts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; And Others

    The papers in this collection present a description of, and the results of, research in Work Unit REALISTIC. In addition to the first paper which is an overview, the three papers are: "Psychometric Determination of Relationships Among Literacy Skills and Job Proficiency,""Reading Ability, Readability, and Readership: Identifying Job-Related…

  4. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  5. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  6. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating the comparison with respect to a representative range of efficiencies in dishwasher units, a realistic comparison was made. A statistical approach was devised to process the available output by combining a Z-score test with the Cox method for confidence intervals. Despite the common use of LCA software with Monte Carlo analysis, this approach to compare distributions has not been discovered in LCA-related literature and offers a straightforward method for extending analysis under conditions of positive skew approximated by a lognormal distribution, which is common in LCA parameters. The two case studies provide product developer and consumer guidance, respectively. They furthermore may be used to inform policy in both direct and nuanced manners. The encouragement of product reuse is facilitated for individuals and organizations providing food-service facilities. Caution in efforts to increase power generation capacity with renewable energy not coupled with reduction of demand is implied.

  7. Realist RCTs of complex interventions - an oxymoron.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Westhorp, Gill; Wong, Geoff; Van Belle, Sara; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kegels, Guy; Pawson, Ray

    2013-10-01

    Bonell et al. discuss the challenges of carrying out randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate complex interventions in public health, and consider the role of realist evaluation in enhancing this design (Bonell, Fletcher, Morton, Lorenc, & Moore, 2012). They argue for a "synergistic, rather than oppositional relationship between realist and randomised evaluation" and that "it is possible to benefit from the insights provided by realist evaluation without relinquishing the RCT as the best means of examining intervention causality." We present counter-arguments to their analysis of realist evaluation and their recommendations for realist RCTs. Bonell et al. are right to question whether and how (quasi-)experimental designs can be improved to better evaluate complex public health interventions. However, the paper does not explain how a research design that is fundamentally built upon a positivist ontological and epistemological position can be meaningfully adapted to allow it to be used from within a realist paradigm. The recommendations for "realist RCTs" do not sufficiently take into account important elements of complexity that pose major challenges for the RCT design. They also ignore key tenets of the realist evaluation approach. We propose that the adjective 'realist' should continue to be used only for studies based on a realist philosophy and whose analytic approach follows the established principles of realist analysis. It seems more correct to call the approach proposed by Bonell and colleagues 'theory informed RCT', which indeed can help in enhancing RCTs. PMID:23850482

  8. Modeling language change: An evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand English

    E-print Network

    McKane, Alan

    Modeling language change: An evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand S T R A C T Trudgill (2004) proposed that the emergence of New Zealand English, and of isolated new's theory of new- dialect formation, as applied to the emergence of New Zealand English (Trudgill, 2004; see

  9. 76 FR 72431 - Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is issuing two final guidance documents: Supplement 4 (Supplement 4) to ``Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP- 1, Revision 1 (NUREG-0654), and the Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program Manual (the REP Program Manual).......

  10. 1992 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has encouraged and financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies suitable for use at hazardous waste sites for five year...

  11. Time/Loss Analysis in the development and evaluation of emergency response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.A.

    1994-08-01

    Time/Loss Analysis (T/LA) provides a standard for conducting technically consistent and objective evaluations of emergency response planning and procedures. T/LA is also a sound tool for evaluating the performance of safeguards and procedures.

  12. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2004-02-29

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Modifications to the original study design, which will improve the atmospheric aging component of the project and ensure that emissions are as realistic as possible, have resulted in project delays, and, at the time of report preparation, fieldwork at the Upper Midwest plant had not begun. However, such activities are imminent. This report therefore does not present data for activities covered by the Agreement, but does present results for the laboratory methods development work. This work is critical for the future success of the project. In particular, the atmospheric reaction simulation system is of paramount importance to the TERESA study design, since the basis for the toxicity assessment lies in the generation of realistic exposure atmospheres. The formation, composition, and toxicity of particles will be related to different atmospheric conditions and plume dilution scenarios through variations in reaction conditions. Because of the critical role played by this component in ensuring the overall success of the project, more time was required to develop and optimize the system, and the one-chamber simulation system outlined in the original Scope of Work for the Agreement was modified to comprise a more realistic dual chamber system. We are confident that the additional time required to optimize these methodologies will result in a significant improvement in the study. We fully expect that results for tasks covered under the Agreement, and a complete discussion of their relevance and value, will be included in the next semiannual progress report.

  13. Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases 

    E-print Network

    Meredith, Anna Louise

    2012-06-30

    New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

  14. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debajeet Choudhuri; Tanvir Huda; Evropi Theodoratou; Harish Nair; Lina Zgaga; Rachel Falconer; Ivana Luksic; Hope L Johnson; Jian Shayne F Zhang; Shams El Arifeen; Christopher B Nelson; Ray Borrow; Harry Campbell; Igor Rudan

    2011-01-01

    Background  Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of\\u000a sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently,\\u000a the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines,

  15. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory.

    PubMed

    Rong, Huang; Xuedong, Liang; Guizhi, Zeng; Yulin, Ye; Da, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency. PMID:26083170

  16. Evaluation of a media campaign to increase knowledge about emergency contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Trussell; Jacqueline Koenig; Barbara Vaughan; Felicia Stewart

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a media campaign designed to increase knowledge about emergency contraception. Random telephone surveys were conducted before and after the campaign to measure changes in knowledge about emergency contraception. Change in the volume of calls to the Emergency Contraception Hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE) was a secondary measure of impact. Significant increases occurred in the proportions of women who

  17. Secondary Analysis of the Emergency School Assistance Program. Executive Summary, Planning/Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Budgeting, and Evaluation.

    A 1973 evaluation of the Emergency School Assistance Program (ESAP) showed that it was effective in improving the academic achievement of tenth grade black male students. This study further analyzes this important result with the aim of finding useful information for the operation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) which replaced ESAP. Several…

  18. Evaluation of the shock index in dogs presenting as emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Adam E.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Sharp, Claire R.; Dixon, Kursten L.; Lyn Price, Lori; Shaw, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine the normal range for Shock Index (SI) [defined as heart rate (HR)/systolic blood pressure (SBP)], in healthy dogs, and 2) compare SI in healthy dogs with dogs presenting to the emergency room (ER) deemed to be in or not in a state of shock. Design Prospective study. Animals 68 clinically normal dogs,,18 dogs that were presented to the ER deemed to be in shock and 19 dogs presenting to the ER not deemed to be in shock. Setting University teaching hospital. Interventions Peripheral or central venous blood sampling. Measurements and Main Results Heart rate and SBP were recorded on simulated presentation (healthy dogs), and emergency presentations for both dogs deemed to be in shock and dogs not deemed in shock. Dogs in shock had a median SI of 1.37 (0.87–3.13), which was significantly higher than both other groups; dogs not deemed in shock had median SI 0.73 (0.56–1.20), P<0.0001 and healthy dogs had median SI 0.78 (0.37–1.30) P<0.0001), respectively. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis suggested a SI cut-off of 1.0, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) of 0.89 (Specificity (Sp) 89, Sensitivity (Sn) 90) when comparing dogs deemed in shock with healthy dogs, and 0.92 (Sp 95, Sn 89) when comparing dogs in shock with to dogs not deemed in shock. Conclusions The SI is an easy and non-invasive patient parameter that is higher in dogs that are deemed to be in shock than both healthy dogs and dogs presented as emergencies but not deemed to be in a state of shock. The measurement of SI may have some benefit in clinical assessment of emergency patients. PMID:23855723

  19. 1994 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE), Emerging Technology Partnership (ETP) has initiated actions since 1987 that support the Clinton Administration's policy to foster and accelerate the research and development of inn...

  20. Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Alfred Paul

    2004-01-01

    The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

  1. Evaluation of an emergency response model for the Rocky Flats Plant: Charter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Charter provides a basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to evaluate the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code for emergency response and emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant. This document establishes the foundation for the project entitled, Evaluation of an Emergency Response Model for the Rocky Flats Plant'' (to be referred to as the Project). This document meets the following objectives: Identify the Project; establish the project management structure, organizational responsibilities, and organizational commitments for reaching the goals of the Project, and identify a process for model revision and revelation for acceptance. 2 figs.

  2. TECHNICAL EVALUATION REPORT EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS STUDY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K. R.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to review technical specifications for emergency diesel generators in the context of new information developed in the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and the application of current NRC regulatory concepts and knowledge. Aging and reliability relationships related to the standard technical specifications are reviewed and supported by data and published information to ensure that conservative and beneficial specifications are identified. Where technical specifications could adversely influence aging and reliability, the technical issues and reasonable alternatives are identified for consideration. This report documents and spans the technical progress from the published and approved regulatory documents to the current knowledge basis. This ensures that the technical bases for the technical specifications discussed are documented and relatively complete subject information is contained in one document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has participated in the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program directed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Engineering. The NPAR study of emergency diesel generator aging was performed in two phases. In Phase I, plant operating experience, ~ata, expert opinion and statistical methods were used to produce a new data base related to aging, reliability, and operational readiness of nuclear service diesel generators. Phase II was chiefly concerned with aging mitigation measures.

  3. Evaluation of phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity potentials of a cyanobacterial extract containing microcystins under realistic environmental concentrations and in a soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Sylvain; Mougin, Christian; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Crouzet, Olivier; Bru, David; Nélieu, Sylvie; Bouaïcha, Noureddine

    2015-06-01

    The impact of a crude extract of Microcystis aeruginosa (PCC7820) containing 14 microcystin variants was investigated on seeds germination and radicles development of four agricultural plants: two tomato varieties Solanum lycopersicum (MicroTom and Saint-Pierre), the wheat Triticum aestivum and the lettuce Lactuca sativa. In addition, the effect of 14 d-exposure to irrigation water containing realistic concentrations of microcystins (0-0.1 mg eq. microcystin-LRL(-1)) on the tomato MicroTom seedling growth was further evaluated on roots and aerial part biomasses. Impacts on soil bacterial parameters, as such extracellular enzymatic activities, nitrification activity and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms were also investigated. In germination-test, the cyanobacterial extract inhibited only the germination of the wheat seeds, with an EC50 of 11 mg eq. microcystin-LRL(-1); which is 13 times lower than that of the cadmium chloride (EC50 of 145 mg L(-1)). Moreover, the cyanobacterial extract containing low concentrations of microcystins increased the growth of primary roots; however, high concentrations decreased it for all plants except for the wheat. In the soil-plant approach, only aerial part biomass of the tomato MicroTom was enhanced significantly. In addition, only soil nitrification potential and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial abundances were consistently impacted. A significant positive correlation (r=0.56) was found between the increase of nitrification potential and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. This work suggested, that exposure to a cyanobacterial extract containing realistic environmental microcystins concentrations could affect seed germination, depending plant species. It was also highlighted, for the first time, disturbances in soil bacteria functioning, evidences on soil nitrification process. PMID:25754013

  4. Special Emergency Education for the Disadvantaged. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene; Mark M.; And Others

    This evaluation of Project Special Elementary Education for the Disadvantaged (SEED) sought to assess the impact of SEED instruction upon students enrolled in disadvantaged schools (grades three to six) in four major study areas: mathematics achievement, interest in math and other school subjects, motivation, and self concept. In addition, the…

  5. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  6. Realistic model for battlefield fire plume simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Real battlefields are very messy places which may contain burning vehicles, vegetation, or buildings and with atmospheres containing dust and smoke clouds. Realistic scene simulation for system evaluation must therefore also contain these same elements. A model has been developed to generate realistic images of fire plumes from burning military vehicles. Model output includes transmittance through the plume and radiance

  7. Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: A prospective trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raoul Breitkreutz; Susanna Price; Holger V. Steiger; Florian H. Seeger; Hendrik Ilper; Hanns Ackermann; Marcus Rudolph; Shahana Uddin; Markus A. Weigand; Edgar Müller; Felix Walcher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the studyFocused ultrasound is increasingly used in the emergency setting, with an ALS-compliant focused echocardiography algorithm proposed as an adjunct in peri-resuscitation care (FEEL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of FEEL in pre-hospital resuscitation, the incidence of potentially treatable conditions detected, and the influence on patient management.

  8. A REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF EMERGING DRIVER FATIGUE DETECTION MEASURES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    E-print Network

    technologies based on their similarities, Dinges and Mallis (5) proposed the following categories: readiness- 1 - A REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF EMERGING DRIVER FATIGUE DETECTION MEASURES AND TECHNOLOGIES.S. Department of Transportation Washington, DC #12;- 2 - LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Technology Comparison

  9. A Framework for Performance Evaluation and Optimization of an Emerging Multimedia DS-CDMA

    E-print Network

    A Framework for Performance Evaluation and Optimization of an Emerging Multimedia DS-CDMA Network Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) network with a wide range of Quality of Service ( QoS ) requirements on losses on the outage probability, to capture the queueing aspects of DS-CDMA network behavior in presence of delay

  10. Evaluation and treatment of acute back pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Della-Giustina, David

    2015-05-01

    Back pain is a common presenting complaint to the emergency department. The key to proper evaluation is a history and physical examination focused on determining if any red flags for serious disease are present. If no red flags are present, the patient most likely has nonspecific back pain and their symptoms will resolve in 4 to 6 weeks. No diagnostic testing is required. For patients with red flags, a focused history and examination in conjunction with diagnostic laboratory tests and imaging determine whether the patient has an emergent condition such as herniated disc, epidural compression, or spinal infection. PMID:25892724

  11. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 ?g/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the ?rst report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25901158

  12. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 ?g/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the ?rst report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25901158

  13. Emergency contraception: why can't you give it away? Qualitative findings from an evaluation of advance provision of emergency contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Fairhurst; Sue Ziebland; Sally Wyke; Peter Seaman; Anna Glasier

    2004-01-01

    The Lothian Emergency Contraception Project (LECP)—a primary care-based intervention to offer advance supplies of emergency contraception (EC) to women aged 16–29 was not associated with a reduction in abortion rates. We undertook case studies, utilizing qualitative and quantitative methods, to evaluate the intervention. In this article we present findings from qualitative interviews with 44 primary care professionals working at case

  14. A procedure to develop realistic numerical models of cellular phones for an accurate evaluation of SAR distribution in the human head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Pisa; Marta Cavagnaro; Vanni Lopresto; Emanuele Piuzzi; Giorgio A. Lovisolo; Paolo Bernardi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization procedure based on the minimization of a cost function and devoted to implement realistic numerical models of cellular phones to be used inside a finite-difference time-domain code. The adopted cost function depends on geometrical and electrical parameters of the phone and quantifies the accuracy of the model by comparing the simulation results with experimental measurements

  15. Evaluation of BWR emergency procedure guidelines for BWR ATWS using RAMONA3B code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Neymotin; G. Slovik; E. Cazzoli; P. Saha

    1985-01-01

    An MSIV Closure ATWS calculation for a typical BWR\\/4 (Browns Ferry, Unit 1) was performed using the RAMONA-3B code which is a BWR systems transient code combining three-dimensional neutronic core representation with multi-channel one-dimensional thermal hydraulics. The main objective of the study was to perform a best-estimate evaluation of the recently proposed Emergency Procedure Guidelines for Anticipated Transients Without Scram

  16. Evaluation of prehospital emergency care in the field and during the ambulance drive to the hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suna Soysal; Ozgur Karcioglu; Hakan Topacoglu; Sinan Yenal; Harun Koparan; Orhan Yaman

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of ambulance procedures and interventions in the management of patients\\u000a dispatched to 2 emergency departments (EDs) of urban hospitals in Izmir. Use of trauma boards and cervical collars, airway\\u000a patency, breathing, and circulation problems were recorded in both EDs. Eighty-one patients with a mean age of 47.54±2.36\\u000a years (range, 4–89) brought into

  17. Evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital: assessment of radiology performance in the accident and emergency department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwyneth C. Weatherburn; Stirling Bryan; Robert Cocks

    1993-01-01

    In the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) x-ray images are used to assist in the initial diagnosis and management of the patient. It is therefore expected that the main benefits of PACS in A&E will arise from the ability of clinicians to manipulate the digital image and thus potentially improve their diagnostic performance. In order to evaluate whether this benefit

  18. Evaluator/controller practicum for US Department of Energy emergency exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Lacher, L.; Converse, R.; Gasper, W.; Mitrani, J. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory has designed a practicum to help ensure that exercises at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities provide results that will be useful in maintaining or improving emergency preparedness while ensuring the safety of the public and the exercise participants. Participants in the first two offerings of the practicum came from DOE facilities nationwide. The practicum augments the usual forms of controller and evaluator training with actual practice in carrying out controller and evaluator roles. Feedback from participants indicated substantial benefit from the training. Many of the participants expressed a desire to present such training to others at their home facilities.

  19. Realists, Radicals, and Rainbows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta S. Bennett

    1995-01-01

    Every person in the physical education disciplines must become an advocate for social justice. This entails realistic self-examination, awareness of unearned privilege, and an open-hearted willingness to grasp the myriad cultural influences upon human communication, construction of knowledge, identity, and valuing. Rejection of a system in which a few can impose their wills upon all others, knowingly or not, is

  20. Modeling Realistic Virtual Hairstyles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Yu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an effective method for modeling realistic curly hairstyles, taking into account both artificial hairstyling processes and natural curliness. The result is a detailed geometric model of hairs that can be rendered and animated via existing methods. Our technique exploits the analogy between hairs and a vector field; interactively and efficiently models global and local hair

  1. The Evaluation Exchange: Emerging Strategies in Evaluating Child and Family Services, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Leslie, Ed.; Bohan-Baker, Marielle, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two 2001 issues of a newsletter of the Harvard Family Research Project, designed to share new ideas and experiences in evaluating systems reform and comprehensive child and family services. The first issue focuses on strategic communications and efforts of nonprofit agencies to evaluate strategic communication…

  2. Teaching and evaluating multitasking ability in emergency medicine residents - what is the best practice?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multitasking is an essential skill to develop during Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. Residents who struggle to cope in a multitasking environment risk fatigue, stress, and burnout. Improper management of interruption has been causally linked with medical errors. Formal teaching and evaluation of multitasking is often lacking in EM residency programs. This article reviewed the literature on multitasking in EM to identify best practices for teaching and evaluating multitasking amongst EM residents. With the advancement in understanding of what multitasking is, deliberate attempts should be made to teach residents pitfalls and coping strategies. This can be taught through a formal curriculum, role modeling by faculty, and simulation training. The best way to evaluate multitasking ability in residents is by direct observation. The EM Milestone Project provides a framework by which multitasking can be evaluated. EM residents should be deployed in work environments commiserate with their multitasking ability and their progress should be graduated after identified deficiencies are remediated. PMID:25635201

  3. ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2009-08-05

    One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

  4. Maternal Evaluations of Children's Emergent Literacy Level, Maternal Mediation in Book Reading, and Children's Emergent Literacy Level: A Comparison Between SES Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Haglili, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether maternal evaluations of children's emergent literacy (EL) levels, maternal mediation during a book-reading activity with children, and the children's EL levels differ as a function of socioeconomic status (SES; low vs. high), and whether the relationships between these variables differ as a function of SES levels. Study…

  5. Maternal Evaluations of Children's Emergent Literacy Level, Maternal Mediation in Book Reading, and Children's Emergent Literacy Level: A Comparison between SES Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofra Korat; Sharon Haglili

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether maternal evaluations of children's emergent literacy (EL) levels, maternal mediation during a book-reading activity with children, and the children's EL levels differ as a function of socioeconomic status (SES; low vs. high), and whether the relationships between these variables differ as a function of SES levels. Study participants included 84 kindergarteners, 41 from low SES (LSES)

  6. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to identify, measure, and value the likely effectiveness and the costs and consequences of the new technology, handling of uncertainty), and whether the study results adequately address the main study question or objective. Data will be summarized overall and stratified by publication status. Discussion This study is timely to inform early economic evaluation practice, given the international trend in early health technology assessment initiatives. PMID:25055987

  7. The Evaluation Exchange: Emerging Strategies in Evaluating Child and Family Services, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Leslie, Ed.; Horsch, Karen, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the single 2000 issue of a newsletter of the Harvard Family Research Project, designed to share new ideas and experiences in evaluating systems reform and comprehensive child and family services. The issue focuses on after-school programs and includes the following articles: (1) "Building the After School Field"; (2)…

  8. Value of Acute Rest Sestamibi Perfusion Imaging for Evaluation of Patients Admitted to the Emergency Department With Chest Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C Kontos; Robert L Jesse; Kristin L Schmidt; Joseph P Ornato; James L Tatum

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the ability of early perfusion imaging using technetium-99m sestamibi to predict adverse cardiac outcomes in patients who present to the emergency department with possible cardiac ischemia and nondiagnostic electrocardiograms (ECGs).Background. Evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndromes and nondiagnostic ECGs is problematic. Accurate risk stratification is necessary to

  9. Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zantal-Wiener, Kathy; Horwood, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs. This framework involves a logic model that incorporates Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of…

  10. Three-year emergency medicine training program in The Netherlands: first evaluation from the residents’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Netherlands’ 3-year training in Emergency Medicine (EM) was formally approved and introduced in November 2008. To identify areas for improvement, we conducted the first evaluation of this curriculum from the residents’ perspective. Methods A questionnaire was composed on ten aspects of the curriculum. It contained multiple-choice, open and opinion questions; answers to the latter were classified using the Likert scale. The questionnaires were mailed to all enrolled residents. Results We mailed questionnaires to all 189 enrolled residents, and 105 responded (55.6%). Although they were satisfied with their training overall, 96.2% thought it was currently too short: 18.3% desired extension to 4 years, 76.0% to 5 and 1.9% to 6 years. Nevertheless, residents expected that they would function effectively as emergency physicians (EPs) after finishing their 3-year training program. Bedside teaching was assessed positively by 35.2%. All rotations were assessed positively, with the general practice rotation seen as contributing the least to the program. According to 43.7%, supervising EPs were available for consultation; 40.7% thought that, in a clinical capacity, the EP was sufficiently present during residents’ shifts. When EPs were present, 82.5% found them to be easily accessible, and 66.6% viewed them as role models. In the Emergency Medicine Departments (EDs) with a higher number of EPs employed, residents tended to perceive better supervision and were more likely to see their EPs as role models. While residents were stimulated to do research, actual support and assistance needed to be improved. Conclusion Although overall, the current training program was evaluated positively, the residents identified four areas for improvement: (1) in training hospitals, trained EPs should be present more continuously for clinical supervision; (2) bedside teaching should be improved, (3) scientific research should be facilitated more and (4) the training program should be extended. PMID:23890388

  11. Evaluating oversight systems for emerging technologies: a case study of genetically engineered organisms.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Najmaie, Pouya; Larson, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. oversight system for genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) was evaluated to develop hypotheses and derive lessons for oversight of other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Evaluation was based upon quantitative expert elicitation, semi-standardized interviews, and historical literature analysis. Through an interdisciplinary policy analysis approach, blending legal, ethical, risk analysis, and policy sciences viewpoints, criteria were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of GEOs oversight and explore correlations among its attributes and outcomes. From the three sources of data, hypotheses and broader conclusions for oversight were developed. Our analysis suggests several lessons for oversight of emerging technologies: the importance of reducing complexity and uncertainty in oversight for minimizing financial burdens on small product developers; consolidating multi-agency jurisdictions to avoid gaps and redundancies in safety reviews; consumer benefits for advancing acceptance of GEO products; rigorous and independent pre- and post-market assessment for environmental safety; early public input and transparency for ensuring public confidence; and the positive role of public input in system development, informed consent, capacity, compliance, incentives, and data requirements and stringency in promoting health and environmental safety outcomes, as well as the equitable distribution of health impacts. Our integrated approach is instructive for more comprehensive analyses of oversight systems, developing hypotheses for how features of oversight systems affect outcomes, and formulating policy options for oversight of future technological products, especially nanotechnology products. PMID:20122100

  12. An emergency department-based mental health nurse practitioner outpatient service: part 1, participant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wand, Timothy; White, Kathryn; Patching, Joanna; Dixon, Judith; Green, Timothy

    2011-12-01

    The mental health liaison nurse role in the emergency department (ED) has demonstrated a range of positive outcomes for both consumers and staff. In Australia, the added value associated with establishing mental health nurse practitioner (MHNP) positions based on this model is emerging. This paper presents qualitative findings from a study using a mixed-method design to evaluate an ED-based MHNP outpatient service in Sydney, Australia. In evaluating this new service, semistructured interviews were conducted with a random selection of study participants and a stratified sample of ED staff. This is the first of a two-part paper that presents an analysis of qualitative data from interviews conducted with study participants (n = 23). Participants reported numerous therapeutic benefits from the service, such as support, understanding, and a focus on solutions rather than problems, and high levels of satisfaction with the accessibility of the service and follow up. Suggestions for improving the service were also offered. Participants emphasized that overall ED service provision would be enhanced through additional resources, especially an extension of operating hours. Findings from these participant interviews provide strong support for an ED-based MHNP outpatient service. PMID:21457179

  13. Characteristics and disposition of youth referred from schools for emergency psychiatric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Grudnikoff, Eugene; Taneli, Tolga; Correll, Christoph U

    2014-09-27

    We aimed to describe the characteristics and disposition of youth referred from schools to the emergency department (ED) for psychiatric evaluations. Consecutive 12-month records of ED psychiatric consultations at a large urban hospital from 07.01.2009 to 06.30.2010 were retrospectively analyzed. School-initiated referrals were deemed inappropriate if youth were discharged from the ED without any recommended mental health follow-up. Of the 551 psychiatric ED evaluations, 243 (44.1 %) were initiated by schools. Of all school referrals, only 19 (7.8 %) children were psychiatrically hospitalized, 108 (44.4 %) were discharged from the ED with a follow-up appointment; and 116 (47.7 %) were discharged without arranged follow-up. Those with a chief complaint of "suicidality" (n = 109, 44.9 %) were more likely to be discharged without arranged follow-up than youth with other presenting complaints (56.0 vs. 41.0 %, p = 0.021). Altogether, only 37 (18.5 %) of 200 school-referred youth with information were evaluated by a school nurse, social worker, or other professional before being sent to the ED. Students without in-school screening were significantly more frequently discharged without follow-up than students with in-school evaluations prior to the ED referral (51.5 vs. 27.0 %, p = 0.0070; odds ratio = 2.87 (95 % CI 1.30-6.31). Multivariate predictors of inappropriate school referrals of youth discharged without any outpatient follow-up were higher Children's Global Assessment Scale score (p < 0.0001), absent in-school evaluation (p = 0.0069), absent prior psychiatric history (p = 0.011) and absent current psychotropic medication treatment (p = 0.012) (r (2) = 0.264 %, p < 0.0001). Altogether 44.1 % of ED consultations were school referred, of which 47.7 % were potentially inappropriate for the emergency setting. In-school screening, which occurred infrequently, reduced unnecessary evaluations by 52 %. PMID:25260234

  14. Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

  15. Study Designs and Evaluation Models for Emergency Department Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Kerry B.; Ranney, Megan L.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Rothman, Richard E.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Becker, Bruce; Haukoos, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Public health research requires sound design and thoughtful consideration of potential biases that may influence the validity of results. It also requires careful implementation of protocols and procedures that are likely to translate from the research environment to actual clinical practice. This article is the product of a breakout session from the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference entitled “Public Health in the ED: Screening, Surveillance, and Intervention” and serves to describe in detail aspects of performing emergency department (ED)-based public health research, while serving as a resource for current and future researchers. In doing so, the authors describe methodologic features of study design, participant selection and retention, and measurements and analyses pertinent to public health research. In addition, a number of recommendations related to research methods and future investigations related to public health work in the ED are provided. Public health investigators are poised to make substantial contributions to this important area of research, but this will only be accomplished by employing sound research methodology in the context of rigorous program evaluation. PMID:20053232

  16. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  17. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Tonolo, Fabio Giulio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author's group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications. PMID:26147728

  18. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  19. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  20. [Evaluation of urgent and emergency services in the hospital referral system in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dubeux, Luciana Santos; Freese, Eduardo; Reis, Yluska Almeida Coelho dos

    2010-08-01

    This article evaluates the degree of implementation of ten urgent and emergency hospital services comprising the macro and micro-regional referral system in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. The study analyzes criteria related to structure (physical and organizational, and material and human resources) and process (routine and referral/counter-referral activities), classifying the hospitals as satisfactory, acceptable, and deficient. The majority of the hospitals were classified as deficient, including all the micro-regional units and one macro-regional referral unit. Macro-regional units show better performance in the work process, while implementation of the structural dimension is better in the micro-regional hospitals. The results highlight the priority of upgrading these hospitals by strengthening decentralized human resources and technology policies, oriented towards the improvement of work processes in keeping with the State's regional contexts. PMID:21229210

  1. Headache in Pregnancy: An Approach to Emergency Department Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Jessica C.; Campbell, Ronna L.; Sadosty, Annie T.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes benign primary causes as well as ominous secondary causes. The diagnosis and management of headache in the pregnant patient presents several challenges. There are important unique considerations regarding the differential diagnosis, imaging options, and medical management. Physiologic changes induced by pregnancy increase the risk of cerebral venous thrombosis, dissection, and pituitary apoplexy. Preeclampsia, a serious condition unique to pregnancy, must also be considered. A high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide toxicity should be maintained. Primary headaches should be a diagnosis of exclusion. When advanced imaging is indicated, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used, if available, to reduce radiation exposure. Contrast agents should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Medical therapy should be selected with careful consideration of adverse fetal effects. Herein, we present a review of the literature and discuss an approach to the evaluation and management of headache in pregnancy PMID:25834672

  2. An Evaluation of Early Reading First on Emergent Literacy Skills: Preschool through Middle of First Grade 

    E-print Network

    Tani-Prado, Sophia

    2010-10-12

    the present and future reading gaps of high-risk preschool children. The tenets of ERF are teacher professional development, high quality language and print-rich environments, the teaching of emergent instruction of emergent literacy skills based...

  3. [An evaluation of acute effects of sulfur compounds for the human organism in natural gas fields emergencies (review)].

    PubMed

    Salikhova, L R; Zebseev, V V; Karpov, A I; Eremin, M N; Gorlov, A V

    2003-01-01

    A trend towards a growing number of emergency situations at industrial enterprises has been recently traced throughout the world. The main reasons of such phenomenon are: a comprehensive use of highly dangerous technologies and materials; large-scale violations of the operational rules and norms; and an inadmissibly high wear-and-tear of the main production funds in economic branches with extra risk. The world experience is indicative of a high degree of danger related with exploiting the natural-gas fields with a high content of sulfur compounds. The occurrence of emergency situations in the mentioned fields is accompanied by development of acute and sub-acute toxic effects in the workers and population. It necessitated, recently, an elaboration of a concept of a relative safety, in view of an unfavorable impact produced by chemical substances in emergencies, and an elaboration of methods applicable to the evaluation of emergency regulations. PMID:12852038

  4. A realistic interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L.; Andrews, G. B.; Gold, R. E.; Bokulic, R. S.; Boone, B. G.; Haley, D. R.; McAdams, J. V.; Williams, B. D.; Boyle, M. P.; Starstrom, G.; Riggin, J.; Lester, D.; Lyman, R.; Ewing, M.; Krishnan, R.; Read, D.; Naes, L.; McPherson, M.; Deters, R.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, an "Interstellar Precursor Mission" has been discussed as a high-priority mission for multiple scientific objectives. The chief difficulty with actually carrying out such a mission is the need for reaching significant penetration into the interstellar medium (˜1000 Astronomical Units (AU)) within the working lifetime of the initiators (<50 years). While there has been much speculation on various aspects of such a mission, we have systematically considered all of the components required, using realistic extrapolations of current and near-current technology. To provide a first-order cut at many of the engineering realities associated with such a mission, we consider a probe that can be launched with available vehicles and infrastructure. To implement the mission, we have revisited an old idea: the probe and a perihelion carrier are launched initially to Jupiter as a combined package and then fall to the Sun where a large propulsive maneuver propels the package on a high-energy, ballistic escape trajectory from the solar system. Outbound in deep space, the two separate, and the probe takes data with its onboard instruments and autonomously downlinks the data to Earth at regular intervals. The implementation requires a low-mass, highly-integrated spacecraft. Engineering issues separate into (1) the systems constraints imposed on the perihelion package by the combination of the propulsion system, carrying the needed propellant into perihelion, and the associated thermal and mechanical constraints, and (2) the requirements of power, autonomous operations, and data downlink from the probe itself. System trades define the minimum mass and power required for such a probe. We find that many of the requirements for a low-mass probe that operates autonomously for this mission are common for either this propulsion concept or more advanced low-thrust concepts, e.g., solar sails and ion propulsion. We describe an implementation, including science instrumentation and measurement goals, structure and thermal system, communications, avionics, propulsion, guidance and control, power, and architecture that could make such a mission into reality. We also describe some of the technology thrusts and developments that are required in order to begin such a mission in the next twenty-five years.

  5. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

  6. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, the US EPA MED laboratory has been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). ...

  7. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  8. Minor head injury in the Republic of Ireland: evaluation of written information given at discharge from emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Peachey, Tom; Hawley, Carol A; Cooke, Matthew; Mason, Lynda; Morris, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Most patients presenting to the emergency department with minor head injuries are discharged with written information. Here the quality of minor head injury discharge leaflets in the Republic of Ireland is evaluated against a nationally accepted template. There was great variability in leaflet content. Most provided minimal information on emergency symptoms but 60% contained no information on post-concussional symptoms. No leaflet was available in audio-format or languages other than English. Information provided in minor head injury leaflets should be improved and standardised across Ireland. PMID:21068178

  9. Evaluating Crisis Intervention Services for Youth within an Emergency Department: A View from within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Kennedy, Allison; Cloutier, Paula; Gray, Clare

    2010-01-01

    An innovative crisis intervention programme was created at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Canada in order to provide emergency assessments for youth presenting with mental health crises. The current investigation presents an overview of the programme and examines the emergency staff's perception and satisfaction with it.…

  10. Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

  11. The Potential and Challenges of Critical Realist Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article revisits the critical realist ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I…

  12. Evaluation of child maltreatment in the emergency department setting: an overview for behavioral health providers.

    PubMed

    Leetch, Aaron N; Leipsic, John; Woolridge, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case of possible child maltreatment. Keeping a high clinical suspicion is key to diagnosing latent abuse. Child abuse, especially sexual abuse, is best handled by a multidisciplinary team including emergency providers, nurses, social workers, and law enforcement trained in caring for victims and handling forensic evidence. The role of the emergency provider in such cases is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and provide an ethical testimony if called to court. PMID:25455575

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of the Process of Developing and Implementing an Emergency Department HIV Testing Program

    E-print Network

    Christopoulos, Katerina A; Koester, Kim; Weiser, Sheri; Lane, Tim; Myers, Janet J; Morin, Stephen F

    2011-01-01

    to reduce the stigma associated with HIV testing [1], andHIV test result in the emergency department really comes from stigma.HIV testing into ED activ- ities. Further understanding the potential role of stigma

  14. Emergency department evaluation and treatment of acute hip and thigh pain.

    PubMed

    Stein, Matthew Jamieson; Kang, Christopher; Ball, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Although the incidence of hip fractures is decreasing, the overall prevalence continues to increase because of an aging population. People older than 65 suffer fractures at a rate of 0.6% per year--2% per year for persons older than 85. One in 5 patients suffering a hip fracture will die within a year. Additionally, the emergency physician must consider entities such as avascular necrosis, compartment syndrome, and muscular disruption. This article reviews patterns and complications of acute hip and thigh injuries and clinically relevant diagnostic, anesthetic, and treatment options that facilitate timely, appropriate, and effective emergency department management. PMID:25892725

  15. Diagnostic Uncertainty and Costs Associated With Current Emergency Department Evaluation of Low Risk Chest Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul K. Khare; Emilie S. Powell; Arjun K. Venkatesh; D. Mark Courtney

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Of all stress tests done in low risk Emergency Department observation units (OU), a small, but significant number may be reported as positive or indeterminate. The objective of this study is to quantify the prevalence and costs associated with positive and indeterminate stress tests that result in negative cardiac cathe- terization. Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study over 9 months.

  16. An Assessment of an Oral Examination Format for Evaluating Clinical Competence in Emergency Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In July 1989 the American Board of Emergency Medicine conducted a field test of the oral recertification examination process. Sixteen examiners and 25 examinees participated in the field test. The examination included 3 chart-stimulated recall and 3 simulated-patient encounter cases. (MLW)

  17. Evaluating Different Genetic Operators in the Testing for Unwanted Emergent Behavior using Evolutionary Learning of Behavior

    E-print Network

    Denzinger, Jörg

    Evolutionary Learning of Behavior J¨org Denzinger, Jordan Kidney Department of Computer Science University for unwanted emergent behavior in a multi-agent system. The idea of the learning method is to evolve behavior that fights "fire with fire" by using techniques from learning of cooperative behavior to search

  18. Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

  19. Vibration Signaling in Mobile Devices for Emergency Alerting: A Study with Deaf Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Judith; Tucker, Paula E.; Williams, Norman; Sauro, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, a nationwide Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) is being planned to alert cellular mobile device subscribers to emergencies occurring near the location of the mobile device. The plan specifies a unique audio attention signal as well as a unique vibration attention signal (for mobile devices set to vibrate) to identify…

  20. Real Time Evaluation of Medair's 'Tsunami Emergency Response' Programme in Sri Lanka, June 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Schofield

    2005-01-01

    Summary Medair is implementing an emergency relief programme in Ampara district, on the east coast of Sri Lanka, focusing on water & sanitation, essential relief item distributions, temporary shelter and rebuilding livelihoods. The overall size of the project over 7 months is $2.5 million USD.

  1. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corey A. Duberstein; Janelle L. Downs

    2008-01-01

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species

  2. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in Community Hospital Emergency Departments: Multicenter Evaluation of a Quality Improvement Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Mickanin, Joyce; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Grant, Freda H.; Henderson, Michelle C.; Corley, Glenda; Blaschke, D. Glen; McNaughton, Candace D.; Barrett, Tyler W.; Talbot, Thomas R.; Paul, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common and preventable problem in the emergency department (ED). In a previous single-center study, changing the process of ED blood culture collection from the traditional “clean,” nonsterile procedure to a fully sterile procedure with standardized use of sterile gloves, large volume chlorhexidine skin antisepsis, and fenestrated sterile drapes resulted in a substantial reduction in contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this sterile blood culture collection process for reducing blood culture contamination in two community hospital EDs. Methods The authors implemented the sterile blood culture collection process in the ED of two hospitals, including Hospital A, which historically had a contamination rate of approximately 5%, and Hospital B, with a 2.5% historical contamination rate. Using an interrupted times series design and segmented regression analysis to adjust for secular trends and autocorrelation, the monthly percentages of cultures contaminated at each hospital during an intervention period (sterile technique) were compared to a 10-month baseline period immediately preceding implementation (clean technique). At Hospital A, the full sterile blood culture collection process was used throughout the 16-month intervention period. At Hospital B, user feedback indicated poor compliance due to difficulty implementing the fenestrated drape component; therefore, the process was simplified to the modified sterile collection process, in which the fenestrated drape component was dropped and sterile gloves and large volume skin antisepsis were emphasized. Hence, at Hospital B, two intervention periods were compared to the baseline period—the 8-month intervention period 1 (full sterile process) and the subsequent 8-month intervention period 2 (modified sterile process). Results Hospital A: During the baseline period 165 / 3417 (4.83%) cultures were contaminated, while 142 / 5238 (2.71%) were contaminated during the intervention period (p < 0.01). In the segmented regression model, the full sterile blood culture collection process was associated with an immediate 2.68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43% to 3.52%) absolute reduction in contamination and sustained reductions during the entire intervention period. Hospital B: During the baseline, 63/2509 (2.51%) cultures were contaminated. In intervention period 1 with the full sterile process, 51/1865 (2.73%) cultures were contaminated (p=0.65), with segmented regression results showing no changes compared to baseline. After simplification of the process to address poor compliance, the modified sterile process during intervention period 2 was associated with a significant reduction in contamination, with 17/1860 (0.91%) cultures contaminated (p<0.01 compared to baseline). The segmented regression model demonstrated the modified sterile process was associated with an immediate 1.53% (95% CI: 1.00% to 1.88%) absolute reduction in contamination with significant sustained reductions. Conclusions Changing the method of blood culture collection from the commonly-used non-sterile technique to a sterile process resulted in significant reductions in blood culture contamination at two community hospital EDs, including one with low baseline contamination. Monitoring the implementation process at both sites was important to identify and overcome operational challenges. At one study site, simplification of the process by removing the fenestrated drape component was a key for successful implementation. PMID:24628752

  3. [Evaluation of a Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opening hotel].

    PubMed

    Erdo?an, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2013-04-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infection caused by Legionella species especially colonized in the water systems. Hotels are common locations in which waterwork-associated sporadic or epidemic legionellosis can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate a small Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opened 600-bed hotel in Alanya, a touristic county in Mediterranean part of Turkey. A 66 years old male patient who stayed in this hotel opened on May 15th, 2009, was admitted to our hospital on May 21st, 2009 with the complaints of high fever, headache and diarrhea lasting for three days. Since chest X-ray revealed non-homogenous density increase in left middle and inferior zone, the patient was diagnosed as atypical pneumoniae and LD was confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen test (Card test, BinaxNOW®Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Alere Co, USA) result. Following the identification of the index case, the records of our hospital were reviewed and revealed another case being treated with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia who was also the guest of the same hotel. This patient was then diagnosed as LD by positive urinary antigen test. Since new cases were identified during the following days (May 22, 25 and 26) the Antalya County Health Department and hotel management were informed about a cluster of LD. In addition subsequent investigation for environmental surveillance and water sampling were conducted. The LD diagnosis and environmental inspections were performed according to the procedure described in the guideline from "Turkish Ministry of Health Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Control Programme". Five definitive cases and one presumptive case of LD were identified during the outbreak period (May 20-26, 2009). All of the cases were successfully treated (intravenous ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin or clarithromycin), however one patient died due to sudden death during sleep after being discharged. Since sputum samples could not be obtained from the cases, the diagnosis were not confirmed by culture but by urinary antigen test. Besides high antibody titer in single serum sample was accepted as a diagnostic marker. Additionally 26 cases who accommodated in the same hotel and presented with high fever without pneumonia were treated in the outpatient clinics of our hospital. Urinary antigen test was performed in 11 of those patients to confirm the prediagnosis of pontiac fever, however all were found negative. Likewise convalescent phase sera for the confirmation of the diagnosis by seroconversion could not be obtained since they all were foreign tourists. Investigation of water sources of the hotel revealed that the municipal drinking water network had not been connected yet and the hotel supplied water from groundwater sources. The analysis of multiple samples from multiple sites of hotel's water system indicated that the water temperature was between 35-45°C and the iron level was beyond the acceptable limits (245 µg/L) recommended for drinking water in the regulation guides. These properties were considered as the factors that enhanced the growth and survival of Legionella species. Water samples were cultivated on BCYE-_ (Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract a-Ketoglutarate) and GVPC (Glycine-Vancomycin-Polymyxin-Cycloheximide) agar plates and 11 out of a total 13 samples yielded Legionella spp. growth. All isolates were identified as L.pneumophila serogroup 1 by specific antisera. Legionella decontamination of hotel's water system was managed by implementation of hyperchlorination method as well as superheating (> 60°C) of water. The hotel was not closed during the outbreak and cultures of water samples obtained for one year later did not yield any Legionella spp. growth. This outbreak emphasized that hotel residents are at risk for acquiring LD in the presence of a colonized water system, even in a newly constructed building. In conclusion, effective control and decontamination programmes for the prevention of Legionella colonization should be applied even in

  4. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  5. Prototyping iPhone apps: realistic experiences on the device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders P. Jørgensen; Matthijs Collard; Christian Koch

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate Touch Application Prototype - a tool for designers to quickly create interactive and realistic prototypes of Apple® iPhone® apps and test them on the device. We define 5 requirements such as Speed, Practicality and Realism, and evaluate the tool during the development of a mobile work tool. Users intuitively use their inherent knowledge about touch

  6. An Evaluation of Technologies for Identifying Acute Cardiac Ischemia in the Emergency Department: A Report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry P Selker; Robert J Zalenski; Elliott M Antman; Tom P Aufderheide; Sheilah Ann Bernard; Robert O Bonow; W. Brian Gibler; Michael D Hagen; Paula Johnson; Joseph Lau; Robert A McNutt; Joseph Ornato; J. Sanford Schwartz; Jane D Scott; Paul A Tunick; W. Douglas Weaver

    1997-01-01

    [Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, Gibler WB, Hagen MD, Johnson P, Lau J, McNutt RA, Ornato J, Schwartz JS, Scott JD, Tunick PA, Weaver WD: An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: A report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group. Ann Emerg Med January

  7. An Evaluation of Technologies for Identifying Acute Cardiac Ischemia in the Emergency Department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry P Selker; Robert J Zalenski; Elliott M Antman; Tom P Aufderheide; Sheilah Ann Bernard; Robert O Bonow; W. Brian Gibler; Michael D Hagen; Paula Johnson; Joseph Lau; Robert A McNutt; Joseph Ornato; J. Sanford Schwartz; Jane D Scott; Paul A Tunick; W. Douglas Weaver

    1997-01-01

    [Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, Gibler WB, Hagen MD, Johnson P, Lau J, McNutt RA, Ornato J, Schwartz JS, Scott JD, Tunick PA, Weaver WD: An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group report. Ann Emerg Med

  8. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Prochlorperazine Versus Metoclopramide for Emergency Department Treatment of Migraine Headache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Coppola; Donald M Yealy; Robert A Leibold

    1995-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of IV metoclopramide and prochlorperazine for the initial emergency department treatment of migraine headache.Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Military community hospital ED with an annual census of 75,000. Participants: Seventy consenting adults from a convenience sample of patients presenting with migraine headache similar to that experienced in at least one prior

  9. A new head phantom with realistic shape and spatially varying skull resistivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tang, Chi; Dai, Meng; Liu, Geng; Shi, Xue-Tao; Yang, Bin; Xu, Can-Hua; Fu, Feng; You, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging method for monitoring brain injuries. To effectively evaluate brain EIT systems and reconstruction algorithms, we have developed a novel head phantom that features realistic anatomy and spatially varying skull resistivity. The head phantom was created with three layers, representing scalp, skull, and brain tissues. The fabrication process entailed 3-D printing of the anatomical geometry for mold creation followed by casting to ensure high geometrical precision and accuracy of the resistivity distribution. We evaluated the accuracy and stability of the phantom. Results showed that the head phantom achieved high geometric accuracy, accurate skull resistivity values, and good stability over time and in the frequency domain. Experimental impedance reconstructions performed using the head phantom and computer simulations were found to be consistent for the same perturbation object. In conclusion, this new phantom could provide a more accurate test platform for brain EIT research. PMID:24196845

  10. Evaluation and optimization of surveillance systems for rare and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2008-01-01

    Surveillance for rare and emerging infectious diseases poses a special challenge to veterinary services. Most emerging infectious diseases like bovine tuberculosis (bTB) are zoonoses, affecting both human and animal populations. Despite the low prevalence of such an emerging infectious disease at time of incursion, the surveillance system should be able to detect the presence of the disease as early as possible. Because passive surveillance is a relatively cost-effective and therefore commonly used process, it is the basic tool for infectious disease surveillance. Because of under-reporting in passive surveillance, cost-intensive active surveillance is often required to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system. Using scenario tree modelling, the sensitivity of passive and active surveillance system components (SSC) can be quantified and an optimal, cost-effective surveillance system developed considering the contributions of each SSC. We illustrate this approach with the example of bTB surveillance in Switzerland where the surveillance system for bTB consists of meat inspection at the slaughterhouse (SLI), passive clinical surveillance on farm (CLIN) and human surveillance (HS). While the sensitivities for CLIN and HS were both negligible (<1%), SLI was assessed to be 55.6%. The scenario tree model showed that SLI is increasable up to 80.4% when the disease awareness of meat inspectors in Switzerland is enhanced. A hypothetical random survey (RS) was also compared with a targeted survey (TS) in high-risk strata of the cattle population, and the sensitivity of TS was 1.17-fold better than in RS but with 50% of the sample size. PMID:18651991

  11. Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Kathrin; Canonica, Silvio; Wackett, Lawrence P; Elsner, Martin

    2013-08-16

    The benefits of global pesticide use come at the cost of their widespread occurrence in the environment. An array of abiotic and biotic transformations effectively removes pesticides from the environment, but may give rise to potentially hazardous transformation products. Despite a large body of pesticide degradation data from regulatory testing and decades of pesticide research, it remains difficult to anticipate the extent and pathways of pesticide degradation under specific field conditions. Here, we review the major scientific challenges in doing so and discuss emerging opportunities to identify pesticide degradation processes in the field. PMID:23950532

  12. Evaluation and management of traumatic knee injuries in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Tristan; Bothwell, Jason; Durbin, Ricky

    2015-05-01

    Posttraumatic knee pain is a common presentation in the emergency department (ED). The use of clinical decision rules can rule out reliably fractures of the knee and reduce the unnecessary cost and radiation exposure associated with plain radiographs. If ligamentous or meniscal injury to the knee is suspected, the ED physician should arrange for expedited follow- up with the patient's primary care physician or an orthopedic specialist for consideration of an MRI and further management. Patients presenting after high-energy mechanisms are at risk for occult fracture and vascular injuries. ED providers must consider these injuries in the proper clinical setting. PMID:25892726

  13. Thruster Options for Microspacecraft: A Review and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art and Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Juergen

    Introduction Recent Microspacecraft Developments Background and Motivation Recent Microspacecraft Design Trends Preliminary Set of Micropropulsion Requirements for Microspacecraft System Integration Requirements Minimum Impulse Bit and Thrust Requirements Review of Chemical Propulsion Technologies Bipropellant Engines Monopropellant Thrusters: Hydrazine Monopropellant Thrusters: HAN-Based Monopropellant Thrusters: Hydrogen Peroxide Cold Gas Thrusters Tripropellant and Other Warm Gas Thrusters Solid Rocket Motors Hybrid Rocket Motors Review of Electric Propulsion Technologies Ion Engines Hall Thrusters FEEP Colloid Thrusters Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) Resistojets Emerging Technologies: MEMS and MEMS-Hybrid Propulsion Concepts Case for MEMS Propulsion and Its Challenges Brief History of MEMS Propulsion MEMS-Based FEEP and Colloid Thruster Concepts Micro-Ion Engine Concepts MEMS-Based Microresistojet Concepts MEMS-Based Subliming Solid Microthruster Concept MEMS-Based Cold Gas Thruster Concept MEMS-Based Bipropellant Thruster Concept Digital Microthruster Array Concepts Evaluation of Existing Propulsion Technologies and Identification - of Future Technology Needs Evaluation of Existing Propulsion Technologies Identification of Technology Needs Conclusions References

  14. Evaluation of a New Nonnvasive Device in Determining Hemoglobin Levels in Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Tristan; Della-Giustina, David; Tomich, Eric; Wills, Brandon; Luerssen, Emily; Reynolds, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Masimo Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter is a medical device recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that performs noninvasive oximetry and estimated venous or arterial hemoglobin measurements. A portable, noninvasive device that rapidly measures hemoglobin concentration could be useful in both austere and modern hospital settings. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of variation between the device's estimated hemoglobin measurement and the actual venous hemoglobin concentration in undifferentiated emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to the ED. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample of adult ED patients who required a complete blood count as part of their care in the ED. A simultaneous probe hemoglobin was obtained and recorded. Results: Bias between probe and laboratory hemoglobin measurements was –0.5 (95% confidence interval, – 0.8 to –0.1) but this was not statistically significant from 0 (t0.05,124 = 0.20, P > 0.5). The limits of agreement were –4.7 and 3.8, beyond the clinically relevant standard of equivalency of ± 1 g/dL. Conclusion: These data suggest that noninvasive hemoglobin determination is not sufficiently accurate for emergency department use. PMID:23687550

  15. Evaluation of clinically significant adverse events in patients discharged from a tertiary-care emergency department in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Min; How, Chorng-Kuang; Yang, Ming-Chin; Su, Syi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reasons for the occurrence of clinically significant adverse events (CSAEs) in emergency department-discharged patients through emergency physicians' (EPs) subjective reasoning and senior EPs' objective evaluation. Design This was a combined prospective follow-up and retrospective review of cases of consecutive adult non-traumatic patients who presented to a tertiary-care emergency department in Taiwan between 1 September 2005 and 31 July 2006. Data were extracted from ‘on-duty EPs' subjective reasoning for discharging patients with CSAEs (study group) and without CSAEs (control group)’ and ‘objective evaluation of CSAEs by senior EPs, using clinical evidences such as recording history, physical examinations, laboratory/radiological examinations and observation of inadequacies in the basic management process (such as recording history, physical examinations, laboratory/radiological examinations and observation) as the guide’. Subjective reasons for discharging patients’ improvement of symptoms, and the certainty of safety of the discharge were compared in the two groups using ?2 statistics or t test. Results Of the 20?512 discharged cases, there were 1370 return visits (6.7%, 95% CI 6.3% to 7%) and 165 CSAEs due to physicians' factors (0.82%, 95% CI 0.75% to 0.95%). In comparisons between the study group and the control group, only some components of discharge reasoning showed a significant difference (p<0.001). Inadequacies in the basic management process were the main cause of CSAEs (164/165). Conclusion The authors recommended that EP follow-up of the basic management processes (including history record, physical examination, laboratory and radiological examinations, clinical symptoms/signs and treatment) using clinical evidence as a guideline should be made mandatory. PMID:22433586

  16. Increased authenticity in practical assessment using emergency case OSCE stations.

    PubMed

    Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Müller, Michael P; Jünger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix

    2010-03-01

    In case of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and assessed during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable assessment format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine isolated skills or components of a clinical algorithm and thereby lack a valid representation of clinical reality. We developed emergency case OSCE stations (ECOS), where students have to manage complete emergency situations from initial assessment to medical treatment and consideration of further procedures. Our aim was to increase the authenticity and validity in the assessment of students' capability to cope with emergency patients. 45 students participated in a 10-station OSCE with 6 ECOS and 4 traditional OSCE stations. They were assessed using a case-specific checklist. An inter-station and post-OSCE-questionnaire was completed by each student to evaluate both ECOS and traditional OSCE. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that ECOS are feasible as time-limited OSCE stations. There was a high acceptance on both students and examiners side. They rated ECOS to be more realistic in comparison to the traditional OSCE scenarios. The reliability estimated via Crohnbach's alpha for the 6 ECOS is high (0.793). ECOS offer a feasible alternative to the traditional OSCE stations with adequate reliability to assess students' capabilities to cope with an acute emergency in a realistic encounter. PMID:19609700

  17. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  18. Evaluation of the precision of emergency department diagnoses in young children with fever.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Joshua M; Jaffe, David M; Muenzer, Jared T

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize causes of fever in children presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS. One-year retrospective review of ED records. Inclusion criteria were 2 to 36 months of age with a documented temperature ? 39°C. Exclusion criteria were elopement, repeat visit, and underlying diagnosis with a predisposition to infection. Medical records were reviewed using a predefined, study-specific, data abstraction tool. Based on diagnosis and pathogen detection, visits were assigned to 3 groups, laboratory confirmed pathogen and focal or nonfocal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. RESULTS. A total of 1091 visits met inclusion criteria. Fourteen percent had a pathogen detected, 56% had a focal diagnosis without a confirmed pathogen, and 30% had a nonfocal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. CONCLUSIONS. In a cohort of febrile children 2 to 36 months of age, only 14% had a confirmed pathogen. New rapid viral diagnostic techniques may provide an opportunity to improve diagnostic certainty in young children presenting with fever. PMID:21868591

  19. Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunziata, C.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.; Panza, G. F.

    2008-07-01

    The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

  20. Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nunziata, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Napoli Federico II (Italy); Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Panza, G. F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ESP-SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

  1. Realistic computational modeling for hybrid biopolymer microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jungyul; Ryu, Suk-Kyu; Baek, Jeongeun; Park, Sewan; Kim, Hyeon Cheol; Chun, Kukjin; Park, Sukho

    2006-01-01

    Three dimensional cultures in a microfabricated environment provide in vivo-like conditions to cells, and have used in a variety of applications in basic and clinical studies. Also, the analysis of the contractility of cardiomyocytes is important for understanding the mechanism of heart failure as well as the molecular alterations in diseased heart cells. This paper presents a realistic computational model, which considers the three dimensional fluid-structural interactions (FSI), to quantify the contractile force of cardiomyocytes on hybrid biopolymer microcantilevers. Prior to this study, only static modeling of the microscale cellular force has been reported. This study modeled the dynamics of cardiomyocytes on microcantilevers in a medium using the FSI. This realistic model was compared with static FEM analysis and the experimental results. Using harmonic response analysis in FSI modeling, the motion of a hybrid biopolymer microcantilever in the medium was identified as a second-order system and the influence of the dynamics of cardiomyocytes could be evaluated quantitatively. PMID:17946496

  2. Realistic modeling of the biological channel for the design of implantable wireless UWB communication systems.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hadi; Gosselin, Benoit; Rusch, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Several emerging medical applications require that a miniature data acquisition device be implanted into the head to extract and wirelessly communicate brain activity to other devices. Designing a reliable communication link for such an application requires a realistic model of the surrounding biological tissues. This paper exploits a realistic model of the biological channel to design a suitable wireless ultra wideband communication link in a brain monitoring application. Two scenarios for positioning the implanted transmitting antenna are considered. The 1(st) scenario places the antenna under the skull, whereas the 2(nd) scenario places the antenna under the skin, above the skull. The propagation characteristics of the signal through the tissues of the human head have been determined with full-wave electromagnetic simulation based on Finite Element Method. The implantable antenna and the external antenna are key components to establish an electromagnetic link between an implanted transmitter and an external receiver. The average specific absorption rate (ASAR) of the implantable antennas are evaluated and compared for the two proposed scenarios. Moreover, the maximum available power from the implanted antenna is evaluated to characterize the performance of the communication link established between the implantable antenna and the external antenna, with respect to spectrum and safety regulations. We show how sensitive the receiver must be in order to implement a reliable telemetry link based on the proposed model of the channel. PMID:23367300

  3. Evaluating Emerging Software Development Technologies: Lessons Learned from Assessing Aspect-oriented Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail C. Murphy; Robert J. Walker

    1998-01-01

    Two of the most important and most difficult questions one can ask about a newsoftware development technique are whether the technique is useful and whether thetechnique is usable. Various flavours of empirical study are available to evaluate thesequestions, including surveys, case studies, and experiments. These different approacheshave been used extensively in a number of domains, including management science andhuman-computer interaction.

  4. WiMAX for Emergency Services: An Empirical Evaluation Pedro Neves1

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Edmundo

    of the WEIRD project1 . In particular, we focus our attention on the scenario implemented in the Portuguese an European research 1 This work has been carried out in the framework of the IST- WEIRD project, partially and Isolated Research Data Networks (WEIRD)" [5]. The aim of the WEIRD project is to deploy, evaluate

  5. Randomized Prospective Study to Evaluate Child Abuse Documentation in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Elisabeth; Olsen, Cody; Keenan, Heather; Newberry, Cynthia; Dean, J. Michael; Olson, Lenora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether an educational intervention for health care providers would result in improved documentation of cases of possible physical child abuse in children < 36 months old treated in the emergency department (ED) setting. Methods This study had a statewide group-randomized prospective trial design. Participating EDs were randomized to one of three intervention groups: no intervention, partial intervention, full intervention. Medical records for children < 36 months of age were abstracted before, during, and after the intervention periods for specific documentation elements. The main outcome measure was the change in documentation from baseline. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to test for intervention effect. Results One thousand five hundred and seventy-five charts from 14 hospitals EDs were abstracted. Hospital and demographic characteristics were similar across intervention groups. There were 922 (59%) injury visits and 653 (41%) non-injury visits. For each specific documentation element, a GEE model gave p values of > 0.2 in independent tests, indicating no evidence of significant change in documentation after the intervention. Even among the 26 charts in which the possibility of physical abuse was noted, documentation remained variable. Conclusions The educational interventions studied did not improve ED documentation of cases of possible physical child abuse. The need for improved health care provider education in child abuse identification and documentation remains. Future innovative educational studies to improve recognition of abuse are warranted. PMID:19154562

  6. Evaluation of emergence traps for monitoring blueberry gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults and within field distribution of midge infestation.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Liburd, Oscar E

    2010-08-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a key pest of rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton, in the southeastern United States, but it has not been studied extensively and little is known about its ecology and management. Studies were conducted to develop an improved method for monitoring D. oxycoccana adults and to determine the within-field distribution of infestation. Four emergence traps were evaluated in an organic rabbiteye blueberry planting for their effectiveness in capturing D. oxycoccana adults early in the season. These traps included a jar trap, wheat blossom midge trap, petri dish trap, and bucket trap. The petri dish and bucket traps captured the highest numbers of adults in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Both traps had a clear plastic panel coated with adhesive. Adult midges emerging from the soil beneath the traps were caught in the adhesive as they flew up toward the light. Emergence traps are useful for detecting the presence of adults early in the season before larval infestation is apparent in the flower buds. To determine the pattern of midge infestation, flower buds were collected weekly from January to March in 2006 from rabbiteye blueberry plants located in a plot at the southwest border of an existing blueberry planting. There were no differences found in the number of larvae collected from various distances within blueberry rows. However, when flower buds were collected from an isolated rabbiteye plot in 2007 and 2008, D. oxycoccana infestation was not uniform. In both years, the southern border row had a significantly higher number of midge larvae per bud compared with the other rows. PMID:20857735

  7. The Use of More Realistic Utility Functions in Educational Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Melvin R.; Lindley, Dennis V.

    1978-01-01

    The use of some very simple loss or utility functions in educational evaluation has recently been advocated by Gross and Su, Petersen and Novick, and Petersen. This paper demonstrates that more realistic utility functions can easily be used and may be preferable in some applications. (Author/CTM)

  8. TraNS: Realistic Joint Traffic and Network Simulatorfor VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pi'orkowski; Maxim Raya; A. Lezama Lugo; Panagiotis Papadimitratos; Matthias Grossglauser; Jean-pierre Hubaux

    2008-01-01

    Realistic simulation is a necessary tool for proper evaluation of newly developed protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Several recent efiorts focused on achieving this goal. Yet, to this date, none of the proposed solutions full- fllls all the requirements of the VANET environment. This is so, mainly because road tra-c and communication network simulators evolve in disjoint research

  9. An Evaluation of a Dog Bite Prevention Intervention in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Cinnamon A.; Pomerantz, Wendy J.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy of a video-based dog bite prevention intervention at increasing child knowledge and describe any associated factors; and to assess the acceptability of providing this intervention in a pediatric emergency department (PED). Methods This cross-sectional, quasi experimental study enrolled a convenience sample of 5–9 year old patients and their parents, presenting to a PED with non-urgent complaints or dog bites. Children completed a 14-point simulated scenario test used to measure knowledge about safe dog interactions pre-/post- a video intervention. Based on previous research, a passing score (?11/14) was defined a priori. Parents completed surveys regarding sociodemographics, dog-related experiential history and the intervention. Results There were 120 child/parent pairs. Mean child age was 7 (SD 1) and 55% were male. Of parents, 70% were white, 2/3 had more than high school education, and half had incomes <$40,000. Current dog ownership was 77%; only 6% of children had received prior dog bite prevention education. Test pass rate was 58% pre-intervention; 90% post-intervention. Knowledge score increased in 83% of children; greatest increases were in questions involving stray dogs or dogs that were fenced or eating. Younger child age was the only predictor of failing the post-test (p<0.001). Nearly all parents found the intervention informative; 93% supported providing the intervention in the PED. Conclusions Child knowledge of dog bite prevention is poor. The video-based intervention we tested appears efficacious at increasing short-term knowledge in 5–9 year old children and is acceptable to parents. Parents strongly supported providing this education. PMID:24061505

  10. The 4-D descent trajectory generation techniques under realistic operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley has been conducting and sponsoring research in airborne energy management for a number of years. During the course of this research, two fundamental techniques for the generation of 4D (fixed time) descent trajectories have emerged as viable candidates for advanced flight management systems. The first technique utilizes speed schedules of constant Mach number transitioning to constant calibrated airspeed chosen empirically to produce minimum fuel usage. The second technique computes cost optimized speed schedules of variable airspeed developed through application of optimal control theory. Both techniques have been found to produce reasonable and flyable descent trajectories. The formulation of the algorithms for each technique is evaluated and their suitability for operations in realistic conditions is discussed. Operational factors considered include: airplace speed, thrust, and altitude rate constaints; wind, temperature, and pressure variations; Air Traffic Control altitude, speed, and time constaints; and pilot interface and guidance considerations. Time flexibility, fuel usage, and airborne computational requirements were the primary performance measures.

  11. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-04-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  12. Spine care: evaluation of the efficacy and cost of emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harvey E; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Brodke, Darrel S; Guyer, Richard; Coric, Dom; Lonner, Baron; Shelokov, Alexis P; Currier, Bradford L; Riley, Lee; Phillips, Frank M; Albert, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade a number of new technologies have been introduced to the area of spine care. Although this recent explosion of innovation has brought advances to patient care, it has also brought concerns regarding overuse, increasing costs, and safety. A value-based approach to assessing and purchasing new technology depends on a shift toward comparative effectiveness analysis, transparency in pricing and potential conflicts of interest, and an alignment of incentives and goals among purchasers, consumers, and payers. How to assess the effectiveness of new technology in patient care is an unresolved issue for any cost-effectiveness analysis, as models traditionally used to assess medical therapies (ie, quality-adjusted life years) may not be directly applicable to analysis of surgical intervention. Spine surgeons must be involved in multidisciplinary collaborative efforts to develop models of efficacy analysis and to direct outcomes-based research to appropriately evaluate the benefits of surgical interventions and new technologies. PMID:19890182

  13. Merits of random forests emerge in evaluation of chemometric classifiers by external validation.

    PubMed

    Scott, I M; Lin, W; Liakata, M; Wood, J E; Vermeer, C P; Allaway, D; Ward, J L; Draper, J; Beale, M H; Corol, D I; Baker, J M; King, R D

    2013-11-01

    Real-world applications will inevitably entail divergence between samples on which chemometric classifiers are trained and the unknowns requiring classification. This has long been recognized, but there is a shortage of empirical studies on which classifiers perform best in 'external validation' (EV), where the unknown samples are subject to sources of variation relative to the population used to train the classifier. Survey of 286 classification studies in analytical chemistry found only 6.6% that stated elements of variance between training and test samples. Instead, most tested classifiers using hold-outs or resampling (usually cross-validation) from the same population used in training. The present study evaluated a wide range of classifiers on NMR and mass spectra of plant and food materials, from four projects with different data properties (e.g., different numbers and prevalence of classes) and classification objectives. Use of cross-validation was found to be optimistic relative to EV on samples of different provenance to the training set (e.g., different genotypes, different growth conditions, different seasons of crop harvest). For classifier evaluations across the diverse tasks, we used ranks-based non-parametric comparisons, and permutation-based significance tests. Although latent variable methods (e.g., PLSDA) were used in 64% of the surveyed papers, they were among the less successful classifiers in EV, and orthogonal signal correction was counterproductive. Instead, the best EV performances were obtained with machine learning schemes that coped with the high dimensionality (914-1898 features). Random forests confirmed their resilience to high dimensionality, as best overall performers on the full data, despite being used in only 4.5% of the surveyed papers. Most other machine learning classifiers were improved by a feature selection filter (ReliefF), but still did not out-perform random forests. PMID:24139571

  14. Evaluating health systems' preparedness for emerging infectious diseases: a novel conceptual and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Krumkamp, Ralf; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Ahmad, Amena; Reintjes, Ralf; Coker, Richard

    2010-12-01

    In this article we present a novel conceptual framework for systematically assessing the national health system capacity to respond to pandemic influenza. This framework helps to determine how health systems and pandemic programmes interact, whether, where and which weak points exist, and how and where pandemic response health programmes can be improved effectively. This new conceptual framework draws upon two existing approaches for assessment and evaluation, the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit (SYSRA) and the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP). SYSRA is a systematic approach to analyse the interplay between communicable disease programmes and the broader health systems context within which they operate and the HACCP methodology builds upon a systematic analysis of process steps within a programme in order to identify likely hazards and to develop control measures to address them. The analytical framework that we have developed from the novel conceptualisation is simple, can be applied rapidly, and should, we believe, be low cost to implement. Thus, this provides a means for developing a contextual understanding of the broader health system in which a pandemic infectious disease programme operates, and for identifying frailties in programmes that need to be responded to. PMID:20638149

  15. Databases for lncRNAs: a comparative evaluation of emerging tools

    PubMed Central

    Fritah, Sabrina; Niclou, Simone P.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the human transcriptome does not code for proteins. Advances in transcriptome arrays and deep sequencing are giving rise to a fast accumulation of large data sets, particularly of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although it is clear that individual lncRNAs may play important and diverse biological roles, there is a large gap between the number of existing lncRNAs and their known relation to molecular/cellular function. This and related information have recently been gathered in several databases dedicated to lncRNA research. Here, we review the content of general and more specialized databases on lncRNAs. We evaluate these resources in terms of the quality of annotations, the reporting of validated or predicted molecular associations, and their integration with other resources and computational analysis tools. We illustrate our findings using known and novel cancer-related lncRNAs. Finally, we discuss limitations and highlight potential future directions for these databases to help delineating functions associated with lncRNAs. PMID:25323317

  16. Group Based Rigging of Realistically Feathered Wings

    E-print Network

    Howard, Heather Vernette

    2012-02-14

    in this thesis project, helping to increase the realism on a CG bird through the implementation of realistic feathers and feather coats in addition to the realistic wing structure and feather movement resulting from this project. 22 An intuitive approach... motion rig is designed to provide animators with intuitive control over wing behavior intended to result in efficient re-creation of realistic wing action including flapping and folding. WingCreator was tested by two riggers and one animator to gain...

  17. Evaluation of Heat-related Illness Surveillance Based on Chief Complaint Data from New Jersey Hospital Emergency Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael; Fagliano, Jerald; Tsai, Stella; McGreevy, Katharine; Walsh, Andrew; Hamby, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this evaluation is to characterize the relationship between a patient’s initial hospital emergency room chief complaint potentially related to a heat-related illness (HRI) with final primary and secondary ICD-9 diagnoses. Introduction The NJ syndromic surveillance system, EpiCenter, developed an algorithm to quantify HRI visits using chief complaint data. While heat advisories are released by the National Weather Service, an effective HRI algorithm could provide real-time health impact information that could be used to provide supplemental warnings to the public during a prolonged heat wave. Methods Data on NJ hospital emergency room visits were evaluated using two data sources: 1) the EpiCenter syndromic surveillance system of emergency room visits; and 2) the Uniform Bill-Patient Summaries (UB) system containing diagnosis data on all hospital visits. Three years of data (2009–2011) were selected, for the time window of May 1 to September 30. The UB data used for matching with the EpiCenter data were limited to facilities participating in EpiCenter during the evaluation period. (EpiCenter facilities captured about 1/3 of all heat-related diagnoses in 2009, increasing to about 2/3 in 2011.) The ICD-9 codes of interest included 992.0–992.9 and external cause of injury codes E900.0 and E900.9. We evaluated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the EpiCenter algorithm in relation to the patients’ eventual diagnoses coded in the UB data. Results During the 15 months of data examined, there were a total of 871 people identified with HRI visits based on the EpiCenter algorithm. Over the same time period in the same emergency room facilities, there were a total of 2,146 people with a primary or secondary HRI diagnosis in UB. The algorithm for the EpiCenter’s HRI definition had a sensitivity of 16% (348/2,146) when any primary or secondary ICD or E-code matched; the PPV was 40% (348/871). When data during a major heat event (July 21–23, 2011) was examined separately, both sensitivity (23%) and PPV (59%) improved. Graph 1 presents the 2011 daily number of HRI visits from EpiCenter data and the subset of UB data from facilities also reporting to EpiCenter. The pattern in the EpiCenter data tracked with the UB data for HRI visits and correctly identified several major episodes in 2011. The major heat-related illness episode of July 2011 was selected to evaluate the non-matched EpiCenter and UB data. A total of 210 (95%) of the non-matched UB cases were able to be matched to EpiCenter chief complaint data. The EpiCenter information displayed a diverse range of general complaints, including syncope, dizziness, weakness, and headache. Similarly, non-matched EpiCenter data were compared to UB data to examine diagnoses, and 22 (48%) of the EpiCenter HRI cases were matched to UB diagnostic data. Diagnosis codes for these cases were for a variety of conditions classified under “general symptoms”; fluid balance disorders; asthma; diabetes; and unspecified hypertension. Conclusions The evaluation found that using chief complaint data to monitor HRI was relatively insensitive in comparison to the UB diagnosis codes, with a sensitivity of just over 16% for any UB HRI diagnosis. Sensitivity and PPV improved during a peak heat event. The evaluation of the non-matched data (both EpiCenter and UB) provided little guidance for modifying the algorithm. While expanding the algorithm to include complaints such as syncope, dizziness, or weakness may capture a few more HRI cases, it would also likely result in a greater number of false positive cases (i.e., higher background noise). Though not especially sensitive, EpiCenter data did identify all major episodes of HRI in 2011. The degree of correspondence indicates that the EpiCenter HRI algorithm provides a useful real-time gauge of the daily HRI trends. Graph 1. 2011 HRI visits identified by EpiCenter data and UB data subset for the same EpiCenter reporting facilities.

  18. Evaluation of Publicly Financed and Privately Delivered Model of Emergency Referral Services for Maternal and Child Health Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Lakshmi, P. V. M.; Mokashi, Tushar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Reddy, K. Rahul; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency referral services (ERS) are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. Methods Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS) standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. Results On an average, an ambulance transported 3–4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7) per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35) per km travelled. Conclusion Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system. PMID:25360798

  19. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the results of the 2014 consensus conference as well as related original research with the goal of bringing high-quality equitable care to male and female emergency patients. PMID:25420469

  20. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

  1. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  2. Realistic Mohole using D\\/V Chikyu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobukazu Seama; Natsue Abe; Shuichi Kodaira

    We propose realistic Mohole using D\\/V Chikyu. The basic policy is to drill a deep, full ocean crustal penetration hole through the Moho, and into the uppermost mantle at a single site formed at a fast spreading rate ridge system, where normal intact ocean crust with the typical Moho discontinuity exists. In order to make the Mohole an operationally realistic,

  3. Evaluation of emergency department performance – a systematic review on recommended performance and quality-in-care measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of emergency department (ED) performance remains a difficult task due to the lack of consensus on performance measures that reflects high quality, efficiency, and sustainability. Aim To describe, map, and critically evaluate which performance measures that the published literature regard as being most relevant in assessing overall ED performance. Methods Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review of review articles reporting accentuated ED performance measures was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Study eligibility criteria includes: 1) the main purpose was to discuss, analyse, or promote performance measures best reflecting ED performance, 2) the article was a review article, and 3) the article reported macro-level performance measures, thus reflecting an overall departmental performance level. Results A number of articles addresses this study’s objective (n?=?14 of 46 unique hits). Time intervals and patient-related measures were dominant in the identified performance measures in review articles from US, UK, Sweden and Canada. Length of stay (LOS), time between patient arrival to initial clinical assessment, and time between patient arrivals to admission were highlighted by the majority of articles. Concurrently, “patients left without being seen” (LWBS), unplanned re-attendance within a maximum of 72 hours, mortality/morbidity, and number of unintended incidents were the most highlighted performance measures that related directly to the patient. Performance measures related to employees were only stated in two of the 14 included articles. Conclusions A total of 55 ED performance measures were identified. ED time intervals were the most recommended performance measures followed by patient centeredness and safety performance measures. ED employee related performance measures were rarely mentioned in the investigated literature. The study’s results allow for advancement towards improved performance measurement and standardised assessment across EDs. PMID:23938117

  4. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. PMID:24793331

  5. Parallel Quality Assessment of Emergency Departments by European Foundation for Quality Management Model and Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    IMANI NASAB, Mohammad Hasan; MOHAGHEGH, Bahram; KHALESI, Nader; JAAFARIPOOYAN, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is a widely used quality management system (QMS) worldwide, including Iran. Current study aims to verify the quality assessment results of Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation (INPHE) based on those of EFQM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a sample of emergency departments (EDs) affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. The standard questionnaire of EFQM (V-2010) was used to gather appropriate data. The results were compared with those of INPHE. MS Excel was used to classify and display the findings. Results: The average assessment score of the EDs based on the INPHE and EFQM model were largely different (i.e. 86.4% and 31%, respectively). In addition, the variation range among five EDs’ scores according to each model was also considerable (22% for EFQM against 7% of INPHE), especially in the EDs with and without prior record of applying QMSs. Conclusion: The INPHE’s assessment results were not confirmed by EFQM model. Moreover, the higher variation range among EDs’ scores using EFQM model could allude to its more differentiation power in assessing the performance comparing with INPHE. Therefore, a need for improvement in the latter drawing on other QMSs’ (such as EFQM) strengths, given the results emanated from its comparison with EFQM seems indispensable. PMID:23967429

  6. Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Robinson, Richard D.; Garrett, John S.; Bunch, Kellie; Huggins, Charles A.; Watson, Katherine; Daniels, Joni; Banks, Brett; D'Etienne, James P.; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED) crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.

  7. Comparative evaluation of differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy as a technique to discriminate emerging skin pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozikowski, Raymond T.; Smith, Sarah E.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Castleman, William L.; Sorg, Brian S.; Hahn, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely investigated as a technique for identifying pathological tissue; however, unrelated subject-to-subject variations in spectra complicate data analysis and interpretation. We describe and evaluate a new biosensing technique, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), based on deep ultraviolet (UV) photochemical perturbation in combination with difference spectroscopy. This technique combines sequential fluorescence probing (pre- and post-perturbation) with sub-ablative UV perturbation and difference spectroscopy to provide a new spectral dimension, facilitating two improvements over fluorescence spectroscopy. First, the differential technique eliminates significant variations in absolute fluorescence response within subject populations. Second, UV perturbations alter the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly coupling the DLIPS response to the biological structure. Improved biosensing with DLIPS is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of chemically induced skin lesion development. Component loading analysis of the data indicates that the DLIPS technique couples to structural proteins in the ECM. Analysis of variance shows that DLIPS has a significant response to emerging pathology as opposed to other population differences. An optimal likelihood ratio classifier for the DLIPS dataset shows that this technique holds promise for improved diagnosis of epithelial pathology. Results further indicate that DLIPS may improve diagnosis of tissue by augmenting fluorescence spectra (i.e. orthogonal sensing).

  8. Realistic Control of Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Sean P.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2014-01-01

    The control of complex networks is of paramount importance in areas as diverse as ecosystem management, emergency response, and cell reprogramming. A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. Here, we show that it is possible to exploit the same principle to control network behavior. Our approach accounts for the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real systems, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible due to constraints that limit the allowed interventions. Applications show that this framework permits reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure—which we illustrate through the mitigation of cascading failures in a power-grid network and the identification of potential drug targets in a signaling network of human cancer. PMID:23803966

  9. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception in Nigerians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O Arowojolu; I. A Okewole; A. O Adekunle

    2002-01-01

    Emergency contraception was introduced in Nigeria over two decades ago, but few women have used this method even in emergency situations because of the side effects. To find an acceptable levonorgestrel regimen for emergency contraception in our community, the two-dose regimen 0.75-mg levonorgestrel 12 h apart (group A) and the single dose 1.5-mg levonorgestrel (group B) were studied in 1118

  10. Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Tung

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

  11. An evaluation of a logbook for trainees in accident & emergency medicine in the United Kingdom: senior consultant opinion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Luke; E Kadzombe; D Gorman; A Armstrong

    1993-01-01

    A previous paper from the Merseyside Group of Senior Registrars in Accident & Emergency Medicine examined the desirability of a logbook for Higher Specialist Training (HST) in accident & emergency medicine in the United Kingdom and its principal ingredients (Luke et al., 1991). A survey of 100 senior registrars and recently appointed consultants in the specialty identified the main issues

  12. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. Evaluation of radiological materials, Volume 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Hodgin; N. M. Daugherty; M. L. Smith; D. Bunch; J. Toresdahl; M. G. Verholek

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant.

  13. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duberstein; Corey A

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping

  14. Blend Shape Interpolation and FACS for Realistic Avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Saba, Tanzila

    2015-03-01

    The quest of developing realistic facial animation is ever-growing. The emergence of sophisticated algorithms, new graphical user interfaces, laser scans and advanced 3D tools imparted further impetus towards the rapid advancement of complex virtual human facial model. Face-to-face communication being the most natural way of human interaction, the facial animation systems became more attractive in the information technology era for sundry applications. The production of computer-animated movies using synthetic actors are still challenging issues. Proposed facial expression carries the signature of happiness, sadness, angry or cheerful, etc. The mood of a particular person in the midst of a large group can immediately be identified via very subtle changes in facial expressions. Facial expressions being very complex as well as important nonverbal communication channel are tricky to synthesize realistically using computer graphics. Computer synthesis of practical facial expressions must deal with the geometric representation of the human face and the control of the facial animation. We developed a new approach by integrating blend shape interpolation (BSI) and facial action coding system (FACS) to create a realistic and expressive computer facial animation design. The BSI is used to generate the natural face while the FACS is employed to reflect the exact facial muscle movements for four basic natural emotional expressions such as angry, happy, sad and fear with high fidelity. The results in perceiving the realistic facial expression for virtual human emotions based on facial skin color and texture may contribute towards the development of virtual reality and game environment of computer aided graphics animation systems.

  15. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Design Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October–November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February–April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April–May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October–November 2013). Setting 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. Participants 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Results Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were ‘loaned’ in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. Conclusions CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured and funded NHS emergency supply service from community pharmacies, with ongoing optimisation of repeat prescribing. PMID:26163029

  16. Photo-realistic 3D Model Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Se; Piotr Jasiobedzki

    2006-01-01

    Photo-realistic 3D modeling is a challenging problem and has been a research topic for many years. Quick genera- tion of photo-realistic three-dimensional calibrated models using a hand-held device is highly desirable for applica- tions ranging from forensic investigation, mining, to mobile robotics. In this paper, we present the instant Scene Mod- eler (iSM), a 3D imaging system that automatically creates

  17. Handling internal complexity in highly realistic agent-based models of human behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hluchy; M. Kvassay; S. Dlugolinsky; B. Schneider; H. Bracker; B. Kryza; J. Kitowski

    2011-01-01

    This article describes our work in progress and deals with methods and approaches for handling internal complexity emerging in highly realistic models of human behaviour. We present a new modelling approach to human decision making along with a conceptual design of several methods targeting selected aspects of complexity, such as the combinatorial explosion of action alternatives in rich environments, or

  18. The diagnostic yield of D-Dimer in relation to time from symptom onset in patients evaluated for venous thromboembolism in the emergency medicine department.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Yelena; Pasvolsky, Oren; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Steinvil, Arie; Halpern, Pinchas; Serov, Jack; Deutsch, Varda; Aviram, Galit; Berliner, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    D-Dimer concentrations increase following the thrombotic event and decrease thereafter. Timing of D-Dimer evaluation in relation to the onset of the disease might have a diagnostic impact. We have presently performed a retrospective analysis of diagnostic procedures performed in individuals who presented to the Emergency department and evaluated for acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) following a single quantitative D-Dimer testing. Individuals who had a negative objective test served as controls to those who had a positive one (Doppler ultrasonography, high probability lung scan or a CT angiography). Seven hundred thirty-four individuals presented to the Emergency department, performed a single D-Dimer test as well as an objective test during their evaluation for an eventual event of acute VTE. One hundred ninety-seven patients had a positive objective test for either deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolus. They were divided into seven tiles of times from symptoms onset. Highly significant differences between patients and controls regarding D-Dimer concentrations were noted mainly during the early days from symptom onset and turned less significant thereafter. Taking into consideration the time from symptoms onset in patients with acute VTE might have an effect on the diagnostic yield of quantitative D-Dimer in the Emergency department. We suggest not to exclude the eventual presence of acute VTE if quantitative D-Dimer is obtained later than 1 week following the onset of symptoms. PMID:20419335

  19. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  20. Engineering emergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Stepney; Fiona A. C. Polack; Heather R. Turner

    2006-01-01

    We explore various definitions and characteristics of emergence, how we might recognise and measure emergence, and how we might engineer emergent systems. We discuss the TUNA (Theory Underpinning Nanotech Assemblers) project, which is investigating emergent engineering in the context of molecular nanotechnology, and use the TUNA case study to explore an architecture suitable for emergent complex systems

  1. Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

  2. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  3. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have used emergency contraception pills? • How is the copper intrauterine device (IUD) used as emergency contraception? • Glossary ... your next menstrual period starts. How is the copper intrauterine device (IUD) used as emergency contraception? The ...

  4. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. PMID:24887122

  5. Consumers' product evaluations in emerging markets : Does country of design, country of manufacture, or brand image matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi; Dwight Merunka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in an emerging market, the simultaneous effects of country of design (COD), country of manufacture (COM), and brand image on consumers' perceptions of bi-national products. A comprehensive model broadens country-of-origin literature by incorporating brand image and the concepts of fit and congruity borrowed from brand extension research. Perceptual (in) coherences

  6. Development and evaluation of a leadership training program for public health emergency response: results from a Chinese study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chongjian Wang; Sheng Wei; Hao Xiang; Jing Wu; Yihua Xu; Li Liu; Shaofa Nie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 9\\/11 attack and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the development of qualified and able public health leaders has become a new urgency in building the infrastructure needed to address public health emergencies. Although previous studies have reported that the training of individual leaders is an important approach, the systemic and scientific training model need further improvement and

  7. Use of Electron-Beam Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis A Laudon; Larry F Vukov; Jerome F Breen; John A Rumberger; Peter C Wollan; Patrick F Sheedy

    1999-01-01

    Study objective: We sought to determine whether electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) could be used as a triage tool in the emergency department for patients with angina-like chest pain, no known history of coronary disease, normal or indeterminate ECG findings, and normal initial cardiac enzyme concentrations. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 105 patients admitted between December 1995 and

  8. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. Evaluation of radiological materials, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G. [TENERA, L.P., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  9. A chimeric virus-mouse model system for evaluating the function and inhibition of papain-like proteases of emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M; Nichols, Daniel B; Wilson, Michael W; StJohn, Sarah E; Larsen, Scott D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lenschow, Deborah J; Baric, Ralph S; Baker, Susan C

    2014-10-01

    To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. Importance: Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to facilitate evaluation of inhibitors directed against highly pathogenic coronaviruses. We used this system to demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor of the papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the chimeric-virus system can be adapted to study the proteases of emerging human pathogens, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. This system provides an important tool to rapidly assess the efficacy of protease inhibitors targeting existing and emerging human pathogens, as well as other enzymes capable of removing ISG15 from cellular proteins. PMID:25100850

  10. Access to emergency contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Trussell; Vanessa Duran; Tara Shochet; Kirsten Moore

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate access to emergency contraception among women seeking help from clinicians who registered to be listed on the Emergency Contraception Hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE, ie, 1-888-668-2528) and the Emergency Contraception Website (not-2-late.com).Methods: Two college-educated investigators posing as women who had a condom break the previous night called 200 providers to seek help.Results: Only 76% of attempts resulted in an appointment

  11. Resonant scattering by realistic impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Wehling, T O; Yuan, S; Lichtenstein, A I; Geim, A K; Katsnelson, M I

    2010-07-30

    We develop a first-principles theory of resonant impurities in graphene and show that a broad range of typical realistic impurities leads to the characteristic sublinear dependence of the conductivity on the carrier concentration. By means of density functional calculations various organic groups as well as adatoms such as H absorbed to graphene are shown to create midgap states within ±0.03??eV around the neutrality point. A low energy tight-binding description is mapped out. Boltzmann transport theory as well as a numerically exact Kubo formula approach yield the conductivity of graphene contaminated with these realistic impurities in accordance with recent experiments. PMID:20867944

  12. Radiology in emergency medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present.

  13. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guy's Guide to Body Image Emergency Contraception KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Birth Control > Emergency Contraception Print A A A ... using emergency contraception. It is also available to teens who are forced to have unprotected sex. Emergency contraception is not recommended for girls who ...

  14. Emergency nursing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A Schriver; Robin Talmadge; Roberta Chuong; Jerris R Hedges

    2003-01-01

    Building upon a historical context, the current and future roles of the clinical emergency nurse are reviewed. For several reasons, emergency nurse availability is expected to be insufficient to meet staffing demands in the near future. Emergency physicians can partner with emergency nurses and hospital administrators to pursue the following strategies for addressing the nursing shortage: (1) improve the workplace

  15. Dynamic apeerture in damping rings with realistic wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2005-05-04

    The International Linear Collider based on superconducting RF cavities requires the damping rings to have extremely small equilibrium emittance, huge circumference, fast damping time, and large acceptance. To achieve all of these requirements is a very challenging task. In this paper, we will present a systematic approach to designing the damping rings using simple cells and non-interlaced sextupoles. The designs of the damping rings with various circumferences and shapes, including dogbone, are presented. To model realistic wigglers, we have developed a new hybrid symplectic integrator for faster and accurate evaluation of dynamic aperture of the lattices.

  16. Realistic, hardware-accelerated shading and lighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Heidrich; Hans-Peter Seidel

    1999-01-01

    With fast 3D graphics becoming more and more available even on low end platforms, the focus in hardware-accelerated rendering is beginning to shift towards higher quality rendering and additional functionality instead of simply higher performance implementa- tions based on the traditional graphics pipeline. In this paper we present techniques for realistic shading and lighting using computer graphics hardware. In particular,

  17. On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics Arnold Neumaier Institut fur Mathematik respecting the indeter- ministic nature of quantum mechanics, allows to speak of de#12;nite values for all], there are at least two levels of inter- preting quantum mechanics: the statistical interpretation in the narrower

  18. Realistic human body movement for emotional expressiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Hertzmann; Carol O'Sullivan; Ken Perlin

    2009-01-01

    Humans express their emotions in many ways, in particular through face, eye, and body motion. So creators of virtual humans strive to convincingly depict emotional movements using a variety of methods.This course focuses on the use of realistic human body motion to generate emotional expressiveness. Topics include: applications and research relating to procedural animation of humans with emotion and personality,

  19. Making a Literature Methods Course "Realistic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William J.

    Recognizing that it can be a challenge to make an undergraduate literature methods course realistic, a methods instructor at a Michigan university has developed three major and several minor activities that have proven effective in preparing pre-student teachers for the "real world" of teaching and, at the same time, have been challenging and…

  20. Wiskobas and Freudenthal realistic mathematics education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Treffers

    1993-01-01

    Freudenthal was the founder of so-called realistic mathematics education. In it reality does not only serve as application area but also as the source for learning. We take a newspaper article as an example of a rich context problem. It contains elements from all of the important areas of learning for mathematics education in primary school (grades 1 through 6).

  1. Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Gary

    Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis CHET S. HAASE and GARY W. MEYER University of Oregon This article discusses and applies the Kuhelka Munk theory of pigment mixing to computer]xing arc discussed and are shown to be insufficient for pigmented materials. The Kubclka Munk theory

  2. Wiskobas and Freudenthal: Realistic Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers, A.

    1993-01-01

    Freudenthal was the founder of realistic mathematics education, in which reality serves as a source of applications and learning. Takes a newspaper article about reproducing a Van Gogh painting using plants in a field to exemplify a rich context problem containing elements of all areas of elementary school mathematics. (MDH)

  3. Practical and Realistic Facial Wrinkles Animation

    E-print Network

    Gutierrez, Diego

    to independently blend multiple wrinkle maps across regions of a character's face. We demonstrate how combining ouri i i i i i i i Practical and Realistic Facial Wrinkles Animation Jorge Jimenez, Jose I. Echevarria or feeling. For example, a wrinkled brow can indicate sur- prise, while a furrowed brow may indicate

  4. Technological Complexity and Country-of-Origin Effects on Binational Product Evaluation: Investigation in an Emerging Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Hamzaoui-Essoussi

    2010-01-01

    Research into the impact of the country of origin (COO) dimensions on product perceived quality in emerging markets is limited and does not distinguish between technologically complex\\/simple products. This paper investigates country-of-design (COD) and country-of-manufacture (COM) effects through their two subconstructs (global country image and the perceived capacity of the country to design\\/manufacture products), on the perceived quality of four

  5. Emergency Medicine Policies and Procedures Manual

    E-print Network

    Engel, Jonathan

    of Emergency Medicine University of North Carolina Health Care System, Chapel Hill 2 Updated Sept. 27, 2006............................................................21 MENTAL HEALTH EVALUATION IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT ..............................................14 CHART DOCUMENTATION AND SUPERVISION STANDARDS ,EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT......................16

  6. Large-System Transformation in Health Care: A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Lewis, Steven; Saul, Jessie E; Carroll, Simon; Bitz, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Context An evidence base that addresses issues of complexity and context is urgently needed for large-system transformation (LST) and health care reform. Fundamental conceptual and methodological challenges also must be addressed. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health in Canada requested a six-month synthesis project to guide four major policy development and strategy initiatives focused on patient- and family-centered care, primary health care renewal, quality improvement, and surgical wait lists. The aims of the review were to analyze examples of successful and less successful transformation initiatives, to synthesize knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, to clarify the role of government, and to outline options for evaluation. Methods We used realist review, whose working assumption is that a particular intervention triggers particular mechanisms of change. Mechanisms may be more or less effective in producing their intended outcomes, depending on their interaction with various contextual factors. We explain the variations in outcome as the interplay between context and mechanisms. We nested this analytic approach in a macro framing of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Findings Our rapid realist review identified five “simple rules” of LST that were likely to enhance the success of the target initiatives: (1) blend designated leadership with distributed leadership; (2) establish feedback loops; (3) attend to history; (4) engage physicians; and (5) include patients and families. These principles play out differently in different contexts affecting human behavior (and thereby contributing to change) through a wide range of different mechanisms. Conclusions Realist review methodology can be applied in combination with a complex system lens on published literature to produce a knowledge synthesis that informs a prospective change effort in large-system transformation. A collaborative process engaging both research producers and research users contributes to local applications of universal principles and mid-range theories, as well as to a more robust knowledge base for applied research. We conclude with suggestions for the future development of synthesis and evaluation methods. PMID:22985277

  7. Optimizing performance of hybrid FSO/RF networks in realistic dynamic scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, Jaime; Desai, Aniket; Baskaran, Eswaran; Milner, Stuart; Davis, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid Free Space Optical (FSO) and Radio Frequency (RF) networks promise highly available wireless broadband connectivity and quality of service (QoS), particularly suitable for emerging network applications involving extremely high data rate transmissions such as high quality video-on-demand and real-time surveillance. FSO links are prone to atmospheric obscuration (fog, clouds, snow, etc) and are difficult to align over long distances due the use of narrow laser beams and the effect of atmospheric turbulence. These problems can be mitigated by using adjunct directional RF links, which provide backup connectivity. In this paper, methodologies for modeling and simulation of hybrid FSO/RF networks are described. Individual link propagation models are derived using scattering theory, as well as experimental measurements. MATLAB is used to generate realistic atmospheric obscuration scenarios, including moving cloud layers at different altitudes. These scenarios are then imported into a network simulator (OPNET) to emulate mobile hybrid FSO/RF networks. This framework allows accurate analysis of the effects of node mobility, atmospheric obscuration and traffic demands on network performance, and precise evaluation of topology reconfiguration algorithms as they react to dynamic changes in the network. Results show how topology reconfiguration algorithms, together with enhancements to TCP/IP protocols which reduce the network response time, enable the network to rapidly detect and act upon link state changes in highly dynamic environments, ensuring optimized network performance and availability.

  8. A fully adaptive multiresolution algorithm for atrial arrhythmia simulation on anatomically realistic unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Cristoforetti, Alessandro; Mase, Michela; Ravelli, Flavia

    2013-09-01

    Biophysically detailed and anatomically realistic atrial models are emerging as a valuable tool in the study of atrial arrhythmias, nevertheless clinical use of these models would be favored by a reduction of computational times. This paper introduces a novel adaptive mesh algorithm, based on multiresolution representation (MR), for the efficient integration of cardiac ordinary differential equation (ODE)-partial differential equation (PDE) systems on unstructured triangle meshes. The algorithm applies a dynamically adapted node-centered finite volume method (FVM) scheme for integration of diffusion. The method accuracy and efficiency were evaluated by simulating propagation scenarios of increasing complexity levels (pacing, stable spirals, atrial fibrillation) on tomography-derived three-dimensional monolayer atrial models, based on a monodomain reaction-diffusion formulation coupled with the Courtemanche atrial ionic model. All simulated propagation patterns were accurately reproduced with substantially reduced computational times (10%-30% of the full-resolution simulation time). The proposed algorithm, combining the MR computational efficiency with the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, may favor the development of patient-specific multiscale models of atrial arrhythmias and their application in the clinical setting. PMID:23674407

  9. Kaonic hydrogen atoms with realistic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Poonsawat, W.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Suebka, P.

    2010-06-01

    Kaonic hydrogen is studied with various realistic potentials in an accurate numerical approach based on Sturmian functions. It is found that the mass difference between the K-p and K¯0n channels has a considerable effect on theoretical results of the energy shift and decay width of kaonic hydrogen. On average, the theoretical result in the isospin symmetry limit is smaller by a factor of about 20% than the full result where the mass difference between the K-p and K¯0n channels is properly treated. The theoretical results based on realistic local potentials, which reproduce well scattering data, are inconsistent with the recent measurement of the energy shift and decay width of the 1s kaonic hydrogen state by the DEAR Collaboration.

  10. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  11. Fast, Realistic Lighting for Video Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Iones; Anton Krupkin; Mateu Sbert; Sergey Zhukov

    2003-01-01

    Global lighting effects produced by diffuse interreflections are typically simulated using global illumination methods such as radiosity or ray tracing. Although diffuse interreflections are crucial to produce realistic images, radiosity-like methods are rarely used in production rendering because of slow performance, robustness problems and difficulty-to-control. We present a novel technology that produces natural-looking lighting effects in a much faster way

  12. A realistic renormalizable supersymmetric E? model

    SciTech Connect

    Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia and Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Susi?, Vasja [J. Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-01-01

    A complete realistic model based on the supersymmetric version of E? is presented. It consists of three copies of matter 27, and a Higgs sector made of 2×(27+27?)+351´+351´? representations. An analytic solution to the equations of motion is found which spontaneously breaks the gauge group into the Standard Model. The light fermion mass matrices are written down explicitly as non-linear functions of three Yukawa matrices. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  13. Towards realistic haptic rendering of surface textures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungmoon Choi

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents a series of studies performed on the perceived instability of haptically-rendered surface textures. By perceived instability, we refer to any unrealistic sensations that a user perceives from virtual textures rendered with a force-feedback haptic interface. Our long-term goal is to achieve perceptually realistic haptic rendering of surface textures through a better understanding of factors contributing to perceived

  14. Dynamical Symmetries Reflected in Realistic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sviratcheva, K.D.; Draayer, J.P.; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-06

    Realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, derived within the framework of meson theory or more recently in terms of chiral effective field theory, yield new possibilities for achieving a unified microscopic description of atomic nuclei. Based on spectral distribution methods, a comparison of these interactions to a most general Sp(4) dynamically symmetric interaction, which previously we found to reproduce well that part of the interaction that is responsible for shaping pairing-governed isobaric analog 0{sup +} states, can determine the extent to which this significantly simpler model Hamiltonian can be used to obtain an approximate, yet very good description of low-lying nuclear structure. And furthermore, one can apply this model in situations that would otherwise be prohibitive because of the size of the model space. In addition, we introduce a Sp(4) symmetry breaking term by including the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the analysis and examining the capacity of this extended model interaction to imitate realistic interactions. This provides a further step towards gaining a better understanding of the underlying foundation of realistic interactions and their ability to reproduce striking features of nuclei such as strong pairing correlations or collective rotational motion.

  15. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States have diabetes, ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  16. Emergency Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call ... may save you from a visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you ...

  17. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  18. An Evaluation of a Natural Language Processing Tool for Identifying and Encoding Allergy Information in Emergency Department Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R.; Plasek, Joseph M.; Lau, Jason J.; Seger, Diane L.; Chang, Frank Y.; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits due to allergic reactions are common. Allergy information is often recorded in free-text provider notes; however, this domain has not yet been widely studied by the natural language processing (NLP) community. We developed an allergy module built on the MTERMS NLP system to identify and encode food, drug, and environmental allergies and allergic reactions. The module included updates to our lexicon using standard terminologies, and novel disambiguation algorithms. We developed an annotation schema and annotated 400 ED notes that served as a gold standard for comparison to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an F-measure of 87.6% for the detection of allergen names and no known allergies, 90% for identifying true reactions in each allergy statement where true allergens were also identified, and 69% for linking reactions to their allergen. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility using NLP to extract and encode allergy information from clinical notes. PMID:25954363

  19. Toward more realistic drug-target interaction predictions.

    PubMed

    Pahikkala, Tapio; Airola, Antti; Pietilä, Sami; Shakyawar, Sushil; Szwajda, Agnieszka; Tang, Jing; Aittokallio, Tero

    2015-03-01

    A number of supervised machine learning models have recently been introduced for the prediction of drug-target interactions based on chemical structure and genomic sequence information. Although these models could offer improved means for many network pharmacology applications, such as repositioning of drugs for new therapeutic uses, the prediction models are often being constructed and evaluated under overly simplified settings that do not reflect the real-life problem in practical applications. Using quantitative drug-target bioactivity assays for kinase inhibitors, as well as a popular benchmarking data set of binary drug-target interactions for enzyme, ion channel, nuclear receptor and G protein-coupled receptor targets, we illustrate here the effects of four factors that may lead to dramatic differences in the prediction results: (i) problem formulation (standard binary classification or more realistic regression formulation), (ii) evaluation data set (drug and target families in the application use case), (iii) evaluation procedure (simple or nested cross-validation) and (iv) experimental setting (whether training and test sets share common drugs and targets, only drugs or targets or neither). Each of these factors should be taken into consideration to avoid reporting overoptimistic drug-target interaction prediction results. We also suggest guidelines on how to make the supervised drug-target interaction prediction studies more realistic in terms of such model formulations and evaluation setups that better address the inherent complexity of the prediction task in the practical applications, as well as novel benchmarking data sets that capture the continuous nature of the drug-target interactions for kinase inhibitors. PMID:24723570

  20. Southern Schools: An Evaluation of the Effects of the Emergency School Assistance Program and of School Desegregation. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L., Ed.

    This evaluation sampled 150 pairs of schools (50 pairs of high schools and 100 pairs of elementary schools) eligible for ESAP funds, randomly designating one school from each pair as a control school to receive no ESAP funds and using a flip of the coin to so designate. The first volume of the report comprises four chapters and seven appendices.…

  1. Evaluation of pulse oximetry in sickle cell anemia patients presenting to the emergency department in acute vasoocclusive crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T Comber; Bernard L Lopez

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study was done to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry as an indicator of hypoxemia in sickle cell anemia patients presenting to the ED in acute vasoocculsive crisis. Thirteen patients (age older than 18 years) presenting in crisis, with pulse oximetry readings less than 95% had arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis performed. The mean pulse oximetry reading was

  2. Support for Realist Foreign Policy: Reality Attunement or Ignorance?

    E-print Network

    Snider, Danielle

    2012-05-31

    Social discourse often considers realist foreign policy to be the most pragmatic and rational approach to international relations. The present research tests the widespread belief that realist foreign policy reflects superior reality attunement...

  3. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

  4. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  5. Evaluation of the modified MEDS, MEWS score and Charlson comorbidity index in patients with community acquired sepsis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ç?ld?r, Ergün; Bulut, Mehtap; Akal?n, Halis; Kocaba?, Egemen; Ocako?lu, Gökhan; Ayd?n, ?ule Akköse

    2013-04-01

    Sepsis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department. SIRS criteria that define sepsis are not specific and do not reflect the severity of infection. We aimed to evaluate the ability of the modified mortality in emergency department sepsis (MEDS) score, the modified early warning score (MEWS) and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) to predict prognosis in patients who are diagnosed in sepsis. We prospectively investigated the value of the CCI, MEWS and modified MEDS Score in the prediction of 28-day mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department who were diagnosed with sepsis. 230 patients were enrolled in the study. In these patients, the 5-day mortality was 17 % (n = 40) and the 28-day mortality was 32.2 % (n = 74). A significant difference was found between surviving patients and those who died in terms of their modified MEDS, MEWS and Charlson scores for both 5-day mortality (p < 0.001, p = 0.013 and p = 0.006, respectively) and 28-day mortality (p < 0.001, p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) for the modified MEDS score in terms of 28-day mortality was 0.77. The MEDS score had a greater prognostic value compared to the MEWS and CCI scores. The performance of modified MEDS score was better than that of other scoring systems, in our study. Therefore, we believe that the modified MEDS score can be reliably used for the prediction of mortality in sepsis. PMID:23250543

  6. Real-life evidence in evaluating effectiveness of treatment in Haemophilia A with a recombinant FVIII concentrate: A non-interventional study in emerging countries.

    PubMed

    Gouider, E; Rauchensteiner, S; Andreeva, T; Al Zoebie, A; Mehadzic, S; Nefyodova, L; Brunn, M; Tueckmantel, C; Meddeb, B

    2015-05-01

    Some progress has been made regarding availability of recombinant factor VIII concentrates and prophylaxis for haemophilia A in emerging countries, where plasma-derived concentrates were used in the vast majority. Clinical studies to document their introduction and effectiveness are so far not widely available in literature. This non-interventional study evaluates the real-life effectiveness and safety of prophylactic and on-demand treatment with recombinant factor VIII formulated with sucrose (rFVIII-FS) for bleed control and preservation of joints in emerging countries from Eastern Europe, North Africa and Middle East area. One hundred and eighty-six patients from 11 countries were enrolled, mean ± SD age 12.8 ± 12.7 years. At enrolment, majority (79.6%) had severe haemophilia A (<2% IU mL(-1) ), 47.8% had a target joint, 15% had an inhibitor history and one patient was on immune tolerance induction. During the 24-month observation period, 58.1% of the patients were prescribed prophylaxis at every visit, 31.7% were on an on-demand regimen. Patients with severe haemophilia A on prophylaxis (n = 82) had a mean annual rate of treated bleeds of 2.8 ± 4.4, whereas it was 19.1 ± 32.0 for the on-demand group (n = 31), and a mean total Gilbert Score of 9.9 ± 10.3 at baseline and 4.1 ± 6.7 at study end; vs. 15.2 ± 17.3 and 13.7 ± 17.1 for on-demand respectively. The majority of the bleeds (91.1%) were treated with one or two infusions. Four patients without inhibitor history had a first positive inhibitor test during the study. This study demonstrates the effective use of rFVIII-FS in emerging countries and adds to the established safety profile of rFVIII-FS. PMID:25649665

  7. Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

  8. Emergence of Joint Attention through Bootstrap Learning based on the Mechanisms of Visual Attention and Learning with Self-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yukie; Hosoda, Koh; Morita, Akio; Asada, Minoru

    This study argues how human infants acquire the ability of joint attention through interactions with their caregivers from a viewpoint of cognitive developmental robotics. In this paper, a mechanism by which a robot acquires sensorimotor coordination for joint attention through bootstrap learning is described. Bootstrap learning is a process by which a learner acquires higher capabilities through interactions with its environment based on embedded lower capabilities even if the learner does not receive any external evaluation nor the environment is controlled. The proposed mechanism for bootstrap learning of joint attention consists of the robot's embedded mechanisms: visual attention and learning with self-evaluation. The former is to find and attend to a salient object in the field of the robot's view, and the latter is to evaluate the success of visual attention, not joint attention, and then to learn the sensorimotor coordination. Since the object which the robot looks at based on visual attention does not always correspond to the object which the caregiver is looking at in an environment including multiple objects, the robot may have incorrect learning situations for joint attention as well as correct ones. However, the robot is expected to statistically lose the learning data of the incorrect ones as outliers because of its weaker correlation between the sensor input and the motor output than that of the correct ones, and consequently to acquire appropriate sensorimotor coordination for joint attention even if the caregiver does not provide any task evaluation to the robot. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the proposed mechanism could explain the developmental mechanism of infants' joint attention because the learning process of the robot's joint attention can be regarded as equivalent to the developmental process of infants' one.

  9. Out-of-hours emergency dental services – evaluation of the first year of a pilot project in Fife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G V A Topping

    2005-01-01

    The Scottish Executive Health Department approved funding in 2001 for Fife NHS Board to pilot an integrated model of out-of-hours dental services based upon a dental nurse-led triage system during the evenings, weekends and some public holidays. After one year of the pilot project the activity was evaluated by analysing the triage database. Nearly 4,000 calls were received – Fridays

  10. A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Martin; Donald J. Roth; Charles G. Pergantis; Jaswinder S. Sandhu

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite\\/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis

  11. Evaluating the co-production of a near real time Earthquake Aftershock forecasting tool for humanitarian risk assessment and emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; NicBhloscaidh, Mairead; Jimenez, Abigail; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Concern Worldwide and the University of Ulster Geophysics Research Group are engaged in a project to co-produce a suite of software and mapping tools to assess aftershock hazard in near real-time during the emergency response phase of earthquake disaster, and inform humanitarian emergency planning and response activities. This paper uses a social learning approach to evaluate this co-production process. Following Wenger (1999) we differentiate between the earthquake science and humanitarian communities of practice (CoP) along three dimensions: enterprise (the purpose of CoPs and the problems participants are working to address), repertoire (knowledge, skills, language), and identity (values and boundaries). We examine the effectiveness of learning between CoP, focusing on boundary work and objects, and various organisational structures and aspects of the wider political economy of learning that enable and hinder the co-production process. We conclude by identifying a number of ways to more effectively integrate earthquake science into humanitarian decision-making, policy development and programme design.

  12. Children Gifted in Drawing: Precocious Realists vs. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to draw realistically and these differences can be seen in early childhood, prior to any formal instruction. Some children, considered precocious realists, are able to draw far more realistically than their peers, even if they have never received formal instruction. In this article, the authors describe some of…

  13. Physical-chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of 'emerging' and 'novel' brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Liagkouridis, Ioannis; Cousins, Anna Palm; Cousins, Ian T

    2015-08-15

    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical-chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical-chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called 'novel' and 'emerging' brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical-chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (Pov), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on Pov and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy. PMID:25933174

  14. Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics

    E-print Network

    . Gruber,10 A. Ishida,11 F. Joos,12 G. Madec,13 E. Maier-Reimer,14 J. C. Marshall,8 R. J. Matear,15 P Angeles, California, USA. 19 Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerha- ven

  15. Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Doney; K. Lindsay; K. Caldeira; J.-M. Campin; H. Drange; J.-C. Dutay; M. Follows; Y. Gao; A. Gnanadesikan; N. Gruber; A. Ishida; F. Joos; G. Madec; E. Maier-Reimer; J. C. Marshall; R. J. Matear; P. Monfray; A. Mouchet; R. Najjar; J. C. Orr; G.-K. Plattner; J. Sarmiento; R. Schlitzer; R. Slater; I. J. Totterdell; M.-F. Weirig; Y. Yamanaka; A. Yool

    2004-01-01

    A suite of standard ocean hydrographic and circulation metrics are applied to the equilibrium physical solutions from 13 global carbon models participating in phase 2 of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2). Model-data comparisons are presented for sea surface temperature and salinity, seasonal mixed layer depth, meridional heat and freshwater transport, 3-D hydrographic fields, and meridional overturning. Considerable variation

  16. Evaluating Opportunistic Routing Protocols with Large Realistic Contact Traces

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    - tolerant network (DTN) [6]. Delay-tolerant networks provide service despite long link delays or frequent Opportunistic Networks, Routing, Simulation 1. INTRODUCTION Mobile opportunistic networks are one kind of delay link breaks. Long link delays happen in networks with communication between nodes at a great distance

  17. Evaluation of syndromic algorithms for detecting patients with potentially transmissible infectious diseases based on computerised emergency-department data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to ascertain the performance of syndromic algorithms for the early detection of patients in healthcare facilities who have potentially transmissible infectious diseases, using computerised emergency department (ED) data. Methods A retrospective cohort in an 810-bed University of Lyon hospital in France was analysed. Adults who were admitted to the ED and hospitalised between June 1, 2007, and March 31, 2010 were included (N=10895). Different algorithms were built to detect patients with infectious respiratory, cutaneous or gastrointestinal syndromes. The performance parameters of these algorithms were assessed with regard to the capacity of our infection-control team to investigate the detected cases. Results For respiratory syndromes, the sensitivity of the detection algorithms was 82.70%, and the specificity was 82.37%. For cutaneous syndromes, the sensitivity of the detection algorithms was 78.08%, and the specificity was 95.93%. For gastrointestinal syndromes, the sensitivity of the detection algorithms was 79.41%, and the specificity was 81.97%. Conclusions This assessment permitted us to detect patients with potentially transmissible infectious diseases, while striking a reasonable balance between true positives and false positives, for both respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. The algorithms for gastrointestinal syndromes were not specific enough for routine use, because they generated a large number of false positives relative to the number of infected patients. Detection of patients with potentially transmissible infectious diseases will enable us to take precautions to prevent transmission as soon as these patients come in contact with healthcare facilities. PMID:24004720

  18. Investigating the Emergence of Speech Sounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart G. De Boer

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a system that simulates the emergence of realistic vowel systems in a popu­ lation of agents that try to imitate each other as well as possible. The agents start with no knowl­ edge of the sound system at all. Although none of the agents has a global view of the language, and none of the agents does

  19. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives. PMID:23184108

  20. Simulation recurrence of a realistic DC line fault based on RTDS and its simulation reliability analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xudong Jia; Gengyin Li; Chengyong Zhao; Xiangning Xiao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent model of a local HVDC transmission system is set up based on Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). A realistic DC line fault on the pole 2 of the HVDC project is simulated successfully by use of the RTDS model connected with actual physical control and protection devices. And then, a complete evaluation theory of simulation errors

  1. The standing wave FEL/TBA: Realistic cavity geometry and energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo, Henke, H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sharp, W.M.

    1993-05-01

    A set of parameters for standing wave free electron laser two beam accelerators (SWFEL/TBA) is evaluated for realistic cavity geometry taking into account beam-break-up and the sensitivity of output power to imperfections. Also given is a power extraction system using cavity coupled wave guides.

  2. Geomorphic Classification and Evaluation of Channel Width and Emergent Sandbar Habitat Relations on the Lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of geomorphic characteristics extracted from aerial imagery for three broad segments of the Lower Platte River. This report includes a summary of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) and presents a new analysis of total channel width and habitat variables. Three segments on the lower 102.8 miles of the Lower Platte River are addressed in this report: the Loup River to the Elkhorn River (70 miles long), the Elkhorn River to Salt Creek (6.9 miles long), and Salt Creek to the Missouri River (25.9 miles long). The locations of these segments were determined by the locations of tributaries potentially significant to the hydrology or sediment supply of the Lower Platte River. This report summarizes channel characteristics as mapped from July 2006 aerial imagery including river width, valley width, channel curvature, and in-channel habitat features. In-channel habitat measurements were not made under consistent hydrologic conditions and must be considered general estimates of channel condition in late July 2006. Longitudinal patterns in these features are explored and are summarized in the context of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) for the three Lower Platte River segments. Detailed descriptions of data collection and classification methods are described in Elliott and others (2009). Nesting data for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum) and threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus) from 2006 through 2009 are examined within the context of the multivariate classification and Lower Platte River segments. The widest reaches of the Lower Platte River are located in the segment downstream from the Loup River to the Elkhorn River. This segment also has the widest valley and highest degree of braiding of the three segments and many large vegetated islands. The short segment of river between the Elkhorn River and Salt Creek has a fairly low valley width and high channel sinuosities at larger scales. The segment from Salt Creek to the Missouri River has narrow valleys and generally low channel sinuosity. Tern and plover nest sites from 2006 through 2009 in the multi-scale multivariate classification indicated relative nesting selection of cluster 2 reaches among the four-cluster classification and reaches containing clusters 2, 3, and 6 from the seven-cluster classification. These classes, with the exception of cluster 6 are common downstream from the Elkhorn River. Trends in total channel width indicated that reaches dominated by dark vegetation (islands) are the widest on the Lower Platte River. Reaches with high percentages of dry sand and dry sand plus light vegetation were the narrowest reaches. This suggests that narrow channel reaches have sufficient transport capacity to maintain sandbars under recent (2006) flow regimes and are likely to be most amenable to maintaining tern and plover habitat in the Lower Platte River. Further investigations into the dynamics of emergent sandbar habitat and the effects of bank stabilization on in-channel habitats will require the collection and analysis of new data, particularly detailed elevation information and an assessment of existing bank stabilization structures.

  3. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF A REALISTIC MAGNETOCONVECTIVE SUNSPOT SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C. [Northwest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rempel, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, HAO Division, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr., E-mail: dbraun@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: aaronb@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: renpel@ucar.edu, E-mail: Thomas.L.Duvall@nasa.gov [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

  4. A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Pergantis, Charles G.; Sandhu, Jaswinder S.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis for comparison. Specimens were then inspected using acoustography, a large field ultrasonic inspection technique that is analogous to real-time X-ray imaging. Acoustography utilizes a unique, wide area two-dimensional (2-D) detector, called an acousto-optic (AO) sensor, to directly convert ultrasound into visual images; much like an image intensifier in real-time radiography. Finally, a newly developed guided wave scanning system was utilized to inspect the same set of samples. This system uses two transducers in a pitch catch configuration to examine the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Results are presented for all of the methods demonstrating each technique's detection capabilities and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  6. Evaluation of factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of mothers with preschool children regarding their adoption of preventive measures for home injuries referred to academic emergency centres, Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Mahfoozpour, Soad; Alimohammadi, Hossein; Younesian, Somaye

    2014-01-01

    Excessive dependence of preschool children on their parents has led to a significant increase in the incidence of home injuries. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate factors influencing the knowledge and attitudes of mothers in this group regarding their adoption of preventive measures for home injuries. The subjects in this descriptive/analytical study consisted of all mothers of preschool children with home injuries, who had referred to the emergency department of Imam Hussein Hospital and Shohada-e-Haftome Tir Hospital in Tehran, Iran. After knowledge levels and attitudes of mothers were divided into two groups, multivariate logistic regression analysis and chi-squared test were used. Finally, 230 mothers, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 5.2 years, were evaluated, 75.0% of whom had good knowledge and 46.2% had positive attitudes. High school education, mothers' employment and mothers' absence from home for at least 8 hours a day were the factors predicting poor attitudes of mothers. There was a close correlation between mothers' knowledge and attitudes. The results of this study showed that mothers' high educational status, absence, occupation and the number of children in the family and history of accidents during the previous 3 weeks are important predicting factors. PMID:23886078

  7. Toward realistic haptic rendering of surface textures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungmoon Choi; Hong Z. Tan

    2004-01-01

    New sophisticated haptic-rendering algorithms let users experience virtual objects through touch. We systematically investigate the unrealistic behavior of virtual haptic textures. The emerging science of haptic rendering consists of delivering properties of physical objects through the sense of touch. Owing to the recent development of sophisticated haptic-rendering algorithms, users can now experience virtual objects through touch in many exciting applications,

  8. Toward realistic haptic rendering of surface textures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungmoon Choi; Hong Z. Tan

    2005-01-01

    The emerging science of haptic rendering consists of delivering properties of physical objects through the sense of touch. Owing to the recent development of sophisticated haptic-rendering algorithms, users can now experience virtual objects through touch in many exciting applications, including surgical simulations, virtual prototyping, and data per-ceptualization. Haptics holds great promise to enrich the sensory attributes of virtual objects that

  9. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of an emerging pollutant (enrofloxacin) by catalytic wet air oxidation and ozonation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao; Yediler, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the degradation efficiency of enrofloxacin (ENR) by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) and ozonation. Results obtained by CWAO experiments show that 99.5% degradation, 37.0% chemical oxidation demand (COD) removal and 51.0% total organic carbon (TOC) conversion were obtained when 100 mol% FeCl(3) and 25 mol% NaNO(2) at 150 °C under 0.5 MPa oxygen pressure after 120 min are used. The degradation products are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). The oxidation end products, F(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) were determined by IC. The BOD(5)/COD ratio as a measure of the biodegradability of the parent compound increased from 0.01 to 0.12 after 120 min of reaction time, indicating an improved biodegradability of the parent compound. The inhibition of bioluminescence of the marine bacteria V. fischeri decreased from 43% to 12% demonstrating a loss in toxicity of ENR during CWAO. Ozonation of 0.2 mM ENR was carried out with an ozone concentration of 7.3 g m(-3) at pH 7. ENR decomposition with a degradation rate of 87% was obtained corresponding to the reaction time. Moderate changes in COD (18%) and TOC (17%) removal has been observed. The bioluminescence inhibition increased from 8% to 50%, due to the generation of toxic degradation products during ozonation. In comparison to the widely use of well developed method of ozonation CWAO exhibits better performance in terms of COD, TOC removals and generates less toxic products. PMID:22858256

  10. Towards realistic representation of hydrological processes in integrated WRF-urban modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    To meet the demand of the ever-increasing urbanized global population, substantial conversion of natural landscapes to urban terrains is expected in the next few decades. The landscape modification will emerge as the source of many adverse effects that challenge the environmental sustainability of cities under changing climatic patterns. To address these adverse effects and to develop corresponding adaptation/mitigation strategies, physically-based single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) has been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) platform. However, due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes, simulation of urban climatology by current coupled WRF/SLUCM is inevitably inadequate. Aiming at improving the accuracy of simulations, in this study we implement physically-based parameterization of urban hydrological processes into the model, including (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation over water-holding engineered pavements, (4) urban oasis effect, and (5) green roof. In addition, we use an advanced Monte Carlo approach to quantify the sensitivity of urban hydrological modeling to parameter uncertainties. Evaluated against field observations at four major metropolitan areas, results show that the enhanced model is significantly improved in accurately predicting turbulent fluxes arising from built surfaces, especially the latent heat flux. Case studies show that green roof is capable of reducing urban surface temperature and sensible heat flux effectively, and modifying local and regional hydroclimate. Meanwhile, it is efficient in decreasing energy loading of buildings, not only cooling demand in summers but also heating demand in winters, through the combined evaporative cooling and insulation effect. Effectiveness of green roof is found to be limited by availability of water resources and highly sensitive to surface roughness heights. The enhanced WRF/SLUCM model deepens our insight into the dynamics of urban land surface processes and its impact on the regional hydroclimate through land-atmosphere interactions.

  11. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  12. Endocrine emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Savage, M; Mah, P; Weetman, A; Newell-Price, J

    2004-01-01

    Diabetic and endocrine emergencies are traditionally treated by the acute medical admitting team or accident and emergency department staff. Most will see diabetic emergencies on a regular basis, as they are common and both type 1 and type 2 disease are increasing in prevalence. Diabetic emergencies are usually easily treated and the patients discharged. However, it is vital not to become complacent as these disorders can lead to death. It is particularly important to follow local guidance and to involve the diabetes team both during and after each episode. Recently it has become clear that about 30% of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome (including infarction) have either diabetes or "stress hyperglycaemia"; evidence suggests that these patients should be treated not only as a cardiac emergency but also as a diabetic one. Thus, every patient with acute coronary syndrome or acute myocardial infarction needs diabetes to be excluded. The other endocrine emergencies are less common, but in some ways more important simply because of their rarity. A high level of suspicion is often required to make a diagnosis, although some, such as myxoedema coma, are usually obvious. Treatment must be started before the diagnosis can be confirmed. Guidance on making the diagnosis and initiating treatment should be made available on the local NHS intranet for non-endocrinologists to access; and where possible expert advice made available by telephone. The basic management steps in the common diabetic and endocrine emergencies are outlined; this is not a complete list, but rather an insight for those involved in non-selected emergency admissions. PMID:15356351

  13. Localization of realistic cortical activity in MEG using current multipoles.

    PubMed

    Jerbi, K; Baillet, S; Mosher, J C; Nolte, G; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M

    2004-06-01

    We present a novel approach to MEG source estimation based on a regularized first-order multipole solution. The Gaussian regularizing prior is obtained by calculation of the sample mean and covariance matrix for the equivalent moments of realistic simulated cortical activity. We compare the regularized multipole localization framework to the classical dipole and general multipole source estimation methods by evaluating the ability of all three solutions to localize the centroids of physiologically plausible patches of activity simulated on the surface of a human cerebral cortex. The results, obtained with a realistic sensor configuration, a spherical head model, and given in terms of field and localization error, depict the performance of the dipolar and multipolar models as a function of variable source surface area (50-500 mm(2)), noise conditions (20, 10, and 5 dB SNR), source orientation (0-90 degrees ), and source depth (3-11 cm). We show that as the sources increase in size, they become less accurately modeled as current dipoles. The regularized multipole systematically outperforms the single dipole model, increasingly so as the spatial extent of the sources increases. In addition, our simulations demonstrate that as the orientation of the sources becomes more radial, dipole localization accuracy decreases substantially, while the performance of the regularized multipole model is far less sensitive to orientation and even succeeds in localizing quasi-radial source configurations. Furthermore, our results show that the multipole model is able to localize superficial sources with higher accuracy than the current dipole. These results indicate that the regularized multipole solution may be an attractive alternative to current-dipole-based source estimation methods in MEG. PMID:15193607

  14. Realist identification of group-level latent variables for perinatal social epidemiology theory building.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported in this journal on an ecological study of perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney. In that article, we briefly reported on a factor analysis that was utilized to identify empirical indicators for analysis. In this article, we report on the mixed method approach that was used to identify those latent variables. Social epidemiology has been slow to embrace a latent variable approach to the study of social, political, economic, and cultural structures and mechanisms, partly for philosophical reasons. Critical realist ontology and epistemology have been advocated as an appropriate methodological approach to both theory building and theory testing in the health sciences. We describe here an emergent mixed method approach that uses qualitative methods to identify latent constructs followed by factor analysis using empirical indicators chosen to measure identified qualitative codes. Comparative analysis of the findings is reported together with a limited description of realist approaches to abstract reasoning. PMID:25618983

  15. Emerging equity market volatility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert Bekaert; Campbell R. Harvey

    1997-01-01

    Understanding volatility in emerging capital markets is important for determining the cost of capital and for evaluating direct investment and asset allocation decisions. We provide an approach that allows the relative importance of world and local information to change through time in both the expected returns and conditional variance processes. Our time-series and cross-sectional models analyze the reasons that volatility

  16. Flavor mixing signals for realistic supersymmetric unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, N.; Cheng, H.; Hall, L.J. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The gauge interactions of any supersymmetric extension of the standard model involve new flavor mixing matrices. The assumptions involved in the construction of minimal supersymmetric models, both SU(3){times}SU(2){times}U(1) and grand unified theories, force a large degree of triviality on these matrices. However, the requirement of realistic quark and lepton masses in supersymmetric grand unified theories forces these matrices to be nontrivial. This leads to important new dominant contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment and to the decay mode {ital p}{implies}{ital K}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}, and suggests that there may be important weak scale radiative corrections to the Yukawa coupling matrix of the up quarks. The lepton flavor-violating signal {mu}{implies}{ital e}{gamma} is studied in these theories when tan{Beta} is sufficiently large that radiative effects of couplings other than {lambda}{sub {ital t}} must be included. The naive expectation that large tan{Beta} will force sleptons to unacceptably large masses is not borne out: radiative supressions to the leptonic flavor mixing angles allow regions where the sleptons are as light as 300 GeV, provided the top Yukawa coupling in the unified theory is near the minimal value consistent with {ital m}{sub {ital t}}. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Realistic solution to the tunneling time problem

    E-print Network

    Wang Guowen

    2007-06-24

    There remains the old question of how long a quantum particle takes to tunnel through a potential barrier higher than its incident kinetic energy. In this article a solution of the question is proposed on the basis of a realistic explanation of quantum mechanics. The explanation implies that the tunneling particle has a certain chance to borrow enough energy from self-interference to high-jump over the barrier. The root-mean-square velocity and the effective tunneling time of an electron tunneling through a rectangular barrier are numerically calculated. No superluminal effect (Hartman effect) is found for the tunneling electron. Heisenberg's energy-time uncertainty relation for the tunneling effect is verified by calculating an introduced coefficient representing uncertainty. The present author argues that phase time, dwell time and B\\"{u}tticker-Landauer time are not appropriate expressions for the actual transit time in a tunneling process. A quantum high-jumping model is presented to resolve the paradox that kinetic energy of the tunneling particle is negative and its momentum is imaginary.

  18. 76 FR 71991 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0038...Collection; Comment Request, Emergency Management Institute Course Evaluation Form AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  19. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V. [Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Inst., Kiev (Ukraine); Zheleznyak, M.J. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Cybernetics Center; Onishi, Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

  20. An alumni-based evaluation of graduate training in health communication: results of a survey on careers, salaries, competencies, and emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Timothy; Hyde, James N

    2005-01-01

    Published information about career options and the core competencies necessary for health communication professionals (HCPs) is limited. Although the number of graduate programs in health communication continues to grow, no formal assessment of the success of this type of training has been conducted. The current study presents the results of an evaluation of the Master's Program in Health Communication offered collaboratively by Emerson College and the Tufts University School of Medicine. The program was one of the first of its kind and has graduated more health communication students than any other in the United States. To conduct the assessment of the program, the two schools collaborated on the development of an on-line survey for the alumni. Of the 131 graduates eligible to participate, 106 completed the survey. The survey yielded detailed information on the following: (1) career options for individuals with master's degrees in health communication; (2) value of graduate coursework for developing competencies in health communication; (3) salary expectations for individuals with graduate degrees in health communication; and (4) emerging trends in the field. These findings have important implications for the development of new programs and the refinement of existing ones in health communication. PMID:15764441

  1. Emerging Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  2. Inflight medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to resolutions asking the American Medical Association (AMA) to develop recommendations for the use of medical equipment and technology onboard commercial airlines. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that, while inflight morbidity and mortality are uncommon, serious events do occur, which require immediate emergency care. Management of serious problems requires an integrated emergency response system that ensures rapid notification of medical personnel on the ground, assistance from appropriately trained flight crews and passenger volunteers (if available), and adequate medical supplies and equipment to stabilize the victim. Physicians have an important role in the preflight evaluation and counseling of potential passengers who are at risk of inflight medical complications, and in providing inflight medical assistance. Some U.S. and foreign air carriers are upgrading inflight emergency medical kits and placing automated external defibrillators aboard aircraft. Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of such improvements in improving health or survival outcomes. Recent federal legislation requires assessment of the extent of inflight medical emergencies, including the adequacy of emergency medical supplies and equipment carried onboard commercial airliners. This legislation also should alleviate liability concerns by providing immunity for physicians and others who render inflight medical assistance. PMID:10954361

  3. Emerging phleboviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  4. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  5. Emergency Preparedness for Business: Emergency Contact Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Products Programs NIOSH EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR BUSINESS Emergency Contact Information In An Emergency If you believe that ... agency. Related Information Facility Protection Other Resources Emergency Contact Resources U.S. Poison Control Center Members (American Association ...

  6. MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    911 for emergency assistance · Following the arrangement of emergency medical treatment of Injury form. · assists the employee in selecting the appropriate medical provider. · arrangesMEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency? Serious injury or illness. What do I do

  7. Realistic Simulation of Urban Mesh Networks - Part I: Urban Mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonghyun Kim; Vinay Sridhara; Stephan Bohacek

    It is a truism that simulations of mobile wireless networks are not realistic. There has been little effort in developing realistic mobility models. In urban areas, the mobility of vehicles and pedestrians is greatly influenced by the environement (e.g., the location of buildings) as well as by interaction with other nodes. For example, on a congested street of sidewalk, nodes

  8. Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach

    E-print Network

    Aerts, Diederik

    Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach Diederik Aerts FUND of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach", International Journal of Theoretical examples in detail in the light of this formalism: a classical deterministic entity and a quantum entity

  9. Realistic Simulation of Network Protocols in VANET Scenarios

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    Realistic Simulation of Network Protocols in VANET Scenarios Christoph Sommer, Isabel Dietrich--Simulation of network protocol behavior in Vehicu- lar Ad Hoc Network (VANET) scenarios is the predominant basis in realistic VANET environments. In our work, we employed well-studied microsimulation models and wireless ad

  10. Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP Ivan Enderlin, Fr´ed´eric Dadeau, Alain testing, contracts, realistic domains, PHP, random generation, rule coverage. I. INTRODUCTION Model-based,frederic.dadeau,alain.giorgetti,fabrice.bouquet}@femto-st.fr Abstract--This paper presents an integration of grammar- based testing in a framework for contract-based

  11. Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication

    E-print Network

    Frew, Eric W.

    Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication Environments Eric W. Frew-theoretic framework for active sensing by unmanned aircraft systems in realistic communication environments. The position dependency of wireless networked communication is modeled using the standard empirical radio model

  12. Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Brody, James P.

    Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem Matthew E. S, 2007) Declines in biodiversity have prompted concern over the conse- quences of species loss the functional consequences of realistic, nonrandom changes in biodiversity. Instead, most designs have used

  13. Realistic models of paracrystalline silicon S. M. Nakhmanson*

    E-print Network

    Drabold, David

    Realistic models of paracrystalline silicon S. M. Nakhmanson* Department of Physics and Astronomy for the preparation of physically realistic models of paracrystalline silicon based on a modification of the bond-switching method of Wooten, Winer, and Weaire. The models contain randomly oriented c-Si grains embedded

  14. Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Bobo

    1983-01-01

    The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

  15. Development and Evaluation of Educational Materials for Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department Personnel on the Care of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonigle, John J.; Migyanka, Joann M.; Glor-Scheib, Susan J.; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J.; Hegde, Gajanan G.; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there…

  16. Use of an agent-based simulation model to evaluate a mobile-based system for supporting emergency evacuation decision making.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Tian-Shu; Yao, Qin; Zhang, Mao; Li, Jing-Song

    2014-12-01

    Recently, mass casualty incidents (MCIs) have been occurring frequently and have gained international attention. There is an urgent need for scientifically proven and effective emergency responses to MCIs, particularly as the severity of incidents is continuously increasing. The emergency response to MCIs is a multi-dimensional and multi-participant dynamic process that changes in real-time. The evacuation decisions that assign casualties to different hospitals in a region are very important and impact both the results of emergency treatment and the efficiency of medical resource utilization. Previously, decisions related to casualty evacuation were made by an incident commander with emergency experience and in accordance with macro emergency guidelines. There are few decision-supporting tools available to reduce the difficulty and psychological pressure associated with the evacuation decisions an incident commander must make. In this study, we have designed a mobile-based system to collect medical and temporal data produced during an emergency response to an MCI. Using this information, our system's decision-making model can provide personal evacuation suggestions that improve the overall outcome of an emergency response. The effectiveness of our system in reducing overall mortality has been validated by an agent-based simulation model established to simulate an emergency response to an MCI. PMID:25354665

  17. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  18. EMERGING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to better fulfill its mission under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement for the restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem GLNPO has funded strategic or emerging issues of basin-wide importance: ...

  19. ["Emergency measures"].

    PubMed

    Louis, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime. PMID:22693924

  20. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  1. Emerging options for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-02-18

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  2. Comparative evaluation of different medication safety measures for the emergency department: physicians’ usage and acceptance of training, poster, checklist and computerized decision support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although usage and acceptance are important factors for a successful implementation of clinical decision support systems for medication, most studies only concentrate on their design and outcome. Our objective was to comparatively investigate a set of traditional medication safety measures such as medication safety training for physicians, paper-based posters and checklists concerning potential medication problems versus the additional benefit of a computer-assisted medication check. We concentrated on usage, acceptance and suitability of such interventions in a busy emergency department (ED) of a 749 bed acute tertiary care hospital. Methods A retrospective, qualitative evaluation study was conducted using a field observation and a questionnaire-based survey. Six physicians were observed while treating 20 patient cases; the questionnaire, based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2), has been answered by nine ED physicians. Results During field observations, we did not observe direct use of any of the implemented interventions for medication safety (paper-based and electronic). Questionnaire results indicated that the electronic medication safety check was the most frequently used intervention, followed by checklist and posters. However, despite their positive attitude, physicians most often stated that they use the interventions in only up to ten percent for subjectively “critical” orders. Main reasons behind the low usage were deficits in ease-of-use and fit to the workflow. The intention to use the interventions was rather high after overcoming these barriers. Conclusions Methodologically, the study contributes to Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) research in an ED setting and confirms TAM2 as a helpful diagnostic tool in identifying barriers for a successful implementation of medication safety interventions. In our case, identified barriers explaining the low utilization of the implemented medication safety interventions - despite their positive reception - include deficits in accessibility, briefing for the physicians about the interventions, ease-of-use and compatibility to the working environment. PMID:23890121

  3. Rapid emergence of blaCTX-M among Enterobacteriaceae in U.S. Medical Centers: molecular evaluation from the MYSTIC Program (2007).

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-09-01

    A total of 220 gram-negative isolates showing distinct beta-lactam resistance profiles recovered in U.S. medical centers during the MYSTIC Program 2007 were evaluated to determine the presence of selected beta-lactamase genes. CTX-M-encoding genes, considered rare in the United States, were detected in 38.8% (28/70; three species) of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase-positive isolates and were observed in 80.0% of the participating hospitals. CTX-M-14 and -15 were found in multiple institutions (eight and nine medical centers, respectively), and CTX-M-3 was detected in only one isolate. The OXA-2 and -10 were identified in nine Enterobacteriaceae strains, and plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes CMY-2 and FOX-5 were identified in six and four isolates, respectively, displaying negative clavulanate inhibition. Genes encoding OXA-23 and -24 were detected in 30.0% (15/50) of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. strains. Retrospective sampling showed that these OXA enzymes were present since 2004 in the MYSTIC Program isolates. The KPC serine carbapenemases were observed in the majority of the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (usually Klebsiella pneumoniae), confirming an epidemic problem in the New York City area. The association of beta-lactamase production and transferable quinolone resistance genes (qnr; 6.7%) in Enterobacteriaceae strains was higher than previously reported. This study illustrates the emergence and rapid dissemination of some beta-lactamases, such as CTX-M, broad-spectrum oxacillinases, and serine carbapenemases, that compromised the treatment of gram-negative infections in numerous U.S. hospitals participating in the MYSTIC Program in 2007. PMID:18707552

  4. ACCESSING REALISTIC MIXED COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS WITHIN MATLAB

    E-print Network

    Ferris, Michael C.

    .cs.wisc.edu:math­prog/matlab/ or from the authors. All the problems contained in the GAMS library and MCPLIB are freely available/MCP library and makes function and Jacobian evaluations available directly to the MATLAB user. All the re of the programs is described here, along with a list of all the problems that are currently available in binary

  5. Emergent spin

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael, E-mail: creutz@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

  6. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Pedro Schwaller; Daniel Stolarski; Andreas Weiler

    2015-05-11

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  7. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  8. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  9. Emerging zoonoses.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic or species-jumping infectious agents. Because there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Such investigation may be described in terms of a discovery-to-control continuum: from recognition of a new disease in a new setting to complex phases involving the hard science disciplines pertaining to discovery, the epidemiologic sciences pertaining to risk assessment, and activities pertaining to risk management. Today, many activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of a failed investigative infrastructure or financial base. Because zoonotic diseases are distinct, their prevention and control will require unique strategies, based more on fundamental research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require that we rebuild a cadre of career-committed professionals with a holistic appreciation of several medical and biologic sciences. PMID:9716965

  10. Construction of realistic images using R-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, A.N.; Tsukanov, I.G.

    1995-09-01

    Realistic images are plane images of three-dimensional bodies in which volume effects are conveyed by illumination. This is how volume is displayed in photographs and paintings. Photographs achieve a realistic volume effect by choosing a certain arrangement, brightness, and number of light sources. Painters choose for their paintings a color palette based entirely on sensory perception. In this paper, we consider the construction of realistic images on a computer display. The shape of the imaged objects is not always known in advance: it may be generated as a result of complex mathematical computations. The geometrical information is described using R-functions.

  11. Effects of realistic tensor force on nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, H.

    2012-10-01

    First-order tensor-force effects on nuclear structure are investigated in the self-consistent mean-field and RPA calculations with the M3Y-type semi-realistic interactions, which contain the realistic tensor force. The tensor force plays a key role in Z- or N-dependence of the shell structure, and in transitions involving spin degrees-of-freedom. It is demonstrated that the semi-realistic interactions successfully describe the N-dependence of the shell structure in the proton-magic nuclei (e.g. Ca and Sn), and the magnetic transitions (e.g. M1 transition in 208Pb).

  12. A time-responsive tool for informing policy making: rapid realist review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A realist synthesis attempts to provide policy makers with a transferable theory that suggests a certain program is more or less likely to work in certain respects, for particular subjects, in specific kinds of situations. Yet realist reviews can require considerable and sustained investment over time, which does not always suit the time-sensitive demands of many policy decisions. ‘Rapid Realist Review’ methodology (RRR) has been developed as a tool for applying a realist approach to a knowledge synthesis process in order to produce a product that is useful to policy makers in responding to time-sensitive and/or emerging issues, while preserving the core elements of realist methodology. Methods Using examples from completed RRRs, we describe key features of the RRR methodology, the resources required, and the strengths and limitations of the process. All aspects of an RRR are guided by both a local reference group, and a group of content experts. Involvement of knowledge users and external experts ensures both the usability of the review products, as well as their links to current practice. Results RRRs have proven useful in providing evidence for and making explicit what is known on a given topic, as well as articulating where knowledge gaps may exist. From the RRRs completed to date, findings broadly adhere to four (often overlapping) classifications: guiding rules for policy-making; knowledge quantification (i.e., the amount of literature available that identifies context, mechanisms, and outcomes for a given topic); understanding tensions/paradoxes in the evidence base; and, reinforcing or refuting beliefs and decisions taken. Conclusions ‘Traditional’ realist reviews and RRRs have some key differences, which allow policy makers to apply each type of methodology strategically to maximize its utility within a particular local constellation of history, goals, resources, politics and environment. In particular, the RRR methodology is explicitly designed to engage knowledge users and review stakeholders to define the research questions, and to streamline the review process. In addition, results are presented with a focus on context-specific explanations for what works within a particular set of parameters rather than producing explanations that are potentially transferrable across contexts and populations. For policy makers faced with making difficult decisions in short time frames for which there is sufficient (if limited) published/research and practice-based evidence available, RRR provides a practical, outcomes-focused knowledge synthesis method. PMID:24007206

  13. Realistic training for effective crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of incident and accident statistics reveals that most problems occur not because of a lack of proficiency in pilot training, but because of the inability to coordinate skills into effective courses of action. Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) programs provide training which will develop both individual crew member skills, as well as those associated with effective group function. A study conducted by NASA at the request of the U.S. Congress supports the argument for training that enhances crew performance in addition to providing individual technical skills, and is described in detail.

  14. Detecting Emerging Trends from Scientific Corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minh-Hoang Le; Tu-Bao Ho; Yoshiteru Nakamori

    Emerging trend detection is a new challenge and an attractive topic in text mining. Our research goal was to construct a model to detect emerging trends in a set of scientific articles; the resulting model is richer in topic representation and more appropriate for evaluating emerging trends than existing models. To achieve this end, we associated each topic with many

  15. Realistic Haptic Rendering of Interacting Deformable Objects in Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Realistic Haptic Rendering of Interacting Deformable Objects in Virtual Environments Christian Abstract--A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often

  16. ``Interval Rational = Algebraic'' Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    the numbers representable in a computer are rational and therefore, form a set of Lebesgue measure 0, only rational numbers ``Interval Rational = Algebraic'' Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result Anatoly V. Lakeyev 1

  17. Project REALISTIC: Determination of Adult Functional Literacy Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Project REALISTIC, sponsored by the Department of the Army under contract with the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), was designed to determine functional literacy levels for selected military jobs having civilian counterparts. (MM)

  18. Changes in ecological stability across realistic biodiversity gradients depend

    E-print Network

    Chalcraft, David R.

    RESEARCH PAPER Changes in ecological stability across realistic biodiversity gradients depend on spatial scale David R. Chalcraft* Department of Biology and North Carolina Center for Biodiversity, East ecosystems and populations varies with biodiversity at spatial scales relevant to resource managers

  19. Towards Synthesizing Realistic Workload Traces for Studying the Hadoop Ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Butt, Ali R.

    Towards Synthesizing Realistic Workload Traces for Studying the Hadoop Ecosystem Guanying Wang, Ali, Performance analysis, Design optimization, Software performance modeling I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing optimal performance. Estimating how applications would perform on specific cloud setups is critical

  20. Simulating realistic genomic data with rare variants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaji; Wu, Yinghua; Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that rare and generally deleterious genetic variants might have strong impact on disease risks of not only Mendelian disease, but also many common diseases. However, identifying such rare variants remains to be challenging, and novel statistical methods and bioinformatic software must be developed. Hence, we have to extensively evaluate various methods under reasonable genetic models. While there are abundant genomic data, they are not most helpful for the evaluation of the methods because the disease mechanism is unknown. Thus, it is imperative that we simulate genomic data that mimic the real data containing rare variants and that enable us to impose a known disease penetrance model. Although resampling simulation methods have shown their advantages in computational efficiency and in preserving important properties such as linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allele frequency, they still have limitations as we demonstrated. We propose an algorithm that combines a regression-based imputation with resampling to simulate genetic data with both rare and common variants. Logistic regression model was employed to fit the relationship between a rare variant and its nearby common variants in the 1000 Genomes Project data and then applied to the real data to fill in one rare variant at a time using the fitted logistic model based on common variants. Individuals then were simulated using the real data with imputed rare variants. We compared our method with existing simulators and demonstrated that our method performed well in retaining the real sample properties, such as LD and minor allele frequency, qualitatively. PMID:23161487

  1. Cartoons vs. realistic illustration: picture preferences of adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Dirr, K L; Katz, A A

    1989-01-01

    Illustrations are an important element in patient education materials because they engage the interest of the audience. However, little research has been conducted to determine the style of illustration that most effectively engages a patient population. This study tested the picture preferences of 39 adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). A survey instrument asked them to choose between cartoons and realistic illustrations. A significant number preferred realistic illustrations to cartoons. PMID:2600074

  2. Numerical Simulation of Oscillatory Flow in Realistic Model Human Airways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genri Inagaki; Gaku Tanaka; Makoto Hishida; Hideaki Haneishi; Xiao Hu

    2009-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out for an oscillatory flow in a 3D realistic model of the human central airways to reveal the effect of airway geometry on the oscillatory flow structure. This 3D realistic airway model is a computational model of multi-branching airway constructed based on X-ray CT images of actual human airways in which the airway

  3. Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamankar, Nitin S.

    Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method is found to be successful in producing a turbulent shear layer. Imposition of larger turbulent integral length scales at the inlet is found to be effective in achieving a quicker recovery of turbulent fluctuations at low Reynolds numbers.

  4. Emergency drills in obstetrics: reducing risk of perinatal death or permanent injury.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Sherrill S

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the need for mock emergency drills in perinatal emergencies such as shoulder dystocia, maternal hemorrhage, and emergency cesarean section. Effective drills are a patient safety initiative to reduce medical errors and adverse events during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Successful strategies are identified from other fields of practice to improve patient outcomes. Realistic, institutional specific scenarios for mock emergency drills result in improved team behaviors leading to better outcomes for mothers and infants. PMID:17413483

  5. Validation of the Deterministic Realistic Method Applied to CATHARE on LB LOCA Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sauvage, Jean-Yves [Framatome ANP (France); Laroche, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

    2002-07-01

    Framatome-ANP and EDF have defined a generic approach for using a best-estimate code in design basis accident studies called Deterministic Realistic Method (DRM). It has been applied to elaborate a LB LOCA ECCS evaluation model based on the CATHARE code. From a prior statistical analysis of uncertainties, the DRM derives a conservative deterministic model, preserving the realistic nature of the simulation, to be used in the further applications. The conservatism of the penalized model is demonstrated comparing penalized calculations with relevant experimental data. The DRM proved to be a highly flexible tool and has been applied successfully to meet the specific French and specific Belgian requirements of Safety Authorities. (authors)

  6. Prehospital Burn Care for Emergency Medical Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Robert A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the development, objectives, content, and evaluation of a unique, 60-minute, synchronized slide/tape program on prehospital burn care for emergency medical technicians; and presents a design for valid content-reference formative evaluation. (Author/VT)

  7. Infrasound propagation in realistic atmosphere using nonlinear ray theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainville, Olaf; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Scott, Julian

    2012-09-01

    Using ray theory, long range propagation of infrasound through the atmosphere is modeled in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. In atmospheric propagation, the high frequency hypothesis is based on the assumption that space and time scales of atmospheric properties (temperature, wind, density) are much larger than acoustic wave scales. An operational 3D nonlinear ray tracing code is developed to compute the temporal pressure signature at receivers. The global pressure signature at the receiver is the sum of eigenray contributions that link the source to the receiver. They are obtained by solving a generalized Burgers' equation along each eigenray taking into account nonlinear effects, shear and bulk viscosity absorption and molecular vibrational relaxation mechanisms. This equation is solved using a Fourier Galerkin spectral scheme. Specific developments are performed to pass through caustics and take into account ground reflection. The propagation of infrasound emitted by a motionless point source in a realistic atmosphere will illustrate the analysis. To quantify the validity limits of our approach, we investigate effects of the wind, atmospheric absorption, nonlinearities, refraction and scattering by small atmospheric scales on observed phase kinds, their travel time and their waveform. To estimate the nonlinearity effects relative to the linear dissipative effects we evaluate the Gol'dberg number. We note that nonlinear mechanisms are important to model the evolution of infrasonic waveform signatures. The 'N' and the 'U' measured waveform shape of, respectively, thermospheric and stratospheric paths are associated with nonlinear mechanisms. Nonlinearities are weak but the development of nonlinear models is necessary in order to characterize the source yield. Comparisons will be made with results available in the literature.

  8. Designing Future Dark Energy Space Mission: I. Building Realistic Galaxy Spectro-Photometric Catalogs and their first applic ations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jouvel; J. P. Kneib; O. Ilbert; G. Bernstein; S. Arnouts; T. Dahlen; A. Ealet; B. Milliard; H. Aussel; P. Capak; H. McCracken; M. Salvato; N. Scoville

    Context. Future dark energy space missions such as JDEM and EUCLID are being designed to survey the galaxy population to trace the geometry of the universe and the growth of structure, which both depend on the cosmological model. To reach the goal of high precision cosmology they need to evaluate the capabilities of different instrument designs based on realistic mock

  9. Designing future dark energy space missions. I. Building realistic galaxy spectro-photometric catalogs and their first applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jouvel; J.-P. Kneib; O. Ilbert; G. Bernstein; S. Arnouts; T. Dahlen; A. Ealet; B. Milliard; H. Aussel; P. Capak; A. Koekemoer; V. Le Brun; H. McCracken; M. Salvato; N. Scoville

    2009-01-01

    Context: Future dark energy space missions such as JDEM and EUCLID are being designed to survey the galaxy population to trace the geometry of the universe and the growth of structure, which both depend on the cosmological model. To reach the goal of high precision cosmology they need to evaluate the capabilities of different instrument designs based on realistic mock

  10. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Lalitkumar, P G L; Berger, Cecilia; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    This review will focus on the available methods for emergency contraception (EC), efficacy, side effects and mechanisms of action. Copper intrauterine device (IUD) has been shown to be the most effective method for EC which can be continually used for regular contraception. However, this possibility is seldom used and may be little known. Among the hormonal EC methods 1.5 mg levonorgestrel is the most widely used EC pill while the more recently developed Ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been shown to be the most effective option. This is probably due to a more pronounced prevention of follicular rupture compared with other hormonal EC methods. Knowledge is needed to better advise lactating women and obese women on optimal EC method. Furthermore a possible interaction of UPA with regular hormonal contraception and possibilities for "bridging" from EC to regular contraception needs to be explored. To increase efficacy future studies should focus on EC methods that target the endometrium. PMID:23384749

  11. Evaluation of a coagulation/flocculation-lamellar clarifier and filtration-UV-chlorination reactor for removing emerging contaminants at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2013-03-15

    The presence and elimination of 25 emerging contaminants in two full-scale Spanish wastewater treatment plants was studied. The tertiary treatment systems consisted of coagulation, flocculation lamellar settlement and filtration (pulsed-bed sand filters) units, and disinfection was carried out by medium pressure UV light lamps and chlorination. Diclofenac and carbamazepine were found to be the emerging contaminants with the highest concentrations in secondary effluents. Photodegradable emerging contaminants (e.g. ketoprofen, triclosan and diclofenac) were removed by filtration-UV light radiation-chlorination whereas most hydrophobic compounds (e.g. galaxolide and tonalide) were eliminated by coagulation-flocculation followed by lamellar clarification, a unit in which a seasonal trend was observed. Overall mass removal efficiency was about 60%. 1-(8-Chlorocarbazolyl) acetic acid, an intermediate product of the photodegradation of diclofenac, was detected after filtration-UV-chlorination, but not after coagulation-flocculation and lamellar clarification. This study demonstrated potential for general applicability of two established tertiary treatment systems to eliminate emerging contaminants. PMID:23353882

  12. MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    assistance Following the arrangement of emergency medical treatment for the injured employee, supervisor mustMEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency? Serious injury or illness. What do I do if there is a medical emergency occurring or one has occurred? CALL 911. Paramedics and ambulance service

  13. MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    assistance Following the arrangement of emergency medical treatment for the injured employee, supervisorMEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency? Serious injury or illness. What do I do if there is a medical emergency occurring or one has occurred? CALL 911. Paramedics and ambulance service

  14. Distributed virtual environment for emergency medical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Garcia, Brian W.; Godsell-Stytz, Gayl M.

    1997-07-01

    In many professions where individuals must work in a team in a high stress environment to accomplish a time-critical task, individual and team performance can benefit from joint training using distributed virtual environments (DVEs). One professional field that lacks but needs a high-fidelity team training environment is the field of emergency medicine. Currently, emergency department (ED) medical personnel train by using words to create a metal picture of a situation for the physician and staff, who then cooperate to solve the problems portrayed by the word picture. The need in emergency medicine for realistic virtual team training is critical because ED staff typically encounter rarely occurring but life threatening situations only once in their careers and because ED teams currently have no realistic environment in which to practice their team skills. The resulting lack of experience and teamwork makes diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Virtual environment based training has the potential to redress these shortfalls. The objective of our research is to develop a state-of-the-art virtual environment for emergency medicine team training. The virtual emergency room (VER) allows ED physicians and medical staff to realistically prepare for emergency medical situations by performing triage, diagnosis, and treatment on virtual patients within an environment that provides them with the tools they require and the team environment they need to realistically perform these three tasks. There are several issues that must be addressed before this vision is realized. The key issues deal with distribution of computations; the doctor and staff interface to the virtual patient and ED equipment; the accurate simulation of individual patient organs' response to injury, medication, and treatment; and an accurate modeling of the symptoms and appearance of the patient while maintaining a real-time interaction capability. Our ongoing work addresses all of these issues. In this paper we report on our prototype VER system and its distributed system architecture for an emergency department distributed virtual environment for emergency medical staff training. The virtual environment enables emergency department physicians and staff to develop their diagnostic and treatment skills using the virtual tools they need to perform diagnostic and treatment tasks. Virtual human imagery, and real-time virtual human response are used to create the virtual patient and present a scenario. Patient vital signs are available to the emergency department team as they manage the virtual case. The work reported here consists of the system architectures we developed for the distributed components of the virtual emergency room. The architectures we describe consist of the network level architecture as well as the software architecture for each actor within the virtual emergency room. We describe the role of distributed interactive simulation and other enabling technologies within the virtual emergency room project.

  15. Emergency radiology.

    PubMed

    Farina, Roberto; Catalano, Orlando; Stavolo, Ciro; Sandomenico, Fabio; Petrillo, Antonella; Romano, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    US has a relevant role in the initial assessment of non-traumatic emergencies of the abdomen, sometimes being conclusive and some other times for selecting the patients for further imaging with CT. Injection of a contrast medium may give to the radiologist additional information to that obtained at baseline US and Doppler examination, since real-time, contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) may allow observing findings in the abdomen not recognizable at baseline US or even at color Doppler imaging. Extravascular use of microbubbles may also be useful in clinical practice to rapidly solve a number of unclear aspects. CEUS has a number of distinct advantages in acute patients, including its quickness, low invasiveness, and its possible bedside use. The information based on contrast enhancement is useful for initial diagnosis, therapeutic decision making, and follow-up of the critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of abdominal CEUS in the acute setting, with special emphasis on the detection and characterization of acute inflammatory processes, infarcts, and hemorrhages. PMID:25450869

  16. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang-Wun Raymond; Lo, Sue Seen Tsing; Ho, Pak-Chung

    2014-08-01

    This review summarises the development of emergency contraception (EC) methods, and provides an overview on the currently available options of EC which are effective and safe back-up methods in case of non-use or failure of the regular contraception. The copper intrauterine contraceptive device is currently the most effective method. In most countries, a single dose of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg is the first-line hormonal EC given within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. The oral anti-progestogens such as mifepristone and ulipristal acetate are promising alternatives with better efficacies and a wider treatment window of up to 120 h post coitus, probably resulting from more diverse ancillary mechanisms of actions. Education on EC should be part of any contraceptive counselling. Improving access to EC by providing it over the counter or in advance would not promote its abuse nor encourage risky sexual behaviours, but may further facilitate the timely use so as to achieve the best efficacy. PMID:24898437

  17. I-Love relation for incompressible stars and realistic stars

    E-print Network

    T. K. Chan; Atma P. O. Chan; P. T. Leung

    2014-11-26

    In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science {\\bf 341}, 365 (2013)], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability) and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

  18. Rapid Detection and Evaluation of Clinical Characteristics of Emerging Multiple-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Rods Carrying the Metallo-b-Lactamase Gene bla IMP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOICHI HIRAKATA; KOICHI IZUMIKAWA; TOSHIYUKI YAMAGUCHI; HIROMU TAKEMURA; HIRONORI TANAKA; RYOJI YOSHIDA; JUNICHI MATSUDA; MICHIKO NAKANO; KAZUNORI TOMONO; SHIGEFUMI MAESAKI; MITSUO KAKU; YASUAKI YAMADA; SHIMERU KAMIHIRA; SHIGERU KOHNO

    2006-01-01

    Gram-negative rods (GNR) carrying the transferable carbapenem resistance gene blaIMP, including Pseudo- monas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, have been isolated from more than 20 hospitals in Japan. Although the emergence of such multiple-drug-resistant bacteria is of utmost clinical concern, little information in regard to the distribution of blaIMP-positive GNR in hospitals and the clinical characteristics of infected patients is available.

  19. Evaluation of an hPXR reporter gene assay for the detection of aquatic emerging pollutants: screening of chemicals and application to water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Creusot; Saïd Kinani; Patrick Balaguer; Nathalie Tapie; Karyn LeMenach; Emmanuelle Maillot-Maréchal; Jean-Marc Porcher; Hélène Budzinski; Sélim Aït-Aïssa

    2010-01-01

    Many environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. Among these receptors, the human pregnane\\u000a X receptor (hPXR) is well described as a xenobiotic sensor to various classes of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides,\\u000a and steroids. To assess the potential use of PXR as a sensor for aquatic emerging pollutants, we employed an in vitro reporter\\u000a gene assay (HG5LN-hPXR cells)

  20. Human Performance in a Realistic Instrument-Control Task during Short-Term Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Fabian; Kalicinski, Michael; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the detrimental effects of microgravity on human sensorimotor skills. While that work dealt with simple, laboratory-type skills, we now evaluate the effects of microgravity on a complex, realistic instrument-control skill. Twelve participants controlled a simulated power plant during the short-term microgravity intervals of parabolic flight as well as during level flight. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from the power plant. We quantified control efficiency as the participants’ net earnings (revenue minus expenses), motor performance as hand kinematics and dynamics, and stress as cortisol level, self-assessed mood and self-assessed workload. We found that compared to normal gravity, control efficiency substantially decreased in microgravity, hand velocity slowed down, and cortisol level and perceived physical strain increased, but other stress and motor scores didn’t change. Furthermore, control efficiency was not correlated with motor and stress scores. From this we conclude that realistic instrument control was degraded in short-term microgravity. This degradation can’t be explained by the motor and/or stress indicators under study, and microgravity affected motor performance differently in our complex, realistic skill than in the simple, laboratory-type skills of earlier studies. PMID:26083473

  1. Virtual reality for emergency training

    SciTech Connect

    Altinkemer, K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Krannert Graduate School of Management

    1995-12-31

    Virtual reality is a sequence of scenes generated by a computer as a response to the five different senses. These senses are sight, sound, taste, touch, smell. Other senses that can be used in virtual reality include balance, pheromonal, and immunological senses. Many application areas include: leisure and entertainment, medicine, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, and training. Virtual reality is especially important when it is used for emergency training and management of natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, tornados and other situations which are hard to emulate. Classical training methods for these extraordinary environments lack the realistic surroundings that virtual reality can provide. In order for virtual reality to be a successful training tool the design needs to include certain aspects; such as how real virtual reality should be and how much fixed cost is entailed in setting up the virtual reality trainer. There are also pricing questions regarding the price per training session on virtual reality trainer, and the appropriate training time length(s).

  2. The emergence of self.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J

    1982-10-01

    Longitudinal and cross-sectioned investigations of children from three different cultural settings reveal the emergence of behaviors during the last half of the second year that imply the first appreciation of standards on prohibited actions, recognition of the ability to gain goals, and awareness of the self's feeling states. It was suggested that these competences were inevitable consequences of maturational changes in the central nervous system as long as children were growing in a world of objects and people. The foundations for a moral evaluation of aggression and self-consciousness appear to be universal milestones of the second year of life. PMID:6182153

  3. Effects of Defining Realistic Compositions of the Ocular Melanoma on Proton Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Keshazare, Sh; Masoudi, S F; S Rasouli, F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies in eye plaque brachytherapy have shown a considerable difference between the dosimetric results using water phantom and a model of human eye containing realistic materials. In spite of this fact, there is a lack of simulation studies based on such a model in proton therapy literatures. In the presented work, the effect of utilizing an eye model with ocular media on proton therapy is investigated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo Code. Methods: Two different eye models are proposed to study the effect of defining realistic materials on dose deposition due to utilizing pencil beam scanning (PBS) method for proton therapy of ocular melanoma. The first model is filled with water, and the second one contains the realistic materials of tumor and vitreous. Spread out Bragg peaks (SOBP) are created to cover a typical tumor volume. Moreover, isodose curves are figured in order to evaluate planar variations of absorbed dose in two models. Results: The results show that the maximum delivered dose in ocular media is approximately 12-32% more than in water phantom. Also it is found that using the optimized weighted beams in water phantom leads to disturbance of uniformity of SOBP in ocular media. Conclusion: Similar to the results reported in eye brachytherapy published papers, considering the ocular media in simulation studies leads to a more realistic assessment of sufficiency of the designed proton beam in tissue. This effect is of special importance in creating SOBP, as well as in delivered dose in the tumor boundaries in proton pencil beam scanning method. PMID:25599060

  4. Making sense of complex data: a mapping process for analyzing findings of a realist review on guideline implementability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Realist reviews offer a rigorous method to analyze heterogeneous data emerging from multiple disciplines as a means to develop new concepts, understand the relationships between them, and identify the evidentiary base underpinning them. However, emerging synthesis methods such as the Realist Review are not well operationalized and may be difficult for the novice researcher to grasp. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of an analytic process to organize and synthesize data from a realist review. Methods Clinical practice guidelines have had an inconsistent and modest impact on clinical practice, which may in part be due to limitations in their design. This study illustrates the development of a transparent method for organizing and analyzing a complex data set informed by a Realist Review on guideline implementability to better understand the characteristics of guidelines that affect their uptake in practice (e.g., clarity, format). The data organization method consisted of 4 levels of refinement: 1) extraction and 2) organization of data; 3) creation of a conceptual map of guideline implementability; and 4) the development of a codebook of definitions. Results This new method is comprised of four steps: data extraction, data organization, development of a conceptual map, and operationalization vis-a-vis a codebook. Applying this method, we extracted 1736 guideline attributes from 278 articles into a consensus-based set of categories, and collapsed them into 5 core conceptual domains for our guideline implementability map: Language, Format, Rigor of development, Feasibility, Decision-making. Conclusions This study advances analysis methods by offering a systematic approach to analyzing complex data sets where the goals are to condense, organize and identify relationships. PMID:24028286

  5. Quantum communication with photon-number entangled states and realistic photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2010-03-01

    We address the effects of realistic photodetection, with nonunit quantum efficiency and background noise (dark counts), on the performances of quantum communication schemes based on photon-number entangled states (PNES). We consider channels based on Gaussian twin-beam states (TWB) and non-Gaussian two-mode coherent states (TMC) and evaluate the channel capacity by optimizing the bit discrimination threshold. We found that TWB-based channels are more robust against noise than TMC-based ones and that this result is almost independent on the statistics of dark counts.

  6. Open Ended Realistic Division Problems, Generalisation and Early Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the role of open-ended realistic division problem in the development of algebraic reasoning. A written test was administered to 672 students. From the results of this test students were selected for semi-structured interviews. The students were interviewed in pairs and were asked to explain to each other how they would solve…

  7. A Realistic Outdoor Urban Pedestrian Mobility Model Ryan Vogta,

    E-print Network

    Gburzynski, Pawel

    A Realistic Outdoor Urban Pedestrian Mobility Model Ryan Vogta, , Ioanis Nikolaidisa , Pawel Wycliffe Street Ottawa, Ontario Canada K2G 5L9 Abstract Existing generative mobility models, used to produce mobility data for simulated agents in, e.g., wireless network simulations, suffer from a number

  8. Developing Skills: Realistic Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria

    To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…

  9. Foreword: In situ gas surface interactions: approaching realistic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edvin Lundgren; Herbert Over

    2008-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the application of in situ surface-sensitive techniques in the elucidation of catalysed reactions at (model) catalyst surfaces. Both reaction intermediates and the nature of the catalytically active phase are the targets of these investigations. In situ surface science techniques are also used to study the interaction of water with surfaces under realistic conditions. Since

  10. A model of visual adaptation for realistic image synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Ferwerda; Sumanta N. Pattanaik; Peter Shirley; Donald P. Greenberg

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we develop a computational model of vi- sual adaptation for realistic image synthesis based on psy- chophysical experiments. The model captures the changes in threshold visibility, color appearance, visual acuity, and sensitivity over time that are caused by the visual system's adaptation mechanisms. We use the model to display the results of global illumination simulations illuminated at

  11. Using XCAP to Certify Realistic Systems Code: Machine Context Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaozhong Ni; Dachuan Yu; Zhong Shao

    2007-01-01

    Formal, modular, and mechanized verification of realistic systems code is desirable but challenging. Verification of machine context management (a basis of multi-tasking) is one representative example. With context operations occur- ring hundreds to thousands of times per second on every computer, their correct- ness deserves careful examination. Given the small and stable code bases, it is a common misunderstanding that

  12. Automated Finger Spelling by Highly Realistic 3D Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The…

  13. Novel Micropatterned Cardiac Cell Cultures with Realistic Ventricular Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Nima; Bursac, Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies of cardiac structure-function relationships to date have been hindered by the intrinsic complexity and variability of in vivo and ex vivo model systems. Thus, we set out to develop a reproducible cell culture system that can accurately replicate the realistic microstructure of native cardiac tissues. Using cell micropatterning techniques, we aligned cultured cardiomyocytes at micro- and macroscopic spatial scales to follow local directions of cardiac fibers in murine ventricular cross sections, as measured by high-resolution diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. To elucidate the roles of ventricular tissue microstructure in macroscopic impulse conduction, we optically mapped membrane potentials in micropatterned cardiac cultures with realistic tissue boundaries and natural cell orientation, cardiac cultures with realistic tissue boundaries but random cell orientation, and standard isotropic monolayers. At 2 Hz pacing, both microscopic changes in cell orientation and ventricular tissue boundaries independently and synergistically increased the spatial dispersion of conduction velocity, but not the action potential duration. The realistic variations in intramural microstructure created unique spatial signatures in micro- and macroscopic impulse propagation within ventricular cross-section cultures. This novel in vitro model system is expected to help bridge the existing gap between experimental structure-function studies in standard cardiac monolayers and intact heart tissues. PMID:19413993

  14. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist

  15. A Realistic Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Myers, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A realistic applied chemical engineering experimental design and statistical analysis project is documented in this article. This project has been implemented as part of the professional development and applied statistics courses at Villanova University over the past five years. The novel aspects of this project are that the students are given a…

  16. Realistically Coupled Neural Mass Models Can Generate EEG Rhythms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto C. Sotero; Nelson J. Trujillo-barreto; Yasser Iturria-medina; Felix Carbonell; Juan C. Jimenez

    2007-01-01

    We study the generation of EEG rhythms by means of realistically coupled neural mass models. Previous neural mass models were used to model cortical voxels and the thalamus. Interactions between voxels of the same and other cortical areas and with the thalamus were taken into account. Voxels within the same cortical area were coupled (short-range connections) with both excitatory and

  17. A More Realistic Thinning Scheme for Call Admission Control in

    E-print Network

    Pan, Yi

    A More Realistic Thinning Scheme for Call Admission Control in Multimedia Wireless Networks Xian control scheme named thinning scheme, which smoothly throttles the admission rates of calls according, analytical formulas for call blocking probabilities are derived. Index Terms--Call admission control (CAC

  18. VanetMobiSim: generating realistic mobility patterns for VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Härri; Fethi Filali; Christian Bonnet; Marco Fiore

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present and describe VanetMobiSim, a generator of realistic vehicular movement traces for telecommunication networks simulators. VanetMobiSim mobility description is validated by illustrating how the interaction between featured macro- and micro-mobility is able to reproduce typical phenomena of vehicular traffic.

  19. VANET Topology Characteristics under Realistic Mobility and Channel Models

    E-print Network

    Özkasap, Öznur

    VANET Topology Characteristics under Realistic Mobility and Channel Models Nabeel Akhtar, Oznur--Developing real-time safety and non-safety applica- tions for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) requires under the performance of routing protocols and the feasibility of an application over VANET. Using various key metrics

  20. Progressing Toward Realistic Mobility Models in VANET Simulations

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    1 Progressing Toward Realistic Mobility Models in VANET Simulations Christoph Sommer Student Member.sommer,dressler}@informatik.uni-erlangen.de Abstract--Much progress can be observed in the domain of Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) research looking in the context of VANETs are typically based on simulation models. This approach has two major prerequisites

  1. Highly realistic, immersive training for navy corpsmen: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; McWhorter, Stephanie K

    2014-12-01

    Highly realistic, immersive training has been developed for Navy corpsmen based on the success of the Infantry Immersion Trainer. This new training is built around scenarios that are designed to depict real-life, operational situations. Each scenario used in the training includes sights, sounds, smells, and distractions to simulate realistic and challenging combat situations. The primary objective of this study was to assess corpsmen participants' satisfaction with highly realistic training. The study sample consisted of 434 male Navy service members attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Corpsmen participants completed surveys after receiving the training. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with the training overall and with several specific elements of the training. The element of the training that the corpsmen rated the highest was the use of live actors. The vast majority of the participants reported that the training had increased their overall confidence about being successful corpsmen and had strengthened their confidence in their ability to provide care under pressure. Additional research should extend highly realistic training to other military medical provider populations. PMID:25469964

  2. Elements of a realistic 17 GHz FEL/TBA design

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D.B.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.J. (Accelerator Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (US))

    1989-10-15

    Recently, renewed interest in an FEL version of a two-beam accelerator (TBA) has prompted a study of practical system and structure designs for achieving the specified physics goals. This paper presents elements of a realistic design for an FEL/TBA suitable for a 1 TeV, 17 GHz linear collider. {copyright} 1989 American Institute of Physics

  3. Elements of a realistic 17 GHz FEL/TBA design

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D.B.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, renewed interest in an FEL version of a two-beam accelerator (TBA) has prompted a study of practical system and structure designs for achieving the specified physics goals. This paper presents elements of a realistic design for an FEL/TBA suitable for a 1 TeV, 17 GHz linear collider. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Magical Realist Pathways into and under the Psychotherapeutic Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    My experience of people's life stories from my work as a narrative therapist consistently destabilised distinctions between imagined/magical and real experiences. I came to realise that the day-to-day magical realist juxtapositions I came upon were encounters with people's daily lives, as lived, that have remained unacknowledged within the…

  5. A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production

    E-print Network

    Quinn, Nigel

    A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production T the feasibility of largescale algae biofuel production. Contents of the Report Chapter 1 introduces microalgae consumption (about 200 billion gallons per year), renewable algae oil could be a major contributor to biofuel

  6. UAV Based Distributed ATR under Realistic Simulated Environmental Effects

    E-print Network

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    UAV Based Distributed ATR under Realistic Simulated Environmental Effects Xiaohan Chen, Shanshan has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor

  7. Reducing the search space for physically realistic human motion synthesis

    E-print Network

    Reducing the search space for physically realistic human motion synthesis Alla Safonova CMU-CS-06 of the problem is an artifact of the problem representation because most dynamic human motions are intrinsically a compact (reduced-space) representation of the motion based on available motion capture data. In the first

  8. Understanding Worms' Impact on the Internet Infrastructure through Realistic Simulation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    Understanding Worms' Impact on the Internet Infrastructure through Realistic Simulation Bob Bradley@utm.edu,lanwang@memphis.edu) Internet worms pose a significant threat to the stability of the Internet infrastructure. First, the huge, the random scanning used by most worms may cause routers to become unstable. For example, since a large

  9. Realistic Case Studies of Wireless Structural Control , Zhuoxiong Sun2

    E-print Network

    Lu, Chenyang

    a benchmark building model and wireless traces collected from a multi-story building. The bridge studyRealistic Case Studies of Wireless Structural Control Bo Li1 , Zhuoxiong Sun2 , Kirill Mechitov3 Wireless Structural Control (WSC) systems can play a crucial role in protecting civil infrastructure

  10. "Interval Rational = Algebraic" Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    numbers are represented. The set of all rational numbers is countable and has, therefore, Lebesgue measure"Interval Rational = Algebraic" Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result Anatoly V. Lakeyev1 rational functions, then the resulting class of "interval-rational" functions practically coincides

  11. A net-oriented method for realistic fault analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xue; Chennian Di; Jochen A. G. Jess

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, a net-oriented method to analyze realistic faults ispresented. The keypointof the method is to analyze the faults caused by a spot defect net by net. First the possible faults related to a net are extracted. Hence all faults in a layout are extracted by enumerating all nets on the layout. An approach to calculate the critical area

  12. Generic Reactive Animation: Realistic Modeling of Complex Natural Systems

    E-print Network

    Harel, David

    the Rhapsody tool, with its statechart model of the system, to a Flash animation front-end, and enabledGeneric Reactive Animation: Realistic Modeling of Complex Natural Systems David Harel and Yaki their complexity, we developed a technique called reactive animation (RA), which smoothly connects a reactive

  13. Behavioral Game Theory: Towards a Realistic Representation of Strategic Behavior?

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    Behavioral Game Theory: Towards a Realistic Representation of Strategic Behavior? Giovanna Devetag have been traditionally modelled using the formal language of game theory, first introduced by von Neumann and Morgenstern's 1944 seminal book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Game theory

  14. A framework for interactive and physically realistic cloth simulation

    E-print Network

    Goodman, James R.

    1 A framework for interactive and physically realistic cloth simulation - Report by Jonathan Rubin for COMPSCI 780 SS C. - Supervised by Dr Burkhard Wünsche. 1. Abstract Cloth simulation is an important environments rigid bodies usually dominate due to their computational efficiency. Cloth simulation addresses

  15. Density Prediction for Importance Sampling in Realistic Image Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Kurt

    Density Prediction for Importance Sampling in Realistic Image Synthesis Kurt Zimmerman Submitted Robert A. ShakespeareNovember 24, 1997 ii #12;Copyright c 1998 Kurt Zimmerman ALL RIGHTS RESERVED iii #12 on this document. This document is dedicated to My wife, Krista Zimmerman, for her love, support, and patience. My

  16. Body Tides of a Realistic Earth INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Metivier, Laurent

    Body Tides of a Realistic Earth INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE DU GLOBE DE PARIS IPGP Abstract A precise Physique du Globe de Paris, 4, place Jussieu, Paris, 75005 France lalmetiv@ipgp.jussieu.fr Greff-Lefftz, M. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 4, place Jussieu, Paris, 75005 France greff@ipgp.jussieu.fr Diament

  17. Roadmap to Realistic Modeling of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Khandekar; Manfred Groll

    Mathematical modeling of pulsating heat pipes through 'first' principles is a contemporary problem which remains quite elusive. Simplifications and assumptions made in all the modeling approaches developed so far render them unsuitable for engineering design because the abstractions contained therein are detached from the real time transport processes taking place in the device. In this paper, a roadmap to realistic

  18. MODELING REALISTIC HIGH DENSITY AUTONOMOUS AGENT CROWD MOVEMENT: SOCIAL FORCES,

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    MODELING REALISTIC HIGH DENSITY AUTONOMOUS AGENT CROWD MOVEMENT: SOCIAL FORCES, COMMUNICATION HIGH DENSITY AUTONOMOUS AGENT CROWD MOVEMENT: SOCIAL FORCES, COMMUNICATION, ROLES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL at the Center for Human Modeling and Simulation for their feedback and advice during our reading group sessions

  19. Evaluation of Serologic and Antigenic Relationships Between Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Other Coronaviruses to Develop Vaccine Platforms for the Rapid Response to Emerging Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gopal, Robin; Yount, Boyd L.; Donaldson, Eric F.; Menachery, Vineet D.; Graham, Rachel L.; Scobey, Trevor D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Denison, Mark R.; Zambon, Maria; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, causing severe acute respiratory disease and pneumonia, with 44% mortality among 136 cases to date. Design of vaccines to limit the virus spread or diagnostic tests to track newly emerging strains requires knowledge of antigenic and serologic relationships between MERS-CoV and other CoVs. Methods.?Using synthetic genomics and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons (VRPs) expressing spike and nucleocapsid proteins from MERS-CoV and other human and bat CoVs, we characterize the antigenic responses (using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and serologic responses (using neutralization assays) against 2 MERS-CoV isolates in comparison with those of other human and bat CoVs. Results.?Serologic and neutralization responses against the spike glycoprotein were primarily strain specific, with a very low level of cross-reactivity within or across subgroups. CoV N proteins within but not across subgroups share cross-reactive epitopes with MERS-CoV isolates. Our findings were validated using a convalescent-phase serum specimen from a patient infected with MERS-CoV (NA 01) and human antiserum against SARS-CoV, human CoV NL63, and human CoV OC43. Conclusions.?Vaccine design for emerging CoVs should involve chimeric spike protein containing neutralizing epitopes from multiple virus strains across subgroups to reduce immune pathology, and a diagnostic platform should include a panel of nucleocapsid and spike proteins from phylogenetically distinct CoVs. PMID:24253287

  20. Performance and Scalability Evaluation of the Ceph Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL] [ORNL; Nelson, Mark [Inktank Storage, Inc.] [Inktank Storage, Inc.; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is an open-source and emerging parallel distributed file and storage system technology. By design, Ceph assumes running on unreliable and commodity storage and network hardware and provides reliability and fault-tolerance through controlled object placement and data replication. We evaluated the Ceph technology for scientific high-performance computing (HPC) environments. This paper presents our evaluation methodology, experiments, results and observations from mostly parallel I/O performance and scalability perspectives. Our work made two unique contributions. First, our evaluation is performed under a realistic setup for a large-scale capability HPC environment using a commercial high-end storage system. Second, our path of investigation, tuning efforts, and findings made direct contributions to Ceph's development and improved code quality, scalability, and performance. These changes should also benefit both Ceph and HPC communities at large. Throughout the evaluation, we observed that Ceph still is an evolving technology under fast-paced development and showing great promises.

  1. Neurobiologically Realistic Determinants of Self-Organized Criticality in Networks of Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Sporns, Olaf; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Breakspear, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized criticality refers to the spontaneous emergence of self-similar dynamics in complex systems poised between order and randomness. The presence of self-organized critical dynamics in the brain is theoretically appealing and is supported by recent neurophysiological studies. Despite this, the neurobiological determinants of these dynamics have not been previously sought. Here, we systematically examined the influence of such determinants in hierarchically modular networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and axonal conduction delays. We characterized emergent dynamics in our networks by distributions of active neuronal ensemble modules (neuronal avalanches) and rigorously assessed these distributions for power-law scaling. We found that spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity enabled a rapid phase transition from random subcritical dynamics to ordered supercritical dynamics. Importantly, modular connectivity and low wiring cost broadened this transition, and enabled a regime indicative of self-organized criticality. The regime only occurred when modular connectivity, low wiring cost and synaptic plasticity were simultaneously present, and the regime was most evident when between-module connection density scaled as a power-law. The regime was robust to variations in other neurobiologically relevant parameters and favored systems with low external drive and strong internal interactions. Increases in system size and connectivity facilitated internal interactions, permitting reductions in external drive and facilitating convergence of postsynaptic-response magnitude and synaptic-plasticity learning rate parameter values towards neurobiologically realistic levels. We hence infer a novel association between self-organized critical neuronal dynamics and several neurobiologically realistic features of structural connectivity. The central role of these features in our model may reflect their importance for neuronal information processing. PMID:21673863

  2. Emergency Medicine Grand Rounds Emergency Medicine Classroom

    E-print Network

    Emergency Medicine Grand Rounds Emergency Medicine Classroom Tuesday, September 3, 2013 8 am ­ 9 am Department Presented by: Azeem Tajani, MD PGY-3, ECU Emergency Medicine Objectives: 1. Discuss the State in the suicidal Patient. Accreditation: The Brody School of Medicine of East Carolina University is accredited

  3. [Structure, organization and capacity problems in emergency medical services, emergency admission and intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Dick, W

    1994-01-01

    Emergency medicine is subjected worldwide to financial stringencies and organizational evaluations of cost-effectiveness. The various links in the chain of survival are affected differently. Bystander assistance or bystander CPR is available in only 30% of the emergencies, response intervals--if at all required by legislation--are observed to only a limited degree or are too extended for survival in cardiac arrest. A single emergency telephone number is lacking. Too many different phone numbers for emergency reporting result in confusion and delays. Organizational realities are not fully overcome and impair efficiency. The position of the emergency physician in the EMS System is inadequately defined, the qualification of too many emergency physicians are unsatisfactory. In spite of this, emergency physicians are frequently forced to answer out-of-hospital emergency calls. Conflicts between emergency physicians and EMTs may be overcome by providing both groups with comparable qualifications as well as by providing an explicit definition of emergency competence. A further source of conflict occurs at the juncture of prehospital and inhospital emergency care in the emergency department. Deficiencies on either side play a decisive role. At least in principle there are solutions to the deficiencies in the EMSS and in intensive care medicine. They are among others: Adequate financial compensation of emergency personnel, availability of sufficient numbers of highly qualified personnel, availability of a central receiving area with an adjacent emergency ward, constant information flow to the dispatch center on the number of available emergency beds, maintaining 5% of all beds as emergency beds, establishing intermediate care facilities. Efficiency of emergency physician activities can be demonstrated in polytraumatized patients or in patients with ventricular fibrillation or acute myocardial infarction, in patients with acute myocardial insufficiency and other emergency clinical pictures. Cost effectiveness is clearly in favor of emergency medicine. Future developments will be characterized by the consequences of new health care legislation and by effects of financial stringencies on the emergency medical services. PMID:7801705

  4. Emergency airway puncture

    MedlinePLUS

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It ... Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts ...

  5. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  6. Types of Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a radiation emergency happens in your area. Â Nuclear Emergencies A nuclear emergency involves the explosion of ... their knowledge. Learn more about radiological exposure devices Nuclear Power Plant Accident An accident at a nuclear ...

  7. Evaluating Phenotypic Data Elements for Genetics and Epidemiological Research: Experiences from the eMERGE and PhenX Network Projects

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Pan, Helen; Wang, Janey; Kashyap, Sudha; Schad, Peter A.; Hamilton, Carol M.; Masys, Daniel R.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract* Combining genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data with clinical information from the electronic medical record (EMR) provide unprecedented opportunities to identify genetic variants that influence susceptibility to common, complex diseases. While mining the vastness of EMR greatly expands the potential for conducting GWAS, non-standardized representation and wide variability of clinical data and phenotypes pose a major challenge to data integration and analysis. To address this requirement, we present experiences and methods developed to map phenotypic data elements from eMERGE (Electronic Medical Record and Genomics) to PhenX (Consensus Measures for Phenotypes and Exposures) and NCI’s Cancer Data Standards Registry and Repository (caDSR). Our results suggest that adopting multiple standards and biomedical terminologies will expose studies to a broader user community and enhance interoperability with a wider range of studies, in turn promoting cross-study pooling of data to detect both more subtle and more complex genotype-phenotype associations. PMID:22211178

  8. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption. The energy management schemes are compared based on the following criteria: the hydrogen consumption, the state of charges of the batteries and supercapacitors and the overall system efficiency. Moreover the stress on each energy source, which impacts their life cycle, are measured using a new approach based on the wavelet transform of their instantaneous power. A simulation model and an experimental test bench are developed to validate all analysis and performances. The main results obtained are as follows: the state machine control scheme provided a slightly better efficiency and stresses on the batteries and supercapacitors. The classical PI control and the proposed scheme had the lowest fuel consumption and more use of the battery energy. As expected, the lowest fuel cell stress and lowest use of the battery energy was achieved with the frequency decoupling and fuzzy logic scheme, but at the expense of more fuel consumption and lower overall efficiency. The DC bus or supercapacitor voltage was maintained nearly constant for all the schemes. Also, the proposed strategy performed slightly better than the ECMS in terms of efficiency and fuel consumption, with an increase in fuel economy by 3 %. The energy management scheme suitable for a MEA emergency system should be a multischeme EMS such that each scheme is chosen based on a specific criterion to prioritize. As an example, depending on the operating life of each energy source, the energy management strategy can be chosen to either minimise the stress on the fuel cell system, the battery system or supercapacitor system, hence maximizing the life cycle of the hybrid power system. Also if the target is to reduce the fuel consumption, the proposed or the classical PI strategies are better alternatives.

  9. Critical evaluation of a simple retention time predictor based on LogKow as a complementary tool in the identification of emerging contaminants in water.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Felix

    2015-07-01

    There has been great interest in environmental analytical chemistry in developing screening methods based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for emerging contaminants. Using HRMS, compound identification relies on the high mass resolving power and mass accuracy attainable by these analyzers. When dealing with wide-scope screening, retention time prediction can be a complementary tool for the identification of compounds, and can also reduce tedious data processing when several peaks appear in the extracted ion chromatograms. There are many in silico, Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship methods available for the prediction of retention time for LC. However, most of these methods use commercial software to predict retention time based on various molecular descriptors. This paper explores the applicability and makes a critical discussion on a far simpler and cheaper approach to predict retention times by using LogKow. The predictor was based on a database of 595 compounds, their respective LogKow values and a chromatographic run time of 18min. Approximately 95% of the compounds were found within 4.0min of their actual retention times, and 70% within 2.0min. A predictor based purely on pesticides was also made, enabling 80% of these compounds to be found within 2.0min of their actual retention times. To demonstrate the utility of the predictors, they were successfully used as an additional tool in the identification of 30 commonly found emerging contaminants in water. Furthermore, a comparison was made by using different mass extraction windows to minimize the number of false positives obtained. PMID:25882420

  10. Bystander anonymity and reactions to emergencies.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S H; Gottlieb, A

    1980-09-01

    The impact of anonymity on bystander reactions to emergencies and on the timing of bystander decision-making was investigated in two laboratory experiments. The experiments differed in the nature of the emergency developed from relative ambiguity to unequivocal clarity concerning the victim's need for help. In both experiments, an additional bystander's awareness of the emergency and the subject's anonymity were crossed in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Anonymity vis-à-vis the victim had no effects on helping. Anonymity vis-à-vis the other bystander did affect helping, apparently by reducing evaluation apprehension. Whether evaluation apprehension enhances or inhibits helping depends on the expectations attributed to other bystanders. Anonymity may also inhibit helping by reducing involvement. The timing of effects suggests that when emergencies are ambiguous, anonymity (through reduced involvement) delays making the decision regarding whether help is appropriate. Once emergencies are clear, anonymity (through evaluation apprehension) influences the decision regarding one's own obligation to intervene. PMID:7431204

  11. Interferometric data modelling: issues in realistic data generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Soma

    2004-10-01

    This study describes algorithms developed for modelling interferometric noise in a realistic manner, i.e. incorporating non-stationarity that can be seen in the data from the present generation of interferometers. The noise model is based on individual component models (ICM) with the application of auto regressive moving average (ARMA) models. The data obtained from the model are vindicated by standard statistical tests, e.g. the KS test and Akaike minimum criterion. The results indicate a very good fit. The advantage of using ARMA for ICMs is that the model parameters can be controlled and hence injection and efficiency studies can be conducted in a more controlled environment. This realistic non-stationary noise generator is intended to be integrated within the data monitoring tool framework.

  12. ImpastoR: a realistic surface display system.

    PubMed

    Ferwerda, James A

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we describe our efforts to create a surface display system that produces realistic representations of real-world surfaces. Our system, based on a desktop PC with GPU hardware, LCD display, light and position sensors, and custom graphics software, supports the photometrically accurate and visually realistic real-time simulation and display of surfaces with complex color, gloss, and textural properties in real-world lighting environments, and allows users to interact with and manipulate these virtual surfaces as naturally as if they were real ones. We explain the system design, illustrate its capabilities, describe experiments we conducted to validate its fidelity, and discuss potential applications in material appearance research and computer-aided appearance design. PMID:25449157

  13. Realistic fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.

  14. Realistic Covariance Prediction For the Earth Science Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellations (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellations and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed via Monte Carlo techniques as well as numerically integrating relative probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, realistic covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by NASA Goddard's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate realistic covariance predictions for three of the ESC satellites: Aqua, Aura, and Terra

  15. Realistic Covariance Prediction for the Earth Science Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellation and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed using Monte Carlo techniques as well as by numerically integrating relative state probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, realistic covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate realistic covariance predictions for three of the Earth Science Constellation satellites: Aqua, Aura and Terra.

  16. Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Q. Xu; R. H. Cohen; G. D. Porter; T. D. Rognlien; D. D. Ryutov; J. R. Myra; D. A. D'Ippolito; R. A. Moyer; R. J. Groebner

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented from the 3-D non-local electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X point mode in divertor geometry; (2) turbulence suppression in the

  17. A realistic field facility to simulate reactor spectra.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G C; Thomas, D J; Bennett, A

    2004-01-01

    The design construction and characterisation of a simulated realistic neutron workplace field is described. Utilising a low-energy primary source of neutrons based on the 7Li(p,n) reaction, and a heavy water moderator, a broad spectrum is produced with energies extending from thermal to about 1 MeV. The field simulates the type of spectra encountered around UK gas-cooled reactors. PMID:15353632

  18. Automatic perceptual color map generation for realistic volume visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan C. Silverstein; Nigel M. Parsad; Victor Tsirline

    2008-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography imaging technology and inexpensive high performance computer graphics hardware are making high-resolution, full color (24-bit) volume visualizations commonplace. However, many of the color maps used in volume rendering provide questionable value in knowledge representation and are non-perceptual thus biasing data analysis or even obscuring information. These drawbacks, coupled with our need for realistic anatomical volume rendering

  19. Toward realistic effective models of quantum-Hall edges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Zülicke; A. H. MacDonald

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamical properties of edge excitations in the (fractional) quantum-Hall regime for a sharp confining potential, emphasizing the effects resulting from the presence of long-range interaction. Our study uses chiral-Luttinger-liquid models that are motivated by the close analogy between the physics of edge excitations and that of plasmons in quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. We find that incorporating realistic

  20. Realistic localizer courses for aircraft instrument landing simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The realistic instrument landing simulator (ILS) course structures for use in aircraft simulators are described. Software developed for data conversion and translation of ILS course structure measurements and calcomp plots of the courses provided are described. A method of implementing the ILS course structure data in existing aircraft simulators is outlined. A cockpit used in the lab to review the digitized ILS course structures is displayed.

  1. Aware and (Dis)Liking: Item-Based Analyses Reveal That Valence Acquisition via Evaluative Conditioning Emerges Only When There Is Contingency Awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordy Pleyers; Olivier Corneille; Olivier Luminet; Vincent Yzerbyt

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the liking of an affectively neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) following the pairing of that stimulus with another stimulus of affective value (the unconditioned stimulus, or US). In 3 experiments, the authors assessed contingency awareness, that is, awareness of the CS–US associations, by relying on participants' responses to individual items rather

  2. MRXCAT: Realistic numerical phantoms for cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer simulations are important for validating novel image acquisition and reconstruction strategies. In cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), numerical simulations need to combine anatomical information and the effects of cardiac and/or respiratory motion. To this end, a framework for realistic CMR simulations is proposed and its use for image reconstruction from undersampled data is demonstrated. Methods The extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) anatomical phantom framework with various motion options was used as a basis for the numerical phantoms. Different tissue, dynamic contrast and signal models, multiple receiver coils and noise are simulated. Arbitrary trajectories and undersampled acquisition can be selected. The utility of the framework is demonstrated for accelerated cine and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging using k-t PCA and k-t SPARSE. Results MRXCAT phantoms allow for realistic simulation of CMR including optional cardiac and respiratory motion. Example reconstructions from simulated undersampled k-t parallel imaging demonstrate the feasibility of simulated acquisition and reconstruction using the presented framework. Myocardial blood flow assessment from simulated myocardial perfusion images highlights the suitability of MRXCAT for quantitative post-processing simulation. Conclusion The proposed MRXCAT phantom framework enables versatile and realistic simulations of CMR including breathhold and free-breathing acquisitions. PMID:25204441

  3. Exposure render: an interactive photo-realistic volume rendering framework.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Thomas; Post, Frits H; Botha, Charl P

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT), coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR). With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license. PMID:22768292

  4. Exposure Render: An Interactive Photo-Realistic Volume Rendering Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kroes, Thomas; Post, Frits H.; Botha, Charl P.

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT), coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR). With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license. PMID:22768292

  5. International Conference on Remote Emergency Medical Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An emergency medical system is characterized. Applications of NASA technology in biomedical telecommunication and bioinstrumentation are explored. The training and effectiveness of paramedics, technicians, nurses, and physicians are evaluated as applied to emergency situations and the operations of trauma centers. Civilian and military aeromedical evacuation is discussed.

  6. Emergency department preparedness for the evaluation and treatment of victims of biological or chemical terrorist attack 1 1 Selected Topics-Disaster Medicine is coordinated by Irving Jacoby, md of the University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael I Greenberg; Sherri M Jurgens; Ed J Gracely

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the preparedness of Emergency Departments (EDs) in the greater Philadelphia area to evaluate and treat victims of a terrorist biological or chemical agent release. All hospitals with EDs in the survey target area were included. A survey instrument consisting of 38 questions was mailed to the physician director of each ED. Fifty-four of 62 directors returned usable

  7. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, K; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, T

    2002-01-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient.

  8. Effect of sliding friction on the dynamics of spur gear pair with realistic time-varying stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song He; Rajendra Gunda; Rajendra Singh

    2007-01-01

    The chief objective of this article is to propose a new method of incorporating the sliding friction and realistic time-varying stiffness into an analytical (multi-degree-of-freedom) spur gear model and to evaluate their effects. An accurate finite element\\/contact mechanics analysis code is employed, in the “static” mode, to compute the mesh stiffness at every time instant under a range of loading

  9. Designing Future Dark Energy Space Mission: I. Building Realistic Galaxy Spectro-Photometric Catalogs and their first applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jouvel; J. P. Kneib; O. Ilbert; G. Bernstein; S. Arnouts; T. Dahlen; A. Ealet; B. Milliard; H. Aussel; P. Capak; A. Koekemoer; V. Le Brun; H. McCracken; M. Salvato; N. Scoville

    2009-01-01

    Future dark energy space missions such as JDEM and EUCLID are being designed\\u000ato survey the galaxy population to trace the geometry of the universe and the\\u000agrowth of structure, which both depend on the cosmological model. To reach the\\u000agoal of high precision cosmology they need to evaluate the capabilities of\\u000adifferent instrument designs based on realistic mock catalog.

  10. Processing of the GALILEOTM fuel rod code model uncertainties within the AREVA LWR realistic thermal-mechanical analysis methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhe, P.; Barbier, B.; Garnier, Ch.; Landskron, H.; Sedlacek, R.; Arimescu, I.; Smith, M.; Bellanger, Ph.

    2014-06-01

    The availability of reliable tools and associated methodology able to accurately predict the LWR fuel behavior in all conditions is of great importance for safe and economic fuel usage. For that purpose, AREVA has developed its new global fuel rod performance code GALILEOTM along with its associated realistic thermal-mechanical analysis methodology. This realistic methodology is based on a Monte Carlo type random sampling of all relevant input variables. After having outlined the AREVA realistic methodology, this paper will be focused on the GALILEOTM code benchmarking process on its extended experimental database and the GALILEOTM model uncertainties assessment. The propagation of these model uncertainties through the AREVA realistic methodology is also presented. This GALILEOTM model uncertainties processing is of the utmost importance for accurate fuel design margin evaluation as illustrated on some application examples. With the submittal of Topical Report for GALILEOTM to the U.S. NRC in 2013, GALILEOTM and its methodology are on the way to be industrially used in a wide range of irradiation conditions.

  11. One-Year Outcomes of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Older Teens and Emerging Adults: Evaluating a Motivational Interviewing Booster Component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Sussman; Ping Sun; Louise A. Rohrbach; Donna Spruijt-Metz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study tested the efficacy of motivational interviewing-based booster sessions for Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND), a 12-session school-based curriculum targeting youth at risk for drug abuse. In addition, generalization of effects to risky sexual behavior was assessed. The 1-year outcomes evaluation of the project is presented. Method: A total of 24 schools were randomized to one

  12. Hypertensive emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pankaj; Sinha, Aditi

    2011-05-01

    Hypertensive emergencies, though uncommon in children, are potentially life threatening. While targeting blood pressure reduction to below the 90th percentile for age, gender and height, mean arterial blood pressure should be gradually lowered by one-fourth of the planned reduction over 8-12 h, a further fourth over the next 8-12 h, and the final 50% over the 24 h after that. Frequent invasive or non-invasive blood pressure monitoring is essential, as is monitoring for sensorial alteration and loss of papillary reflexes. Few antihypertensive agents have been examined in children. Continuous intravenous infusions of short acting drugs such as nitroprusside, labetalol and nicardipine are preferred to intravenous boluses of hydralazine or diazoxide. If severe symptoms are absent, oral agents such as nifedipine, clonidine, minoxidil, hydralazine, labetalol, captopril, and prazosin may be used. Nicardipine and labetalol are particularly suited in emergencies with intracranial bleeding or ischemic stroke, while furosemide, sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerine are useful in congestive cardiac failure. Therapy with oral antihypertensive drugs should be instituted within 6-12 h of parenteral therapy, and the latter gradually withdrawn over the next 12-48 h. Oral agents have limited application as primary therapy, except when administration of intravenous infusion is likely to be delayed. This article provides a summary of the clinical approach to evaluation and management of severe symptomatic hypertension in children. PMID:21271305

  13. Realistic simulated lung nodule dataset for testing CAD detection and sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, Robert D.; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2010-03-01

    The development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods for the processing of CT lung scans continues to become increasingly popular due to the potential of these algorithms to reduce image reading time, errors caused by user fatigue, and user subjectivity when screening for the presence of malignant lesions. This study seeks to address the critical need for a realistic simulated lung nodule CT image dataset based on real tumor morphologies that can be used for the quantitative evaluation and comparison of these CAD algorithms. The manual contouring of 17 different lung metastases was performed and reconstruction of the full 3-D surface of each tumor was achieved through the utilization of an analytical equation comprised of a spherical harmonics series. 2-D nodule slice representations were then computed based on these analytical equations to produce realistic simulated nodules that can be inserted into CT datasets with well-circumscribed, vascularized, or juxtapleural borders and also be scaled to represent nodule growth. The 3-D shape and intensity profile of each simulated nodule created from the spherical harmonics reconstruction was compared to the real patient CT lung metastasis from which its contour points were derived through the calculation of a 3-D correlation coefficient, producing an average value of 0.8897 (+/-0.0609). This database of realistic simulated nodules can fulfill the need for a reproducible and reliable gold standard for CAD algorithms with regards to nodule detection and sizing, especially given its virtually unlimited capacity for expansion to other nodule shape variants, organ systems, and imaging modalities.

  14. [In-hospital emergency management].

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Tanja; Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Michael P; Seewald, Stephan; Wnent, Jan; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten

    2013-06-01

    5-10% of in-hospital patients are affected by adverse events, 10% of these requiring CPR. Standardized in-hospital emergency management may improve results, including reduction of mortality, hospital stay and cost. Early warning scores and clinical care outreach teams may help to identify patients at risk and should be combined with standard operation procedure and consented alarm criteria. These teams of doctors and nurses should be called for all in hospital emergencies, providing high-end care and initiate ICU measures at bedside. In combination with standard means of documentation assessment and evaluation--including entry in specific registers--the quality of in-hospital emergency management and patient safety could be improved. PMID:23828085

  15. Verification of NASA Emergent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

  16. Generalized seniority in a major shell with realistic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, M. A.; Luo, F. Q.; Cai, K.; Constantinou, Ch.; Hellemans, V.

    2012-10-01

    The generalized seniority scheme has long been proposed as a means of dramatically reducing the dimensionality of nuclear shell model calculations, when strong pairing correlations are present. However, systematic benchmark calculations, comparing results obtained in a model space truncated according to generalized seniority with those obtained in the full shell model space, are required to assess the viability of this scheme. Here, we extend recent calculations for semimagic nuclei, the Ca isotopes, to include nuclei with both valence protons and valence neutrons, namely, the Ti and Cr isotopes, taken in a full major shell and with realistic interactions.

  17. Realistic Calculations for Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions Cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Chasioti, V. C.; Kosmas, T. S.; Divari, P. C. [Theoretical Physics Section, University of Ioannina, GR 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-01-24

    Inelastic neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections at low and intermediate neutrino energies are studied. The required many-body nuclear wave-functions are calculated by utilizing a version of the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) that uses realistic two-body forces. The results presented here refer to the differential, integrated and total cross sections of the neutral-current induced reaction of {nu}{sub e} with the {sup 98}Mo and {sup 40}Ar nuclei. These isotopes are considered as promising astrophysical neutrino detection targets in recent neutrino physics research.

  18. Synchronization to a bouncing ball with a realistic motion trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lingyu; Huang, Yingyu; Zhou, Liang; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Daily music experience involves synchronizing movements in time with a perceived periodic beat. It has been established for over a century that beat synchronization is less stable for the visual than for the auditory modality. This auditory advantage of beat synchronization gives rise to the hypotheses that the neural and evolutionary mechanisms underlying beat synchronization are modality-specific. Here, however, we found that synchronization to a periodically bouncing ball with a realistic motion trajectory was not less stable than synchronization to an auditory metronome. This finding challenges the auditory advantage of beat synchronization, and has important implications for the understanding of the biological substrates of beat synchronization. PMID:26148810

  19. Effects of realistic partial state densities on preequilibrium decay

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Reffo, G.

    1988-01-01

    We reported earlier on the inclusion in code ALICE of a subroutine which calculates partial state densities for preequilibrium decay using realistic single particle levels. In this work we present results using single particle levels due to Seegar-Howard and Seegar-Perisho. Since the earlier work, we have modified the intranuclear transition rates for nucleon scattering based on the final density of three exciton states available. We summarize the changes made in the hybrid subroutine of ALICE and present our results. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Synchronization to a bouncing ball with a realistic motion trajectory.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lingyu; Huang, Yingyu; Zhou, Liang; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Daily music experience involves synchronizing movements in time with a perceived periodic beat. It has been established for over a century that beat synchronization is less stable for the visual than for the auditory modality. This auditory advantage of beat synchronization gives rise to the hypotheses that the neural and evolutionary mechanisms underlying beat synchronization are modality-specific. Here, however, we found that synchronization to a periodically bouncing ball with a realistic motion trajectory was not less stable than synchronization to an auditory metronome. This finding challenges the auditory advantage of beat synchronization, and has important implications for the understanding of the biological substrates of beat synchronization. PMID:26148810

  1. ROC Analysis and a Realistic Model of Heart Rate Variability

    E-print Network

    Stefan Thurner; Markus C. Feurstein; Malvin C. Teich

    1998-06-19

    We have carried out a pilot study on a standard collection of electrocardiograms from patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, and subjects without cardiac pathology, using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. The scale-dependent wavelet-coefficient standard deviation \\sigma_{wav}(m), a multiresolution-based analysis measure, is found to be superior to two commonly used measures of cardiac dysfunction when the two classes of patients cannot be completely separated. A jittered integrate-and-fire model with a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic simulation of heartbeat sequences for both heart-failure patients and normal subjects.

  2. Numerical simulation of magnetic resonance angiographies of an anatomically realistic stenotic carotid bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Stroud-Rossman, Jenn; Berger, Stanley; Jou, Liang-Der; Saloner, David

    2005-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) has become a routine imaging modality for the clinical evaluation of obstructive vascular disease. However, complex circulatory flow patterns, which redistribute the Magnetic Resonance (MR) signal in a complicated way, may generate flow artifacts and impair image quality. Numerical simulation of MRAs is a useful tool to study the mechanisms of artifactual signal production. The present study proposes a new approach to perform such simulations, applicable to complex anatomically realistic vascular geometries. Both the Navier-Stokes and the Bloch equations are solved on the same mesh to obtain the distribution of modulus and phase of the magnetization. The simulated angiography is subsequently constructed by a simple geometric procedure mapping the physical plane into the MRA image plane. Steady bidimensional numerical simulations of MRAs of an anatomically realistic severely stenotic carotid artery bifurcation are presented, for both time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced imaging modalities. These simulations are validated by qualitative comparison with flow phantom experiments performed under comparable conditions. PMID:15868718

  3. Exploitation of realistic computational anthropomorphic phantoms for the optimization of nuclear imaging acquisition and processing protocols.

    PubMed

    Loudos, George K; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis G; Kagadis, George C

    2014-08-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations play a crucial role in nuclear medical imaging since they can provide the ground truth for clinical acquisitions, by integrating and quantifing all physical parameters that affect image quality. The last decade a number of realistic computational anthropomorphic models have been developed to serve imaging, as well as other biomedical engineering applications. The combination of MC techniques with realistic computational phantoms can provide a powerful tool for pre and post processing in imaging, data analysis and dosimetry. This work aims to create a global database for simulated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) exams and the methodology, as well as the first elements are presented. Simulations are performed using the well validated GATE opensource toolkit, standard anthropomorphic phantoms and activity distribution of various radiopharmaceuticals, derived from literature. The resulting images, projections and sinograms of each study are provided in the database and can be further exploited to evaluate processing and reconstruction algorithms. Patient studies using different characteristics are included in the database and different computational phantoms were tested for the same acquisitions. These include the XCAT, Zubal and the Virtual Family, which some of which are used for the first time in nuclear imaging. The created database will be freely available and our current work is towards its extension by simulating additional clinical pathologies. PMID:25570355

  4. Analysis of a realistic and idealized dispersion compensating photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Shailendra K.; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori; Roberts, Peter J.

    2007-04-01

    In the present paper, the highly efficient Raman amplification properties of a realistic and idealized dispersion compensating photonic crystal fiber (DCPCF) are described numerically. We have used an accurate full-vectorial finite element modal solver with hybrid curvilinear edge/nodal elements and anisotropic perfectly matched layers for an accurate modal characterization of the realistic as well as idealized DCPCF. A good agreement is observed between numerically evaluated and experimentally [P.J. Roberts, B.J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, et al., J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 2 (2005) 435-461] measured dispersion values. A high peak Raman gain efficiency of 10.5 W -1 km -1 is obtained at 13.1 THz frequency shift for a 1455 nm depolarized pump. A DCPCF module of 1-km length can compensate for the dispersion accumulated over 70-km of conventional single mode fiber link with a residual dispersion of ±50 ps/nm and can provide an average gain of 7.6 dB with ±0.9 dB gain ripples over C-band.

  5. Towards explaining the health impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions - A realist review. Part 1: Pathways.

    PubMed

    Willand, Nicola; Ridley, Ian; Maller, Cecily

    2015-05-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a realist review that tries to explain the impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions (REEIs) on householder health. According to recent systematic reviews residential energy efficiency interventions may benefit health. It is argued that home energy improvement are complex interventions and that a better understanding of the latent mechanisms and contextual issues that may shape the outcome of interventions is needed for effective intervention design. This realist review synthesises the results of 28 energy efficiency improvement programmes. This first part provides a review of the explanatory factors of the three key pathways, namely warmth in the home, affordability of fuel and psycho-social factors, and the pitfall of inadequate indoor air quality. The review revealed that REEIs improved winter warmth and lowered relative humidity with benefits for cardiovascular and respiratory health. In addition, residential energy efficiency improvements consolidated the meaning of the home as a safe haven, strengthened the householder's perceived autonomy and enhanced social status. Although satisfaction with the home proved to be an important explanation for positive mental health outcomes, financial considerations seemed to have played a secondary role. Evidence for negative impacts was rare but the risk should not be dismissed. Comprehensive refurbishments were not necessarily more effective than thermal retrofits or upgrades. A common protocol for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of interventions would facilitate the synthesis of future studies. Householder and contextual influences are addressed in Part 2. PMID:25687402

  6. 48 CFR 5215.608 - Proposal evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 5215.608 Proposal evaluation. (a) When a cost realism evaluation will be performed in accordance with 5215.605(S-90), the resulting realistic cost estimate shall be used in...

  7. 48 CFR 5215.608 - Proposal evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 5215.608 Proposal evaluation. (a) When a cost realism evaluation will be performed in accordance with 5215.605(S-90), the resulting realistic cost estimate shall be used in...

  8. Performance Objectives: Foundation for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Floyd L.; Mannebach, Alfred J.

    1970-01-01

    Only when agricultural educators and others evaluate agricultural education programs on the basis of student's performance in relation to valid and realistic performance objectives will progress be made in educational program improvement. (Authors)

  9. Evaluation of Emerging Contaminants of Concern at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Seasonal Events, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, Arthur C.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has identified highly treated wastewater as a possible water source for the restoration of natural water flows and hydroperiods in selected coastal areas, including the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands. One potential source of reclaimed wastewater for the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands is the effluent from the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southern Miami-Dade County. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Wastewater Reuse Technology Pilot Project Delivery Team, initiated a study to assess the presence of emerging contaminants of concern in the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant influent and effluent using current wastewater-treatment methods. As part of the study, 24-hour composite and discrete samples were collected at six locations (influent at plants 1 and 2, effluent pump, reuse train, chlorine dioxide unit, and ultraviolet pilot unit) at the plant during: (1) a dry-season, low-flow event on March 2-3, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 83.7 million gallons per day; (2) a wet-season, average-flow event on July 20-21, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 89.7 million gallons per day; and (3) high-rate disinfection tests on October 5 and 20, 2004, with average flow rates of 84.1 and 119.6 million gallons per day, respectively. During these four sampling events, 26, 27, 29, and 35 constituents were detected, respectively. The following transformations in concentration were determined in the waste stream: -100 to 180 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 85 percent at the reuse train on March 2-3, 2004, and -100 to 1,609 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 832 percent at the reuse train on July 20-21, 2004; -100 to -37 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to -62 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -56 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -40 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 5, 2004; and -100 to -4 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to 17 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -40 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -14 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 20, 2004. Samples were tested for detection of household and industrial (organic) wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, antibiotic compounds, and hormones in influent. Two 'known' endocrine disrupting compounds?17 beta-estradiol (E2) and diethoxynonylphenol? and four 'suspected' endocrine-disrupting compounds?1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzophenone, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate?were detected during these sampling events. Phenanthrene and indole showed the greatest concentration ranges and highest concentrations for the organic wastewater compounds. Acetaminophen showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and warfarin showed the smallest concentration range for the pharmaceutical compounds. Sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide) showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and sulfathiozole (also a sulfonamide) showed the smallest concentration range for the antibiotic compounds. Two hormones, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), were detected in influent. Samples were also tested for detection of organic wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, antibiotic compounds, and hormones in effluent. Indole showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and triphenyl phosphate showed the smallest concentration range for the organic wastewater compounds. Dehydronifedipine showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and warfarin had the smallest concentration range for the pharmaceutical compounds. Anhydro-erythromycin (a macrolide degradation product) showed the greatest concentration range, and sulfadiazine (a sulfonamide) and tetracycline showed the lowest concentration ranges for the antibiotic compounds. One hormone, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), was det

  10. The Dimits Shift in More Realistic Gyrokinetic Plasma Turbulence Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Mikkelsen and W. Dorland

    2008-07-23

    In simulations of turbulent plasma transport due to long wavelength, (k?pi ? 1), electrostatic drift-type instabilities we find that a nonlinear upshift of the effective threshold persists. This `Dimits shift' represents the difference between the linear threshold, at the onset of instability, and the nonlinear threshold, where transport increases suddenly as the driving temperature gradient is increased. As the drive increases, the magnitudes of turbulent eddies and zonal ows grow until the zonal flows become nonlinearly unstable to 'tertiary' modes and their sheared ows no longer grow fast enough to strongly limit eddy size. The tertiary mode threshold sets the effective nonlinear threshold for the heat transport, and the Dimits shift arises when this occurs at a zonal flow magnitude greater than that needed to limit transport near the linear threshold. Nextgeneration tokamaks will likely benefit from the higher effective threshold for turbulent transport, and transport models should incorporate suitable corrections to linear thresholds. These gyrokinetic simulations are more realistic than previous reports of a Dimits shift because they include nonadiabatic electron dynamics, strong collisional damping of zonal flows, and finite electron and ion collisionality together with realistic shaped magnetic geometry. Reversing previously reported results based on idealized adiabatic electrons, we find that increasing collisionality reduces the heat flux because collisionality reduces the nonadiabatic electron drive.

  11. Radiation Dose Estimation Using Realistic Postures with PIMAL

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice [ORNL] [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL] [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    For correct radiation dose assessment, it is important to take the posture into account. A computational phantom with moving arms and legs was previously developed to address this need. Further, an accompanying graphical user interface (GUI), called PIMAL, was developed to enable dose estimation using realistic postures in a user-friendly manner such that the analyst's time could be substantially reduced. The importance of the posture for correct dose estimation has been demonstrated with a few case studies in earlier analyses. The previous version of PIMAL was somewhat limited in its features (i.e., it contained only a hermaphrodite phantom model and allowed only isotropic source definition). Currently GUI is being further enhanced by incorporating additional phantom models, improving the features, and increasing the user friendliness in general. This paper describes recent updates to the PIMAL software. In this summary recent updates to the PIMAL software, which aims to perform radiation transport simulations for phantom models in realistic postures in a user-friendly manner, are described. In future work additional phantom models, including hybrid phantom models, will be incorporated. In addition to further enhancements, a library of input files for the case studies that have been analyzed to date will be included in the PIMAL.

  12. Neuronize: a tool for building realistic neuronal cell morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Juan P.; Mata, Susana; Bayona, Sofia; Pastor, Luis; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a tool, Neuronize, for building realistic three-dimensional models of neuronal cells from the morphological information extracted through computer-aided tracing applications. Neuronize consists of a set of methods designed to build 3D neural meshes that approximate the cell membrane at different resolution levels, allowing a balance to be reached between the complexity and the quality of the final model. The main contribution of the present study is the proposal of a novel approach to build a realistic and accurate 3D shape of the soma from the incomplete information stored in the digitally traced neuron, which usually consists of a 2D cell body contour. This technique is based on the deformation of an initial shape driven by the position and thickness of the first order dendrites. The addition of a set of spines along the dendrites completes the model, building a final 3D neuronal cell suitable for its visualization in a wide range of 3D environments. PMID:23761740

  13. Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this project a transient, fully three-dimensional computer simulation code was developed to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The simulation code is capable of simulating flame spread on a solid and nonpremixed or premixed gaseous combustion in nonturbulent flow with simple combustion models. Simple combustion models were used to preserve computational efficiency since this is meant to be an engineering code. Also, the use of sophisticated turbulence models was not pursued (a simple Smagorinsky type model can be implemented if deemed appropriate) because if flow velocities are large enough for turbulence to develop in a reduced gravity combustion scenario it is unlikely that g-jitter disturbances (in NASA's reduced gravity facilities) will play an important role in the flame dynamics. Acceleration disturbances of realistic orientation, magnitude, and time dependence can be easily included in the simulation. The simulation algorithm was based on techniques used in an existing large eddy simulation code which has successfully simulated fire dynamics in complex domains. A series of simulations with measured and predicted acceleration disturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) are presented. The results of this series of simulations suggested a passive isolation system and appropriate scheduling of crew activity would provide a sufficiently "quiet" acceleration environment for spherical diffusion flames.

  14. Realistic thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical measures for neural synchronization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2014-04-15

    Synchronized brain rhythms, associated with diverse cognitive functions, have been observed in electrical recordings of brain activity. Neural synchronization may be well described by using the population-averaged global potential VG in computational neuroscience. The time-averaged fluctuation of VG plays the role of a "thermodynamic" order parameter O used for describing the synchrony-asynchrony transition in neural systems. Population spike synchronization may be well visualized in the raster plot of neural spikes. The degree of neural synchronization seen in the raster plot is well measured in terms of a "statistical-mechanical" spike-based measure Ms introduced by considering the occupation and the pacing patterns of spikes. The global potential VG is also used to give a reference global cycle for the calculation of Ms. Hence, VG becomes an important collective quantity because it is associated with calculation of both O and Ms. However, it is practically difficult to directly get VG in real experiments. To overcome this difficulty, instead of VG, we employ the instantaneous population spike rate (IPSR) which can be obtained in experiments, and develop realistic thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical measures, based on IPSR, to make practical characterization of the neural synchronization in both computational and experimental neuroscience. Particularly, more accurate characterization of weak sparse spike synchronization can be achieved in terms of realistic statistical-mechanical IPSR-based measure, in comparison with the conventional measure based on VG. PMID:24487016

  15. Realistic haptic rendering of interacting deformable objects in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Christian; Dubois, Frédéric; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Andriot, Claude

    2006-01-01

    A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often comes from contact forces. Subsequently, the fidelity of haptic rendering depends significantly on contact space modeling. Contact and friction laws between deformable models are often simplified in up to date methods. They do not allow a "realistic" rendering of the subtleties of contact space physical phenomena (such as slip and stick effects due to friction or mechanical coupling between contacts). In this paper, we use Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's friction law as a computer haptics basis. Real-time performance is made possible thanks to a linearization of the behavior in the contact space, formulated as the so-called Delassus operator, and iteratively solved by a Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. Dynamic deformation uses corotational global formulation to obtain the Delassus operator in which the mass and stiffness ratio are dissociated from the simulation time step. This last point is crucial to keep stable haptic feedback. This global approach has been packaged, implemented, and tested. Stable and realistic 6D haptic feedback is demonstrated through a clipping task experiment. PMID:16382606

  16. CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder toward realistic biological membrane simulations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Emilia L; Cheng, Xi; Jo, Sunhwan; Rui, Huan; Song, Kevin C; Dávila-Contreras, Eder M; Qi, Yifei; Lee, Jumin; Monje-Galvan, Viviana; Venable, Richard M; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

    2014-10-15

    CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder, http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/membrane, is a web-based user interface designed to interactively build all-atom protein/membrane or membrane-only systems for molecular dynamics simulations through an automated optimized process. In this work, we describe the new features and major improvements in Membrane Builder that allow users to robustly build realistic biological membrane systems, including (1) addition of new lipid types, such as phosphoinositides, cardiolipin (CL), sphingolipids, bacterial lipids, and ergosterol, yielding more than 180 lipid types, (2) enhanced building procedure for lipid packing around protein, (3) reliable algorithm to detect lipid tail penetration to ring structures and protein surface, (4) distance-based algorithm for faster initial ion displacement, (5) CHARMM inputs for P21 image transformation, and (6) NAMD equilibration and production inputs. The robustness of these new features is illustrated by building and simulating a membrane model of the polar and septal regions of E. coli membrane, which contains five lipid types: CL lipids with two types of acyl chains and phosphatidylethanolamine lipids with three types of acyl chains. It is our hope that CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder becomes a useful tool for simulation studies to better understand the structure and dynamics of proteins and lipids in realistic biological membrane environments. PMID:25130509

  17. Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on colour holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, H. I.

    2013-02-01

    A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.

  18. Unsteady transonic flow calculations for realistic aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.; Seidel, David A.; Bland, Samuel R.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelasticity code has been developed for application to realistic aircraft configurations. The new code is called CAP-TSD which is an acronym for Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance. The CAP-TSD code uses a time-accurate approximate factorization (AF) algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm is very efficient for solution of steady and unsteady transonic flow problems. It can provide accurate solutions in only several hundred time steps yielding a significant computational cost savings when compared to alternative methods. The new code can treat complete aircraft geometries with multiple lifting surfaces and bodies including canard, wing, tail, control surfaces, launchers, pylons, fuselage, stores, and nacelles. Applications are presented for a series of five configurations of increasing complexity to demonstrate the wide range of geometrical applicability of CAP-TSD. These results are in good agreement with available experimental steady and unsteady pressure data. Calculations for the General Dynamics one-ninth scale F-16C aircraft model are presented to demonstrate application to a realistic configuration. Unsteady results for the entire F-16C aircraft undergoing a rigid pitching motion illustrated the capability required to perform transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses for such configurations.

  19. Emergency Care of Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pediatrics (ABP) in 1992 developed a subspecialty in pediatric emergency medicine to further advance research and education for the ... care of children, including conducting research and teaching pediatric emergency medicine. More than 1,000 doctors have become board- ...

  20. New and Emerging Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how new and emerging occupations develop, why they are hard to identify, what risks and rewards vanguard workers face, and how to find a cutting-edge job. Describes strategies researchers use to identify emerging careers. (JOW)

  1. EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and phar...

  2. Emerging technologies in physics education

    E-print Network

    Zosia A. C. Krusberg

    2007-03-24

    Three emerging technologies in physics education are evaluated from the interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive science and physics education research. The technologies - Physlet Physics, the Andes Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), and Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) Tools - are assessed particularly in terms of their potential at promoting conceptual change, developing expert-like problem-solving skills, and achieving the goals of the traditional physics laboratory. Pedagogical methods to maximize the potential of each educational technology are suggested.

  3. Extending the DARPA off-line intrusion detection evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua W. Haines; Lee M. Rossey; Richard P. Lippmann; Robert K. Cunningham

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 and 1999 DARPA off-line intrusion detection evaluations assessed the performance of intrusion detection systems using realistic background traffic and many examples of realistic attacks. This paper discusses three extensions to these evaluations. First, the Lincoln Adaptable Real-time Information Assurance Testbed (LARIAT) has been developed to simplify intrusion detection development and evaluation. LARIAT allows researchers and operational users to

  4. Evidence of a shared purpose, critical reflection, innovation and leadership in interprofessional healthcare teams: a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sims, Sarah; Hewitt, Gillian; Harris, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Realist synthesis is a theory-driven approach for evaluating complex interventions using empirical evidence, which seeks an explanatory analysis of who a complex intervention works for, how, why, and in what circumstances. Interprofessional teamworking in healthcare is one such complex intervention, as teams are influenced by social and organizational factors, which makes them highly variable and context dependent. This article concludes a series of four articles that report on a realist synthesis of interprofessional teamworking. The synthesis identified 13 mechanisms that are reported in the literature to be the underlying processes through which interprofessional teamworking produces its effects. This article explores four of these mechanisms: a shared purpose; critical reflection; innovation; and leadership. These mechanisms together explain how a team sets and maintains its focus and direction. This article highlights that whilst many assumptions are made within the healthcare literature about how these mechanisms operate within teams, these assumptions are not always founded upon strong empirical evidence. PMID:25051089

  5. Modelling weed emergence patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Vleeshouwers

    1997-01-01

    Anticipating weed pressure may be important in selecting and timing weed control measures in order to optimize their effectiveness, and thus reduce herbicide use. Therefore, a predictive model of the time of emergence and the numbers of seedling emerging (the weed emergence pattern) after soil cultivation may be a useful tool in integrated weed management. In this study, a simulation

  6. MSU EMERGENCY ACTION TEAM

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    to a secure inside facility or a sheltered location away from windows. This could be an interior hallway. Procedures for Securing-in-Place Emergency Coordinator Update ­ Content #12;Visual 1.3 Plan Development station locations Fire rated stairwell locations Emergency phone locations #12;Sample Emergency Floor

  7. International Emergency Medicine Fellowships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D. Anderson

    International emergency medicine (IEM) fellowship training for United States medical graduates (USMGs) provides opportunities for gaining knowledge and skills valuable to physicians interested in pursuing careers in international health. USMG physicians working in IEM have tended to focus their activities on providing international humanitarian relief and developing emergency medicine (EM) training and care delivery systems. Observational Emergency Medicine fellowships for

  8. The Application of Advanced Knowledge Technologies for Emergency Response

    E-print Network

    Preece, Alun

    to a hypothetical large-scale emergency scenario. We offer no end-user evaluation of this system; rather, we intend can be harnessed to assist the response to a simulated large-scale emergency. This system looselyThe Application of Advanced Knowledge Technologies for Emergency Response Stephen Potter1 , Yannis

  9. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Divisions supporting such research. NIAID Biodefense Research Priority Pathogens List of NIAID Category A-C pathogens Additional ...

  10. Tactical emergency medical services: an emerging subspecialty of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Heiskell, L E; Carmona, R H

    1994-04-01

    Law enforcement agencies are recognizing the need to have emergency medical care available at the scene of any incident involving tactical operations. The potentially volatile and dangerous atmosphere surrounding tactical operations is conducive to severe injury to officers, hostages, suspects, and bystanders. This mandates the immediate availability of basic and advanced life support services. However, a purely traditional approach to emergency medical services in the tactical environment may not be feasible and may expose prehospital personnel to greater danger. It also may disrupt the law enforcement mission. These factors mandate a different set of field assessment and treatment priorities. To meet these needs, selected prehospital personnel and emergency physicians train to work with and support special weapons and tactics teams. PMID:8161047

  11. What can we predict about viral evolution and emergence?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the emergence of infectious diseases has been touted as one of the most important goals of biomedical science, with an array of funding schemes and research projects. However, evolutionary biology generally has a dim view of prediction, and there is a danger that erroneous predictions will mean a misuse of resources and undermine public confidence. Herein, I outline what can be realistically predicted about viral evolution and emergence, argue that any success in predicting what may emerge is likely to be limited, but that forecasting how viruses might evolve and spread following emergence is more tractable. I also emphasize that a properly grounded research program in disease prediction must involve a synthesis of ecological and genetic perspectives. PMID:23273851

  12. Urban Emergency Evacuation Data Fusion Based on "ONE MAP"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Sun, Q.; Chen, H.

    2013-07-01

    Urban emergency evacuation is a complicated systems engineering, which relates to many departments. How to fuse different scale, different format, different mathematical base spatial data effectively provided by such as police, fire protection, medical and health organization, traffic, emergency rescue and so on is a realistic matter that decision-makers are faced with. This paper analyses the characteristic of multisource spatial data in urban emergency evacuation and assorts it, brings forward the fusion strategy of multisource spatial data based on "one map", designs the frame of multisource spatial data fusion, makes an experiment in the end. The experiment indicates that the efficiency and level of urban emergency evacuation decision-making advances remarkably supported by multisource spatial data fusion.

  13. Evolutionary emergence of size-structured food webs.

    PubMed

    Loeuille, Nicolas; Loreau, Michel

    2005-04-19

    Explaining the structure of terrestrial and aquatic food webs remains one of the most important challenges of ecological theory. Most existing models use emergent properties of food webs, such as diversity and connectance as parameters, to determine other food-web descriptors. Lower-level processes, in particular adaptation (whether by behavioral, developmental, or evolutionary mechanisms), are usually not considered. Here, we show that complex, realistic food webs may emerge by evolution from a single ancestor based on very simple ecological and evolutionary rules. In our model, adaptation acts on body size, whose impact on the metabolism and interactions of organisms is well established. Based on parameters defined at the organism scale, the model predicts emergent properties at the food-web scale. Variations of two key parameters (width of consumption niche and competition intensity) allow very different food-web structures and functionings to emerge, which are similar to those observed in some of the best-documented food webs. PMID:15824324

  14. Evolutionary emergence of size-structured food webs

    PubMed Central

    Loeuille, Nicolas; Loreau, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Explaining the structure of terrestrial and aquatic food webs remains one of the most important challenges of ecological theory. Most existing models use emergent properties of food webs, such as diversity and connectance as parameters, to determine other food-web descriptors. Lower-level processes, in particular adaptation (whether by behavioral, developmental, or evolutionary mechanisms), are usually not considered. Here, we show that complex, realistic food webs may emerge by evolution from a single ancestor based on very simple ecological and evolutionary rules. In our model, adaptation acts on body size, whose impact on the metabolism and interactions of organisms is well established. Based on parameters defined at the organism scale, the model predicts emergent properties at the food-web scale. Variations of two key parameters (width of consumption niche and competition intensity) allow very different food-web structures and functionings to emerge, which are similar to those observed in some of the best-documented food webs. PMID:15824324

  15. Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J

    2012-03-01

    In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

  16. Emergency medicine in Slovenia--emergency center, prehospital emergency medicine and academic emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Grmec, Stefek; Mally, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Public health service is organized in such a manner so as to ensure all the inhabitants of the Republic of Slovenia the emergency medical assistance available at all times, including emergency transport and provision of emergency medicinal products as soon as possible and as close to the date of their manufacture as possible and during transport. Emergency medical assistance means the implementation of necessary measures by doctors and their teams with persons whose life is imminently threatened due to illness or injury and persons, respectively, who could be affected by such a risk in a short period of time according to the symptoms. Emergency calls are received and processed by the emergency medical assistance service which forms an integral part of the public health service network. Emergency patients with life-threatening trauma or disease are treated by prehospital emergency physicians at the scene and during transport. Emergency patients are guaranteed to be reached by an appropriate emergency vehicle and a respective crew within 10 minutes in 80% of the responses and within 15 minutes in 95% of cases. In Slovenia was established 30 years ago the so-called Franco-German system, with a highly developed pre-hospital emergency physician service and interdisciplinary hospital-based emergency medicine on different departments (trauma center, department for internal intensiv medicine, department of ananstesiology, department for neurology and pediatrics department (1). This gap is now closing fast because of the rapid advancement of hospital-based emergency medicine in Slovenia. In-hospital emergency medicine has been reorganized in many hospitals during the last few years. Economic and quality arguments have initiated the development of departments for emergency medicine in Slovenia. In the future, this will lead to new qualification criteria for physicians working in these departments. Four specific recommendations for development and organizations emergency medicine are required: the recognition as a specialty, the specialist training programme, the professional organization of emergency physicians and the presence of academic emergency centres (2). Slovenia is one of the 11 European countries who recognize hospital-based emergency medicine as a specialty (3, 4). This is 5-year specialty training (based on European curriculum) and the curriculum follows a symptom-oriented approach to emergency medicine, and includes a skilled description of the key competencies of the future trained emergency physicians (4). Slovenia has very well organised prehospital on-physician based emergency service and new qualification criteria for those physicians in emergency departments, therefore, need to be developed with primary education trainers for emergency medicine. In the model of integration of prehospital and hospital emergency medicine in academic emergency centers, emergency physicians work equal in ED and in the field on the method of rotation without changes of actual prehospital on-physicians based EMS.The integrative model have one in-door for emergency patients, mobility ofprehospital emergency physicians, a nurse-driven triage system and support of primary care physicians as gatekeepers. PMID:23120863

  17. Emergency Management Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Emergency Management Guide provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Emergency Management System (EMS). The DOE EMS is established by DOE 5500.1B, EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT SYSTEM. The provisions of this guide specify neither policy nor responsibilities. It provides an acceptable approach to emergency planning activities at DOE facilities and sites. Other approaches may be used provided that they are approved by the cognizant Program Secretarial Officer (PSO), with the concurrence of the Director of Emergency Operations (DEO).

  18. Modeling shortest path selection of the ant Linepithema humile using psychophysical theory and realistic parameter values.

    PubMed

    von Thienen, Wolfhard; Metzler, Dirk; Witte, Volker

    2015-05-01

    The emergence of self-organizing behavior in ants has been modeled in various theoretical approaches in the past decades. One model explains experimental observations in which Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) selected the shorter of two alternative paths from their nest to a food source (shortest path experiments). This model serves as an important example for the emergence of collective behavior and self-organization in biological systems. In addition, it inspired the development of computer algorithms for optimization problems called ant colony optimization (ACO). In the model, a choice function describing how ants react to different pheromone concentrations is fundamental. However, the parameters of the choice function were not deduced experimentally but freely adapted so that the model fitted the observations of the shortest path experiments. Thus, important knowledge was lacking about crucial model assumptions. A recent study on the Argentine ant provided this information by measuring the response of the ants to varying pheromone concentrations. In said study, the above mentioned choice function was fitted to the experimental data and its parameters were deduced. In addition, a psychometric function was fitted to the data and its parameters deduced. Based on these findings, it is possible to test the shortest path model by applying realistic parameter values. Here we present the results of such tests using Monte Carlo simulations of shortest path experiments with Argentine ants. We compare the choice function and the psychometric function, both with parameter values deduced from the above-mentioned experiments. Our results show that by applying the psychometric function, the shortest path experiments can be explained satisfactorily by the model. The study represents the first example of how psychophysical theory can be used to understand and model collective foraging behavior of ants based on trail pheromones. These findings may be important for other models of pheromone guided ant behavior and might inspire improved ACO algorithms. PMID:25769943

  19. Optimal continuous variable quantum teleportation protocol for realistic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiz, F. S.; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2015-03-01

    We show the optimal setup that allows Alice to teleport coherent states | ? > to Bob giving the greatest fidelity (efficiency) when one takes into account two realistic assumptions. The first one is the fact that in any actual implementation of the continuous variable teleportation protocol (CVTP) Alice and Bob necessarily share non-maximally entangled states (two-mode finitely squeezed states). The second one assumes that Alice's pool of possible coherent states to be teleported to Bob does not cover the whole complex plane (| ? | < ?). The optimal strategy is achieved by tuning three parameters in the original CVTP, namely, Alice's beam splitter transmittance and Bob's displacements in position and momentum implemented on the teleported state. These slight changes in the protocol are currently easy to be implemented and, as we show, give considerable gain in performance for a variety of possible pool of input states with Alice.

  20. Generalized seniority for the shell model with realistic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, M. A.; Luo, F. Q.; Cai, K.; Hellemans, V.; Constantinou, Ch.

    2012-03-01

    The generalized seniority scheme has long been proposed as a means of dramatically reducing the dimensionality of nuclear shell-model calculations, when strong pairing correlations are present. However, systematic benchmark calculations, comparing results obtained in a model space truncated according to generalized seniority with those obtained in the full shell-model space, are required to assess the viability of this scheme. Here, a detailed comparison is carried out, for semimagic nuclei taken in a full major shell and with realistic interactions. The even-mass and odd-mass Ca isotopes are treated in the generalized seniority scheme, for generalized seniority v?3. Results for level energies, orbital occupations, and electromagnetic observables are compared with those obtained in the full shell-model space.

  1. Fighting noise with noise in realistic quantum teleportation

    E-print Network

    Raphael Fortes; Gustavo Rigolin

    2015-06-11

    We investigate how the efficiency of the quantum teleportation protocol is affected when the qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. We study all types of noise usually encountered in real world implementations of quantum communication protocols, namely, the bit flip, phase flip (phase damping), depolarizing, and amplitude damping noise. Several realistic scenarios are studied in which a part or all of the qubits employed in the execution of the quantum teleportation protocol are subjected to the same or different types of noise. We find noise scenarios not yet known in which more noise or less entanglement lead to more efficiency. Furthermore, we show that if noise is unavoidable it is better to subject the qubits to different noise channels in order to obtain an increase in the efficiency of the protocol.

  2. The Simulation of Realistic BiSON-like Helioseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S.; New, R.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W.; Elsworth, Y.

    2009-12-01

    When simulating full-disc helioseismic data, instrumental noise has traditionally been treated as time-independent. However, in reality, instrumental noise will often vary to some degree over time due to line-of-sight velocity variations and possibly degrading hardware. Here we present a new technique for simulating Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) helioseismic data with a more realistic analogue for instrumental noise. This is achieved by simulating the potassium solar Fraunhofer line as observed by the BiSON instruments. Intensity measurements in the red and blue wing of the line can then be simulated and appropriate time-dependent instrumental noise can be added. The simulated time-series can then be formed in the same way as with real data. Here we present the simulation method and the first generation of a BiSON-like instrumental-noise time series.

  3. The simulation of realistic BiSON-like helioseismic data

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, S T; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y

    2009-01-01

    When simulating full-disc helioseismic data, instrumental noise has traditionally been treated as time-independent. However, in reality, instrumental noise will often vary to some degree over time due to line of sight velocity variations and possibly degrading hardware. Here we present a new technique for simulating Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) helioseismic data with a more realistic analogue for instrumental noise. This is achieved by simulating the potassium solar Fraunhoffer line as observed by the BiSON instruments. Intensity measurements in the red and blue wing of the line can then be simulated and appropriate time-dependent instrumental noise can be added. The simulated time-series can then be formed in the same way as with real data. Here we present the simulation method and the first generation of a BiSON-like instrumental noise time series.

  4. Realistic Haptic Rendering of Interacting Deformable Objects in Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    Duriez, Christian; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Andriot, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often comes from contact forces. Subsequently, the fidelity of haptic rendering depends significantly on contact space modeling. Contact and friction laws between deformable models are often simplified in up to date methods. They do not allow a "realistic" rendering of the subtleties of contact space physical phenomena (such as slip and stick effects due to friction or mechanical coupling between contacts). In this paper, we use Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's friction law as a computer haptics basis. Real-time performance is made possible thanks to a linearization of the behavior in the contact space, formulated as the so-called Delassus operator, and iteratively solved by a Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. Dynamic deformation uses corotational global formulation to obtain the Delassus operator in which the mass and s...

  5. Generating realistic environments for cyber operations development, testing, and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Murphy, John P.

    2012-06-01

    Training eective cyber operatives requires realistic network environments that incorporate the structural and social complexities representative of the real world. Network trac generators facilitate repeatable experiments for the development, training and testing of cyber operations. However, current network trac generators, ranging from simple load testers to complex frameworks, fail to capture the realism inherent in actual environments. In order to improve the realism of network trac generated by these systems, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the level of realism in generated trac with respect to the environment being mimicked. We categorize realism measures into statistical, content, and behavioral measurements, and propose various metrics that can be applied at each level to indicate how eectively the generated trac mimics the real world.

  6. Light Higgsino Dark Matter in a Realistic String CMSSM

    E-print Network

    Van E. Mayes; Andrew W. Lutz

    2014-12-03

    When supersymmetry breaking is dominated by the complex structure moduli and the universal dilaton, a subset of the supersymmetry parameter space in a realistic MSSM constructed from intersecting/magnetized D-branes is equivalent to the mSUGRA/CMSSM parameter space with the trilinear term fixed to be minus the gaugino mass, A_0=-m_{1/2}. More generally, the scalar mass-squared terms for sfermions are split about the Higgs mass-squared terms, m_{Q_L,L_L}^2=m_H^2 - \\Delta m^2$ and m_{Q_R,L_R}^2=m_H^2 + \\Delta m^2, for generic values of the Kahler moduli. The hyberbolic branch/focus point (HB/FP) regions of this parameter space are present for both \\Delta m^2 = 0 and \\Delta m^2 \

  7. Modelling pulsar glitches with realistic pinning forces: a hydrodynamical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Pizzochero, P. M.; Sidery, T.

    2012-02-01

    Although pulsars are some of the most stable clocks in the Universe, many of them are observed to 'glitch', i.e. to suddenly increase their spin frequency ? with fractional increases that range from ? to ?. In this paper, we focus on the 'giant' glitches, i.e. glitches with fractional increases in the spin rate of the order of ?, that are observed in a subclass of pulsars including the Vela. We show that giant glitches can be modelled with a two-fluid hydrodynamical approach. The model is based on the formalism for superfluid neutron stars of Andersson & Comer and on the realistic pinning forces of Grill & Pizzochero. We show that all stages of Vela glitches, from the rise to the post-glitch relaxation, can be reproduced with a set of physically reasonable parameters and that the sizes and waiting times between giant glitches in other pulsars are also consistent with our model.

  8. Optimal continuous variable quantum teleportation protocol for realistic settings

    E-print Network

    F. S. Luiz; Gustavo Rigolin

    2015-02-04

    We show the optimal setup that allows Alice to teleport coherent states to Bob giving the greatest fidelity (efficiency) when one takes into account two realistic assumptions. The first one says that in any actual implementation of the continuous variable teleportation protocol (CVTP) Alice and Bob necessarily share non-maximally entangled states (two-mode finitely squeezed states). The second one assumes that Alice's pool of possible coherent states to be teleported to Bob does not cover the whole complex plane. The optimal strategy is achieved by tuning three parameters in the original CVTP, namely, the beam splitter transmittance and the displacements in position and momentum implemented on the teleported state. These slight changes in the protocol are currently easy to be implemented and, as we show, give considerable gain in perfomance for a variety of possible pool of input states with Alice.

  9. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  10. Design for and efficient dynamic climate model with realistic geography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, M. J.; Abeles, J.

    1984-01-01

    The long term climate sensitivity which include realistic atmospheric dynamics are severely restricted by the expense of integrating atmospheric general circulation models are discussed. Taking as an example models used at GSFC for this dynamic model is an alternative which is of much lower horizontal or vertical resolution. The model of Heid and Suarez uses only two levels in the vertical and, although it has conventional grid resolution in the meridional direction, horizontal resolution is reduced by keeping only a few degrees of freedom in the zonal wavenumber spectrum. Without zonally asymmetric forcing this model simulates a day in roughly 1/2 second on a CRAY. The model under discussion is a fully finite differenced, zonally asymmetric version of the Heid-Suarez model. It is anticipated that speeds can be obtained a few seconds a day roughly 50 times faster than moderate resolution, multilayer GCM's.

  11. DATA SYNTHESIS AND METHOD EVALUATION FOR BRAIN IMAGING GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jinhua; Kim, Sungeun; Yan, Jingwen; Moore, Jason; Saykin, Andrew; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging genetics is an emergent research field where the association between genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroimaging quantitative traits (QTs) is evaluated. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a bi-multivariate analysis method that has the potential to reveal complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. We present initial efforts on evaluating a few SCCA methods for brain imaging genetics. This includes a data synthesis method to create realistic imaging genetics data with known SNP-QT associations, application of three SCCA algorithms to the synthetic data, and comparative study of their performances. Our empirical results suggest, approximating covariance structure using an identity or diagonal matrix, an approach used in these SCCA algorithms, could limit the SCCA capability in identifying the underlying imaging genetics associations. An interesting future direction is to develop enhanced SCCA methods that effectively take into account the covariance structures in the imaging genetics data. PMID:25408823

  12. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA s) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol s Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than is possible today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, is one way to achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy that produces a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on a specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when an ADS-B signal is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS un-der these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  13. Using realistic simulation for performance analysis of mapreduce setups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanying Wang; Ali R. Butt; Prashant Pandey; Karan Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been a huge growth in the amount of data processed by enterprises and the scientific computing community. Two promising trends ensure that applications will be able to deal with ever increasing data volumes: First, the emergence of cloud computing, which provides transparent access to a large number of compute, storage and networking resources; and second, the development

  14. Effects of postgraduate emergency training among general practitioners working in emergency units in Denizli, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bulent Erdur; Ibrahim Turkcuer; Mehmet Bostanci; Bora Boz; Ismet Parlak; Onder Tomruk; Mustafa Karatepe; Metin Bozkir

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Emergency medicine is characterised by rapid decisionmaking to help patients in life-threatening situations. For this purpose,\\u000a special qualifications are necessary. The aim of our study was to evaluate the emergency medicine knowledge obtained during\\u000a an obligatory postgraduate emergency medicine training programme that has been recently applied among Turkish physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The training targeted all general practitioners (GPs) working in emergency units

  15. Can virtual reality predict body part discomfort and performance of people in realistic world for assembling tasks?

    E-print Network

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Salvendy, Gaverial; Chablat, Damien; Bennis, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on relationship of evaluation results between virtual environment (VE) and realistic environment (RE) for assembling tasks. Evaluation results consist of subjective results (BPD and RPE) and objective results (posture and physical performance). Same tasks were performed with same experimental configurations and evaluation results were measured in RE and VE respectively. Then these evaluation results were compared. Slight difference of posture between VE and RE was found but not great difference of effect on people according to conventional ergonomics posture assessment method. Correlation of BPD and performance results between VE and RE are found by linear regression method. Moreover, results of BPD, physical performance, and RPE in VE are higher than that in RE with significant difference. Furthermore, these results indicates that subjects feel more discomfort and fatigue in VE than RE because of additional effort required in VE.

  16. EMERGENCY SERVICES Police, Fire, Medical

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    & Cell Phones ­ 911 UCSB Toll-Free Emergency Information Line ­ 888-488-8272 For Emergency Information#12;EMERGENCY SERVICES Emergency Police, Fire, Medical: From Campus Phones ­ 9-911 From Pay Phones

  17. Pediatric Mental Health Emergencies and Special Health Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Thomas H.; Katz, Emily R.; Duffy, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Children with mental health problems are increasingly being evaluated and treated by both pediatric primary care and pediatric emergency physicians. This article focuses on the epidemiology, evaluation, and management of the two most common pediatric mental health emergencies, suicidal and homicidal/aggressive patients, as well as the equally challenging population of children with autism or other developmental disabilities. PMID:24093903

  18. Emergent Quantum Mechanics and Emergent Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Hooft, Gerard 't [Institute for Theoretical Physics Utrecht University and Spinoza Institute Postbox 80.195 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-11-20

    Quantum mechanics is 'emergent' if a statistical treatment of large scale phenomena in a locally deterministic theory requires the use of quantum operators. These quantum operators may allow for symmetry transformations that are not present in the underlying deterministic system. Such theories allow for a natural explanation of the existence of gauge equivalence classes (gauge orbits), including the equivalence classes generated by general coordinate transformations. Thus, local gauge symmetries and general coordinate invariance could be emergent symmetries, and this might lead to new alleys towards understanding the flatness problem of the Universe.

  19. Update on emergency contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Fine

    2011-01-01

    Emergency contraception is a woman’s last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone\\u000a receptor modulator, when taken as a single 30 mg dose, is a new, safe and effective emergency contraceptive that can be used\\u000a from the first day and up to 5 days following unprotected intercourse. The older progesterone-only emergency contraceptive,\\u000a levonorgestrel, is taken as two

  20. Emergence and Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Huneman

    2008-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept\\u000a of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic\\u000a simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated\\u000a with a causal criterion

  1. The Emergency Department Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth Powsner

    Consultants may be called to an emergency department for a variety of reasons. Most requests are like those from a general\\u000a hospital ward. However, two issues are notable: a broader definition of psychiatric emergencies and greater concern about patient rights. These issues stem from an emergency department’s lack of a buffer from its surrounding\\u000a community: patients come as they are,

  2. Quantifying effectiveness in emergency management.

    PubMed

    Weaver, John Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between the Departments of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS). Moreover, it reviewed the interface between their two subordinate organizations (Northern Command under DOD and the Federal Emergency Management Agency under DHS) with primacy over domestic disasters. Understanding the importance of intergovernmental relations (IGRs), the article dissected the interrelatedness of these organizations regarding hurricanes and the subsequent involvement of federal preparation and response efforts. The informal networked relationships were evaluated using regression analysis focusing on secondary sources of data and several variables. The vitality of collaborative networks is grounded in literature and has been espoused by Waugh and Streib in the world of emergency management; this study expanded on their premise. PMID:25350357

  3. Introduction to International Emergency Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Kotlyar; Jeffrey L Arnold

    International emergency medicine (IEM), a subspecialty of emergency medicine (EM), is concerned with the development of emergency medical care in countries other than the US. Accordingly, IEM is involved with the education and the training of emergency care providers through the world, the development of emergency care systems, and the delivery of emergency services in areas of need. IEM is

  4. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Development Dept.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  5. Emergency Medicine Clerkship MID-ROTATION EVALUATION

    E-print Network

    Issa, Naoum

    and openness to feedback, self-improvement, and self-directed learning. 11. Establishes caring and trusting reasoning/problem solving: Clinical Skills: Leadership and teamwork: Self-directed learning: Other unique

  6. Towards a realistic prediction of the solar wind plasma microinstabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Marian; Poedts, Stefaan; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Two scenarios are known for the origin of the field and density fluctuations observed in the solar wind. Thus, the fluctuations can be induced at different scales, either locally and self-consistently by the kinetic anisotropy of plasma particles, or can be injected at larger scales closer to the Sun and then decayed and transported by the super-Alfvénic wind. In both scenarios, details of the plasma microstates - the particle velocity distributions (VDFs), are needed for an accurate description of the fluctuations. In-situ measurements reveal nonequilibrium plasmas with VDFs comprising two major components, a Maxwellian (thermal) core and a less dense but hotter suprathermal halo with a power-law distribution best described by the Kappa models, and the field-aligned strahl as a third component, usually assimilated with the suprathermal populations. Despite this observational evidence, the existing attempts to parameterize the observed (anisotropic) distributions and the supporting fluctuations and instabilities are limited to simplified models, which either ignore the suprathermal halo or just minimize the role of the core assuming it cold, or artificially incorporates both the core and halo in a single, global Kappa that is nearly Maxwellian at low speeds and decreases smoothly as a power law at high speeds. Simplified models imply a reduced number of plasma parameters and are convenient computationally, but they omit important kinetic effects of the plasma particles. Realistic models imply a large number of parameters, especially in the presence of kinetic anisotropies, and make it difficult to identify the instability conditions. However, in a recent endeavor to investigate nonindealized situations when both the core and halo temperatures are finite and anisotropic, we found computationally tractable such a complex model that combines an anisotropic bi-Maxwellian core and an anisotropic bi-Kappa halo. This model is relevant for the slow wind conditions and, in general in the solar wind at large heliocentric distances, e.g., > 1 AU, when the field-aligned strahl is significantly diminished. Here we present our first results for the particular case of the EM cyclotron instabilities driven by the electron temperature anisotropy, and provide a contrasting picture with the idealized models. Perspectives are also discussed to apply the same model and stability/dispersion analysis for a realistic characterization of the complementary instabilities, e.g., firehose, mirror, etc., of interest in space plasma physics.

  7. More Realistic Face Model Surface Improves Relevance of Pediatric In-Vitro Aerosol Studies

    PubMed Central

    Amirav, Israel; Halamish, Asaf; Gorenberg, Miguel; Omar, Hamza; Newhouse, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Various hard face models are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of aerosol face masks. Softer more realistic “face” surface materials, like skin, deform upon mask application and should provide more relevant in-vitro tests. Studies that simultaneously take into consideration many of the factors characteristic of the in vivo face are lacking. These include airways, various application forces, comparison of various devices, comparison with a hard-surface model and use of a more representative model face based on large numbers of actual faces. Aim To compare mask to “face” seal and aerosol delivery of two pediatric masks using a soft vs. a hard, appropriately representative, pediatric face model under various applied forces. Methods Two identical face models and upper airways replicas were constructed, the only difference being the suppleness and compressibility of the surface layer of the “face.” Integrity of the seal and aerosol delivery of two different masks [AeroChamber (AC) and SootherMask (SM)] were compared using a breath simulator, filter collection and realistic applied forces. Results The soft “face” significantly increased the delivery efficiency and the sealing characteristics of both masks. Aerosol delivery with the soft “face” was significantly greater for the SM compared to the AC (p< 0.01). No statistically significant difference between the two masks was observed with the hard “face.” Conclusions The material and pliability of the model “face” surface has a significant influence on both the seal and delivery efficiency of face masks. This finding should be taken into account during in-vitro aerosol studies. PMID:26090661

  8. Emergent Quantum Mechanics and Emergent Symmetries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard't Hooft; Gerard t

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is ‘emergent’ if a statistical treatment of large scale phenomena in a locally deterministic theory requires the use of quantum operators. These quantum operators may allow for symmetry transformations that are not present in the underlying deterministic system. Such theories allow for a natural explanation of the existence of gauge equivalence classes (gauge orbits), including the equivalence classes

  9. Social emergencies in the elderly.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A J; Abrahams, S T

    1990-05-01

    An examination of the social concerns of the elderly reinforces the importance of a thorough social assessment and the availability of skilled staff in an Emergency Department to make appropriate community referrals. The resolution of disposition problems brought about through caregiver exhaustion, patients no longer able to care for themselves in the community, and abandonment by individuals and institutions require a complex array of skills. The serious problem of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly must be recognized by Emergency Department staff. Physical problems often disguise the existence of a problem of substance abuse. Clinicians in the Emergency Department should evaluate elderly patients using social and family history information in addition to a thorough physical assessment. Elder abuse manifests as physical abuse, psychological abuse, material abuse, and active and passive neglect. The problem is growing, and there is a need for skilled observation and detection of elderly patients presenting for emergency care. As the proportion of the elderly population in this country increases, social policies and program development must reflect these changes. Experts in fields such as gerontology, geriatric medicine, psychiatry, nursing, and social work must make recommendations for changes in the medical and social service delivery systems. The availability of coordinated, comprehensive services for the elderly will expand as the movement toward geriatric treatment centers grows. These centers will provide medical, psychiatric, social, and residential care through the concept of a continuum of care. They will employ a multidisciplinary team of geriatric specialists and include outreach as well as treatment services. Communities with a geriatric treatment center provide a valuable resource for patients identified through Emergency Department visits. The Emergency Department must play an active role in assisting hospitals, area agencies on aging, and other concerned members of the community plan programs for elderly patients with physical and social concerns. While these changes are implemented, the Emergency Department will continue to remain responsive to the social concerns of the elderly through deliberate organizational efforts designed to maintain a high quality of care for elderly patients. PMID:2187693

  10. Generalized seniority with realistic interactions in open-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, M. A.; Luo, F. Q.; Cai, K.; Constantinou, Ch; Hellemans, V.

    2012-10-01

    Generalized seniority provides a truncation scheme for the nuclear shell model, based on pairing correlations, which offers the possibility of dramatically reducing the dimensionality of the nuclear shell-model problem. Systematic comparisons against results obtained in the full shell-model space are required to assess the viability of this scheme. Here, we extend recent generalized seniority calculations for semimagic nuclei, the Ca isotopes, to open-shell nuclei, with both valence protons and valence neutrons. The even-mass Ti and Cr isotopes are treated in a full major shell and with realistic interactions, in the generalized seniority scheme with one broken proton pair and one broken neutron pair. Results for level energies, orbital occupations, and electromagnetic observables are compared with those obtained in the full shell-model space. We demonstrate that, even for the Ti isotopes, significant benefit would be obtained in going beyond the approximation of one broken pair of each type, while the Cr isotopes require further broken pairs to provide even qualitative accuracy. Communicated by B M Schwenk

  11. GRACE follow-on sensor noise with realistic background models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, Matthias; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    We performed multiple simulation studies of a GRACE-like satellite mission based on the current K-Band ranging instrument (KBR). We also simulated a laser-ranging instrument (LRI) configuration as a drop-in replacement for GRACE low-low satellite to satellite tracking, the remaining parameters of the simulation are shared between the two scenarios. Our simulated data are based on real GRACE observations for April 2006, which allows us to compare our results to published gravity field models for this particular month. The variational equation approach was employed to generate independent reduced-dynamic orbits for both GRACE satellites. These orbits were then fitted to the actual GRACE kinematic orbits. The resulting orbit was then used to synthesize artificial satellite ranging, star camera, accelerometer and kinematic orbit data. We synchronized all simulated instruments with real instrument data for the simulated month, which guarantees realistic data gaps. Appropriate noise was added to all observables. In the recovery step, the AOD1B de-aliasing product -- previously used in the generation of the fundamental reduced-dynamic orbit data -- was degraded with partial constituents of the updated ESA earth system model dataset. Specifically, the atmosphere, ocean, and hydrology components were used. This has the effect that the computed gravity field possesses the characteristic structure associated with a residual time-variable gravity field signal. An overview of the achieved results is given in the presentation.

  12. A realistic model of neutron star in minimal dilatonic gravity

    E-print Network

    Fiziev, Plamen P

    2015-01-01

    We present derivation of the basic equations and boundary conditions for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG) which offers an alternative and simultaneous description of the effects of dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) using one dilaton field $\\Phi$. The numerical results for a realistic equation of state (EOS) MPA1 of neutron matter are represented for the first time. The existing three very different scales: the Compton length of the scalar field $\\lambda_\\Phi$, the star's radius $r^*$, and the finite radius of MDG Universe $r_{U}$ are a source of numerical difficulties. Owing to introduction of a new dark scalar field $\\varphi=\\ln(1+\\ln\\Phi)$ we were able to study numerically an unprecedentedly large interval of $\\lambda_\\Phi$ and discovered existence of $\\lambda_\\Phi^{crit}\\approx 2.1\\, km$ for NS with MPA1 EOS. It is related with bifurcation of the physical domain in phase space of the system. Some novel physical consequences are discu...

  13. A computational study of routing algorithms for realistic transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.V.; Nagel, K.

    1998-12-01

    The authors carry out an experimental analysis of a number of shortest path (routing) algorithms investigated in the context of the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and Simulation System) project. The main focus of the paper is to study how various heuristic and exact solutions, associated data structures affected the computational performance of the software developed especially for realistic transportation networks. For this purpose the authors have used Dallas Fort-Worth road network with very high degree of resolution. The following general results are obtained: (1) they discuss and experimentally analyze various one-one shortest path algorithms, which include classical exact algorithms studied in the literature as well as heuristic solutions that are designed to take into account the geometric structure of the input instances; (2) they describe a number of extensions to the basic shortest path algorithm. These extensions were primarily motivated by practical problems arising in TRANSIMS and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) related technologies. Extensions discussed include--(i) time dependent networks, (ii) multi-modal networks, (iii) networks with public transportation and associated schedules. Computational results are provided to empirically compare the efficiency of various algorithms. The studies indicate that a modified Dijkstra`s algorithm is computationally fast and an excellent candidate for use in various transportation planning applications as well as ITS related technologies.

  14. Effects of angular confinement and concentration to realistic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, O.; Kraus, T.; Schwarz, U. T.; Bläsi, B.

    2015-01-01

    In standard solar cells, light impinges under a very small angular range, whereas the solar cell emits light into the whole half space. Due to this expansion of etendué, entropy is generated, which limits the maximal efficiency of solar cells. This limit can be overcome by either increasing the angle of incidence by concentration or by decreasing the angle of emission by an angularly confining element or by a combination of both. In an ideal solar cell with radiative recombination as the only loss mechanism, angular confinement and concentration are thermodynamically equivalent. It is shown that concentration in a device, where non-radiative losses such as Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger recombination are considered, is not equivalent to angular confinement. As soon as non-radiative losses are considered, the gain in efficiency due to angular confinement drops significantly in contrast to the gain caused by concentration. With the help of detailed balance calculations, it is furthermore shown that angular confinement can help to increase the efficiency of solar cells under concentrated sunlight even if no measurable gain is expected for the solar cell under 1-sun-illumination. Our analysis predicts a relative gain of 3.14% relative in efficiency for a realistic solar cell with a concentration factor of 500.

  15. Divertor target shape optimization in realistic edge plasma geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2014-07-01

    Tokamak divertor design for next-step fusion reactors heavily relies on numerical simulations of the plasma edge. Currently, the design process is mainly done in a forward approach, where the designer is strongly guided by his experience and physical intuition in proposing divertor shapes, which are then thoroughly assessed by numerical computations. On the other hand, automated design methods based on optimization have proven very successful in the related field of aerodynamic design. By recasting design objectives and constraints into the framework of a mathematical optimization problem, efficient forward-adjoint based algorithms can be used to automatically compute the divertor shape which performs the best with respect to the selected edge plasma model and design criteria. In the past years, we have extended these methods to automated divertor target shape design, using somewhat simplified edge plasma models and geometries. In this paper, we build on and extend previous work to apply these shape optimization methods for the first time in more realistic, single null edge plasma and divertor geometry, as commonly used in current divertor design studies. In a case study with JET-like parameters, we show that the so-called one-shot method is very effective is solving divertor target design problems. Furthermore, by detailed shape sensitivity analysis we demonstrate that the development of the method already at the present state provides physically plausible trends, allowing to achieve a divertor design with an almost perfectly uniform power load for our particular choice of edge plasma model and design criteria.

  16. Realistic Yukawa Textures and SUSY Spectra from Intersecting Branes

    E-print Network

    Ching-Ming Chen; Tianjun Li; V. E. Mayes; D. V. Nanopoulos

    2008-06-16

    We study the possible phenomenology of a three-family Pati-Salam model constructed from intersecting D6-branes in Type IIA string theory on the T^6/(Z2 x Z2) orientifold with some desirable semi-realistic features. In the model, tree-level gauge coupling unification is achieved automatically at the string scale, and the gauge symmetry may be broken to the Standard Model (SM) close to the string scale. The small number of extra chiral exotic states in the model may be decoupled via the Higgs mechanism and strong dynamics. We calculate the possible supersymmetry breaking soft terms and the corresponding low-energy supersymmetric particle spectra which may potentially be tested at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We find that for the viable regions of the parameter space the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass usually satisfies m_H < 120 GeV, and the observed dark matter density may be generated. Finally, we find that it is possible to obtain correct SM quark masses and mixings, and the tau lepton mass at the unification scale. Additionally, neutrino masses and mixings may be generated via the seesaw mechanism. Mechanisms to stabilize the open and closed-string moduli, which are necessary for the model to be truly viable and to make definite predictions are discussed.

  17. Falsification Attacks against WPA-TKIP in a Realistic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, Yosuke; Ozawa, Yuki; Ohigashi, Toshihiro; Morii, Masakatu

    In this paper, we propose two new falsification attacks against Wi-Fi Protected Access Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (WPA-TKIP). A previous realistic attack succeeds only for a network that supports IEEE 802.11e QoS features by both an access point (AP) and a client, and it has an execution time of 12-15min, in which it recovers a message integrity code (MIC) key from an ARP packet. Our first attack reduces the execution time for recovering a MIC key. It can recover the MIC key within 7-8min. Our second attack expands its targets that can be attacked. This attack focuses on a new vulnerability of QoS packet processing, and this vulnerability can remove the condition that the AP supports IEEE 802.11e. In addition, we discovered another vulnerability by which our attack succeeds under the condition that the chipset of the client supports IEEE 802.11e even if the client disables this standard through the OS. We demonstrate that chipsets developed by several kinds of vendors have the same vulnerability.

  18. Numerical simulations of flow over realistic rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Junlin; Piomelli, Ugo

    2013-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations are carried out on open-channel flows over multiple types of rough surfaces occurring in hydraulic turbine in both transitionally and fully rough regimes with the Kármán number ranging from 400 to 1000. The roughness imposed using an immersed boundary method is spatially resolved by the grid. The roughness functions are used to test several correlations proposed in the literature to relate surface parameters to the equivalent sand-grain height; agreement is obtained with experimental results on gas turbine roughness, despite slight differences in model coefficients. For relatively sparse distributions, the realistic roughness yields a higher drag compared to modeled roughness. The mean-flow ejecting and sweeping motions as part of the channeling phenomenon contribute to vertical momentum transports and correlate closely to regions of positive surface slope. It is observed that a stronger mean flow effect corresponds to higher frequency of relatively strong bursting events in the near-wall region, while the average size of these events is controlled by roughness length scales that are separated from the ones determining the event frequency. Further discussions will be given on possible indications of important surface parameters.

  19. Beam tracking of SXLS with realistic magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yun-Xiang.

    1991-09-01

    In early 1977, while working for NSLS at Brookhaven National Lab., Dr. Ohnuma noticed that tunes of NSLS calculated with code SYNCH were significantly different from those obtained with code PATRICIA. This problem surfaced again in 1991 when people at BNL discovered discrepancies in their compact ring SXLS chromaticities calculated with different code. One potential source of the ambiguities is the different treatment of the edge field and the combined function field of dipole magnet. There are two dipoles each of which with the bending angle of 180{degrees} instead of at most a few degrees which is common in high energy synchrotrons. The calculation of a three-dimensional field using TOSCA indicates that the fringe field extends to cover the whole region between the dipole and the quadrupole, having a vertical field strength of 250 gauss at the edge of the quadrupole. In this case, the fringe multiple field will undoubtedly play a nontrival role in determining basic machine parameters. Therefore, the classical treatment for simulating particle motion in synchrotron, which uses the isomagnetic approximation plus then lens kicks, no longer accurately models the closed orbit of the machine. In order to correctly calculate tunes, chromaticities as well as the dynamic aperture in such kind of machine with a large magnetic bending angle, it is necessary to integrate the exact equations of motion in a realistic representation of the magnetic field.

  20. Knowing how to look predicts the ability to draw realistically.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer E

    2014-11-01

    Some young children are able to create stunningly realistic drawings resembling those of adult artists. What perceptual abilities underlie this talent? This study examined two candidate skills on which adult artists excel: the ability to segment a complex form mentally (measured by the Block Design Task) and the ability to see hidden forms (measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test). Sixty-seven 6- to 13-year-olds with a wide range of drawing abilities completed these tasks as well as an IQ test and an observational drawing task. While children who scored high on drawing realism outperformed those who scored low in drawing realism on both perceptual tasks, only detection of embedded figures predicted drawing realism. This occurred independently of age, gender, years of training, and verbal and non-verbal IQ. There are certainly many contributors to this complex ability, but one component appears to be the tendency to see things more as they really are and thereby recognize the continuous contour of an object despite interference from other overlapping objects. PMID:24863053