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1

Logic models and content analyses for the explication of evaluation theories: the case of emergent realist evaluation.  

PubMed

We comment on a set of papers in this journal issue that have examined three evaluation theories by constructing a logic model for each and conducting a set of comparative content analyses. We consider the set of papers as an instance of research on evaluation. For instance, we question the extent to which linear logic models convey the contingent decision making emphasized by some evaluation theories. We also offer specific comments about the papers' treatment of one theory, so-called emergent realist evaluation. PMID:22459671

Mark, Melvin M; Henry, Gary T

2012-03-13

2

An emergent framework for realistic psychosocial behaviour in non player characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a framework for emergent psychosocial behaviour in non player characters in video games. This framework uses concepts behind emergent gameplay to support the mechanics of designer-defined psychological and social concepts, undefined circumstances, and emergence. Based on this framework, a prototype system has been developed. This prototype has been evaluated for realistic emergent behaviour, and has been shown

Christine Bailey; Michael Katchabaw

2008-01-01

3

Emergent properties from organisms to ecosystems: towards a realistic approach  

PubMed Central

More realistic approaches are needed to understand the complexity of ecological systems. Emergent properties of real systems can be used as a basis for a new, neither reductionist nor holistic, approach. Three systems, termed here BUBBLEs, WAVEs and CRYSTALs, have been identified as exhibiting emergent properties. They are non-hierarchical assemblages of individual components, with amplification and connectedness being two main principles that govern their build-up, maintenance and mutual relationships. Examples from various fields of biological and ecological science are referred to, ranging from individual organisms to landscapes.

Ponge, Jean-Francois

2005-01-01

4

Middletown 2010 -- A Realistic Interactive Emergency Simulation and Response System for the US Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to plan and calculate the effects of major emergencies, including terrorists' attacks, has become critical in the U.S. Army. To ensure optimal military readiness, there is an urgent need to realistically simulate these events. Development of a re...

H. Gundersen

2006-01-01

5

A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Realist evaluation offers an interesting approach to evaluation of interventions in complex settings, but has been little applied in health care. We report on a realist case study of a well performing hospital in Ghana and show how such a realist evaluation design can help to overcome the limited external validity of a traditional case study. Methods We developed a realist evaluation framework for hypothesis formulation, data collection, data analysis and synthesis of the findings. Focusing on the role of human resource management in hospital performance, we formulated our hypothesis around the high commitment management concept. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual and group interviews, observations and document reviews. Results We found that the human resource management approach (the actual intervention) included induction of new staff, training and personal development, good communication and information sharing, and decentralised decision-making. We identified 3 additional practices: ensuring optimal physical working conditions, access to top managers and managers' involvement on the work floor. Teamwork, recognition and trust emerged as key elements of the organisational climate. Interviewees reported high levels of organisational commitment. The analysis unearthed perceived organisational support and reciprocity as underlying mechanisms that link the management practices with commitment. Methodologically, we found that realist evaluation can be fruitfully used to develop detailed case studies that analyse how management interventions work and in which conditions. Analysing the links between intervention, mechanism and outcome increases the explaining power, while identification of essential context elements improves the usefulness of the findings for decision-makers in other settings (external validity). We also identified a number of practical difficulties and priorities for further methodological development. Conclusion This case suggests that a well-balanced HRM bundle can stimulate organisational commitment of health workers. Such practices can be implemented even with narrow decision spaces. Realist evaluation provides an appropriate approach to increase the usefulness of case studies to managers and policymakers.

2010-01-01

6

Considerations for realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for LWRs  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the various phenomena which govern the course of large and small break LOCAs in LWRs, and affect the key parameters such as Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and timing of the end of blowdown, beginning of reflood, PCT, and complete quench. A review of the best-estimate models and correlations for these phenomena in the current literature has been presented. Finally, a set of models have been recommended which may be incorporated in a present best-estimate code such as TRAC or RELAP5 in order to develop a realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for future LWRs and have also been compared with the requirements of current ECCS evaluation methodology as outlined in Appendix K of 10CFR50. 58 refs.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Chexal, V.K.

1985-01-01

7

A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Realist evaluation offers an interesting approach to evaluation of interventions in complex settings, but has been little applied in health care. We report on a realist case study of a well performing hospital in Ghana and show how such a realist evaluation design can help to overcome the limited external validity of a traditional case study. METHODS: We developed

Bruno Marchal; McDamien Dedzo; Guy Kegels

2010-01-01

8

Realist Activity Theory for Digital Library Evaluation: Conceptual Framework and Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical yet largely unexamined facet of digital library design anduse is how library content is assembled and vetted, which in turn hasprofound implications for ongoing digital library usefulness and usability.This article presents a social realist evaluation framework for anactivity theoretic case study of the Flora of North America digitallibrary. Social realist evaluation is a relatively new evaluationparadigm, positing that

Mark A. Spasser

2002-01-01

9

Evaluating emerging issues in epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry and government institutions need a credible approach for evaluating and responding to emerging public health issues. Representatives of industry, government, and academia met under the auspices of the International Life Sciences Institute’s Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) to develop successful strategies for dealing with emerging issues based on historical case studies. The case studies chosen for evaluation were

James J. Collins; John A. Bukowski; Douglas L. Weed; Robert L. Brent; Patti Klein; Mariette Boerstoel-Streefland; J. Michael Sprafka; Amy Lavin Williams; Michael P. Holsapple

2007-01-01

10

Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

Burgoyne, John G.

2010-01-01

11

Evaluating a realistic agent in an advice-giving task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate an embodied conversational agent called GRETA in an effort to answer two main questions: (1) What are the benefits (and costs) of presenting information via an animated agent, with certain characteristics, in a 'persuasion' task, compared to other forms of display? (2) How important is it that emotional expressions are added

Dianne C. Berry; Laurie T. Butler; Fiorella de Rosis

12

Basic requirements for realistic and unprejudiced evaluation of musical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, the laboratory of musical acoustics of the PTB had to develop methods of subjective and objective evaluations of all kinds of musical instruments for a competition which was launched by the German ministry of economics. For this work the following questions had to be answered: (1) What makes a musical instrument play well from physical and subjective viewpoints? (2) How does the musician play the instrument, and what does he think when playing? (3) What is the influence of room acoustical parameters on sound quality? (4) How strong is the influence of prejudices concerning the brand, color, and type? (5) How can we measure the main acoustical parameters objectively? (6) What is the correlation between objective and subjective results? This presentation will give answers to these questions based on 10 years of experience with such evaluations by the author.

Wogram, Klaus

2003-10-01

13

Evaluating a realistic agent in an advice-giving task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate an embodied,conversational,agent called GRETA in an effort to answer,two main,questions: (1) What are the benefits (and costs) of presenting information via an animated agent, with certain characteristics, in a ‘persuasion’ task, compared to other forms of display? (2) How important is it that emotional expressions are added in a way

Dianne C. Berry; Laurie T. Butler; Fiorella De Rosis

2005-01-01

14

A Realist Evaluation Approach to Unpacking the Impacts of the Sentencing Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluations of complex interventions such as sentencing guidelines provide an opportunity to understand the mechanisms by which policies and programs can impact intermediate and long-term outcomes. There is limited previous discussion of the underlying frameworks by which sentencing guidelines can impact outcomes such as crime rates. Guided by a realist evaluation framework, this article examines the impact of linkages of

Kim Steven Hunt; Sanjeev Sridharan

2010-01-01

15

A realist evaluation of the role of communities of practice in changing healthcare practice  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare organisations seeking to manage knowledge and improve organisational performance are increasingly investing in communities of practice (CoPs). Such investments are being made in the absence of empirical evidence demonstrating the impact of CoPs in improving the delivery of healthcare. A realist evaluation is proposed to address this knowledge gap. Underpinned by the principle that outcomes are determined by the context in which an intervention is implemented, a realist evaluation is well suited to understand the role of CoPs in improving healthcare practice. By applying a realist approach, this study will explore the following questions: What outcomes do CoPs achieve in healthcare? Do these outcomes translate into improved practice in healthcare? What are the contexts and mechanisms by which CoPs improve healthcare? Methods The realist evaluation will be conducted by developing, testing, and refining theories on how, why, and when CoPs improve healthcare practice. When collecting data, context will be defined as the setting in which the CoP operates; mechanisms will be the factors and resources that the community offers to influence a change in behaviour or action; and outcomes will be defined as a change in behaviour or work practice that occurs as a result of accessing resources provided by the CoP. Discussion Realist evaluation is being used increasingly to study social interventions where context plays an important role in determining outcomes. This study further enhances the value of realist evaluations by incorporating a social network analysis component to quantify the structural context associated with CoPs. By identifying key mechanisms and contexts that optimise the effectiveness of CoPs, this study will contribute to creating a framework that will guide future establishment and evaluation of CoPs in healthcare.

2011-01-01

16

A New Realistic Evaluation Analysis Method: Linked Coding of Context, Mechanism, and Outcome Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In attempting to use a realistic evaluation approach to explore the role of Community Parents in early parenting programs in Toronto, a novel technique was developed to analyze the links between contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) directly from experienced practitioner interviews. Rather than coding the interviews into themes in terms…

Jackson, Suzanne F.; Kolla, Gillian

2012-01-01

17

Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. METHODS\\/DESIGN: A two-phased study was designed

Flora CG Douglas; Denise A Gray; Edwin R van Teijlingen

2010-01-01

18

Realistic numerical simulations of solar convection: emerging flux, pores, and Stokes spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on magneto-convection simulations of magnetic flux emerging through the upper layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Simulations by Georgobiani, Stein and Nordlund start from minimally structured, uniform, untwisted horizontal field advected into the computational domain by supergranule scale inflows at 20 Mm depth. At the opposite extreme, simulations by Cheung (2007, 2008, 2011) start with a coherent flux tube inserted into or forced into the bottom of the computational domain. Several robust results have emerged from the comparison of results from these two very different initial states. First, rising magnetic flux gets deformed into undulating, serpentine shapes by the influence of the convective up- and down-flows. The flux develops fine structure and appears at the surface first as a "pepper and salt" pattern of mixed polarity. Where magnetic flux approaches the surface, granules become darker and elongated in the direction of the field. Subsequently, the underlying large scale magnetic structures make the field collect into unipolar regions. Magneto-convection produces a complex, small-scale magnetic field topology, whatever the initial state. A heirarchy of magnetic loops corresponding to the different scales of convective motions are produced. Vertical vortex tubes form at intergranule lane vertices which can lead to tornado-like magnetic fields in the photosphere. Gradients in field strength and velocity produce asymmetric Stokes spectra. Where emerging Omega loops leave behind nearly vertical legs, long lived pores can spontaneously form. The field in the pores first becomes concentrated and evacuated near the surface and the evacuated flux concentration then extends downward.

Georgobiani, D.; Stein, R.; Nordlund, A.

2012-12-01

19

A Realistic Computer-Simulated Brain Phantom for Evaluation of PET Charactenstics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate accurately the imaging characteristics of positron emission tomography (PET), a realistic computer-simulated brain phantom was developed. A cross-sectional slice from a human cadaver brain was chosen for its combination of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) regions. The slice was photographed and digitized into a gray-level image with a video digitizer, boundary edges were located around

D. Kirkman Mahoney; Sung-Cheng Huang; Anthony R. Ricci; John C. Mazziotta; Richard E. Carson; Edward J. Hoffman; Michael E. Phelps

1987-01-01

20

Transforming the patient care environment with Lean Six Sigma and realistic evaluation.  

PubMed

Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a structured methodology for transforming processes, but it does not fully consider the complex social interactions that cause processes to form in hospital organizations. By combining LSS implementations with the concept of Realistic Evaluation, a methodology that promotes change by assessing and considering the individual characteristics of an organization's social environment, successful and sustainable process improvement is more likely. PMID:19522345

Black, Jason

21

How does capacity building of health managers work? A realist evaluation study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve delivery of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. Methods and analysis The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use realist evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory—organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a realist evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and validate an improved theory on ‘what works for whom and under what conditions’. Discussion The scope for applying realist evaluation to study human resource management interventions in health are discussed.

Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2012-01-01

22

Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" provides a view of the possibilities and challenges facing online educators and evaluators in the 21st Century. As technology evolves and online measurement and assessment follow, "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" uses established evaluation…

Williams, David, Ed.; Hricko, Mary, Ed.; Howell, Scott, Ed.

2006-01-01

23

Evolution of the SCORE framework to enhance field-based performance evaluations of emerging technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIST has developed the System, Component, and Operationally-Relevant Evaluations (SCORE) framework as a formal guide for designing evaluations of emerging technologies. SCORE captures both technical performance and end-user utility assessments of systems and their components within controlled and realistic environments. Its purpose is to present an extensive (but not necessarily exhaustive) picture of how a system would behave in a

Brian A. Weiss; Craig Schlenoff

2008-01-01

24

Mechanisms for achieving adolescent-friendly services in Ecuador: a realist evaluation approach  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence showing that adolescent-friendly health services (AFSs) increase young people's access to these services, health systems across the world are failing to integrate this approach. In Latin America, policies aimed at strengthening AFS abound. However, such services are offered only in a limited number of sites, and providers’ attitudes and respect for confidentiality have not been addressed to a sufficient extent. Methods The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms that triggered the transformation of an ‘ordinary’ health care facility into an AFS in Ecuador. For this purpose, a realist evaluation approach was used in order to analyse three well-functioning AFSs. Information was gathered at the national level and from each of the settings including: (i) statistical information and unpublished reports; (ii) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with policy makers, health care providers, users and adolescents participating in youth organisations and (iii) observations at the health care facilities. Thematic analysis was carried out, driven by the realist evaluation approach, namely exploring the connections between mechanisms, contexts and outcomes. Results The results highlighted that the development of the AFSs was mediated by four mechanisms: grounded self-confidence in trying new things, legitimacy, a transformative process and an integral approach to adolescents. Along this process, contextual factors at the national and institutional levels were further explored. Conclusion The Ministry of Health of Ecuador, based on the New Guidelines for Comprehensive Care of Adolescent Health, has started the scaling up of AFSs. Our research points towards the need to recognise and incorporate these mechanisms as part of the implementation strategy from the very beginning of the process. Although contextually limited to Ecuador, many mechanisms and good practices in these AFS may be relevant to the Latin American setting and elsewhere.

Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

2012-01-01

25

Evaluation of Emergency Medical Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contract extension was to continue to generate data from Maine's EMS management system for the purpose of evaluating EMS effectiveness. This study suggests support for the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in patient outcome between ...

N. L. Forbrich S. W. Johnson

1982-01-01

26

Toxicological evaluation of realistic emission source aerosols (TERESA): introduction and overview.  

PubMed

Determining the health impacts of sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is an important scientific goal. PM(2.5) is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents that are likely to differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study focused on two PM sources--coal-fired power plants and mobile sources--and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to emissions from these sources. The set of papers published here document the power plant experiments. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. TERESA involved withdrawal of emissions from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the United States. The emissions were aged and atmospherically transformed in a mobile laboratory simulating downwind power plant plume processing. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in laboratory rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. The approach employed in TERESA was ambitious and innovative. Technical challenges included the development of stack sampling technology that prevented condensation of water vapor from the power plant exhaust during sampling and transfer, while minimizing losses of primary particles; development and optimization of a photochemical chamber to provide an aged aerosol for animal exposures; development and evaluation of a denuder system to remove excess gaseous components; and development of a mobile toxicology laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, design, and methods employed in the study. PMID:21639692

Godleski, John J; Rohr, Annette C; Kang, Choong M; Diaz, Edgar A; Ruiz, Pablo A; Koutrakis, Petros

2011-06-03

27

Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA): Introduction and overview  

PubMed Central

Determining the health impacts of sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents that are likely to differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study focused on two PM sources—coal-fired power plants and mobile sources—and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to emissions from these sources. The set of papers published here document the power plant experiments. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. TERESA involved withdrawal of emissions from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the United States. The emissions were aged and atmospherically transformed in a mobile laboratory simulating downwind power plant plume processing. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in laboratory rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. The approach employed in TERESA was ambitious and innovative. Technical challenges included the development of stack sampling technology that prevented condensation of water vapor from the power plant exhaust during sampling and transfer, while minimizing losses of primary particles; development and optimization of a photochemical chamber to provide an aged aerosol for animal exposures; development and evaluation of a denuder system to remove excess gaseous components; and development of a mobile toxicology laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, design, and methods employed in the study.

Godleski, John J.; Rohr, Annette C.; Kang, Choong M.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

28

Evaluation of the no-disparity realistic image from a sense of presence and low fatigue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated an observer's fatigue and a sense of presence, in observing the no-disparity realistic image (NDR image) [1-3]. NDR image is consisted of two images (right and left image). Right image is created by shifting all pixels in left image same amount. Consequently, there are no disparities in all area of NDR image. NDR image which is reconfigured the contents that contain image with large disparity might have a possibility that it suppress an observer's fatigue and let him feel high presence. Subjects observed three condition's videos (stereoscopic, NDR and 2D). Subjects observed two videos in each condition. Each video was 30 minutes. There were scenes with large disparity (more than 5 degrees) in videos. Subjects responded SSQ (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire), VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) for fatigue and questionnaire on realism and were measured CFF (Critical Frequency Fusion), accommodation tremor, stereoscopic vision test, ocular position measurement and eye sight test. Results showed that NDR image let observer feel high presence and an observer's fatigue was low. NDR image is effective, even if contents which contain large disparity are converted into NDR image.

Nate, H.; Natsui, N.; Hayashi, N.; Ishikawa, K.; Hatada, T.; Ichihara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Ushio, Y.

2013-03-01

29

Evaluation of automated emergency response systems  

SciTech Connect

Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

Addis, R.P.

1988-12-31

30

Imaging hemorrhagic stroke with magnetic induction tomography: realistic simulation and evaluation.  

PubMed

Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a noncontact method for detecting the internal conductivity distribution of an object. This technology has the potential to be used in the biomedical area to check bio-impedance change inside the human body, for example to detect hemorrhage in the human brain. In this study the hemorrhagic stroke detectability with a 16-channel MIT system operating at 10 MHz was evaluated. Since the conductivity distribution is changed by the hemorrhagic stroke as well as the squeezed brain tissue around the stroke, deformation of the brain tissue is also considered and simulated with the help of a FEM-based linear bio-mechanical model in this paper. To simulate the raw measurement data as realistically as possible, the noise estimated from the experimental MIT system with hypothesis testing methods at 95% confidence level is added to the simulated measurements. Stroke images of 600 noisy samples for each detection assignment are reconstructed by the one-step Tikhonov-regularized inverse eddy current solution. Under the statistical framework, the detection failure is in control of a high false negative rate which represents a large artifact visualized in the reconstruction domain. The qualitative detectability of 18 detecting assignments, with three hemorrhagic positions (shallow, medial and center of the cerebrum) and two volume values (10 ml and 20 ml), overlaid by noise with three levels (standard deviation of phase change at 5 x 10(-3) degrees , 2.5 x 10(-3) degrees , 10 x 10(-3) degrees ), are investigated. These detecting assignments are compared with each other to find out which volumes of deformed spherical hemorrhagic stroke can be detected by the modeled MIT system. PMID:20453292

Chen, Yinan; Yan, Ming; Chen, Dayu; Hamsch, Matthias; Liu, Hui; Jin, Hua; Vauhkonen, Marko; Igney, Claudia H; Kahlert, Joachim; Wang, Yuanyuan

2010-05-07

31

Implementing accountability for reasonableness framework at district level in Tanzania: a realist evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the growing importance of the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework in priority setting worldwide, there is still an inadequate understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying its influence on legitimacy and fairness, as conceived and reflected in service management processes and outcomes. As a result, the ability to draw scientifically sound lessons for the application of the framework to services and interventions is limited. This paper evaluates the experiences of implementing the A4R approach in Mbarali District, Tanzania, in order to find out how the innovation was shaped, enabled, and constrained by the interaction between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Methods This study draws on the principles of realist evaluation -- a largely qualitative approach, chiefly concerned with testing and refining programme theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual interviews, non-participant observation, and document reviews. A thematic framework approach was adopted for the data analysis. Results The study found that while the A4R approach to priority setting was helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability, stakeholder engagement, and fairness, the efforts at integrating it into the current district health system were challenging. Participatory structures under the decentralisation framework, central government's call for partnership in district-level planning and priority setting, perceived needs of stakeholders, as well as active engagement between researchers and decision makers all facilitated the adoption and implementation of the innovation. In contrast, however, limited local autonomy, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, inadequate accountability mechanisms, and limited local resources were the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation. Conclusion This study documents an important first step in the effort to introduce the ethical framework A4R into district planning processes. This study supports the idea that a greater involvement and accountability among local actors through the A4R process may increase the legitimacy and fairness of priority-setting decisions. Support from researchers in providing a broader and more detailed analysis of health system elements, and the socio-cultural context, could lead to better prediction of the effects of the innovation and pinpoint stakeholders' concerns, thereby illuminating areas that require special attention to promote sustainability.

2011-01-01

32

Evaluating protective actions for chemical agent emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of completing a Congressionally mandated destruction of the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons, the US Army decided that enhanced emergency planning was needed to reduce the consequences of an accidental release of agent. This research supports that efforts by developing a method of evaluation for the principle protective action alternatives-evacuation, in-place shelter, and respiratory protection. A

G. O. Rogers; A. P. Watson; J. H. Sorensen; R. D. Sharp; S. A. Carnes

1990-01-01

33

Reactive routing evaluation using modified 802.11a with realistic vehicular mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic mobility dynamics and underlying PHY\\/MAC layer implementation affect real deployment of routing protocols in vehicular\\u000a ad hoc network (VANET). Currently, dedicated short range communication devices are using wireless access in vehicular environment\\u000a (WAVE) mode of operation, but now IEEE is standardizing 802.11p WAVE. This work presents an in-depth simulation-based analysis\\u000a of two reactive routing protocols, i.e., dynamic source routing

Muhammad Azhar Iqbal; Furong Wang; Xie Xu; Sarah M. Eljack; Ahmad H. Mohammad

34

Realistic Solar Convection Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on realistic simulations of solar surface convection that are essentially parameter-free, but include detailed physics in the equation of state and radiative energy exchange. The simulation results are compared quantitatively with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, the profiles of weak photospheric lines, the p-mode frequencies, the asymmetrical shape of the

Robert F. Stein; Åke Nordlund

2000-01-01

35

Realistic Expectations: Constructing a Mission-Based Evaluation Model for Community Corrections Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correctional practitioners have long argued that evaluators focus too heavily on recidivism measures and thus understate the value of their programs. The author asserts that the impact of community corrections programs can be more comprehensively evaluated when evaluation plans include measures that assess whether program goals, objectives, and overall mission were met. Therefore, the intent of this article is to

Crystal A. Garcia

2004-01-01

36

Boylan and O'Gorman's causal holism: a critical realist evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boylan and O'Gorman have recently elaborated an interesting new perspective called causal holism, which attempts to go beyond developments in rhetoric and realism. The aim of this paper is to evaluate causal holism from the perspective of critical realism. Emphasis is placed primarily on three areas of disagreement: differential approaches to unobservable entities, description and explanation, although areas of agreement

Steve Fleetwood

2002-01-01

37

Improving the evidence base for practice: a realistic method for appraising evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To present and discuss a method for the appraisal of evaluations which can be used by the informed practitioner and will facilitate the incorporation of research evidence into every day nursing, midwifery, and health visiting practice.Background: The development of current systems for the appraisal of published studies is described, showing that they still reflect their origin in experimental methodology,

Patricia Lyne; Davina Allen; Christopher Martinsen; Philip Satherley

2002-01-01

38

Creating realistic, scenario-based synthetic data for test and evaluation of information analytics software  

SciTech Connect

The Threat Stream Generator (TSG) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing synthetic datasets to test and evaluate visual analytics tools for the past four years. Our activities have ranged from supporting the evaluation of major U.S. Government analytical frameworks to creating four datasets for the IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) contest over the past two years. We have developed a reasonable method and supporting toolset for creating believable synthetic data sets for different uses. A key differentiator for our datasets is that they contain data concerning one or more invented threats, based on a scenario. Embedding a known threat into the data provides ground truth for analytic tools to work against in evaluating their performance, as well as new opportunities for evaluation researchers to explore techniques given ground truth exists. We describe the process of creating the scenarios and threats and the process of transforming them into data elements, and then we describe how this data is embedded in other data to form a TSG dataset.

Whiting, Mark A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Varley, Caroline F.

2008-04-10

39

Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography.

Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece); Department of Radiology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece)

2010-11-15

40

Emergency evaluation and treatment of priapism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priapism is a fairly uncommon presentation to the Emergency Department, but when it does present, it represents a true urologic emergency. Prompt treatment will decrease the risk of permanent sequelae including impotence. Treatment should be based on etiology and follow an organized approach. Various cases will arise when conservative management will not remedy the priapism and more aggressive measures will

Gary M Vilke; Richard A Harrigan; Jacob W Ufberg; Theodore C Chan

2004-01-01

41

Monte Carlo evaluation of water equivalency of some plastic materials for realistic electron IORT beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water equivalency of some commercially available water substitute materials for high energy electron beams dosimetry (PMMA, polystyrene and solid water WT1) has been investigated in this work for electron beams generated by the IORT linear accelerator NOVAC 7. The beams were simulated by the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, while the dose distributions in water and plastic phantoms were calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The stopping power ratios were evaluated using SPRRZnrc user code. The results obtained for the depth-and fluence-scaling factors have been compared with the values recommended by the TRS-398 IAEA code of practice for absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. Due to the significant differences observed (sometimes more than 1%) and to the dependence of the scaling factors on the beam quality we can conclude that every time when plastic phantoms are used in electron IORT dosimetry, a theoretical or experimental investigation of the water equivalency of the water substitute materials must be done.

Oprea, M.; Mihailescu, D.; Borcia, C.

2012-12-01

42

Evaluating the influence of the 'unity assumption' on the temporal perception of realistic audiovisual stimuli.  

PubMed

Vatakis, A. and Spence, C. (in press) [Crossmodal binding: Evaluating the 'unity assumption' using audiovisual speech stimuli. Perception &Psychophysics] recently demonstrated that when two briefly presented speech signals (one auditory and the other visual) refer to the same audiovisual speech event, people find it harder to judge their temporal order than when they refer to different speech events. Vatakis and Spence argued that the 'unity assumption' facilitated crossmodal binding on the former (matching) trials by means of a process of temporal ventriloquism. In the present study, we investigated whether the 'unity assumption' would also affect the binding of non-speech stimuli (video clips of object action or musical notes). The auditory and visual stimuli were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which modality stream had been presented first. The auditory and visual musical and object action stimuli were either matched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the corresponding sound) or else mismatched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the sound of a guitar string being plucked). However, in contrast to the results of Vatakis and Spence's recent speech study, no significant difference in the accuracy of temporal discrimination performance for the matched versus mismatched video clips was observed. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:17258164

Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

2007-01-26

43

Monte Carlo simulation of realistic beam-sample interaction in SEM: application to evaluation of sharpness measurement methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulated SEM images for realistic instrumental conditions are used to evaluate measurement methods for SEM image sharpness. The Monte Carlo simulation of the SEM image is based on a well-developed physical model of electron-solid interaction, which employs Mott's cross section for elastic electron scattering and dielectric functional approach to electron inelastic scattering with cascade secondary electron production included, a finite element mesh modeling of complex sample topography and a modeling of SEM instrumental conditions (i.e. focus, astigmatism, drift and vibration). A series of simulated SEM images of a realistic sample, gold particles on a carbon substrate, for different instrumental parameters are generated to represent practical images where all instrumental conditions are precisely known and controlled. An estimation of three measurement methods of SEM image sharpness, i.e. FT, CG and DR methods, has then been performed with these simulated images. The responses of image sharpness measurement methods to various instrumental conditions are studied. The calculation shows that all the three methods present similar and reasonable response to focus parameter; their dependences of the measured sharpness on astigmatism coefficient are complicated and CG method presents reasonable sharpness value. For drift and vibration, the situation is more complex because CG/DR methods can be less or more sensitive to vibration coefficient than FT method. Because of the different response behaviors of the three sharpness measurement methods to experimental parameters, we propose to use a mean, simple average or weighted average, of three sharpness values as a proper measure of sharpness.

Ruan, Z.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, P.; Li, H. M.; Ding, Z. J.

2013-05-01

44

Notes on the Implementation of Non-Parametric Statistics within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA Evaluation Model (ASTRUM)  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, non-parametric or order statistics methods have been widely used to assess the impact of the uncertainties within Best-Estimate LOCA evaluation models. The bounding of the uncertainties is achieved with a direct Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertainty attributes, with the minimum trial number selected to 'stabilize' the estimation of the critical output values (peak cladding temperature (PCT), local maximum oxidation (LMO), and core-wide oxidation (CWO A non-parametric order statistics uncertainty analysis was recently implemented within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA evaluation model, also referred to as 'Automated Statistical Treatment of Uncertainty Method' (ASTRUM). The implementation or interpretation of order statistics in safety analysis is not fully consistent within the industry. This has led to an extensive public debate among regulators and researchers which can be found in the open literature. The USNRC-approved Westinghouse method follows a rigorous implementation of the order statistics theory, which leads to the execution of 124 simulations within a Large Break LOCA analysis. This is a solid approach which guarantees that a bounding value (at 95% probability) of the 95{sup th} percentile for each of the three 10 CFR 50.46 ECCS design acceptance criteria (PCT, LMO and CWO) is obtained. The objective of this paper is to provide additional insights on the ASTRUM statistical approach, with a more in-depth analysis of pros and cons of the order statistics and of the Westinghouse approach in the implementation of this statistical methodology. (authors)

Frepoli, Cesare; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA-15230-0350 (United States)

2006-07-01

45

Evaluation of two mobile telemedicine systems in the emergency room.  

PubMed

Two different prototype mobile telemedicine systems were constructed for use in the emergency room. They could transmit physiological signals as well as video pictures and sound. One device, the mobile emergency bed (MEB), was powered by battery and had a wireless connection to the local-area network (LAN). For the other, the mobile emergency server (MES), a patient monitor, video-camera and microphone were connected by a radio-frequency link to a server. A functional evaluation and a clinical evaluation (by 12 emergency doctors in six emergency centres) were performed on both prototypes. The bandwidth and the video quality of the MEB were better than those of the MES, because of the digital transmission of the wireless LAN. The MES was better for directing patient treatment and teleconsultation; the MEB was better for static patients in the emergency centre. In general, the MES was more suitable for practical emergency telemedicine work. PMID:14728772

Yoo, Sun K; Park, In-Cheol; Kim, Seung-Ho; Jo, Jin-Ho; Chun, Hye Jung; Jung, Suck-Myung; Kim, Dong-Keun

2003-01-01

46

Rapid Generation of Realistic Mobility Models for VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

One emerging, new type of ad-hoc network is the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), in which vehicles constitute the mobile nodes in the network. Due to the prohibitive cost of deploying and implementing such a system in real world, most research in VANET relies on simulations for evaluation. A key component for VANET simulations is a realistic vehicular mobility model that

Feliz Kristianto Karnadi; Zhi Hai Mo; Kun-chan Lan

2007-01-01

47

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

2011-03-31

48

Complete harmonic-domain modeling and performance evaluation of an optimal-PWM-modulated STATCOM in a realistic distribution network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power systems use STATCOM for compensating purposes that is subjected to the high switching frequencies. Various PWM techniques make selective harmonic elimination possible, which effectively control the harmonic content of voltage source inverters. On the other hand, distribution systems have to supply unbalanced nonlinear loads, transferring oscillations to the DC-side of the converter in a realistic operating condition. Thus, additional

H. Valizadeh Haghi; M. Tavakoli Bina

2008-01-01

49

Evaluating the Future of HCI: Challenges for the Evaluation of Emerging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evaluation methods are inappropriate for emerging HCI applications. In this paper, we give three examples of these applications and show that traditional evaluation methods fail. We identify trends in HCI development and discuss the issues that arise with evaluation. We aim at achieving in- creased awareness that evaluation too has to evolve in order to support the emerging trends

Ronald Poppe; Rutger Rienks; Betsy Van Dijk; T. S. Huang; A. Nijholt; M. Pantic; A. Pentland

2007-01-01

50

An Emerging Model for Student Feedback: Electronic Distributed Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we address several issues and challenges that the evaluation of writing presents individual instructors and composition programs as a whole. We present electronic distributed evaluation, or EDE, as an emerging model for feedback on student writing and describe how it was integrated into our program's course redesign. Because the…

Brunk-Chavez, Beth; Arrigucci, Annette

2012-01-01

51

Realistic Solar Convection Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on realistic simulations of solar surface convection that are essentially parameter-free, but include detailed physics in the equation of state and radiative energy exchange. The simulation results are compared quantitatively with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, the profiles of weak photospheric lines, the p-mode frequencies, the asymmetrical shape of the mode velocity and intensity spectra, the p-mode excitation rate, and the depth of the convection zone. We describe how solar convection is non-local. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative cooling produces low entropy gas which forms the cores of the downdrafts in which most of the buoyancy work occurs. Turbulence and vorticity are mostly confined to the intergranular lanes and underlying downdrafts. Finally, we present some preliminary results on magneto-convection.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Åke

2000-03-01

52

Realistic Solar Convection Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed essentially parameter free simulations with realistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize the physics that is included and compare the simulation results with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the depth of the convection zone, the p-mode frequencies, the p-mode excitation rate, the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, and the profiles of weak photospheric lines. We describe how solar convection is non-local. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative cooling produces low entropy gas which forms the cores of the downdrafts in which most of the buoyancy work occurs. We show that turbulence and vorticity are mostly confined to the intergranular lanes and underlying downdrafts. Finally, we illustrate our current work on magneto-convection.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Aake

53

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Significant progress was made on the Project during this reporting period, with field work being initiated at Plant 0. Initial testing of the stack sampling system and reaction apparatus revealed that primary particle concentrations were lower than expected in the emissions entering the mobile chemical laboratory. Initial animal exposures to primary emissions were carried out (Scenario 1) to ensure successful implementation of all study methodologies and toxicological assessments. Results indicated no significant toxicological effects in response to primary emissions exposures. Exposures were then carried out to diluted, oxidized, neutralized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (Scenario 5), both during the day and also at night when primary particle concentrations in the sampled stack emissions tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

Annette Rohr

2004-12-02

54

Postpositivist Realist Theory: Identity and Representation Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In postpositivist realist theory, people like Paula Moya (2000) and Satya Mohanty (2000) make a space that at once reflects and informs my location as a Third-World woman of color and a Black-immigrant educator in the United States. In postpositivist realist theory, understanding emerges from one's past and present experiences and interactions as…

Gilpin, Lorraine S.

2006-01-01

55

Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Modifications to the original study design, which will improve the atmospheric aging component of the project and ensure that emissions are as realistic as possible, have resulted in project delays, and, at the time of report preparation, fieldwork at the Upper Midwest plant had not begun. However, such activities are imminent. This report therefore does not present data for activities covered by the Agreement, but does present results for the laboratory methods development work. This work is critical for the future success of the project. In particular, the atmospheric reaction simulation system is of paramount importance to the TERESA study design, since the basis for the toxicity assessment lies in the generation of realistic exposure atmospheres. The formation, composition, and toxicity of particles will be related to different atmospheric conditions and plume dilution scenarios through variations in reaction conditions. Because of the critical role played by this component in ensuring the overall success of the project, more time was required to develop and optimize the system, and the one-chamber simulation system outlined in the original Scope of Work for the Agreement was modified to comprise a more realistic dual chamber system. We are confident that the additional time required to optimize these methodologies will result in a significant improvement in the study. We fully expect that results for tasks covered under the Agreement, and a complete discussion of their relevance and value, will be included in the next semiannual progress report.

Annette Rohr

2004-02-29

56

Evaluating emergency care research networks: what are the right metrics?  

PubMed

Research networks can enable the inclusion of large, diverse patient populations in different settings. However, the optimal measures of a research network's failure or success are not well defined or standardized. To define a framework for metrics used to measure the performance and effectiveness of emergency care research networks (ECRN), a conference for emergency care investigators, funding agencies, patient advocacy groups, and other stakeholders was held and yielded the following major recommendations: 1) ECRN metrics should be measurable, explicitly defined, and customizable for the multiple stakeholders involved and 2) continuing to develop and institute metrics to evaluate ECRNs will be critical for their accountability and sustainability. PMID:19732037

Baren, Jill M; Middleton, Melissa K; Kaji, Amy H; O'Connor, Robert E; O'Conner, Robert E; Lindsell, Christopher; Weik, Tasmeen Singh; Lewis, Roger J

2009-09-03

57

Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER.  

PubMed

In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed. PMID:21034052

Aumeunier, M-H; Travere, J-M

2010-10-01

58

Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.

Aumeunier, M.-H.; Travere, J.-M. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Les-Durance F-13108 (France)

2010-10-15

59

Statistical Evaluation of Feasibility of Emergency Micro-Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the target capacity of PV systems toward 2030 is realized, most of newly constructed houses may have a PV system. In such the situation, PV systems can contribute to electricity supply in the emergency situation as well as ordinary situation. This paper focuses on an emergency microgrid consisting of residential PV systems and battery system for the electricity supply to a load center during urban disaster or massive blackout. Considering a typical urban residential area of 500m×500m and a typical irradiation pattern, we calculated the available electricity from PV systems and the required capacity of battery for compensating for the shortage of electricity from PV systems. If the weather condition is fine, the total electricity supply from PV systems would be much larger than the restricted electricity demand during urban disaster, resulting in the battery recharged with the surplus electricity from PV systems. Therefore, if we install the battery system capable for electricity supply during one night, the emergency microgrid can meet the electricity demand during the most combinations of continuous three days in a year. Then, assuming that the emergency microgrid is formed in each 500m×500m area or 1km×1km area, we statistically evaluated the feasibility of emergency microgrid in Aichi prefecture. The result shows that if we can install the battery with the total capacity of 1500 MWh, the emergency microgrid can be applied in many residential areas for some million people those who may have black-out after the strong earthquake which may happen in Tokai area.

Kondo, Yusuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo; Funabashi, Toshihisa

60

Anti-Realist Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I argue that the implementation of theDummettian program of an ``anti-realist'' semanticsrequires quite different conceptions of the technicalmeaning-theoretic terms used than those presupposed byDummett. Starting from obvious incoherences in anattempt to conceive truth conditions as assertibilityconditions, I argue that for anti-realist purposesnon-epistemic semantic notions are more usefully kept apart from epistemic ones rather than beingreduced to them. Embedding an anti-realist

Wolfram Hinzen

2000-01-01

61

Information technology model for evaluating emergency medicine teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes work in progress to develop an Information Technology (IT) model and supporting information system for the evaluation of clinical teaching in the Emergency Medicine (EM) Department of North Shore University Hospital. In the academic hospital setting student physicians, i.e. residents, and faculty function daily in their dual roles as teachers and students respectively, and as health care providers. Databases exist that are used to evaluate both groups in either academic or clinical performance, but rarely has this information been integrated to analyze the relationship between academic performance and the ability to care for patients. The goal of the IT model is to improve the quality of teaching of EM physicians by enabling the development of integrable metrics for faculty and resident evaluation. The IT model will include (1) methods for tracking residents in order to develop experimental databases; (2) methods to integrate lecture evaluation, clinical performance, resident evaluation, and quality assurance databases; and (3) a patient flow system to monitor patient rooms and the waiting area in the Emergency Medicine Department, to record and display status of medical orders, and to collect data for analyses.

Vorbach, James; Ryan, James

1996-02-01

62

Emergencies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Go to: -. Information for Consumers and Industry. Floods, Hurricanes & Power Outages; Radiation Safety; Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. -. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/emergencies

63

Evaluation and management of oral lesions in the emergency department.  

PubMed

This article reviews the emergency diagnosis and treatment of oral lesions. It presents a framework for developing a differential diagnosis based on the color of the lesions, describes emergency department interventions, and identifies pitfalls for the emergency physician. PMID:23601482

Gibson, Alisa M; Sommerkamp, Sarah K

2013-03-15

64

Evaluation of chest pain in the emergency department.  

PubMed

The evaluation of chest pain in the emergency setting should be systematic, risk based, and goal driven. An effective program must be able to evaluate all patients with equal thoroughness under the assumption that any patient with chest pain could potentially be having an MI. The initial evaluation is based on the history, a focused physical examination, and the ECG. This information is sufficient to categorize patients into groups at high, moderate, and low risk. Table 14 is a template for a comprehensive chest-pain evaluation program. Patients at high risk need rapid initiation of appropriate therapy: thrombolytics or primary angioplasty for the patients with MIs or aspirin/heparin for the patients with unstable angina. Patients at moderate risk need to have an acute coronary syndrome ruled in or out expediently and additional comorbidities addressed before discharge. Patients at low risk also need to be evaluated, and once the likelihood of an unstable acute coronary syndrome is eliminated, they can be discharged with further evaluation performed as outpatients. Subsequent evaluation should attempt to assign a definitive diagnosis while also addressing issues specific to risk reduction, such as cholesterol lowering and smoking cessation. It is well documented that 4% to 5% of patients with MIs are inadvertently missed during the initial evaluation. This number is surprisingly consistent among many studies using various protocols and suggests that an initial evaluation limited to the history, physical examination, and ECG will fail to identify the small number of these patients who otherwise appear at low risk. The solution is to improve the sensitivity of the evaluation process to identify these patients. It appears that more than simple observation is required, and at the present time, no simple laboratory test can meet this need. However, success has been reported with a number of strategies including emergency imaging with either radionuclides such as sestamibi or echocardiography. Early provocative testing, either stress or pharmaceutic, may also be effective. The added value of these tests is only in their use as part of a systematic protocol for the evaluation of all patients with acute chest pain. The initial evaluation of the patient with chest pain should always consider cardiac ischemia as the cause, even in those with more atypical symptoms in whom a cardiac origin is considered less likely. The explicit goals for the evaluation of acute chest pain should be to reduce the time to treat MIs and to reduce the inadvertent discharge of patients with occult acute coronary syndromes. All physicians should become familiar with appropriate risk stratification of patients with acute chest pain. Systematic strategies must be in place to assure rapid and consistent identification of all patients and the expedient initiation of treatment for those patients with acute coronary syndromes. These strategies should include additional methods of identifying acute coronary syndromes in patients initially appearing as at moderate or low risk to assure that no unstable patients are discharged. All patients should be followed up closely until the cardiovascular evaluation is completed and, when possible, a definitive diagnosis is determined. Finally, this must be done efficiently, cost-effectively, and in a manner that will result in an overall improvement in patient care. PMID:9107535

Jesse, R L; Kontos, M C

1997-04-01

65

A GIS-based protocol for the simulation and evaluation of realistic 3-D thinning scenarios in recreational forest management.  

PubMed

This study introduces a GIS-based protocol for the simulation and evaluation of thinning treatments in recreational forest management. The protocol was implemented in a research study based on an area of recreational forest in Alishan National Scenic Area, Taiwan. Ground survey data were mapped to a GIS database, to create a precise, yet flexible, GIS-based digital forest. The digital forest model was used to generate 18 different thinning scenario images and one image of the existing unthinned forest. A questionnaire was completed by 456 participants while simultaneously viewing the scenario images. The questionnaire was used to determine the scenic beauty preferences of the respondents. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the respondents preferred low density, upper-storey thinning treatments and a dispersed retention pattern of the remaining trees. High density upper-storey treatments evoked a strongly negative reaction in the observers. The experiment demonstrated that the proposed protocol is suitable for selecting an appropriate thinning strategy for recreational forest and that the protocol has practical value in recreational forest management. PMID:23062273

Lin, Chinsu; Thomson, Gavin; Hung, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Dung

2012-10-11

66

Before the Emergency: A Framework for Evaluating Emergency Preparedness Alternatives at Higher Education Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research gathered information about the ways in which 10 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the U.S. are currently making decisions about which emergency preparedness activities to pursue and how those most familiar with emergency management at ...

L. L. Wilson

2010-01-01

67

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2004 through February 28, 2005. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, all fieldwork at Plant 0 was completed. Stack sampling was conducted in October to determine if there were significant differences between the in-stack PM concentrations and the diluted concentrations used for the animal exposures. Results indicated no significant differences and therefore confidence that the revised stack sampling methodology described in the previous semiannual report is appropriate for use in the Project. Animal exposures to three atmospheric scenarios were carried out. From October 4-7, we conducted exposures to oxidized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Later in October, exposures to the most complex scenario (oxidized, neutralized emissions plus SOA) were repeated to ensure comparability with the results of the June/July exposures where a different stack sampling setup was employed. In November, exposures to oxidized emissions were performed. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biological endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. No significant differences between exposed animals and sham animals (exposed to filtered air) were observed for any of the endpoints; histopathological results are pending and will be reported in the next semiannual report. The scenarios evaluated during this reporting period were slightly modified from those originally proposed. We substituted a new scenario, secondary aerosol + SOA, to investigate the effects of a strongly acidic aerosol with a biogenic component. Since we did not observe any biological response to this scenario, the neutralized secondary aerosol scenario (i.e., oxidized emissions + ammonia) was deemed unnecessary. Moreover, in light of the lack of response observed in the Stage I assessment, it was decided that a Stage II assessment (evaluation of cardiac function in a compromised rat model) was unlikely to provide useful information. However, this model will be employed at Plant 1 and/or 2. During this reporting period, significant progress was made in planning for fieldwork at Plant 1. Stack sampling was carried out at the plant in mid-December to determine the concentration of primary particles. It was found that PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations were approximately three times higher than those observed at Plant 0. In mid-February, installation and setup for the mobile laboratories began. Animal exposures are scheduled to begin at this plant on March 21, 2005. During the next reporting period, we will initiate fieldwork at Plant 1. At either or both Plants 1 and 2, a detailed Stage II assessment will be performed, even if no significant findings are observed in Stage I. The next semiannual report is expected to include a detailed description of the fieldwork at Plant 1, including toxicological findings and interpretation.

Annette Rohr

2005-03-31

68

Emergencies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Go to: -. Information for Consumers and Industry. Floods, Hurricanes & Power Outages; Radiation Safety; Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. -. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/emergencies

69

Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the fundamentals of this emerging technology, applciations for emergency response and specific results of the technology evaluation conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory.

Kevin L Young; Alan M Snyder

2007-11-01

70

Blood Cultures in the Emergency Department Evaluation of Childhood Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Blood cultures are frequently obtained in the emergency department (ED) evaluation of children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objectives To determine the prevalence of bacteremia in children presenting to the ED with CAP, identify subgroups at increased risk for bacteremia, and quantify the impact of positive blood cultures on management. Methods This case-control study was nested within a cohort of children followed at 35 pediatric practices. Patients from this cohort who were ?18 years of age, evaluated in the ED in 2006–2007, and diagnosed with CAP were eligible. Cases were those with bacteremia. Controls included those with negative blood cultures and those without blood cultures performed. Results 877 (9.6%) of 9,099 children with CAP were evaluated in the ED. The mean age was 3.6 years; 53% were male. Blood cultures were obtained in 291 children (33.2%). Overall, the prevalence of bacteremia was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8%–4.4%). Bacteremia occurred in 2.6% (95% CI: 1.0%–5.6%) with an infiltrate on chest radiograph and in 13.0% (95% CI: 2.8%–33.6%) with complicated pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 4 of the 6 cases of bacteremia. Blood culture results altered management in 5 of the 6 bacteremic patients; 1 had an appropriate broadening and 4 had an appropriate narrowing of coverage. The contamination rate was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2%–3.0%). Conclusion Children presenting to the ED for evaluation of CAP are at low risk for bacteremia. Although positive blood cultures frequently altered clinical management, the overall impact was small given the low prevalence of bacteremia.

Shah, Samir S.; Dugan, Maria H.; Bell, Louis M.; Grundmeier, Robert W.; Florin, Todd A.; Hines, Elizabeth M.; Metlay, Joshua P.

2010-01-01

71

Realists, Radicals, and Rainbows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every person in the physical education disciplines must become an advocate for social justice. This entails realistic self-examination, awareness of unearned privilege, and an open-hearted willingness to grasp the myriad cultural influences upon human communication, construction of knowledge, identity, and valuing. Rejection of a system in which a few can impose their wills upon all others, knowingly or not, is

Roberta S. Bennett

1995-01-01

72

Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current generations of GPUs lack a sufficient balance of computational resources to replace the general-purpose microprocessor found in most traditional supercomputer architectures. ARSC has also worked with the Cell Broadband Engine in a small Playstation3 cluster, as well as a 24-processor system based on IBM's QS22 blades. The QS22 system, called Quasar, features the PowerXCell 8i processor found in the RoadRunner system, along with an InfiniBand network and high performance storage. Quasar overcomes the limitations of the small memory and relatively slow network of the PS3 systems. The presentation will include system-level benchmarks on Quasar, as well as evaluation of the WRF test cases. Another technology evaluation focused on Sun's UltraSPARC T2+ processor, which ARSC evaluated in a two-way system. Each T2+ provides eight processor cores, each of which provides eight threads, for a total of 128 threads in a single system. WRF scalability was good up to the number of cores, but multiple threads per core did not scale as well. Throughout the discussion, practical findings from ARSC will be summarized. While multicore general-purpose microprocessors are anticipated to remain important for large computers running earth and space science applications, the role of other potentially disruptive technologies is less certain. Limitations of current and future technologies will be discussed. class="ab'>

Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

2008-12-01

73

Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform essentially parameter free simulations with realistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize the physics that is included and compare the simulation results with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the depth of the convection zone, the p-mode frequencies, the p-mode excitation rate, the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, and the profiles of weak photospheric lines. We describe how solar convection is nonlocal. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative cooling produces low entropy gas which forms the cores of the downdrafts in which most of the buoyancy work occurs. We show that turbulence and vorticity are mostly confined to the intergranular lanes and underlying downdrafts. Finally, we illustrate our current work on magneto-convection.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Åke

2000-02-01

74

Guidelines for evaluation of international emergency medicine assistance and development projects.  

PubMed

Interest in the development of the specialty of emergency medicine and of emergency health care systems has greatly increased worldwide in the last few years. The guidelines in this article were developed in an effort to assist others in design and evaluation of all types of emergency medicine projects. PMID:9398780

Holliman, C J; Kirsch, T D; Green, G B; Wolfson, A B; Tom, P A

1997-12-01

75

An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of\\u000a sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently,\\u000a the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines,

Debajeet Choudhuri; Tanvir Huda; Evropi Theodoratou; Harish Nair; Lina Zgaga; Rachel Falconer; Ivana Luksic; Hope L Johnson; Jian Shayne F Zhang; Shams El Arifeen; Christopher B Nelson; Ray Borrow; Harry Campbell; Igor Rudan

2011-01-01

76

Realistic Solar Convection Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the progress of our supergranule scale realistic solar convection simulations with horizontal dimensions of 96 Mm and 48 Mm (57 hours) and a depth of 20 Mm. Snapshots are saved at 1 min intervals. The results from these simulations are available to the community. They are especially useful for testing local helioseismic techniques as is reported elsewhere at this meeting. The simulations were performed on the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division "Columbia" computer and was supported by NASA grant NNG04GB92G and NSF grant AST 0605738.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, A.

2007-05-01

77

Realistic risk assessment.  

PubMed

A controversy over cancer risk has undermined trust in the scientific basis of regulation. Drinking water and pesticide programs are in chaos because "potential cancer risk" cannot produce practical standards. The risk controversy involves a dispute over the most fundamental scientific standards, namely what is and what is not a positive result. Here it is shown that the lowest effective dose (LOEL) of well-studied carcinogens is a firm and reproducible quantity that can serve as undisputed basis for safety standards. "Realistic risk assessment" is proposed, based on the immediately available LOEL, as a transitional measure to eliminate the controversy over assumed risks. A traditional regulatory safety margin, over which regulators have explicit authority, would produce traditional safety standards when based on the lowest effective dose. Superfund clean-up targets based on one in one-million potential cancer risk are equivalent to an approximately 10,000-fold safety margin over real risk. Realistic risk opens the way for a reevaluation of regulatory priorities based on the fact that a 5-fold safety margin for the real carcinogen arsenic is now in use and has proven safe. PMID:8577947

Stöhrer, G

1995-10-01

78

Re-emerging fowlpox: Evaluation of isolates from vaccinated flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines of fowlpox or pigeonpox virus origin have been routinely used for more than half a century to prevent fowlpox in commercial poultry in areas where the disease is endemic. However, in recent years, outbreaks of fowlpox have occurred in previously vaccinated flocks. One possible explanation for this problem is the emergence of variant strains of fowlpox virus (FPV). A

P. Singh; T.-J. Kim; D. N. Tripathy

2000-01-01

79

Evaluation in the Emergency Department and Cardiac Biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Approximately 5 million patients present to the\\u000a emergency department (ED) for chest pain-related complaints every year [1]. In addition, a signifi cant number of patients\\u000a may present to the ED with atypical symptoms. Early diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may lead to\\u000a a sig-nifi

Gurusher Panjrath; Elaine B. Josephson; Eyal Herzog

80

Evaluation of two commercially available portal monitors for emergency response.  

PubMed

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has compared two types (the P3 and the MiniSentry) of portal monitors that can be field deployed in response to an emergency. They can be used to screen persons for internal or external radioactive contamination by fission activation products (neither unit is capable of detecting alpha or beta radiation, and the amount of material required to alarm the monitors is unacceptably high for low energy x rays or gamma rays) following an incident involving the release of radioactive material (accidental or intentional). It was found that the P3 benefits from simplicity but requires slightly more activity to alarm than the MiniSentry, although for emergency response, the amount of activity that can be detected is far below a level where significant health effects will occur. The MiniSentry was found to have more capability than the P3, but these benefits also bring their own disadvantages. It was also found that the MiniSentry would be difficult to deploy in an outdoor setting whereas the P3 is well designed for a field setting. Despite the differences found, the HML has concluded that both have a distinct place in emergency monitoring. In the future, the HML plans to have both instruments ready for field deployment. PMID:17228189

Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Hauck, Barry M

2007-02-01

81

Forecasting Emergency Department Crowding: A Prospective, Real-time Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective Emergency department crowding threatens quality and access to health care, and a method of accurately forecasting near-future crowding should enable novel ways to alleviate the problem. The authors sought to implement and validate the previously developed ForecastED discrete event simulation for real-time forecasting of emergency department crowding. Design and Measurements The authors conducted a prospective observational study during a three-month period (5/1/07–8/1/07) in the adult emergency department of a tertiary care medical center. The authors connected the forecasting tool to existing information systems to obtain real-time forecasts of operational data, updated every 10 minutes. The outcome measures included the emergency department waiting count, waiting time, occupancy level, length of stay, boarding count, boarding time, and ambulance diversion; each forecast 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours into the future. Results The authors obtained crowding forecasts at 13,239 10-minute intervals, out of 13,248 possible (99.9%). The R2 values for predicting operational data 8 hours into the future, with 95% confidence intervals, were 0.27 (0.26, 0.29) for waiting count, 0.11 (0.10, 0.12) for waiting time, 0.57 (0.55, 0.58) for occupancy level, 0.69 (0.68, 0.70) for length of stay, 0.61 (0.59, 0.62) for boarding count, and 0.53 (0.51, 0.54) for boarding time. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting ambulance diversion 8 hours into the future, with 95% confidence intervals, was 0.85 (0.84, 0.86). Conclusions The ForecastED tool provides accurate forecasts of several input, throughput, and output measures of crowding up to 8 hours into the future. The real-time deployment of the system should be feasible at other emergency departments that have six patient-level variables available through information systems.

Hoot, Nathan R.; LeBlanc, Larry J.; Jones, Ian; Levin, Scott R.; Zhou, Chuan; Gadd, Cynthia S.; Aronsky, Dominik

2009-01-01

82

Evaluation Tools in Simulation Learning: Performance and Self-Efficacy in Emergency Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionHigh performance in emergency response is critical for high-quality patient outcomes but is not assessed in some traditional critical care nurse internships. Recognition of the opportunity to assess these skills in a simulated environment is growing, but validated measurement tools are needed. This study develops and evaluates two tools to assess confidence in emergency response and psychomotor performance during a

Jacqueline J. Arnold; LeAnn M. Johnson; Sharon J. Tucker; James F. Malec; Sarah E. Henrickson; William F. Dunn

2009-01-01

83

Statistical Evaluation of Input-Side Metrics for Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Emerging Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle assessment is a popular approach for evaluating environmental impact of technologies. However, it is often difficult to apply, especially to emerging technologies due to the difficulty of finding accurate output-side emissions and impact data. Usually, input-side data are more readily available, even for emerging technologies, and may provide a reasonable proxy for predicting the environmental impact associated with

Yi Zhang; B. R. Bakshi

2007-01-01

84

Prospective evaluation of non-radiologist performed emergency abdominal ultrasound for haemoperitoneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate non-radiologist performed emergency ultrasound for the detection of haemoperitoneum after abdominal trauma in a British accident and emergency department.Methods: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was performed during the primary survey on adult patients triaged to the resuscitation room with suspected abdominal injury over a 12 month period. All investigations were performed by one of three

A Brooks; B Davies; M Smethhurst; J Connolly

2004-01-01

85

Pediatric sexual abuse: emergency department evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Pediatric sexual abuse is an overwhelming problem in the United States. It is estimated that 25% of females and 16% of males in the United States are sexually abused before the age of 18. The emergency department (ED) is frequently the point of entry for care of sexually abused children and adolescents. Personnel from the ED are usually the first "reporters" of sexual abuse, propelling these issues into the medicolegal system. Therefore, it is critical for ED practitioners to have the knowledge and skill set required to provide thorough, comprehensive care for this patient population. The ED holds a powerful position in the multidisciplinary approach to pediatric sexual abuse, involving social workers, child protective services, and law enforcement. This article presents the essential information required to assume a leadership role in the medical management of the sexually abused child/adolescent in the ED, including mandatory reporting, triage, assessment, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:20118864

Matkins, Preeti Patel; Jordan, Kathleen S

86

An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease  

PubMed Central

Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide.

2011-01-01

87

A realistic interstellar explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 20 years, an Interstellar Precursor Mission has been discussed as a high-priority mission for multiple scientific objectives. The chief difficulty with actually carrying out such a mission is the need for reaching significant penetration into the interstellar medium (~1000 Astronomical Units (AU)) within the working lifetime of the initiators (<50 years). While there has been much speculation on various aspects of such a mission, we have systematically considered all of the components required, using realistic extrapolations of current and near-current technology. To provide a firstorder cut at many of the engineering realities associated with such a mission, we consider a probe that can be launched with available vehicles and infrastructure. To implement the mission, we have revisited an old idea: the probe and a perihelion carrier are launched initially to Jupiter as a combined package and then fall to the Sun where a large propulsive maneuver propels the package on a high-energy, ballistic escape trajectory from the solar system. Outbound in deep space, the two separate, and the probe takes data with its onboard instruments and autonomously downlinks the data to Earth at regular intervals. The implementation requires a low-mass, highly-integrated spacecraft. Engineering issues separate into (1) the systems constraints imposed on the perihelion package by the combination of the propulsion system, carrying the needed propellant into perihelion, and the associated thermal and mechanical constraints, and (2) the requirements of power, autonomous operations, and data downlink from the probe itself. System trades define the minimum mass and power required for such a probe. We find that many of the requirements for a low-mass probe that operates autonomously for this mission are common for either this propulsion concept or more advanced low-thrust concepts, e.g., solar sails and ion propulsion. We describe an implementation, including science instrumentation and measurement goals, structure and thermal system, communications, avionics, propulsion, guidance and control, power, and architecture that could make such a mission into reality. We also describe some of the technology thrusts and developments that are required in order to begin such a mission in the next twenty-five years. This work was supported under Task 7600-039 from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) under NASA Contract NAS5-98051.

McNutt, R.

88

A realistic interstellar explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 20 years, an "Interstellar Precursor Mission" has been discussed as a high-priority mission for multiple scientific objectives. The chief difficulty with actually carrying out such a mission is the need for reaching significant penetration into the interstellar medium (˜1000 Astronomical Units (AU)) within the working lifetime of the initiators (<50 years). While there has been much speculation on various aspects of such a mission, we have systematically considered all of the components required, using realistic extrapolations of current and near-current technology. To provide a first-order cut at many of the engineering realities associated with such a mission, we consider a probe that can be launched with available vehicles and infrastructure. To implement the mission, we have revisited an old idea: the probe and a perihelion carrier are launched initially to Jupiter as a combined package and then fall to the Sun where a large propulsive maneuver propels the package on a high-energy, ballistic escape trajectory from the solar system. Outbound in deep space, the two separate, and the probe takes data with its onboard instruments and autonomously downlinks the data to Earth at regular intervals. The implementation requires a low-mass, highly-integrated spacecraft. Engineering issues separate into (1) the systems constraints imposed on the perihelion package by the combination of the propulsion system, carrying the needed propellant into perihelion, and the associated thermal and mechanical constraints, and (2) the requirements of power, autonomous operations, and data downlink from the probe itself. System trades define the minimum mass and power required for such a probe. We find that many of the requirements for a low-mass probe that operates autonomously for this mission are common for either this propulsion concept or more advanced low-thrust concepts, e.g., solar sails and ion propulsion. We describe an implementation, including science instrumentation and measurement goals, structure and thermal system, communications, avionics, propulsion, guidance and control, power, and architecture that could make such a mission into reality. We also describe some of the technology thrusts and developments that are required in order to begin such a mission in the next twenty-five years.

McNutt, R. L.; Andrews, G. B.; Gold, R. E.; Bokulic, R. S.; Boone, B. G.; Haley, D. R.; McAdams, J. V.; Williams, B. D.; Boyle, M. P.; Starstrom, G.; Riggin, J.; Lester, D.; Lyman, R.; Ewing, M.; Krishnan, R.; Read, D.; Naes, L.; McPherson, M.; Deters, R.

2004-01-01

89

Bohr as a Phenomenological Realist  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is confusion among scholars of Bohr as to whether he should be categorized as an instrumentalist (see Faye 1991) or a realist (see Folse 1985). I argue that Bohr is a realist, and that the confusion is due to the fact that he holds a very special view of realism,\\u000a which did not coincide with the philosophers’ views. His

Towfic Shomar

2008-01-01

90

Preliminary Program Evaluation of Emergency Department HIV Prevention Counseling  

PubMed Central

Objective Controversy surrounds the linkage of prevention counseling with emergency department (ED)–based HIV testing. Further, the effectiveness and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED setting is unknown. We investigate these issues by conducting a preliminarily exploration of several related aspects of our ED's HIV prevention counseling and testing program. Methods Our urban, academic ED provides formal client-centered prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing. Five descriptive, exploratory observations were conducted, involving surveys and analysis of electronic medical records and programmatic data focused on (1) patient perception and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED, (2) patient perceptions of the need to link prevention counseling with testing, and (3) potential effectiveness of providing prevention counseling in conjunction with ED-based HIV testing. Results Of 110 ED patients surveyed after prevention counseling and testing, 98% believed privacy was adequate, and 97% reported that their questions were answered. Patients stated that counseling would lead to improved health (80%), behavioral changes (72%), follow-up testing (77%), and discussion with partners (74%). However, 89% would accept testing without counseling, 32% were willing to seek counseling elsewhere, and 26% preferred not to receive the counseling. Correct responses to a 16-question knowledge quiz increased by 1.6 after counseling (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 12.0). The program completed counseling for 97% of patients tested; however, 6% of patients had difficulty recalling the encounter and 13% denied received testing. Among patients undergoing repeated testing, there was no consistent change in self-reported risk behaviors. Conclusion Participants in the ED prevention counseling and testing program considered counseling acceptable and useful, though not required. Given adequate resources, prevention counseling can be provided in the ED, but it is unlikely that all patients benefit.

Sitlinger, Andrea P.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Wayne, D. Beth; Hart, Kimberly W.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.; Lyons, Michael S.

2013-01-01

91

Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

1985-07-16

92

Evaluation of a media campaign to increase knowledge about emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate a media campaign designed to increase knowledge about emergency contraception. Random telephone surveys were conducted before and after the campaign to measure changes in knowledge about emergency contraception. Change in the volume of calls to the Emergency Contraception Hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE) was a secondary measure of impact. Significant increases occurred in the proportions of women who knew that something could be done after intercourse to prevent pregnancy, who knew the term emergency contraception, who knew of the 72-h time limit, and who had heard of the Hotline. In addition, the number of calls to the Hotline increased substantially. A public education media campaign resulted in significant increases in knowledge about emergency contraception. The first contraception advertisement ever shown on television did not provoke controversy. PMID:11292472

Trussell, J; Koenig, J; Vaughan, B; Stewart, F

2001-02-01

93

Psychiatric Evaluation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychiatric Evaluation Workgroup  

PubMed Central

It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency setting. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a 2-step process. First, a brief evaluation must be aimed at determining the most likely cause of agitation, so as to guide preliminary interventions to calm the patient. Once the patient is calmed, more extensive psychiatric assessment can be completed. The goal of the emergency assessment of the psychiatric patient is not necessarily to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Rather, ascertaining a differential diagnosis, determining safety, and developing an appropriate treatment and disposition plan are the goals of the assessment. This article will summarize what components of the psychiatric assessment can and should be done at the time the agitated patient presents to the emergency setting. The complete psychiatric evaluation of the patient whose agitation has been treated successfully is beyond the scope of this article and Project BETA (Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation), but will be outlined briefly to give the reader an understanding of what a full psychiatric assessment would entail. Other issues related to the assessment of the agitated patient in the emergency setting will also be discussed.

Stowell, Keith R; Florence, Peter; Harman, Herbert J; Glick, Rachel L

2012-01-01

94

Mentoring Australian Emerging Researchers in Aging: Evaluation of a Pilot Mentoring Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of Australian emerging researchers in aging identified the need for greater professional development and networking opportunities. To address this, a formal mentorship scheme was developed and evaluated. Fourteen postgraduate researchers (protégés) were matched by discipline and research interest to experienced academics (mentors). Evaluation revealed that participants were satisfied with the mentoring relationships, frequency of communication, and with the

Tim Henwood; Helen Bartlett; Matthew Carroll

2011-01-01

95

Office Layout Plan Evaluation System for Normal Use and Emergency by Multiagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an office layout evaluation system for normal use and emergency by multiagent. The proposed system evaluates office layout plans generated by the office layout support system using genetic algorithm. This office layout support system can generate layout plans which satisfy some conditions given by users. However, the flow of office workers can not considered in

Takumi Ozaki; Hiroyuki Takanashi; Yuko Osana

2009-01-01

96

Generating realistic images using Kray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kray is an application for creating realistic images. It is written in C++ programming language, has a text-based interface, solves global illumination problem using techniques such as radiosity, path tracing and photon mapping.

Tanski, Grzegorz

2004-07-01

97

RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan). Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22

2013-01-01

98

Measuring quality of care in psychiatric emergencies: construction and evaluation of a Bayesian index.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study was conducted to determine whether an index for measuring quality of care for psychiatric emergencies is reliable and valid. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The study used primary data collected over a 12-month period from two urban hospitals in the Northeast. One had 700 inpatient beds, an inpatient psychiatric unit, and community mental health personnel located in the emergency department. The other had 300 beds but none of the other hospital's features. STUDY DESIGN. The index was developed by a panel of experts in emergency psychiatry using a subjective Bayesian statistical methodology and was evaluated in terms of its ability to: (1) predict a second panel's judgments of quality; (2) predict a specific quality-related patient outcome, i.e., compliance with follow-up recommendations; (3) provide a reliable measurement procedure; and (4) detect variations in patterns of emergency department practices. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Data were collected on 2,231 randomly selected emergency psychiatric patients (psychiatric diagnosis, alcohol abuse, nonverbal patients experiencing a psychiatric emergency, and patients with somatic complaints such as life crisis) treated in the emergency departments of the two hospitals. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The index predicted physician judgments of quality, was reliable, exhibited sufficient variation in scores, and was strongly associated with patient compliance. CONCLUSIONS. The study demonstrated that a subjective Bayesian model can be used to develop a reliable and valid index for measuring quality of care, with potential for practical application in management of health services.

Gustafson, D H; Sainfort, F; Johnson, S W; Sateia, M

1993-01-01

99

Effect of 45-day simulated microgravity on the evaluation of orally reported emergencies.  

PubMed

Accurate evaluation of emergencies is a critical concern in long-duration space flights. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 45 days of - 6° head-down bed rest - a model that simulates the conditions in microgravity environments - on the evaluation of orally reported emergencies. Sixteen male participants listened to corresponding emergency scenarios and assessed the severity of these situations eight times before, during and after bed rest. The results revealed a ' recency effect': compared with emergency descriptions in the order of serious to mild, those framed in the reverse order were judged to be more serious. However, the severity ratings did not vary with time spent in the simulated microgravity environment. These findings are similar to those observed in a regular environment on Earth, indicating that the design principles of information presentation for situations on Earth may also be extended to designs intended for outer space. Practitioner Summary: A recency effect was found in the evaluation of orally reported emergencies under simulated microgravity conditions. The design principles of information presentation for situations on Earth may also be extended to designs intended for outer space. PMID:23789793

Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Zheng, Rui; Zhou, Yuan; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Rao, Li-Lin; Sun, Yan; Tan, Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Zhi-Qiang; Bai, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Shan-Guang; Li, Shu

2013-06-24

100

Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of emerging edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the toxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of emerging edible plants that are consumed as new leafy vegetables in Taiwan. Among eight plant extracts, only the extracts of Sol (Solanum nigrum L.) showed cytotoxicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in the absence of S9 mix. The toxicity of extracts from different parts of the Sol plant, such as leaf

G. C Yen; H. Y Chen; H. H Peng

2001-01-01

101

Mentoring Australian Emerging Researchers in Aging: Evaluation of a Pilot Mentoring Scheme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of Australian emerging researchers in aging identified the need for greater professional development and networking opportunities. To address this, a formal mentorship scheme was developed and evaluated. Fourteen postgraduate researchers (proteges) were matched by discipline and research interest to experienced academics (mentors).…

Henwood, Tim; Bartlett, Helen; Carroll, Matthew

2011-01-01

102

'It's the Journey & the Destination': shape and the emergent property of genre in evaluating digital documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navigation is a limited metaphor for hypermedia and website use that potentially constrains our understanding of human-computer interaction. In the present paper we trace the emergence of the navigation metaphor and the empirical analysis of navigation measures in usability evaluation before suggesting an alternative concept to consider: shape. The shape concept affords, we argue, a richer analytic tool for considering

Andrew Dillon; Misha W. Vaughan

1997-01-01

103

Year-End Evaluation, Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) 1976-77; Tacoma Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This evaluation report for the 1976-77 Tacoma Public Schools Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) program is organized around the six priority needs and eleven related objectives which were specified in the applications for funds. Each need and objective is listed along with related data. Conclusions about objective attainment are made in terms of…

Arneklev, Bruce L.

104

Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the ...

A. M. Snyder K. L. Young

2007-01-01

105

Development of a range of anatomically realistic renal artery flow phantoms.  

PubMed

Computer-aided modelling techniques were used to generate a range of anatomically realistic phantoms of the renal artery from medical images of a 64-slice CT data set acquired from a healthy volunteer. From these data, models of a normal healthy renal artery and diseased renal arteries with 30%, 50%, 70% and 85% stenoses were generated. Investment casting techniques and a low melting point alloy were used to create the vessels with varying degrees of stenosis. The use of novel inserts significantly reduced the time, materials and cost required in the fabrication of these anatomically realistic phantoms. To prevent residual metal remaining in the final phantom lumens a technique employing clingfilm was used to remove all molten metal from the lumen. These novel flow phantoms developed using efficient methods for producing vessels with various degrees of stenosis can provide a means of evaluation of current and emerging ultrasound technology. PMID:20620700

King, Deirdre M; Ring, Michael; Moran, Carmel M; Browne, Jacinta E

2010-07-01

106

The Potential and Challenges of Critical Realist Ethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article revisits the critical realist ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I…

Barron, Ian

2013-01-01

107

The potential and challenges of critical realist ethnography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article revisits the critical realist ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I carried out alongside staff to children's homes

Ian Barron

2012-01-01

108

Evidence-based guidelines for evaluation and antimicrobial therapy for common emergency department infections.  

PubMed

Infections are among the most common diagnoses in the emergency department (ED), and antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are frequently encountered in the ED, and pneumonia is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Cystitis, pyelonephritis, and complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) are often treated in the ED, with UTI being one of the most common reasons for healthy young women to require antimicrobial treatment. Intra-abdominal infections have an incidence of 3.5 million cases per year in the United States, and emergency clinicians must make complex decisions regarding appropriate evaluation and management. Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) are common, their incidence in the ED has been rising, and the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has altered their management. Timely diagnosis and management of infectious disease, including proper antimicrobial treatment, is an important goal of emergency care. This issue of Emergency Medicine Practice reviews the available evidence and consensus guidelines for the management of common infectious diseases presenting to the ED and presents recommendations for treatment. PMID:22292348

Nassisi, Denise; Oishi, Marisa L

2012-01-01

109

Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

110

Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

2012-04-01

111

Retinal vein occlusion: evaluation of “classic” and “emerging” risk factors and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vein disease and an important cause of blindness and visual\\u000a morbidity. Systemic risk factors are commonly associated with RVO, while unclear it is the role of the thrombophilic and coagulation\\u000a disorders. To evaluate “classic” and “emerging” risk factors, and to establish a good treatment for RVO. Fifty patients, 31\\u000a males

Marina Turello; Samantha Pasca; Roberto Daminato; Patrizia Dello Russo; Roberta Giacomello; Ugo Venturelli; Giovanni Barillari

2010-01-01

112

Multi-criteria Evaluation for Emergency Management in Spatial Data Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an approach for the integration of Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) into Spatial Data Infrastructures\\u000a (SDIs) to be used in an ad hoc manner. The approach is demonstrated using two case studies: (1) a selection of action priorities\\u000a in emergency management, illustrated with a specific implementation for the SoKNOS project; (2) a safe site selection problem\\u000a that identifies future

Matthias Müller; Lars Bernard; Rico Vogel

113

Realistic models of paracrystalline silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure for the preparation of physically realistic models of paracrystalline silicon based on a modification of the bond-switching method of Wooten, Winer, and Weaire. The models contain randomly oriented c-Si grains embedded in a disordered matrix. Our technique creates interfaces between the crystalline and disordered phases of Si with an extremely low concentration of coordination defects. The resulting models possess structural and vibrational properties comparable with those of good continuous random network models of amorphous silicon and display realistic optical properties, correctly reproducing the electronic band gap of amorphous silicon. The largest of our models also shows the best agreement of any atomistic model structure that we tested with fluctuation microscopy experiments, indicating that this model has a degree of medium-range order closest to that of the real material.

Nakhmanson, S. M.; Voyles, P. M.; Mousseau, Normand; Barkema, G. T.; Drabold, D. A.

2001-06-01

114

Realistic simulation of mixing fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, simulation of mixing fluids, for which wide applications can be found in multimedia, computer games, special effects,\\u000a virtual reality, etc., is attracting more and more attention. Most previous methods focus separately on binary immiscible\\u000a mixing fluids or binary miscible mixing fluids. Until now, little attention has been paid to realistic simulation of multiple\\u000a mixing fluids. In this paper, based

Shiguang Liu; Qiguang Liu; Qunsheng Peng

2011-01-01

115

Evaluator/controller practicum for US Department of Energy emergency exercises  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has designed a practicum to help ensure that exercises at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities provide results that will be useful in maintaining or improving emergency preparedness while ensuring the safety of the public and the exercise participants. Participants in the first two offerings of the practicum came from DOE facilities nationwide. The practicum augments the usual forms of controller and evaluator training with actual practice in carrying out controller and evaluator roles. Feedback from participants indicated substantial benefit from the training. Many of the participants expressed a desire to present such training to others at their home facilities.

Lacher, L.; Converse, R.; Gasper, W.; Mitrani, J. [and others

1996-12-31

116

Emergency Medical System Networked Simulation  

PubMed Central

I propose to demostrate the Emergency Medical System Networked Simulation configured as a mass casualty incident. The Simulation will feature 10 to 30 victims, all pre-hospital care units and emergency medical care facilities within the state of Maryland, and an array of realistic game variables, including weather and road conditions and patient status. The demonstration will allow 6 players to participate and will take approximately one-and-a-half hours. The demonstration time includes pre-game introduction and post game evaluation. The pre-game introduction consists of software instruction, playing strategies, and station duties. The post-game evaluation includes a computer generated performance evaluation, a brief question and answer period, and an evaluation of the demonstration by the participants.

Altobelli, F.; Ramzy, A.; Schaefer, R.

1989-01-01

117

The Evaluation Exchange: Emerging Strategies in Evaluating Child and Family Services, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is comprised of the three 2002 issues of a newsletter of the Harvard Family Research Project, designed to share new ideas and experiences in evaluating systems reform and comprehensive child and family services. The Spring issue focuses on family support evaluations and their role in advancing the field of family support and…

Lopez, M. Elena, Ed.

2002-01-01

118

Evaluating options in LCA: The emergence of conflicting paradigms for impact assessment and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

LCA aims to help direct decisions in an environmentally sustainable direction. It indicates the environmental effects of choices\\u000a and evaluates these against this background. Approaches to evaluation in LCA differ substantially, related to the way of modelling\\u000a environmental effects and to the way these effects are combined into an overall judgement on alternative options. Several\\u000a approaches are now operational, which

Bruno Notarnicola; Gjalt Huppes; Nico W. van den Berg

1998-01-01

119

ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

2009-08-05

120

Simulated evaluation of two triage scales in an emergency department in Israel.  

PubMed

At the time of this study, the Sheba Medical Center Emergency Department (ED) in Israel had no formal triage system in place. To evaluate the interobserver reliability of two triage scales among nurses in our ED, the time-based Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) and the resource-based Emergency Severity Index (ESI), 10 nurses participated in a workshop on ATS and ESI. They then independently assessed 100 simulated triage scenarios taken from actual ED patients, and completed a survey. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficient for ATS was 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.71), whereas for ESI, it was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.61). The nurses felt that ESI was slightly easier to use. Using conventional interpretations, the agreement for ATS is considered substantial, whereas that for ESI is considered moderate. Conversely, the nurses found the ESI somewhat easier to use. PMID:24165355

Alpert, Evan A; Lipsky, Ari M; Hertz, Dvora; Rieck, Jonathon; Or, Jacob

2013-12-01

121

Evaluation of focussed assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) by UK emergency physicians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the introduction of a focussed assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) scan into the early assessment of trauma patients in the UK. Methods The setting was an inner city teaching hospital emergency department (annual attendance 100?000). All patients aged 16 or over admitted to the resuscitation room after blunt trauma were included in a prospective observational study. Patients had a FAST scan performed at the end of the primary survey. Results were compared to results of other investigations, laparotomy, postmortem examination, or observation. Results 153 patients were entered into the study. The sensitivity of the FAST scan was 78% and specificity was 99%. Conclusion FAST is a highly specific “rule in” technique and is useful in the initial assessment of trauma patients. Emergency physicians can perform FAST after a brief training period.

Brenchley, J; Walker, A; Sloan, J P; Hassan, T B; Venables, H

2006-01-01

122

Electrocardiographic and Respiratory Responses to Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in a Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Ambient particulate matter (PM) derived from coal-fired power plants may have important cardiovascular effects, but existing toxicological studies are inadequate for understanding these effects. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study aims to evaluate the toxicity of primary and secondary PM derived from coal-fired power plants. As part of this effort, we evaluated in susceptible animals the effect of stack emissions on cardiac electrophysiology and respiratory function under exposure conditions intended to simulate an aged plume with unneutralized acidity and secondary organic aerosols (POS exposure scenario). Methods Rats with acute myocardial infarction were exposed to either stack emissions (n=15) or filtered air (n=14) for 5 hours at a single power plant. Respiration and electrocardiograms were continuously monitored via telemetry and heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), premature ventricular beat (PVB) frequency, electrocardiographic intervals, and respiratory intervals and volumes were evaluated. Similar experiments at another power plant were attempted but were unsuccessful. Results POS exposure (fine particle mass = 219.1 ?g/m3; total sulfate = 172.5 ?g/m3; acidic sulfate = 132.5 ?g/m3; organic carbon = 50.9 ?g/m3) was associated with increased PVB frequency and decreased respiratory expiratory time and end-inspiratory pause, but not with changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals. Results from a second power plant were uninterpretable. Conclusions Short-term exposure to primary and unneutralized secondary particulate matter formed from aged emissions from a coal-fired power plant, as simulated by the POS scenario, may be associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias in susceptible animals.

Wellenius, Gregory A.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Long, Mark; Kang, Choong Min; Coull, Brent A.; Godleski, John J.

2013-01-01

123

Evaluation of air cleaning system concepts for emergency use in LMFBR plants  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen different air cleaning concepts are arranged into twenty-four systems and evaluated for use as accident mitigating systems in LMFBR plants. Both single, low-leakage containment plants and once-through operation applicable to containment/confinement plants are considered. Plant characteristics affecting air cleaning requirements are defined for 1000 MW(e) plants and a sodium and radiological release term is postulated. The accident conditions under which the emergency air cleaning system (EACS) must function is established by use of SOFIRE-II and HAA-3B computer codes. Criteria are developed for evaluating the various systems and for assigning comparative ratings. The numerical ratings are combined with information on cost and development potential to arrive at recommendations for the most promising systems. The conclusion is made that reliable and effective systems are feasible for use as engineered safety features for LMFBR plants, but that development effort is required for all the air cleaning concepts evaluated.

Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

1976-12-01

124

Breaking bad news: realistic versus unrealistic hopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hope is an essential aspect of the therapeutic relationship between cancer patients and their carers. Realistic hopes provide considerable support, whereas unrealistic hopes can be destructive by impairing the ability to make appropriate decisions about future plans, treatment, and issues of personal importance. Realistic hopes exist for cancer patients at all stages of their illness. Provision of realistic hope facilitates

Matthew Links; Jocelyn Kramer

1994-01-01

125

Realistic Simulation of Emotion by Animated Characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A truly realistic virtual environment for simulation would require human characters to display realistic features and behaviours. However, another requirement is believability. These elements would be vital, for example, in order to train students in a medical field by immersing them in scenarios using realistic and believable animated humans. It should provide a concrete experience for effective learning; as defined

Ariel Beck

126

The Realist Tradition in American Public Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than half a century, realist scholars of international relations have maintained that their world view is inimical to the American public. For a variety of reasons—inchoate attitudes, national history, American exceptionalism—realists assert that the U.S. government pursues realist policies in spite and not because of public opinion. Indeed, most IR scholars share this \\

Daniel W. Drezner

2008-01-01

127

Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs. This framework involves a logic model that incorporates Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of…

Zantal-Wiener, Kathy; Horwood, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

128

Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

Nunziata, C.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.; Panza, G. F.

2008-07-01

129

Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach  

SciTech Connect

The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

Nunziata, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Napoli Federico II (Italy); Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Panza, G. F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ESP-SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

130

Evaluation of Emergency Medical Devices and Systems, December 28, 1976 (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains guidelines for the selection of: integral oxygen supply systems for emergency vehicles, defibrillation training aids, disposable oxygen masks, suction catheters and emergency breathing apparatus.

1977-01-01

131

Example of emergency response model evaluation of studies using the Mathew/Adpic models  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes model evaluation studies conducted for the MATHEW/ADPIC transport and diffusion models during the past ten years. These models support the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, an emergency response service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material. Field studies involving tracer releases used in these studies cover a broad range of meteorology, terrain and tracer release heights, the three most important aspects of estimating air concentration values resulting from airborne releases of toxic material. Results of these studies show that these models can estimate air concentration values within a factor of 2 20% to 50% of the time and a factor of 5 40% to 80% of the time. As the meterology and terrain become more complex and the release height of the tracer is increased, the accuracy of the model calculations degrades. This band of uncertainty appears to correctly represent the capability of these models at this time. A method for estimating angular uncertainty in the model calculations is described and used to suggest alternative methods for evaluating emergency response models.

Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

1986-04-01

132

Emergency department evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of cocaine metabolites in urine specimens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the Abuscreen ONTRAK assay for cocaine metabolites, a rapid immunoassay for the detection of cocaine metabolites in a pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The ONTRAK uses a cutoff point of 300 micrograms/L for benzoylecgonine (BEC), cocaine's major urinary metabolite. One hundred and thirty-two urine specimens obtained from infants, children, and adolescents whose clinical findings warranted toxicology screening were evaluated. The ONTRAK identified all 15 specimens with BEC values of 300 micrograms/L, but did not detect seven additional specimens positive for cocaine metabolites at concentrations less than 300 micrograms/L. One third of the positive specimens for cocaine metabolite identified by fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA), cutoff point set at 80 micrograms/L, and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GUMS), cutoff point 50 micrograms/L, were not detected by the ONTRAK. These false negative specimens were seen exclusively in young children, whose concentration of cocaine metabolite was less than the ONTRAK's cutoff value. The test was sensitive to drug concentration at or around the stated cutoff values. The ONTRAK test for cocaine metabolites, although both a sensitive and specific screening test for adolescents who smoke or snort cocaine, lacks the sensitivity to be a useful screening too[ for detecting cocaine metabolites in young children. Limitations of currently performed toxicology screening tests (ie, stated cutoff levels) may cause emergency physicians to miss most young children whose symptoms may he related to cocaine exposure. PMID:8859922

Belfer, R A; Klein, B L; Boenning, D A; Soldin, S J

1996-04-01

133

Emergency Department and Office-Based Evaluation of Patients With Chest Pain  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with chest pain is a common and challenging clinical problem. Although most of these patients do not have a life-threatening condition, the clinician must distinguish between those who require urgent management of a serious problem such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and those with more benign entities who do not require admission. Although clinical judgment continues to be paramount in meeting this challenge, new diagnostic modalities have been developed to assist in risk stratification. These include markers of cardiac injury, risk scores, early stress testing, and noninvasive imaging of the heart. The basic clinical tools of history, physical examination, and electrocardiography are currently widely acknowledged to allow early identification of low-risk patients who have less than 5% probability of ACS. These patients are usually initially managed in the emergency department and transitioned to further outpatient evaluation or chest pain units. Multiple imaging strategies have been investigated to accelerate diagnosis and to provide further risk stratification of patients with no initial evidence of ACS. These include rest myocardial perfusion imaging, rest echocardiography, computed tomographic coronary angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All have very high negative predictive values for excluding ACS and have been successful in reducing unnecessary admissions for patients at low to intermediate risk of ACS. As patients with acute chest pain transition from the evaluation in the emergency department to other outpatient settings, it is important that all clinicians involved in the care of these patients understand the tools used for assessment and risk stratification.

Kontos, Michael C.; Diercks, Deborah B.; Kirk, J. Douglas

2010-01-01

134

Standardized Approaches to Syncope Evaluation for Reducing Hospital Admissions and Costs in Overcrowded Emergency Departments  

PubMed Central

Purpose The evaluation of syncope is often disorganized and ineffective. The objective of this study was to examine whether implementation of a standardized emergency department (ED) protocol improves the quality of syncope evaluation. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective, non-randomized study conducted at a 1900-bed, tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea. We compared two specific periods, including a 12-month observation period (control group, January-December 2009) and a 10-month intervention period after the implementation of standardized approaches, comprising risk stratification, hospital order sets and establishment of a syncope observational unit (intervention group, March-December 2010). Primary end points were hospital admission rates and medical costs related to syncope evaluation. Results A total of 244 patients were enrolled in this study (116 patients in the control group and 128 patients in the intervention group). The admission rate decreased by 8.3% in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.70, p=0.005). There was a cost reduction of about 30% during the intervention period [369000 Korean won (KRW), interquartile range (IQR) 240000-602000 KRW], compared with the control period (542000 KRW, IQR 316000-1185000 KRW). The length of stay in the ED was also reduced in the intervention group (median: 4.6 hours vs. 3.4 hours). Conclusion Standardized approaches to syncope evaluation reduced hospital admissions, medical costs and length of stay in the overcrowded emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea.

Shin, Tae Gun; Jo, Ik Joon; Sim, Min Seob; Park, Seung-Jung

2013-01-01

135

Diagnostic Patterns in the Evaluation of Patients Presenting with Syncope at the Emergency or Outpatient Department  

PubMed Central

Purpose Patterns of syncope evaluation vary widely among physicians and hospitals. The aim of this study was to assess current diagnostic patterns and medical costs in the evaluation of patients presenting with syncope at the emergency department (ED) or the outpatient department (OPD) of a referral hospital. Materials and Methods This study included 171 consecutive patients with syncope, who visited the ED or OPD between January 2009 and July 2009. Results The ED group had fewer episodes of syncope [2 (1-2) vs. 2 (1-5), p=0.014] and fewer prodromal symptoms (81.5% vs. 93.3%, p=0.018) than the OPD group. Diagnostic tests were more frequently performed in the ED group than in the OPD group (6.2±1.7 vs. 5.3±2.0; p=0.012). In addition, tests with low diagnostic yields were more frequently used in the ED group than in the OPD group. The total cost of syncope evaluation per patient was higher in the ED group than in the OPD group [823000 (440000-1408000) won vs. 420000 (186000-766000) won, p<0.001]. Conclusion There were some differences in the clinical characteristics of patients and diagnostic patterns in the evaluation of syncope between the ED and the OPD groups. Therefore, a selective diagnostic approach according to the presentation site is needed to improve diagnostic yields and to reduce the time and costs of evaluation of syncope.

Kang, Gu Hyun; Oh, Ju Hyeon; On, Young Keun; Jo, Ik Joon; Kim, Su Jin; Bae, Su-Jin; Shin, Tae Gun

2012-01-01

136

Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

Not Available

1993-11-01

137

Risk Scores for Patients with Chest Pain: Evaluation in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Chest pain is a common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED). Absolute criteria for Acute Coronary Syndrome without ST elevation (NSTE-ACS) are lacking. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) needs to be distinguished from a variety of other cardiac and non-cardiac diseases that may cause chest pain. For patients with confirmed ACS, several scoring methods can be applied in order to distinguish patients in the coronary care unit who may benefit most from therapies. The PURSUIT, TIMI, GRACE and FRISC risk scores are well validated with this respect. However, none of these risk scores has been used in the identification of an ACS in the emergency setting. The vast majority of patients with chest pain due to causes other than ACS were not evaluated in these trials. An evidence-based systematic stratification and policy for these patients does not currently exist. The more recently developed HEART score is specifically designed to stratify all chest pain patients in the ED. The HEART score was validated in a retrospective multicenter study and proved to be a strong predictor of event free survival on one hand and potentially life threatening cardiac events on the other hand. The HEART score facilitates risk stratification of chest pain patients in the ED.

Backus, B.E; Six, A.J; Kelder, J.H; Gibler, W.B; Moll, F.L; Doevendans, P.A

2011-01-01

138

No effect of lunar cycle on psychiatric admissions or emergency evaluations.  

PubMed

It is a popularly held belief that psychiatric behavior worsens during a full moon. Research in this area has yielded mixed results. Records from Naval Medical Center San Diego for 1993-2001 were examined to see whether there were higher rates of psychiatric admission associated with particular phases of the moon. Records from 8,473 admissions revealed that there were no more admission on days with a full moon, a new moon, any quarter of the moon, a waxing moon, or a waning moon. This held true for psychiatric patients as a whole, as well as for individuals with particular diagnoses, such as those with a mood disorder or psychotic disorder. Records from 1,909 emergency psychiatric evaluations that occurred between 2002 and 2003 were also examined to see whether a higher percentage of patients might present, but not require hospitalization, during a particular phase of the moon. Once again, no significant effect was found. In summary, lunar phase was not associated in any significant way with psychiatric admissions or emergency presentation. PMID:17256692

McLay, Robert N; Daylo, Amado A; Hammer, Paul S

2006-12-01

139

Evaluation of "no touch" extubation technique on airway-related complications during emergence from general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Awake “no touch” extubation requires performing extubations only when the patient spontaneously wakes up without any kind of stimulation during emergence from general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolutely awake extubation “no touch” technique in adult patients, scheduled for elective nasal and paranasal sinus surgeries under general anesthesia as regard to emergence airway complications. Methods: A total of 60 adult patients were randomly allocated into one of two equal groups according to the method of extubation: Group I: Standard fully awake, Group II: Absolutely “no touch” awake extubation (absolutely no stimulation no touch was allowed until patients were able to open their eyes). The incidence of laryngospasm and its grade according to a four-point scale was reported. Occurrence of airway events (excessive secretions, breath-holding, coughing, hoarseness, biting, as well as the number and severity of any desaturation episodes), oozing from the wound, and postoperative sore throat were also recorded. The heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measured at the end of surgery served as baseline values, and subsequent measurements were taken within 30 minutes after the end of surgery. Results: There was absolutely no case of laryngeal spasm or episode of desaturation among patients who were extubated with the “no touch” technique. On the other hand, there were 3 cases of laryngeal spasm in standard fully awake group. Severity of coughing, excessive secretions and breath holding, hoarseness, biting, and occurrence of non-purposeful movements of the limbs were significantly less in the absolutely “no touch” technique awake technique. The changes in HR, SBP, and DBP during emergence extubation were significantly less in “no touch” technique technique group. However, oozing from the wound was significantly higher with standard fully awake extubation. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the incidence of postoperative sore throat (39 and 36%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that awake “no touch” technique technique for tracheal extubation produces less airway-related complications, as well as minimal hemodynamic response during emergence from general anesthesia in nasal and paranasal surgeries. It could be a safe alternative for tracheal extubation in airway surgery.

Sheta, Saad A.; Abdelhalim, Ashraf A.; Nada, Eman

2011-01-01

140

Evaluation of prehospital emergency care in the field and during the ambulance drive to the hospital.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of ambulance procedures and interventions in the management of patients dispatched to 2 emergency departments (EDs) of urban hospitals in Izmir. Use of trauma boards and cervical collars, airway patency, breathing, and circulation problems were recorded in both EDs. Eighty-one patients with a mean age of 47.54 +/- 2.36 years (range, 4-89) brought into the ED via ambulances were enrolled in the study. Airway maneuvers were performed in patients with airway and breathing problems. There was no significant relationship between administration of IV fluids and the presence of circulatory impairment (P=.053). A trauma board was used in 9 of 30 trauma cases (30%) and a cervical collar in 6 of 30 (20%). It was concluded that basic procedures used in the management of patients brought into the ED via ambulances were inadequate. PMID:15943221

Soysal, Suna; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Topacoglu, Hakan; Yenal, Sinan; Koparan, Harun; Yaman, Orhan

141

Use of sentinel laboratories by clinicians to evaluate potential bioterrorism and emerging infections.  

PubMed

With the persistent threat of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism, it has become increasingly important that clinicians be able to identify the diseases that might signal the occurrence of these unusual events. Essential to a thoughtful diagnostic approach is understanding when to initiate a public health investigation and how to appropriately use commonly performed microbiology procedures in the sentinel laboratory to evaluate potential pathogens. Although diagnostic test development is evolving rapidly, recognizing many of these pathogens continues to challenge the capabilities of most sentinel laboratories. Therefore, effective, ongoing communication and education among clinicians, infection control personnel, sentinel laboratorians, public health authorities, and Laboratory Response Network reference laboratorians is the key to preparedness. PMID:16586392

Pien, Brian C; Saah, J Royden; Miller, Sara E; Woods, Christopher W

2006-03-31

142

A reactor core/containment status evaluation flowchart for determining protective actions in emergencies  

SciTech Connect

In the event of an emergency at a power reactor station, there might not be adequate time or sufficient data to fully assess radiological implications and make protective action recommendations based on projected population exposures. Thus, decision-making guidance is needed that is based on readily available plant indicators, not just on time-consuming dose calculations. In the United States, this guidance must be compatible with the recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency, and it must include predetermined, measurable, site-specific parameters for assessing conditions in the reactor core and containment. The preparation of this real time guidance calls for the selection of suitable parameters and the determination of the values for these parameters that will correspond to different levels of protective action. This process is illustrated in this paper by selecting parameters and determining appropriate values for constructing a Core/Containment Status Evaluation Flowchart for an example power plant.

Glissman, M.A. (Impell Corp., Lincolnshire, IL (United States))

1988-02-01

143

Evaluation of Savannah River Plant emergency response models using standard and nonstandard meteorological data  

SciTech Connect

Two computer codes have been developed for operational use in performing real time evaluations of atmospheric releases from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. These codes, based on mathematical models, are part of the SRP WIND (Weather Information and Display) automated emergency response system. Accuracy of ground level concentrations from a Gaussian puff-plume model and a two-dimensional sequential puff model are being evaluated with data from a series of short range diffusion experiments using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer. The models use meteorological data collected from 7 towers on SRP and at the 300 m WJBF-TV tower about 15 km northwest of SRP. The winds and the stability, which is based on turbulence measurements, are measured at the 60 m stack heights. These results are compared to downwind concentrations using only standard meteorological data, i.e., adjusted 10 m winds and stability determined by the Pasquill-Turner stability classification method. Scattergrams and simple statistics were used for model evaluations. Results indicate predictions within accepted limits for the puff-plume code and a bias in the sequential puff model predictions using the meteorologist-adjusted nonstandard data. 5 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Hoel, D.D.

1984-01-01

144

Control technology: 1992 update of US EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) emerging technology program  

SciTech Connect

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has encouraged and financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies suitable for use at hazardous waste sites for five years. The ETP was established under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The ETP complies with the goal of the SITE Program to promote, accelerate and make commercially available the development of alternative/innovative treatment technologies for use at Superfund sites. Technologies are submitted to the ETP through yearly solicitations for Preprosals. Facilities, equipment, data collection, performance and development are monitored throughout the project. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Air Force (USAF) are participants in the ETP. DOE has co-funded ETP projects since 1990 and the USAF since 1991. A primary goal of the ETP is to move developed technologies to the field-demonstration stage. Therefore, a developer may be considered for participation in the SITE Demonstration Program provided performance in the ETP indicates the technology is field-ready for demonstration and evaluation.

Lewis, N.M.; Barkley, N.P.; Williams, T.

1992-01-01

145

Using the /phi/resund experimental data to evaluate the ARAC emergency response models  

SciTech Connect

A series of meteorological and tracer experiments, was conducted during May and June 1984 over the 20-km wide /O/resund strait between Denmark and Sweden for the purpose of studying atmospheric dispersion processes over cold water and warm land surfaces and providing the data needed to evaluate meso-scale models in a coastal environment. In concert with these objectives the data from these experiments have been used as part of a continuing effort to evaluate the capability of the three-dimensional MATHEW/ADPIC (M/A) atmospheric dispersion models to simulate pollutant transport and diffusion characteristics of the atmospheric during a wide variety of meteorological conditions. Since previous studies have focused primarily on M/A model evaluations over rolling and complex terrain at inland sites, the /O/resund experiments provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the models in a coastal environment. The M/A models are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for performing real-time assessments of the environmental consequences of potential or actual releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These assessments include estimation of radiation doses to nearby population centers and of the extent of surface contamination. Model evaluations, using field experimental data such as those generated by the /O/resund experiments, serve as a basis for providing emergency response managers with estimated of the uncertainties associated with accident consequence assessments. This report provides a brief description of the /O/resund experiments, the current understanding of the meteorological processes governing pollutant dispersion over the /O/resund strait, and the results of the M/A model simulations of these experiments. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Gryning, S.E.

1988-07-01

146

The Use of More Realistic Utility Functions in Educational Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of some very simple loss or utility functions in educational evaluation has recently been advocated by Gross and Su, Petersen and Novick, and Petersen. This paper demonstrates that more realistic utility functions can easily be used and may be preferable in some applications. (Author/CTM)|

Novick, Melvin R.; Lindley, Dennis V.

1978-01-01

147

Analysing Regional Development and Policy: A Structural–Realist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moulaert F. and Mehmood A. Analysing regional development and policy: a structural–realist approach, Regional Studies. This paper gives an overview of theories and models that can be used to analyse regional development as well as to design policies and strategies for the future of regions and localities. It evaluates the analytical and policy relevance of these models, and as it

Frank Moulaert; Abid Mehmood

2010-01-01

148

Geodetic Modeling With Realistic Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal structure has significant impact on the gravity field in short to intermediate wavelengths and lateral variations in density at or near the surface also affect the field. The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory will begin in FY2010 a research program to develop advanced geodetic modeling techniques utilizing realistic geologic and geophysical constraints to improve gravity anomaly estimation in mountainous terrains. The effort is facilitated by several new high-altitude airborne gravity data sets that will provide ground truth for modeling in several different geologic environments. Data sets collected over the Himalayas, the Alps and the mountains of Taiwan will be used to develop, calibrate and test regional models having different geologic conditions including crustal thickness and flexural rigidity, average regional sediment thickness, fault geometry, geomorphology and local density variations. Medium wavelength satellite gravity such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data will allow comparison with the upward continued models as a check on the accuracy of the estimates and can also be used to estimate longer wavelength components due to the crust-mantle interface from either remove-restore methods of modeling or from two dimensional loaded plate theory under appropriate assumptions of flexural rigidity. Buried basement topography masked by sediments is a primary contributor to unknown short wavelength features and will be of great importance in stream-cut mountain valleys and depositional plains adjacent to exposed mountain ridges: we will use existing data sets to test the effects of various basement morphologies. Our modeling strategies will be tested for biases in medium and short wavelength components against existing ground truth, airborne and satellite data sets. Some of the proposed modeling has been previously done for specific and limited areas but we propose to examine to what extent it is possible to determine regional parameterizations that can be used to forward model large areas.

Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.; Jung, W.

2009-05-01

149

Standard review plan for the review and evaluation of emergency plans for research and test reactors  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Standard Review Plan to assure that complete and uniform reviews are made of research and test reactor radiological emergency plans. The report is organized under ten planning standards which correspond to the guidance criteria in American National Standard ANSI/ANS 15.16 - 1982 as endorsed by Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide 2.6. The applicability of the items under each planning standard is indicated by subdivisions of the steady-state thermal power levels at which the reactors are licensed to operate. Standard emergency classes and example action levels for research and test reactors which should initiate these classes are given in an Appendix. The content of the emergency plan is as follows: the emergency plan addresses the necessary provisions for coping with radiological emergencies. Activation of the emergency plan is in response to the emergency action levels. In addition to addressing those severe emergencies that will fall within one of the standard emergency classes, the plan also discusses the necessary provisions to deal with radiological emergencies of lesser severity that can occur within the operations boundary. The emergency plan allows for emergency personnel to deviate from actions described in the plan for unusual or unanticipated conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

150

Realistic modeling of the biological channel for the design of implantable wireless UWB communication systems.  

PubMed

Several emerging medical applications require that a miniature data acquisition device be implanted into the head to extract and wirelessly communicate brain activity to other devices. Designing a reliable communication link for such an application requires a realistic model of the surrounding biological tissues. This paper exploits a realistic model of the biological channel to design a suitable wireless ultra wideband communication link in a brain monitoring application. Two scenarios for positioning the implanted transmitting antenna are considered. The 1(st) scenario places the antenna under the skull, whereas the 2(nd) scenario places the antenna under the skin, above the skull. The propagation characteristics of the signal through the tissues of the human head have been determined with full-wave electromagnetic simulation based on Finite Element Method. The implantable antenna and the external antenna are key components to establish an electromagnetic link between an implanted transmitter and an external receiver. The average specific absorption rate (ASAR) of the implantable antennas are evaluated and compared for the two proposed scenarios. Moreover, the maximum available power from the implanted antenna is evaluated to characterize the performance of the communication link established between the implantable antenna and the external antenna, with respect to spectrum and safety regulations. We show how sensitive the receiver must be in order to implement a reliable telemetry link based on the proposed model of the channel. PMID:23367300

Bahrami, Hadi; Gosselin, Benoit; Rusch, Leslie A

2012-01-01

151

Evaluation of BWR emergency procedure guidelines for BWR ATWS using RAMONA-3B code  

SciTech Connect

An MSIV Closure ATWS calculation for a typical BWR/4 (Browns Ferry, Unit 1) was performed using the RAMONA-3B code which is a BWR systems transient code combining three-dimensional neutronic core representation with multi-channel one-dimensional thermal hydraulics. The main objective of the study was to perform a best-estimate evaluation of the recently proposed Emergency Procedure Guidelines for Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS). Emphasis was placed on evaluating the effects of lowering the downcomer water level to the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) and vessel depressurization. The calculation was run up to approximately 1200 seconds. Both actions, namely, lowering the water level and vessel depressurization, lowered the reactor power to some extent. However, the pressure suppression pool water temperature still reached approximately 90/sup 0/C (potential High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) pump seal failure temperature) in twenty minutes. Thus, other actions such as boron injection and/or manual control rod insertion are necessary to mitigate a BWR/4 Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) closure ATWS. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Neymotin, L.; Slovik, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Saha, P.

1985-01-01

152

Evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital: assessment of radiology performance in the accident and emergency department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) x-ray images are used to assist in the initial diagnosis and management of the patient. It is therefore expected that the main benefits of PACS in A&E will arise from the ability of clinicians to manipulate the digital image and thus potentially improve their diagnostic performance. In order to evaluate whether this benefit is realized or not a case-study evaluation has been undertaken; this has three components: (a) monitoring the extent of misdiagnosis by A&E clinicians before and after the PACS implementation; (b) an examination of the decision performance of the clinician-image combination for the visualization of the lower cervical spine/upper thoracic spine and of fracture of the head of the radius; and (c) a more general monitoring of the impact of the image archiving and communication aspects of PACS. In this paper the study of the impact of PACS on misdiagnosis by A&E clinicians at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, is described and pre-PACS results for the period 31 March 1992 to 30 September 1992 are presented.

Weatherburn, Gwyneth C.; Bryan, Stirling; Cocks, Robert

1993-09-01

153

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: emerging roles in the evaluation of putative Alzheimer's disease-modifying treatments.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with characteristic and progressive reductions in flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose. These reductions begin years before the onset of symptoms, are correlated with clinical severity, and may help predict an affected patient's clinical course and neuropathological diagnosis. Like several other AD biomarkers, FDG PET has the potential to accelerate the evaluation of AD-modifying treatments, particularly in the earliest clinical and preclinical stages. This article considers FDG PET's role in the detection and tracking of AD, its emerging roles in the evaluation of disease-slowing treatments, some of the issues involved in the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of FDG PET data, and the evidence needed to help qualify FDG PET and other biomarkers for use in the accelerated approval of AD-slowing treatments. It recommends scientific strategies and public policies to further establish the role of FDG PET and other AD biomarkers in therapeutic trials and find demonstrably effective disease-modifying and presymptomatic AD treatments as quickly as possible. PMID:21983241

Reiman, Eric M

2011-10-07

154

Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: Emerging Roles in the Evaluation of Putative Alzheimer's Disease-Modifying Treatments  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with characteristic and progressive reductions in flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose. These reductions begin years before the onset of symptoms, are correlated with clinical severity, and may help predict an affected patient’s clinical course and neuropathological diagnosis. Like several other AD biomarkers, FDG PET has the potential to accelerate the evaluation of these treatments, particularly in the earliest clinical and preclinical stages. This article considers FDG PET’s role in the detection and tracking of AD, its emerging roles in the evaluation of disease-slowing treatments, some of the issues involved in the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of FDG PET data, and the evidence needed to help qualify FDG PET and other biomarkers for use in the accelerated approval of AD-slowing treatments. It recommends scientific strategies and public policies to further establish the role of FDG PET and other AD biomarkers in therapeutic trials and find demonstrably effective disease-modifying and presymptomatic AD treatments as quickly as possible.

Reiman, Eric M.

2012-01-01

155

The Use of Neuroimaging Studies and Neurological Consultation to Evaluate Dizzy Patients in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Dizziness is a frequent reason for neuroimaging and neurological consultation, but little is known about the utility of either practice. We sought to characterize the patterns and yield of neuroimaging and neurological consultation for dizziness in the emergency department (ED). Methods: We retrospectively identified consecutive adults presenting to an academic ED from 2007 to 2009, with a primary complaint of dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance. Neurologists reviewed medical records to determine clinical characteristics, whether a neuroimaging study (head computed tomography [CT] or brain magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) or neurology consultation was obtained in the ED, and to identify relevant findings on neuroimaging studies. Two neurologists assigned a final diagnosis for the cause of dizziness. Logistic regression was used to evaluate bivariate and multivariate predictors of neuroimaging and consultation. Results: Of 907 dizzy patients (mean age 59 years; 58% women), 321 (35%) had a neuroimaging study (28% CT, 11% MRI, and 4% both) and 180 (20%) had neurological consultation. Serious neurological disease was ultimately diagnosed in 13% of patients with neuroimaging and 21% of patients with neurological consultation, compared to 5% of the overall cohort. Headache and focal neurological deficits were associated with both neuroimaging and neurological consultation, while age ?60 years and prior stroke predicted neuroimaging but not consultation, and positional symptoms predicted consultation but not neuroimaging. Conclusion: In a tertiary care ED, neuroimaging and neurological consultation were frequently utilized to evaluate dizzy patients, and their diagnostic yield was substantial.

Navi, Babak B.; Kamel, Hooman; Shah, Maulik P.; Grossman, Aaron W.; Wong, Christine; Poisson, Sharon N.; Whetstone, William D.; Josephson, S. Andrew; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Kim, Anthony S.

2013-01-01

156

Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)  

SciTech Connect

The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

1990-10-01

157

Realistic eye motion using procedural geometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For late-breaking R&D on the upcoming Disney film King of the Elves, we have embarked upon an adventure called the Realistic Eye Initiative; to investigate realistic procedural methods for one of the most important aspects of a digital character's face -- the eyes. We will leap beyond the simple spheres of previous Disney films, into fantastic, striking realism. Using an

Dmitriy Pinskiy; Erick Miller

2009-01-01

158

Realistic Mohole using D\\/V Chikyu  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose realistic Mohole using D\\/V Chikyu. The basic policy is to drill a deep, full ocean crustal penetration hole through the Moho, and into the uppermost mantle at a single site formed at a fast spreading rate ridge system, where normal intact ocean crust with the typical Moho discontinuity exists. In order to make the Mohole an operationally realistic,

Nobukazu Seama; Natsue Abe; Shuichi Kodaira

159

1992 update of US EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies for use at hazardous waste sites for five years. The ETP was established under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The ETP complies with the goal of the SITE Program to promote, accelerate and make commercially available the development of alternative/innovative treatment technologies for use at Superfund sites. Technologies are submitted to the ETP through yearly solicitations for Preproposals. Applicants are asked to submit a detailed project proposal and a cooperative agreement application that requires Developer/EPA cost sharing. EPA co-funds selected Developers for one to two years. Second-year funding requires documentation of significant progress during the first year. Facilities, equipment, data collection, performance and development are monitored throughout the project. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Air Force (USAF) are participants in the ETP. DOE has co-funded ETP projects since 1990 and the USAF since 1991. A goal of the ETP is to move developed technologies to the field-demonstration stage. A developer may be considered for participation in the SITE Demonstration Program if performance in the ETP indicates the technology is field-ready for evaluation. Six technology categories: biological, chemical, materials handling, physical, solidification/stabilization and thermal, are presently in the ETP. Technologies of primary interest to EPA are those that can treat complex mixtures of hazardous organic and inorganic contaminants and provide improved solids handling and/or pretreatment. An account of the background and progress of the ETP's first five years is presented in this paper. Technologies currently in the ETP are noted, and developers and EPA Project Managers, are listed. 4 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Lewis, N.M.; Barkley, N.P.; Williams, T. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1992-12-01

160

[An evaluation of acute effects of sulfur compounds for the human organism in natural gas fields emergencies (review)].  

PubMed

A trend towards a growing number of emergency situations at industrial enterprises has been recently traced throughout the world. The main reasons of such phenomenon are: a comprehensive use of highly dangerous technologies and materials; large-scale violations of the operational rules and norms; and an inadmissibly high wear-and-tear of the main production funds in economic branches with extra risk. The world experience is indicative of a high degree of danger related with exploiting the natural-gas fields with a high content of sulfur compounds. The occurrence of emergency situations in the mentioned fields is accompanied by development of acute and sub-acute toxic effects in the workers and population. It necessitated, recently, an elaboration of a concept of a relative safety, in view of an unfavorable impact produced by chemical substances in emergencies, and an elaboration of methods applicable to the evaluation of emergency regulations. PMID:12852038

Salikhova, L R; Zebseev, V V; Karpov, A I; Eremin, M N; Gorlov, A V

161

Prospective Comparison of Live Evaluation and Video Review in the Evaluation of Operator Performance in a Pediatric Emergency Airway Simulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Real-time assessment of operator performance during procedural simulation is a common practice that requires undivided attention by 1 or more reviewers, potentially over many repetitions of the same case. Objective To determine whether reviewers display better interrater agreement of procedural competency when observing recorded, rather than live, performance; and to develop an assessment tool for pediatric rapid sequence intubation (pRSI). Methods A framework of a previously established Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool was modified for pRSI. Emergency medicine residents (postgraduate year 1–4) were prospectively enrolled in a pRSI simulation scenario and evaluated by 2 live raters using the modified tool. Sessions were videotaped and reviewed by the same raters at least 4 months later. Raters were blinded to their initial rating. Interrater agreement was determined by using the Krippendorff generalized concordance method. Results Overall interrater agreement for live review was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–0.78) and for video was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73–0.82). Live review was significantly superior to video review in only 1 of the OSATS domains (Preparation) and was equivalent in the other domains. Intrarater agreement between the live and video evaluation was very good, greater than 0.75 for all raters, with a mean of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76–0.85). Conclusion The modified OSATS assessment tool demonstrated some evidence of validity in discriminating among levels of resident experience and high interreviewer reliability. With this tool, intrareviewer reliability was high between live and 4-months' delayed video review of the simulated procedure, which supports feasibility of delayed video review in resident assessment.

House, Joseph B.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Kowalenko, Terry; Sikavitsas, Athina; Seeyave, Desiree M.; Younger, John G.; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Nypaver, Michele M.

2012-01-01

162

Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River estuary  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, the US EPA MED laboratory has been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). ...

163

Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

164

Evaluation of the Emergency School Assistance Program. Volume II: Design and Findings of Phase I Survey. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effort by the Office of Education to assist some 900 school districts, through financial aid, with the problems attendant with the final stages of their desegregation plan or the carrying out of a court-ordered plan is discussed. This effort, the Emergency School Assistance Program (ESAP), was evaluated to determine: (1) overall effectiveness,…

RMC Research Corp., Arlington, VA.

165

An Economic Evaluation of Use of a Payer-Based Electronic Health Record within an Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although use of electronic health records (EHR) is being advocated by many in the public and private sectors, a limited number of analyses evaluating the economic impact associated with using EHR have been performed. The hypothesis of this analysis was that the implementation of an EHR within an emergency department (ED) would result in decreased healthcare costs. Methods: We

Vincent J. Willey; Gregory W. Daniel

166

Evaluating the Reliability of Emergency Response Systems for Large- Scale Incident Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Societies build emergency response systems to be there when damaging incidents-whether natural or caused by man-occur. Though the effectiveness of those systems in responding to everyday emergencies is easy to see, knowing how prepared they are to deal wi...

B. A. Jackson H. H. Willis K. S. Faith

2010-01-01

167

Realistic Theory of Solid-State Qubits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have studied quantum coherence and control in solid-state qubits, mostly in superconductors. We have outlined several strategies to obtain high- fidelity quantum logic gates in the presence of decoherence. We have studied realistic, structured environm...

F. K. Wilhelm M. J. Storcz U. Hartmann H. P. Gutmann

2006-01-01

168

[Evaluation of emergency services of the hospitals from the QualiSUS program].  

PubMed

The aid lent by the emergency services is the object of this paper, which aims to assess the emergency service of the QualiSUS program. The study is descriptive with the application of a questionnaire to the responsible of the emergency services in eight hospitals. The emergency services were always overcrowded, and the causes pointed were the low resolutivity of basic attention and the precariousness of the hospital network. Contributing to this there is the primary care decreased resolutivity and the precariousness of the hospital network. Six hospitals do not manage the emergency service. The entrance system is not organized and only three hospitals work with risk classification. All of them refer difficulties with internal and external services. The hardest pathologies to refer to other services are the chronicles, neurological and social. The professionals do not have specific qualification and the precariousness job contracts do not contribute neither for the professional's fixation nor for his qualification. Clinical protocols are used by one service. It was noticed the influence of the QualiSUS in the hospitals. The failure of the health services network interferes with the emergency patient's profile. The investment of the QualiSUS cannot be restrained to the hospital. Emergency should be more integrated to the system and hospital. The qualification of human resources is indispensable as well as the bed's regulation. PMID:19851601

O'Dwyer, Gisele Oliveira; de Oliveira, Sergio Pacheco; de Seta, Marismary Horsth

169

Looking at terrorism through left realist lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While terrorism has moved into the spotlight of criminological study, including critical criminology, it has yet to be thoroughly\\u000a explored from a left realist perspective. Left realism addresses four aspects of crime: causes of offending, impact on the\\u000a victims, and both official and public responses to crime. A left realist approach to terrorism would argue that similar to\\u000a those who

Jennifer C. Gibbs

2010-01-01

170

Evaluation of some pre- and post-emergence weed control measures on rain-fed cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L) in Nigerian savannah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of season-long weed control has remained elusive in most cropping systems of the Nigerian savannah. Integration of pre-emergence herbicides with post-emergence weed control measures is likely to be the most viable option in this respect. Rainfed trials were conducted at Samaru, Nigeria in 1999, 2000 and 2001 seasons to evaluate the performance of some pre-emergence followed by post-emergence

S. A Dadari; N. C Kuchinda

2004-01-01

171

Evaluation of an off-the-shelf mobile telemedicine model in emergency department wound assessment and management.  

PubMed

We examined the agreement between a videoconference-based evaluation and a bedside evaluation in the management of acute traumatic wounds in an emergency department. Adult and paediatric patients with acute wounds of various severities to the face, trunk and/or extremities presenting to the emergency department within 24 hours of injury were enrolled. Research assistants transmitted video images of the wound to an emergency physician using a laptop computer. The physician completed a standard wound assessment form before conducting a bedside evaluation and then completing a second assessment form. The primary outcome measure was wound length and depth. We also assessed management decision-making. A total of 173 wounds were evaluated. The correlation coefficient between video and bedside assessments was 0.96 for wound length. The mean difference between the lengths was 0.02 cm (SD 0.91). Management of the wound would have been the same in 94% of cases. The agreement on wound characteristics and wound management ranged from 84-100%. The highest correlation was 0.92 in suture material used and the lowest correlation was 0.64 in wound type. The ability of video images to distinguish between a minor and non-minor wound, and predicting the need for hospital management, had high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. The study showed that wound characteristics and management decisions appear to correlate well between video and bedside evaluations. PMID:23470449

Van Dillen, Christine; Silvestri, Salvatore; Haney, Marisa; Ralls, George; Zuver, Christian; Freeman, Dave; Diaz, Lissa; Papa, Linda

2013-03-07

172

Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism in the Emergency Department and Consistency With a National Quality Measure  

PubMed Central

Background The National Quality Forum (NQF) has endorsed a performance measure designed to increase imaging efficiency for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department (ED). To our knowledge, no published data have examined the effect of patient-level predictors on performance. Methods To quantify the prevalence of avoidable imaging in ED patients with suspected PE, we performed a prospective, multicenter observational study of ED patients evaluated for PE from 2004 through 2007 at 11 US EDs. Adult patients tested for PE were enrolled, with data collected in a standardized instrument. The primary outcome was the proportion of imaging that was potentially avoidable according to the NQF measure. Avoidable imaging was defined as imaging in a patient with low pretest probability for PE, who either did not have a D-dimer test ordered or who had a negative D-dimer test result. We performed subanalyses testing alternative pretest probability cutoffs and imaging definitions on measure performance as well as a secondary analysis to identify factors associated with inappropriate imaging. ?2 Test was used for bivariate analysis of categorical variables and multivariable logistic regression for the secondary analysis. Results We enrolled 5940 patients, of whom 4113 (69%) had low pretest probability of PE. Imaging was performed in 2238 low-risk patients (38%), of whom 811 had no D-dimer testing, and 394 had negative D-dimer test results. Imaging was avoidable, according to the NQF measure, in 1205 patients (32%; 95% CI, 31%-34%). Avoidable imaging owing to not ordering a D-dimer test was associated with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.15 per decade; 95% CI, 1.10-1.21). Avoidable imaging owing to imaging after a negative D-dimer test result was associated with inactive malignant disease (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.11-2.49). Conclusions One-third of imaging performed for suspected PE may be categorized as avoidable. Improving adherence to established diagnostic protocols is likely to result in significantly fewer patients receiving unnecessary irradiation and substantial savings.

Venkatesh, Arjun K.; Kline, Jeffrey A.; Courtney, D. Mark; Camargo, Carlos A.; Plewa, Michael C.; Nordenholz, Kristen E.; Moore, Christopher L.; Richman, Peter B.; Smithline, Howard A.; Beam, Daren M.; Kabrhel, Christopher

2013-01-01

173

Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the...

D. J. Hadlock

1999-01-01

174

Emerging Technology Program (ETP) of the U.S. EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Emerging Technology Program offers a mechanism for performing joint technology development between the private sector and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the goal of shortening the time period from 'proof of concept' to actual tech...

M. I. Black

1988-01-01

175

An evidence-based approach to the evaluation and treatment of low back pain in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal complaint that results in a visit to the emergency department, and it is 1 of the top 5 most common complaints in emergency medicine. Estimates of annual healthcare expenditures for low back pain in the United States exceed $90 billion annually, not even taking lost productivity and business costs into account. This review explores an evidence-based rationale for the evaluation of the patient with low back pain, and it provides guidance on risk stratification pertaining to laboratory assessment and radiologic imaging in the emergency department. Published guidelines from the American College of Physicians and American Pain Society are reviewed, with emphasis on best evidence for pharmacologic treatments, self-care interventions, and more invasive procedures and surgery in management of low back pain. Utilizing effective and proven strategies will avoid medical errors, provide better care for patients, and help manage healthcare resources and costs. PMID:24044786

Borczuk, Pierre

2013-06-10

176

Economic evaluation of a clinical protocol for diagnosing emergency patients with suspected pulmonary embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper is to estimate the amount of cost-savings to the Australian health care system from implementing an evidence-based clinical protocol for diagnosing emergency patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) at the Emergency department of a Victorian public hospital with 50,000 presentations in 2001–2002. METHODS: A cost-minimisation study used the data collected in a controlled clinical

Elena V Gospodarevskaya; Stacy K Goergen; Anthony H Harris; Thomas Chan; John F de Campo; Rory Wolfe; Eng T Gan; Michael B Wheeler; John McKay

2006-01-01

177

Research Paper: Forecasting Emergency Department Crowding: A Prospective, Real-time Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEmergency department crowding threatens quality and access to health care, and a method of accurately forecasting near-future crowding should enable novel ways to alleviate the problem. The authors sought to implement and validate the previously developed ForecastED discrete event simulation for real-time forecasting of emergency department crowding.Design and MeasurementsThe authors conducted a prospective observational study during a three-month period (5\\/1\\/07–8\\/1\\/07)

Nathan R. Hoot; Larry J. LeBlanc; Ian Jones; Scott R. Levin; Chuan Zhou; Cynthia S. Gadd; Dominik Aronsky

2009-01-01

178

Generating Realistic Impressions for File-System Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of file systems and related software de- pends on characteristics of the underlying file-system im- age (i.e., file-system metadata and file contents). Un- fortunately, rather than benchmarking with realistic file- system images, most system designers and evaluators rely on ad hoc assumptions and (often inaccurate) rules of thumb. Furthermore, the lack of standardization and reproducibility makes file system

Nitin Agrawal; Andrea C. Arpaci-dusseau; Remzi H. Arpaci-dusseau

2009-01-01

179

A new improved version of the realistic digital brain phantom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image analysis methods must be tested and evaluated within a controlled environment. Simulations can be an extremely helpful tool for validation because ground truth is known. We created the digital brain phantom that is at the heart of our publicly available database of realistic simulated magnetic resonance image (MRI) volumes known as BrainWeb. Even though the digital phantom had l mm3

Berengere Aubert-Broche; Alan C. Evans; Louis Collins

2006-01-01

180

Thallium myocardial scanning in the emergency department evaluation of chest pain  

SciTech Connect

Chest pain is a common complaint of patients seen in the emergency department. The causes are legion, and range from the non-life threatening to the potentially catastrophic. Thallium heart scanning was done prospectively in 20 patients with a ''classic'' history for myocardial infarction (eight patients) or atypical chest pain and/or associated symptoms plus an abnormal ECG (12 patients) to discern a subset of patients from whom thallium scintography may be indicated in the emergency department. Although further investigation is needed, our preliminary study suggests that myocardial scanning with thallium can be a safe, fairly rapid, and useful objective parameter in the emergency department detection of suspected myocardial infarction, and in differential diagnosis of chest pain when other data such as the history, physical examination, ECG, or enzymes are inconclusive.

Mace, S.E.

1989-05-01

181

Country-of-origin effects in service evaluation in emerging markets: some insights from five West African countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore country-of-origin (COO) effects on service evaluation in an emerging market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To gain insight, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders in five West African countries. A conjoint analysis was also conducted to further explore COO effects. Findings – Propositions were developed based on findings from the qualitative study

Jodie L. Ferguson; Kofi Q. Dadzie; Wesley J. Johnston

2008-01-01

182

New Reporter Cell Line To Evaluate the Sequential Emergence of Multiple Human Cytomegalovirus Mutations during In Vitro Drug Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a new reporter cell line for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) drug susceptibility testing. This cell line was obtained by incorporating the luciferase reporter gene under the control of an HCMV-specific promoter into the genome of astrocytoma cells (U373MG). We then used our reporter cell line to evaluate phenotypic changes conferred by the sequential emergence of HCMV UL54 and UL97

C. Gilbert; G. Boivin

2005-01-01

183

An Approach to and Evaluations of Assisted Living Systems Using Ambient Intelligence for Emergency Monitoring and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is currently one of the important research and development areas, where software engineering\\u000a aspects play a significant role. The goal of AAL solutions is to apply ambient intelligence technologies to enable people\\u000a with specific needs to continue to live in their preferred environments. This paper presents an approach and several evaluations\\u000a for emergency monitoring applications. Experiments

Thomas Kleinberger; Andreas Jedlitschka; Holger Storf; Silke Steinbach-nordmann; Stephan Prueckner

2009-01-01

184

Pilot Testing and Preliminary Evaluation of a Suicide Prevention Education Program for Emergency Department Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency department personnel play an important role in recognizing individuals with suicidality and intervening to prevent\\u000a completed suicide. An educational program was designed to be offered to emergency department personnel, and was piloted with\\u000a a convenience sample of 54 clinicians. Pre-test and post-test measures showed an increase in knowledge scores (from 7.9 ± 1.9\\u000a to 13.6 ± 2.1, P P < .001) regarding management of suicidal patients

Ruth S. Shim; Michael T. Compton

2010-01-01

185

Realistic losses of rare species disproportionately impact higher trophic levels.  

PubMed

Predicting the consequences of changes in biodiversity requires understanding both species' susceptibility to extirpation and their functional roles in ecosystems. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of realistic, non-random biodiversity losses, severely limiting the applicability of biodiversity research to conservation. Here, we removed sessile species from a rocky shore community in a way that deliberately mimicked natural patterns of species loss. We found that the rarest species in the system act from the bottom up to disproportionately impact the diversity and abundance of consumers. Realistic losses of rare species in a diverse assemblage of seaweeds and sessile invertebrates, collectively comprising <10% of sessile biomass, resulted in a 42-47% decline in consumer biomass. In contrast, removal of an equivalent biomass of dominant sessile species had no effect on consumers. Our results highlight the 'cornerstone' role that rare species can play in shaping the structure of the community they support. PMID:22381064

Bracken, Matthew E S; Low, Natalie H N

2012-03-02

186

Constructing realistic neural simulations with GENESIS.  

PubMed

The GEneral NEural SImulation System (GENESIS) is an open source simulation platform for realistic modeling of systems ranging from subcellular components and biochemical reactions to detailed models of single neurons, simulations of large networks of realistic neurons, and systems-level models. The graphical interface XODUS permits the construction of a wide variety of interfaces for the control and visualization of simulations. The object-oriented scripting language allows one to easily construct and modify simulations built from the GENESIS libraries of simulation components. Here, we present procedures for installing GENESIS and its supplementary tutorials, running GENESIS simulations, and creating new neural simulations. PMID:18368363

Bower, James M; Beeman, David

2007-01-01

187

Evaluating the Components of an Emergent Literacy Intervention for Preschool Children at Risk for Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many preschool children are at risk for reading problems because of inadequate emergent literacy skills. Evidence supports the effectiveness of interventions to promote these skills, but questions remain about which intervention components work and whether combining intervention components will result in larger gains. In this study, 324…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Walker, Patricia M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

2013-01-01

188

EVALUATION OF NEW AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A research program was completed to identify new and emerging waste management technologies in the metal finishing industry. A limited field sampling and analytical program was pursued to define performance at full scale operating facilities for the following technologies: (1) bu...

189

Evaluation of Pureau Water For Use as Emergency Drinking Water For ADF Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A commercially available, purified water packed in PET bottles has been tested for suitability as an emergency drinking water for ADF aircraft. The water meets chemical and organoleptic requirements of the ADF, and is preferred to the current product on t...

G. E. Driver

1993-01-01

190

Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers…

Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

2010-01-01

191

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) Emerging Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior to field- ...

E. R. Bates J. G. Herrmann D. E. Sanning

1989-01-01

192

Vibration Signaling in Mobile Devices for Emergency Alerting: A Study with Deaf Evaluators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the United States, a nationwide Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) is being planned to alert cellular mobile device subscribers to emergencies occurring near the location of the mobile device. The plan specifies a unique audio attention signal as well as a unique vibration attention signal (for mobile devices set to vibrate) to identify…

Harkins, Judith; Tucker, Paula E.; Williams, Norman; Sauro, Jeff

2010-01-01

193

Keeping It Real: How Realistic Does Realistic Fiction for Children Need to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|O'Connor, an author of realistic fiction for children, shares her attempts to strike a balance between carefree, uncensored, authentic, realistic writing and age-appropriate writing. Of course, complicating that balancing act is the fact that what seems age-appropriate to her might not seem so to everyone. O'Connor suggests that while it may be…

O'Connor, Barbara

2010-01-01

194

On a Physically Realistic Fast Dynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a step towards a physically realistic model of a fast dynamo, we study numerically a kinematic dynamo driven by convection in a rapidly rotating cylindrical annulus. Convection maintains the quasi-geostrophic balance whilst developing more complicated time-dependence as the Rayleigh number is increased. We incorporate the effects of Ekman suction and investigate dynamo action resulting from a chaotic flow obtained

Eun-Jin Kim; D. W. Hughes; A. M. Soward

1998-01-01

195

Realistic Mathematical Modeling and Problem Posing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I will present a teaching experiment characterized by a sequence of activities based on the use of suitable cultural artifacts, interactive teaching methods, and the introduction of new socio-mathematical norms in order to create a substantially modified teaching\\/learning environment. The focus is on fostering i) a mindful approach toward realistic mathematical modelling, and ii) a problem posing

Cinzia Bonotto

196

Realistic modeling of bird flight animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a physics-based method for synthesis of bird flight animations. Our method computes a realistic set of wingbeats that enables a bird to follow the specified trajectory. We model the bird as an articulated skeleton with elastically deformable feathers. The bird motion is created by applying joint torques and aerodynamic forces over time in a forward

Jia-chi Wu; Zoran Popovi?

2003-01-01

197

Realistic Load Testing ofWeb Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach for performing load testing of web applications by simulating realistic user behaviour with stochastic form-oriented analysis models. Realism in the simulation of user behaviour is necessary in order to achieve valid testing results. In contrast to many other user models, web site navigation and time delay are modelled stochastically. The models can be constructed from

Dirk Draheim; John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber

2006-01-01

198

Physically Realistic Motion Synthesis in Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion-synthesis problems arise in the creation of physically realistic animations involving autonomouscharacters. Typically characters are required to perform goal tasks, subject to physicallaw and other constraints on their motion. Witkin and Kass (1988) dubbed this class of problems"Spacetime Constraints" (SC), and presented results for specific problems involving an articulatedfigure. Their approach was based on a procedure for the local optimization

J. Thomas Ngo; Joe Marks

1993-01-01

199

Realistic, hardware-accelerated shading and lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With fast 3D graphics becoming more and more available even on low end platforms, the focus in hardware-accelerated rendering is beginning to shift towards higher quality rendering and additional functionality instead of simply higher performance implementa- tions based on the traditional graphics pipeline. In this paper we present techniques for realistic shading and lighting using computer graphics hardware. In particular,

Wolfgang Heidrich; Hans-Peter Seidel

1999-01-01

200

A Realist Approach to The Business Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to reformulate the theory of the business enterprise from a realist perspective. To do so it is examined that the evolutionary framework illuminates the fact that the business enterprise is an organiza- tional going concern seeking long-run survival and growth, and is embed- ded in the larger social context. The conventional micro-macro dichotomy is irrelevant in this

Tae-Hee Jo

201

Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

Yue, Jianping

2008-01-01

202

An Evaluation of Two Emergent Literacy Screening Tools for Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Children’s reading success in early elementary school can be predicted from their emergent literacy skills. Consequently, there has been an increased focus on early childhood education as a means of identifying children at risk for later reading difficulty. Because diagnostic measures are impractical for this use, emergent literacy screening tools have been developed. In this study, 176 preschool children ranging in age from 42 to 55 months were administered the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R), the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Results indicated that GRTR-R either matched or outperformed IGDIs in terms of test-retest reliability and concurrent validity.

Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

203

Evaluation of Drug Utilization Patterns during Initial Treatment in the Emergency Room: A Retroprospective Pharmacoepidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Background. We assessed the prescribing trends, average number of drugs per prescription, and cost per prescription during the initial contact of the patient with the physician in emergency room. Methods. This retro-prospective study was conducted over a period of six months. Medical records of two hundred patients were reviewed for prescribing patterns. Results. 52 different types of drugs (996 drugs) were prescribed in total 200 prescriptions during the mean time spent in emergency room of 2.8 ± 1.4 hours. The average number of drugs per prescription was 4.2 ± 1.2. 95% of drugs were prescribed by trade name. Average drugs cost per prescription was 784 ± 134 rupees (17USD). Conclusion. Polypharmacy remains the main form of irrational prescribing. Prescribing patterns of drugs were knowledge based rather than WHO criteria for rational use of drugs.

Cheekavolu, Chakrapani; Pathapati, Rama Mohan; Babasaheb Laxmansingh, Kudagi; Saginela, Satish Kumar; Makineedi, Veera Prasad; Siddalingappa; Kumar, Amitabh

2011-01-01

204

Evaluation of nurse triage in a British accident and emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare formal nurse triage with an informal prioritisation process for waiting times and patient satisfaction. SETTING--Accident and emergency department of a district general hospital in the midlands in 1990. DESIGN--Patients attending between 8:00 am and 9:00 pm over six weeks were grouped for analysis according to whether triage was operating at time of presentation and by their degree of

S. George; S. Read; L. Westlake; B. Williams; A. Fraser-Moodie; P. Pritty

1992-01-01

205

[Emergency home psychiatric care and the role of the general physician. Evaluations and hypotheses].  

PubMed

Some aspects of the activity of the Mental Health Service of Biella are described, particularly those regarding home care. Then, on the basis of a description of a clinical case, the functions and role that it is considered can be fulfilled by the general physician in cooperation with the psychiatrist during emergency hope care when the patient is not already known to the psychiatric service are outlined. PMID:2325863

Merra, S; Merli, R; Biolla, C; Gioeli, A

1990-03-01

206

An evaluation of emergency medicine investigators’ views on open access to medical literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Scientists and governmental agencies have called for free universal access to research publications via the internet—open access.Objectives: To examine the current medical literature reading practices of emergency medicine investigators (EMIs) and their views towards open access.Methods: Surveys were mailed to the 212 corresponding authors of all original research articles published in years 2002 and 2003 in the Annals of

R M Rodriguez; J Wong; J Hardy; E Frankel

2006-01-01

207

A comparative evaluation of the process of developing and implementing an emergency department HIV testing program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV testing guidelines recommend screening for HIV infection in\\u000a all healthcare settings, including the emergency department (ED). In urban areas with a high background prevalence of HIV,\\u000a the ED has become an increasingly important site for identifying HIV infection. However, this public health policy has been\\u000a operationalized using different models. We

Katerina A Christopoulos; Kim Koester; Sheri Weiser; Janet J Myers; Stephen F Morin

2011-01-01

208

Evaluation of a new approach to implement structured, evidence-based emergency medical care in undergraduate medical education in Germany.  

PubMed

Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany allow medical faculties to implement new curricular concepts. The medical faculty of the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, Germany, decided to start a major reform experiment in winter 2003, focussing on an interdisciplinary integration of organs and organ systems such as the cardiovascular or respiratory system. Furthermore, students will have contact with patients at an early stage of their studies. Thus, re-organisation of course contents should lead to a chance to improve practical experience. With the public having the right to expect that physicians and all physicians in training possess a basic knowledge of emergency medical care and the necessary skills to manage acute problems, it was decided to start the first year of the Medical Reform Curriculum Aachen with 3 weeks interdisciplinary introduction into emergency medical care. The task consisted of defining interdisciplinary core objectives and the need to implement teaching and learning principles necessary for further education. Due to this, the content of this course should have practical relevance for the students concerning their practical experiences in the future. The result is an introductory course in emergency medical care in the first semester, coordinated with the lectures. Besides skill training on basics of emergency medical care (basic life support (BLS), early defibrillation), practical training in other lifesaving techniques (e.g., immobilisation skills) and basic principles of daily clinical care are included. In addition, personal safety and a standard algorithm for assessing the patient are covered by problem-based learning sessions. The course evaluation data clearly showed acceptance of the new approach and enhances possibilities of extending implementation of relevant topics concerning emergency medical care within the Medical Reform Curriculum Aachen. PMID:15919573

Beckers, Stefan; Fries, Michael; Bickenbach, Johannes; Hoffmann, Nicolas; Classen-Linke, Irmgard; Killersreiter, Birgitt; Wainwright, Uwe; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

2005-04-18

209

Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43  

SciTech Connect

The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

1982-09-01

210

The quest for physically realistic streamflow forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generation of time stepping hydrological models used by operational forecasting agencies are process-weak, where model parameters are often assigned unrealistic values to compensate for model structural weaknesses. These time stepping simulation models are therefore subject to the same stationarity predicament that plagues statistical streamflow forecasting systems. Consequently, the operational forecasting community has similar research priorities to the science community, that is, to develop physically realistic hydrological models. This paper describes development of a new modeling framework to improve the representation of hydrological processes within operational streamflow forecasting models. The framework recognizes that the majority of process-based models use the same set of physics - most models use Darcy's Law to represent the flow of water through the soil matrix and Fourier's Law for thermodynamics. The new modeling framework uses numerically robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including different methods to represent spatial variability and different parameterizations of surface fluxes and shallow groundwater. Use of multivariate research data to evaluate these different modeling options reveals that the new modeling framework can provide realistic simulations of both point-scale measurements of hydrologic states and fluxes as well as realistic simulations of streamflow in headwater catchments, with minimal calibration. Moreover, the availability of multiple modeling options improves representation of model uncertainty.

Restrepo, Pedro; Wood, Andy; Clark, Martyn

2013-04-01

211

Toward an Emergent View of Lexical Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I propose that the principles of Emergent Grammar (Hopper 1987, 1998) can be applied to lexical semantics. I discuss three instances of discourse semantics to show why an emergent view of semantics can provide a realistic account of semantics in discourse. The three cases are: 1) emergence and negotiation of meaning due to participant interaction in discourse;

Hongyin Tao

2003-01-01

212

Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics  

SciTech Connect

Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.; /Fermilab

2012-01-01

213

Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities.  

PubMed

The benefits of global pesticide use come at the cost of their widespread occurrence in the environment. An array of abiotic and biotic transformations effectively removes pesticides from the environment, but may give rise to potentially hazardous transformation products. Despite a large body of pesticide degradation data from regulatory testing and decades of pesticide research, it remains difficult to anticipate the extent and pathways of pesticide degradation under specific field conditions. Here, we review the major scientific challenges in doing so and discuss emerging opportunities to identify pesticide degradation processes in the field. PMID:23950532

Fenner, Kathrin; Canonica, Silvio; Wackett, Lawrence P; Elsner, Martin

2013-08-16

214

[General practice consultation in a hospital emergency department. History, evaluation and prospects].  

PubMed

INSTALLATION OF A GENERAL MEDICINE CONSULTATION: In 1995, in reaction to an increase of more than 35% over three years, related essentially to out-patient consultations, the installation of a general medicine consultation (GMC) near the emergency unit reception area (EUR) was envisaged. The project, developed over 5 years and based on an epidemiological study, was finally set-up in January 2000. The aims of the GMC are to supply information to the patients, help them in their administrative rights, and their subsequent follow-up by an external physician; the benefits expected by the EUR is the re-concentration on heavier and more urgent pathologies. THE FUNCTION OF THE GMC: Exclusively reserved for CCMU 1 patients (level 1 of the clinical classification of emergency unit patients), the GMC relies on general practice, with the presence of general practitioners installed in the SAU (emergency unit) sector, a double admission method (either via the emergency unit, or directly), a means of payment for the consultation and the absence of priority access to the technical network of the hospital. A social services worker is present. RECRUITMENT: After 18 months of activity, the GMC had managed more than 4500 patients and the method of referral via the SAU, almost exclusive at the beginning, has been reduced to a minority. The patients are generally young; socially close to the underprivileged population surrounding the SAU, but not in a situation of precariousness. The four principle motives for consultation are benign traumas, ENT infections, dermatological affections and pain. A DYNAMIC STRUCTURE: The rapid progress in the context of general medicine, and the observations of the physicians and non-physicians participating in this experience, has progressively modified the aim and mission of this GMC, which is gradually becoming a real structure of permanent care. Its originality is its close link between the town and the hospital, whilst permitting the various actors to remain free and independent. The traditional system of permanent care is no longer adapted to our society, and we must rapidly find solutions. The vocation of the GMC is not to become a universal model, but this new experience opens new horizons for the future. PMID:12448329

Lafay, Vincent; Giraud, Christiane; Bel, Corinne; Giovannetti, Olivier

2002-10-26

215

Evaluation of a new nonnvasive device in determining hemoglobin levels in emergency department patients.  

PubMed

Introduction: The Masimo Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter is a medical device recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that performs noninvasive oximetry and estimated venous or arterial hemoglobin measurements. A portable, noninvasive device that rapidly measures hemoglobin concentration could be useful in both austere and modern hospital settings. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of variation between the device's estimated hemoglobin measurement and the actual venous hemoglobin concentration in undifferentiated emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to the ED. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample of adult ED patients who required a complete blood count as part of their care in the ED. A simultaneous probe hemoglobin was obtained and recorded. Results: Bias between probe and laboratory hemoglobin measurements was -0.5 (95% confidence interval, - 0.8 to -0.1) but this was not statistically significant from 0 (t 0.05,124 = 0.20, P > 0.5). The limits of agreement were -4.7 and 3.8, beyond the clinically relevant standard of equivalency of ± 1 g/dL. Conclusion: These data suggest that noninvasive hemoglobin determination is not sufficiently accurate for emergency department use. PMID:23687550

Knutson, Tristan; Della-Giustina, David; Tomich, Eric; Wills, Brandon; Luerssen, Emily; Reynolds, Penny

2013-05-01

216

Evaluation of a New Nonnvasive Device in Determining Hemoglobin Levels in Emergency Department Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Masimo Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter is a medical device recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that performs noninvasive oximetry and estimated venous or arterial hemoglobin measurements. A portable, noninvasive device that rapidly measures hemoglobin concentration could be useful in both austere and modern hospital settings. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of variation between the device's estimated hemoglobin measurement and the actual venous hemoglobin concentration in undifferentiated emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to the ED. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample of adult ED patients who required a complete blood count as part of their care in the ED. A simultaneous probe hemoglobin was obtained and recorded. Results: Bias between probe and laboratory hemoglobin measurements was –0.5 (95% confidence interval, – 0.8 to –0.1) but this was not statistically significant from 0 (t0.05,124 = 0.20, P > 0.5). The limits of agreement were –4.7 and 3.8, beyond the clinically relevant standard of equivalency of ± 1 g/dL. Conclusion: These data suggest that noninvasive hemoglobin determination is not sufficiently accurate for emergency department use.

Knutson, Tristan; Della-Giustina, David; Tomich, Eric; Wills, Brandon; Luerssen, Emily; Reynolds, Penny

2013-01-01

217

Nonsymmetrized Hyperspherical Harmonics with Realistic NN Potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schrödinger equation is solved for an A-nucleon system using an expansion of the wave function in nonsymmetrized hyperspherical harmonics. Our approach is based on the formalism developed by Gattobigio et al. (Phys Rev A 79:032513, 2009; Few-Body Syst 45:127, 2009; Phys Rev C 83:024001, 2011), where it was applied to four- and six-body systems using central and central spin dependent potentials. In addition we include isospin dependence and noncentral forces in order to be able to make calculations also with more realistic NN potential models. Furthermore, a more efficient procedure to determine the fermionic spectrum is used. The approach is applied to four- and six-body nuclei (4He,6Li) with various NN potential models including for 4He the realistic AV18 potential. It is shown that the results for ground-state energy and radius agree well with those from the literature.

Deflorian, Sergio; Barnea, Nir; Leidemann, Winfried; Orlandini, Giuseppina

2013-11-01

218

Toward the Formation of Realistic Galaxy Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review I demonstrate that a realistic model for the formation of galaxy disks depends on a proper treatment of the gas in galaxies. Historically, cosmological simulations of disk galaxy formation have suffered from a lack of resolution and a physically motivated feedback prescription. Recent computational progress has allowed for unprecedented resolution, which in turn allows for a more realistic treatment of feedback. These advances have led to a new examination of gas accretion, evolution, and loss in the formation of galaxy disks. Here I highlight the role that gas inflows, the regulation of gas by feedback, and gas outflows play in achieving simulated disk galaxies that better match observational results as a function of redshift.

Brooks, A.

2010-10-01

219

Realistic nuclear Hamiltonian: Ab exitu approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully-microscopic no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations of all stable s and p shell nuclei are used to determine a realistic NN interaction, JISP16, describing not only the two-nucleon data but the binding energies and spectra of nuclei with A?16 as well. The JISP16 interaction, providing rapid convergence of the NCSM calculations, is obtained in an ab exitu approach by phase-equivalent

A. M. Shirokov; J. P. Vary; A. I. Mazur; T. A. Weber

2007-01-01

220

Realistic Nuclear Hamiltonian: Ab exitu approach  

SciTech Connect

Fully-microscopic No-core Shell Model (NCSM) calculations of all stable s and p shell nuclei are used to determine realistic NN interaction JISP16 describing not only the two-nucleon data but the binding energies and spectra of nuclei with A {le} 16 as well. The JISP16 interaction, providing rapid convergence of the NCSM calculations, is obtained in an ab exitu approach by phase-equivalent transformations of the JISP6 NN interaction.

Shirokov, A

2006-01-13

221

Realistic Nuclear Hamiltonian: Ab exitu approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully-microscopic No-core Shell Model (NCSM) calculations of all stable s and p shell nuclei are used to determine realistic NN interaction JISP16 describing not only the two-nucleon data but the binding energies and spectra of nuclei with A ⤠16 as well. The JISP16 interaction, providing rapid convergence of the NCSM calculations, is obtained in an ab exitu approach by

Shirokov

2006-01-01

222

Realistic nuclear Hamiltonian: Ab exitu approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully-microscopic No-core Shell Model (NCSM) calculations of all stable $s$ and $p$ shell nuclei are used to determine realistic $NN$ interaction JISP16 describing not only the two-nucleon data but the binding energies and spectra of nuclei with $A\\\\leq 16$ as well. The JISP16 interaction, providing rapid convergence of the NCSM calculations, is obtained in an {\\\\em ab exitu} approach by

A. M. Shirokov; J. P. Vary; A. I. Mazur; T. A. Weber

2007-01-01

223

Walking gauge dynamics and realistic technicolor  

SciTech Connect

A realistic technicolor model, effective below 150 TeV is outlined. The new feature of the model is that the third generation quarks are unified with the technifermions into multiplets of a walking gauge force down to a scale of [similar to]10 TeV. Because they directly feel the walking force these quarks can have mass enhancements even greater than those of conventional walking schemes. Electroweak radiative corrections are estimable and within experimental limits.

Sundrum, R. (Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley 94720 (United States) Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley 94720 (United States))

1992-02-05

224

How to Be a Good Realist  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The real problem in philosophy is how to be a realist without being an essentialist. Given the indefinitely many ways of representing\\u000a the world that are available to us, limited only by our ingenuity, or by canons of consistency, or relevance, or simplicity,\\u000a or beauty, or utility, essentialism would have little claim on us, if it were not for the

Marx W. Wartofsky

225

Dynamical Symmetries Reflected in Realistic Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, derived within the framework of meson theory or more recently in terms of chiral effective field theory, yield new possibilities for achieving a unified microscopic description of atomic nuclei. Based on spectral distribution methods, a comparison of these interactions to a most general Sp(4) dynamically symmetric interaction, which previously we found to reproduce well that part of the interaction that is responsible for shaping pairing-governed isobaric analog 0{sup +} states, can determine the extent to which this significantly simpler model Hamiltonian can be used to obtain an approximate, yet very good description of low-lying nuclear structure. And furthermore, one can apply this model in situations that would otherwise be prohibitive because of the size of the model space. In addition, we introduce a Sp(4) symmetry breaking term by including the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the analysis and examining the capacity of this extended model interaction to imitate realistic interactions. This provides a further step towards gaining a better understanding of the underlying foundation of realistic interactions and their ability to reproduce striking features of nuclei such as strong pairing correlations or collective rotational motion.

Sviratcheva, K.D.; Draayer, J.P.; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

2007-04-06

226

Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem  

SciTech Connect

Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

2008-11-06

227

Nine-year evaluation of emergency department personnel exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Emergency department personnel experience potential occupational hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation (x-rays). To assess this risk, ionizing radiation exposure was analyzed during a nine-year period for 128 ED personnel. The group consisted of 21 physicians, 92 nurses, and 15 ancillary personnel. Exposure was measured for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiation using standard film dosimeter badges. Film badge use compliance was 66.7% for physicians, 86.2% for nurses, and 86.7% for ancillary personnel. Penetrating radiation exposure averaged 0.12 mrem/month for physicians, 0.70 mrem/month for nurses, and 0 mrem/month for ancillary personnel, all less than the average natural background exposure. We concluded that if standard radiation precautions are taken, the occupational risk from ionizing radiation exposure to personnel in the ED is minimal, and that routine monitoring of radiation exposure of ED personnel is unnecessary.

Grazer, R.E.; Meislin, H.W.; Westerman, B.R.; Criss, E.A.

1987-03-01

228

Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.

2012-01-01

229

President's Emergency Plan for Aids Relief: Agencies Can Enhance Evaluation Quality, Planning, and Dissemination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PEPFAR, reauthorized by Congress in fiscal year 2008, supports HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care overseas. The reauthorizing legislation, as well as other U.S. law and government policy, stresses the importance of evaluation for improving program p...

2012-01-01

230

Evaluation of Air Cleaning System Concepts for Emergency Use in LMFBR Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nineteen different air cleaning concepts are arranged into twenty-four systems and evaluated for use as accident mitigating systems in LMFBR plants. Both single, low-leakage containment plants and once-through operation applicable to containment/confineme...

A. K. Postma J. D. McCormack R. K. Hilliard

1976-01-01

231

Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described.

Berger, M.E.

1982-01-01

232

Large-System Transformation in Health Care: A Realist Review  

PubMed Central

Context An evidence base that addresses issues of complexity and context is urgently needed for large-system transformation (LST) and health care reform. Fundamental conceptual and methodological challenges also must be addressed. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health in Canada requested a six-month synthesis project to guide four major policy development and strategy initiatives focused on patient- and family-centered care, primary health care renewal, quality improvement, and surgical wait lists. The aims of the review were to analyze examples of successful and less successful transformation initiatives, to synthesize knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, to clarify the role of government, and to outline options for evaluation. Methods We used realist review, whose working assumption is that a particular intervention triggers particular mechanisms of change. Mechanisms may be more or less effective in producing their intended outcomes, depending on their interaction with various contextual factors. We explain the variations in outcome as the interplay between context and mechanisms. We nested this analytic approach in a macro framing of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Findings Our rapid realist review identified five “simple rules” of LST that were likely to enhance the success of the target initiatives: (1) blend designated leadership with distributed leadership; (2) establish feedback loops; (3) attend to history; (4) engage physicians; and (5) include patients and families. These principles play out differently in different contexts affecting human behavior (and thereby contributing to change) through a wide range of different mechanisms. Conclusions Realist review methodology can be applied in combination with a complex system lens on published literature to produce a knowledge synthesis that informs a prospective change effort in large-system transformation. A collaborative process engaging both research producers and research users contributes to local applications of universal principles and mid-range theories, as well as to a more robust knowledge base for applied research. We conclude with suggestions for the future development of synthesis and evaluation methods.

Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Lewis, Steven; Saul, Jessie E; Carroll, Simon; Bitz, Jennifer

2012-01-01

233

Imaging-Based Tumor Treatment Response Evaluation: Review of Conventional, New, and Emerging Concepts  

PubMed Central

Tumor response may be assessed readily by the use of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor version 1.1. However, the criteria mainly depend on tumor size changes. These criteria do not reflect other morphologic (tumor necrosis, hemorrhage, and cavitation), functional, or metabolic changes that may occur with targeted chemotherapy or even with conventional chemotherapy. The state-of-the-art multidetector CT is still playing an important role, by showing high-quality, high-resolution images that are appropriate enough to measure tumor size and its changes. Additional imaging biomarker devices such as dual energy CT, positron emission tomography, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI shall be more frequently used for tumor response evaluation, because they provide detailed anatomic, and functional or metabolic change information during tumor treatment, particularly during targeted chemotherapy. This review elucidates morphologic and functional or metabolic approaches, and new concepts in the evaluation of tumor response in the era of personalized medicine (targeted chemotherapy).

Kang, Hee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jae-Hun

2012-01-01

234

Color image quality metric for realistic image rendition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic image rendition, concerning on color constancy and lightness, is usually qualified by subjective evaluation, involving uncertainly psychophysical course. Whether common objective image quality metrics can be adopted to evaluate the rendition results is studied in this paper. Several common objective image quality metrics such as RMES, PSNR, and a newly universal one named Q metric are introduced. Experiments show that it's applicable to take images under standard lighting conditions (e.g. D65) as reference images, which is necessary for objective assessment. Experiment results confirm that introduced objective image quality metrics can help to evaluate the lightness and color constancy ability of images, in case of taking images under standard lights as reference images.

Xiao, Man-jun; Chen, Si-Ying; Ni, Guo-qiang

2008-03-01

235

Encountering Anger in the Emergency Department: Identification, Evaluations and Responses of Staff Members to Anger Displays  

PubMed Central

Background. Anger manifestations in emergency departments (EDs) occur daily, interrupting workflow and exposing staff to risk. Objectives. How staff assess and recognize patients' angry outbursts in EDs and elucidate responses to anger expressions, while considering effects of institution guidelines. Methods. Observations of staff patient interaction in EDs and personal interviews of staff (n = 38) were conducted. Two questionnaires were administered (n = 80 & n = 144). Assessment was based mainly on regression statistic tests. Results. Staff recognizes two types of anger displays. Magnitude of anger expressions were correlated with staff's fear level. Staff's responses ranged from ignoring incidents, giving in to patients' requests or immediately calling security. When staff felt fear and became angry they tended to call security. Staff was more likely to ignore anger when incident responsibility was assigned to patients. Discussion. Anger encounters are differentiated according to intensity level, which influences interpretations and response. Organizational policy has an effect on staff's response. Conclusions. Staff recognizes anger at varying levels and responds accordingly. The level of danger staff feels is a catalyst in giving in or calling security. Call security is influenced by fear, and anger. Permanent guidelines can help staff in responding to anger encounters.

Arik, Cheshin; Anat, Rafaeli; Arie, Eisenman

2012-01-01

236

Evaluating the transient performance of emergency diesel generator units by computer modeling  

SciTech Connect

Diesel generator units applied as standby power supplies for nuclear power generating stations are required to start, accelerate, and accept engineered safeguards loads within a specified time period. In addition, voltage and frequency at the generator terminals must be maintained within limits during normal and transient conditions, including transients caused by load application and removal. Traditionally, factory tests, site acceptance, and periodic test have been used to demonstrate the capability of diesel generator units. For the factory tests, equivalent loads are used to approximate the dynamic characteristics of the engineered safeguards loads. For site tests, it is difficult to obtain the actual loading that could occur during plant emergency conditions. Also, plant modifications to meet the ongoing regulatory process may require that existing diesel generator units supply more equipment. However, before changes are made to the loading of an existing diesel generator unit, it is necessary to analyze the effect of additional loads on its transient performance. Alternate loading sequences may have to be considered, and it may be necessary to consider replacing the governor or the voltage regulator to accommodate the load increases. The Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program (EMTP) has recently been used to analyze the transient performance of existing and newly purchased diesel generator units at a nuclear power generating station. A model was developed to represent the dynamics of the diesel engine, governor, generator, exciter/regulator, motors with driven equipment, and other loads.

Bucci, R.; Hassan, I.; Weronick, R.; Busch, W.

1990-01-01

237

Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology  

PubMed Central

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 ?s, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.

Gomez, Carles; Oller, Joaquim; Paradells, Josep

2012-01-01

238

Implementing successful intimate partner violence screening programs in health care settings: Evidence generated from a realist-informed systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a synthesis of existing studies to re-evaluate the evidence on program mechanisms of intimate partner violence (IPV) universal screening and disclosure within a health care context by addressing how, for whom, and in what circumstances these programs work. Our review is informed by a realist review approach, which focuses on program mechanisms. Systematic, realist reviews can help reveal

Patricia O’Campo; Maritt Kirst; Charoula Tsamis; Catharine Chambers; Farah Ahmad

2011-01-01

239

Field-based data collection techniques for the evaluation of information fusion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to effectively evaluate information fusion systems or emerging technologies, it is critical to quickly, efficient, and accurately collect functional and observational data about such systems. One of the best ways to test a system's capabilities is to have an end user operate it in controlled but realistic field-based situations. Evaluation data of the systems' performance as well as

Brian Antonishek; Brian A. Weiss; Craig Schlenoff

2009-01-01

240

An evaluation of the emerging vaccines and immunotherapy against staphylococcal pneumonia in children  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of human skin and nares. It is also one of the leading nosocomial pathogens in both developed and developing countries and is responsible for a wide range of life threatening infections, especially in patients who are immunocompromised, post-surgery, undergoing haemodialysis and those who are treated with catheters and ventilators. Over the past two decades, the incidence of nosocomial staphylococcal infections has increased dramatically. Currently there are at least seven vaccine and immunotherapy candidates against S. aureus in the developmental phase targeting both active and passive immunization. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against Staphylococcus aureus relevant to several criteria of interest: answerability; cost of development, production and implementation; efficacy and effectiveness; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential impact on disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies) to participate. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results The panel of experts expressed low levels of optimism (score around or below 50%) on the criteria of answerability, efficacy, maximum disease burden reduction potential, low cost of production, low cost of implementation and affordability; moderate levels of optimism (scores around 60 to 80%) that these vaccines could be developed at a low cost, and thus on the deliverability, sustainability and impact on equity; and high levels of optimism (scores above 80%) regarding acceptable of such a product to both the end-users and health workers. While assessing the candidates for passive immunization against S.aureus, the experts were poorly optimistic regarding low production cost, low implementation cost, efficacy, deliverability, sustainability, affordability and equity; moderately optimistic regarding answerability and acceptability to health workers and end-users. They were of the opinion that these interventions would have only a modest impact (3 to 5%) on the burden of childhood pneumonia. . Conclusion In order to provide an effective vaccine against S. aureus, a number of unresolved issues in vaccine development relating to optimal antigenic target identification, criteria for acceptable efficacy, identification of target population, commercial development limitations, optimal timing of immunization strategy, storage, cold chain requirements and cost need to be addressed properly. There is still a great deal unknown about the complex interaction between S. aureus and the human host. However, given the nature of S. aureus and the lessons learned from the recent failure of two emerging vaccines, it is clear that a multi-component vaccine is essential. Combating only one virulence factor is not sufficient in the human host but finding the right combination of factors will be very challenging.

2011-01-01

241

Realist model approach to quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proves that quantum mechanics is compatible with the constructive realism of modern philosophy of science. The proof is based on the observation that properties of quantum systems that are uniquely determined by their preparations can be assumed objective without the difficulties that are encountered by the same assumption about values of observables. The resulting realist interpretation of quantum mechanics is made rigorous by studying the space of quantum states—the convex set of state operators. Prepared states are classified according to their statistical structure into indecomposable and decomposable instead of pure and mixed. Simple objective properties are defined and showed to form a Boolean lattice.

Hájí?ek, P.

2013-06-01

242

Inflation In A Realistic SO(10) Model  

SciTech Connect

We implement inflation within a realistic supersymmetric SO(10) model in which the doublet-triplet splitting is realized through the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism, the MSSM {mu} problem is resolved, and higgsino mediated dimension five nucleon decay is heavily suppressed. The cosmologically unwanted topological defects are inflated away, and from {delta}T/T, the B - L breaking scale is estimated to be of order 1016 - 1017 GeV. Including supergravity corrections, the scalar spectral index ns = 0.99 {+-} 0.01, with dns/dlnk {<=} 10-3.

Kyae, Bumseok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Cheongnyangni-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-02

243

Synthetic tsunami mareograms for realistic oceanic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the tsunami mode is generated by a scaled double-couple seismic source, and how it propagates in realistic oceanic models. The method developed and used is the direct extension to tsunami waves propagating in multilayered oceanic media of the well-known Haskell method. The most intensive tsunamis may be expected from sources located within the crust in the deep-water parts of the ocean. The extension to laterally heterogeneous structures shows that, if the thickness of the ocean liquid layer diminishes, the maximum amplitude of the tsunami wave train increases.

Panza, Giuliano F.; Romanelli, Fabio; Yanovskaya, Tatiana B.

2000-05-01

244

Photodisintegration of the triton with realistic potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process ?+t-->n+d is treated by means of three-body integral equations employing in their kernel the W-matrix representation of the subsystem amplitudes. As compared to the plane wave (Born) approximation the full solution of the integral equations, which takes into account the final state interaction, shows at low energies a 24% enhancement. The calculations are based on the semirealistic Malfliet-Tjon and the realistic Paris and Bonn B potentials. For comparison with earlier calculations we also present results for the Yamaguchi potential. In the low-energy region a remarkable potential dependence is observed, which vanishes at higher energies.

Schadow, W.; Sandhas, W.

1997-03-01

245

Collimated projection systems - More realistic flight simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of the Multiview system, a collimated multiple-field-of-view projection method. The system's display provides a cross-cockpit view for flight crew members by utilizing a full-color projection system that puts collimated scene images on a continuous lightweight mirror. As there are no seams in the mirror, nothing detracts from the image, giving the crew a realistic panoramic view that offers a field of view that is 40 deg vertical and 150, 180, 200 or 225 deg horizontal.

Martzall, Thomas L.

1991-09-01

246

Realistic Momentum Distributions of the alpha Particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present various types of momentum distributions of the alpha particle using ATMS wave function generated with the Reid soft core V_{8} model potential. Those are the momentum distributions of the single-nucleon, two-nucleon-cluster relative motion, two-nucleon-cluster center of mass, triton-proton relative motion and deuteron-deuteron relative motion. These momentum distributions are well represented as a sum of Gaussian functions. With these Gaussian expansions, the realistic momentum distributions of the alpha particle would become accessible to everyone.

Morita, H.; Akaishi, Y.; Tanaka, H.

1988-04-01

247

[Complex evaluation of the impact of emerging mining industries in Northern regions on public health].  

PubMed

The studies covered public health state in vicinity of concentration enterprise being built in Far North, with selecting a cohort of workers extracting diamonds in Yakutia, conducting a primary standardized health screening in accordance with WHO program. The public health state is characterized in connection with ecologic, social and economic circumstances. The authors necessitate complex evaluation of influence caused by industrial enterprises on health of workers and general population. PMID:11530518

Mitrofanov, I M; Nikolaev, Iu A; Ke?l', V R; Kuznetsova, I Iu; Shurgaia, A M; Seliatitskaia, V G

2001-01-01

248

The consumer quality index (CQ-index) in an accident and emergency department: development and first evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of patients’ views are essential to provide a patient-centred health service and to evaluating quality of care. As no standardized and validated system for measuring patients’ experiences in accident and emergency departments existed, we have developed the Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department (CQI A&E). Methods Qualitative research has been undertaken to determine the content validity of the CQI A&E. In order to assess psychometric characteristics an 84-item questionnaire was sent to 653 patients who had attended a large A&E in the Netherlands. Also, fifty importance questions were added to determine relevance of the questions and for future calculations of improvement scores. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to detect the domains of the questionnaire. Results Survey data of 304 (47%) patients were used for the analysis. The first exploratory factor analysis resulted in three domains based on 13 items: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Environment and impression of the A&E’ and ‘Respect for and explanation to the patient’. The first two had an acceptable internal consistency. The second analysis, included 24 items grouped into 5 domains: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Information and explanation’, ‘Environment of the A&E’,’Leaving the A&E’ and ‘General information and rapidity of care’. All factors were internal consistent. According to the patients, the three most important aspects in healthcare performance in the A&E were: trust in the competence of the healthcare professionals, hygiene in the A&E and patients’ health care expectations. In general, the highest improvement scores concerned patient information. Conclusions The Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department measures patients’ experiences of A&E healthcare performance. Preliminary psychometric characteristics are sufficient to justify further research into reliability and validity.

2012-01-01

249

Computer Simulation in Mass Emergency and Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness as a Tool for Demonstrating Strategic Competency in Emergency Department Medical Responders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the capability of computer simulation as a tool for assessing the strategic competency of emergency department nurses as they responded to authentically computer simulated biohazard-exposed patient case studies. Thirty registered nurses from a large, urban hospital completed a series of computer-simulated case studies of…

O'Reilly, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

250

Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is an update of the 2004 clinical policy on the critical issues in the evaluation of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute blunt abdominal trauma. A writing subcommittee reviewed the literature as part of the process to develop evidence-based recommendations to address 4 key critical questions: (1) In a hemodynamically unstable patient with blunt abdominal trauma, is ultrasound the diagnostic modality of choice? (2) Does oral contrast improve the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in blunt abdominal trauma? (3) In a clinically stable patient with isolated blunt abdominal trauma, is it safe to discharge the patient after a negative abdominal CT scan result? (4) In patients with isolated blunt abdominal trauma, are there clinical predictors that allow the clinician to identify patients at low risk for adverse events who do not need an abdominal CT? Evidence was graded and recommendations were based on the available data in the medical literature related to the specific clinical question. PMID:21453818

Diercks, Deborah B; Mehrotra, Abhishek; Nazarian, Devorah J; Promes, Susan B; Decker, Wyatt W; Fesmire, Francis M

2011-04-01

251

Realistic Magnetohydrodynamical Simulation of Solar Local Supergranulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of solar surface magnetoconvection using realistic model physics are conducted. The thermal structure of convective motions into the upper radiative layers of the photosphere, the main scales of convective cells and the penetration depths of convection are investigated. We take part of the solar photosphere with size of 60×60 Mm in horizontal direction and by depth 20 Mm from level of the visible solar surface. We use a realistic initial model of the Sun and apply equation of state and opacities of stellar matter. The equations of fully compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamics with dynamical viscosity and gravity are solved. We apply: 1) Piecewise Parabolic Method on a Local Stecil (PPML) for the magnetohydrodynamics, 2) conservative method of characteristic for the radiative transfer, 3) dynamical viscosity from subgrid scale modeling. In simulation we take uniform two-dimesional grid in gorizontal plane and nonuniform grid in vertical direction with number of cells 600×600×204. We use 512 processors with distributed memory multiprocessors on supercomputer MVS-100k in the Joint Computational Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Ustyugov, S. D.

2012-08-01

252

Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology  

SciTech Connect

This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

2009-04-01

253

Children Gifted in Drawing: Precocious Realists vs. Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals differ in their ability to draw realistically and these differences can be seen in early childhood, prior to any formal instruction. Some children, considered precocious realists, are able to draw far more realistically than their peers, even if they have never received formal instruction. In this article, the authors describe some of…

Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen

2010-01-01

254

Realistic job information and salesforce turnover : an investigative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has been done on the impact of realistic job information on the salesperson?s decision to terminate a sales position. Using propensity to leave as a surrogate for salesforce turnover, presents the results of an investigative study of realistic job information in sales interviewing. Breaks down the construct of realistic job information into four dimensions, namely volume; personal relevance;

Leyland F. Pitt; B. Ramaseshan

1995-01-01

255

The design and implementation of urban earthquake disaster loss evaluation and emergency response decision support systems based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the necessity analysis of GIS applications in earthquake disaster prevention, this paper has deeply discussed the spatial integration scheme of urban earthquake disaster loss evaluation models and visualization technologies by using the network development methods such as COM/DCOM, ActiveX and ASP, as well as the spatial database development methods such as OO4O and ArcSDE based on ArcGIS software packages. Meanwhile, according to Software Engineering principles, a solution of Urban Earthquake Emergency Response Decision Support Systems based on GIS technologies have also been proposed, which include the systems logical structures, the technical routes,the system realization methods and function structures etc. Finally, the testing systems user interfaces have also been offered in the paper.

Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-li; Peng, Shuang-yun; Cao, Yan-bo

2008-10-01

256

Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

2009-08-01

257

Use of computed tomography in the emergency room to evaluate blunt cerebrovascular injury.  

PubMed

BCVI remains a potentially devastating consequence of blunt-force trauma. However, over the past decades significant advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology, risk factors, and natural history of BCVI. Given the initial asymptomatic period, there is time to diagnose and treat these lesions before the onset of neurologic insult. This early recognition and intervention greatly improves morbidity and mortality directly associated with BCVI. Screening criteria have been identified and reviewed. All patients at risk of BCVI, based on mechanism of injury and risk factors, should be rapidly evaluated for possible injury. It is the authors' current belief that even the newest generation of CT scanners has not been proved to reliably diagnose BCVI. Until further work is done to advance the technology of CTA and prove its equivalence to DSA, there exists too much potential neurologic morbidity and mortality for one to rely on CTA alone (Table 2). Given the variable, and often low, reported sensitivities of CTA, the cost analysis done by Kaye and colleagues [23] would also recommend initial DSA as being cost-effective in avoiding the long-term devastating sequelae of stroke. At the time of writing the authors recommend that CTA be included in an algorithm to evaluate BCVI, but the current data are too disparate with widely variable reported sensitivities, and the risk of missed injury and stroke too severe, to rely on CTA as the definitive diagnostic or screening test for BCVI. Rather, abnormal CTA findings should be added to the traditional screening criteria to identify patients at risk of BCVI; these patients should be evaluated with DSA for definitive screening. Adding abnormal CTA findings to the traditionally described BCVI screening criteria widens the criteria substantially, allowing identification of almost all of the elusive 20% of patients traditionally not identified with basic screening criteria. In addition, given the high specificity of CTA and the decreased morbidity of BCVI with rapid institution of treatment, the authors recommend beginning a low-dose heparin drip (if there are no contraindications to anticoagulation) based on CTA findings while awaiting the confirmatory DSA. Despite advances in CTA technology in recent years, DSA currently remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BCVI. All patients with standard risk factors for BCVI, or abnormal findings on CTA, should undergo DSA as the screening test of choice for BCVI. PMID:22873041

Parks, Nancy A; Croce, Martin A

2012-01-01

258

Standardized Patients Provide Realistic and Worthwhile Experiences for Athletic Training Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Standardized patients are more prominently used to both teach and evaluate students' clinical skills and abilities. Objective: To investigate whether athletic training students perceived an encounter with a standardized patient (SP) as realistic and worthwhile and to determine their perceived comfort in future lower extremity evaluations…

Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

259

Merits of random forests emerge in evaluation of chemometric classifiers by external validation.  

PubMed

Real-world applications will inevitably entail divergence between samples on which chemometric classifiers are trained and the unknowns requiring classification. This has long been recognized, but there is a shortage of empirical studies on which classifiers perform best in 'external validation' (EV), where the unknown samples are subject to sources of variation relative to the population used to train the classifier. Survey of 286 classification studies in analytical chemistry found only 6.6% that stated elements of variance between training and test samples. Instead, most tested classifiers using hold-outs or resampling (usually cross-validation) from the same population used in training. The present study evaluated a wide range of classifiers on NMR and mass spectra of plant and food materials, from four projects with different data properties (e.g., different numbers and prevalence of classes) and classification objectives. Use of cross-validation was found to be optimistic relative to EV on samples of different provenance to the training set (e.g., different genotypes, different growth conditions, different seasons of crop harvest). For classifier evaluations across the diverse tasks, we used ranks-based non-parametric comparisons, and permutation-based significance tests. Although latent variable methods (e.g., PLSDA) were used in 64% of the surveyed papers, they were among the less successful classifiers in EV, and orthogonal signal correction was counterproductive. Instead, the best EV performances were obtained with machine learning schemes that coped with the high dimensionality (914-1898 features). Random forests confirmed their resilience to high dimensionality, as best overall performers on the full data, despite being used in only 4.5% of the surveyed papers. Most other machine learning classifiers were improved by a feature selection filter (ReliefF), but still did not out-perform random forests. PMID:24139571

Scott, I M; Lin, W; Liakata, M; Wood, J E; Vermeer, C P; Allaway, D; Ward, J L; Draper, J; Beale, M H; Corol, D I; Baker, J M; King, R D

2013-09-23

260

Emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Objective: To review current knowledge about emergency contraception (EC), including available options, their modes of action, efficacy, safety, and the effective provision of EC within a practice setting. Options: The combined estradiol-levonorgestrel (Yuzpe regimen) and the levonorgestrel-only regimen, as well as post-coital use of copper intrauterine devices, are reviewed. Outcomes: Efficacy in terms of reduction in risk of pregnancy, safety, and side effects of methods for EC and the effect of the means of access to EC on its appropriate use and the use of consistent contraception. Evidence: Studies published in English between January 1998 and March 2010 were retrieved though searches of Medline and the Cochrane Database, using appropriate key words (emergency contraception, post-coital contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, post-coital copper IUD). Clinical guidelines and position papers developed by health or family planning organizations were also reviewed. Values: The studies reviewed were classified according to criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, and the recommendations for practice were ranked according to this classification (Table 1). Benefits, Harms, and Costs: These guidelines are intended to help reduce unintended pregnancies by increasing awareness and appropriate use of EC. Sponsor: The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Summary Statements 1. Hormonal emergency contraception may be effective if used up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse. (II-2) 2. The earlier hormonal emergency contraception is used, the more effective it is. (II-2) 3. A copper IUD can be effective emergency contraception if used within 7 days after intercourse. (II-2) 4. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception regimens are more effective and cause fewer side effects than the Yuzpe regimen. (I) 5. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception single dose (1.5 mg) and the 2-dose levonorgestrel regimen (0.75 mg 12 hours apart) have similar efficacy with no difference in side effects. (I) 6. Of the hormonal emergency contraception regimens available in Canada, levonorgestrel-only is the drug of choice. (I) 7. A pregnancy that results from failure of emergency contraception need not be terminated (I) Recommendations 1. Emergency contraception should be used as soon as possible after unprotected sexual intercourse. (II-2A) 2. Emergency contraception should be offered to women if unprotected intercourse has occurred within the time it is known to be effective (5 days for hormonal methods and up to 7 days for a copper IUD). (II-2B) 3. Women should be evaluated for pregnancy if menses have not begun within 21 days following emergency contraception treatment. (III-A) 4. During physician visits for periodic health examinations or reproductive health concerns, any woman in the reproductive age group who has not been sterilized may be counselled about emergency contraception in advance with detailed information about how and when to use it. (III-C). PMID:22971457

Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith

2012-09-01

261

Simulation of realistic synthetic reflection sequences  

SciTech Connect

It is useful to be able to calculate synthetic primary reflection sequences from which to generate synthetic seismic sections which can be used for testing new processing algorithms. However, these synthetic reflection sequences should closely match real properties found in recent studies. Using the ARMA(1,1) model resulting from such studies to describe the correlation (or spectral) structure of the sequences, and by matching moments up to fourth order (since the sequences are non-Gaussian in practice), realistic sequences can be generated. A simple scheme is provided which also eliminate the necessity of throwing away large numbers of simulated values at start-up. The procedure is illustrated on three real sequences and is seen to reproduce all the important features.

Walden, A.T. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01

262

Respiratory flow in a realistic tracheostenosis model.  

PubMed

The possible mechanism of wheeze generation in tracheostenosis was identified by measuring inspiratory and expiratory flow in a "morphological and distensible" realistic tracheostenosis model. The shape of the model was based on CT (Computed Tomography) images of a patient that had tracheostenosis. A trachea consists of tracheal cartilage rings and smooth muscle. Spatial variation of wall distensibility was achieved in the model by varying the wall thickness based on the elastic modulus measured in pig airways. The spatial variation influenced the flow in the airway and the turbulence production rate decreased faster at smooth muscles. Using the model, we investigated the mechanism of wheeze generation by focusing on the turbulence intensity. The turbulence intensity in expiratory flow was about twice that in inspiratory flow, and larger vortices existed in post-stenosis in expiratory flow, and thus might contribute to wheeze generation. PMID:12968570

Sera, Toshihiro; Satoh, Sunao; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Tanishita, Kazuo

2003-08-01

263

HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF A REALISTIC MAGNETOCONVECTIVE SUNSPOT SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C. [Northwest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rempel, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, HAO Division, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr., E-mail: dbraun@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: aaronb@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: renpel@ucar.edu, E-mail: Thomas.L.Duvall@nasa.gov [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-01-01

264

Helioseismology of a Realistic MHD Sunspot Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently measured travel times and absorption of p modes propagating through a realistic numerical model of solar convection in the presence of a sunspot-like structure. Both the mean travel-time perturbations and the absorption in the simulation are remarkably similar to those observed in typical sunspots. Therefore, simulations of this type provide both the means to understand the physics behind the helioseismic observations and the opportunity to validate existing and future models of the subsurface structure of sunspots. We will compare helioseismic measurements made with the simulation with those of a typical sunspot observed with MDI. We will discuss the implications of these comparisons for structural inversions of sunspots and understanding the role of MHD mode conversion in interpreting helioseismic observations. This work is supported by NASA contracts NNH09CE41C and NNG07EI51C.

Braun, Douglas; Birch, A. C.; Rempel, M.

2009-05-01

265

Compact entanglement distillery using realistic quantum memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We adopt the beam-splitter model for losses to analyze the performance of a recent compact continuous-variable entanglement distillation protocol [A. Datta , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.060502 108, 060502 (2012)] implemented using realistic quantum memories. We show that the decoherence undergone by a two-mode squeezed state while stored in a quantum memory can strongly modify the results of the preparatory step of the protocol. We find that the well-known method for locally increasing entanglement, phonon subtraction, may not result in entanglement gain when losses are taken into account. Thus, we investigate the critical number mc of phonon subtraction attempts from the matter modes of the quantum memory. If the initial state is not de-Gaussified within mc attempts, the protocol should be restarted to obtain any entanglement increase. Moreover, the condition mc>1 implies an additional constraint on the subtraction beam-splitter interaction transmissivity, viz., it should be about 50% for a wide range of protocol parameters. Additionally, we consider the average entanglement rate, which takes into account both the unavoidable probabilistic nature of the protocol and its possible failure as a result of a large number of unsuccessful subtraction attempts. We find that a higher value of the average entanglement can be achieved by increasing the subtraction beam-splitter interaction transmissivity. We conclude that the compact distillation protocol with the practical constraints coming from realistic quantum memories allows a feasible experimental realization within existing technologies.

Chakhmakhchyan, Levon; Guérin, Stéphane; Nunn, Joshua; Datta, Animesh

2013-10-01

266

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-06-29

267

Evaluation of Heat-related Illness Surveillance Based on Chief Complaint Data from New Jersey Hospital Emergency Rooms  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this evaluation is to characterize the relationship between a patient’s initial hospital emergency room chief complaint potentially related to a heat-related illness (HRI) with final primary and secondary ICD-9 diagnoses. Introduction The NJ syndromic surveillance system, EpiCenter, developed an algorithm to quantify HRI visits using chief complaint data. While heat advisories are released by the National Weather Service, an effective HRI algorithm could provide real-time health impact information that could be used to provide supplemental warnings to the public during a prolonged heat wave. Methods Data on NJ hospital emergency room visits were evaluated using two data sources: 1) the EpiCenter syndromic surveillance system of emergency room visits; and 2) the Uniform Bill-Patient Summaries (UB) system containing diagnosis data on all hospital visits. Three years of data (2009–2011) were selected, for the time window of May 1 to September 30. The UB data used for matching with the EpiCenter data were limited to facilities participating in EpiCenter during the evaluation period. (EpiCenter facilities captured about 1/3 of all heat-related diagnoses in 2009, increasing to about 2/3 in 2011.) The ICD-9 codes of interest included 992.0–992.9 and external cause of injury codes E900.0 and E900.9. We evaluated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the EpiCenter algorithm in relation to the patients’ eventual diagnoses coded in the UB data. Results During the 15 months of data examined, there were a total of 871 people identified with HRI visits based on the EpiCenter algorithm. Over the same time period in the same emergency room facilities, there were a total of 2,146 people with a primary or secondary HRI diagnosis in UB. The algorithm for the EpiCenter’s HRI definition had a sensitivity of 16% (348/2,146) when any primary or secondary ICD or E-code matched; the PPV was 40% (348/871). When data during a major heat event (July 21–23, 2011) was examined separately, both sensitivity (23%) and PPV (59%) improved. Graph 1 presents the 2011 daily number of HRI visits from EpiCenter data and the subset of UB data from facilities also reporting to EpiCenter. The pattern in the EpiCenter data tracked with the UB data for HRI visits and correctly identified several major episodes in 2011. The major heat-related illness episode of July 2011 was selected to evaluate the non-matched EpiCenter and UB data. A total of 210 (95%) of the non-matched UB cases were able to be matched to EpiCenter chief complaint data. The EpiCenter information displayed a diverse range of general complaints, including syncope, dizziness, weakness, and headache. Similarly, non-matched EpiCenter data were compared to UB data to examine diagnoses, and 22 (48%) of the EpiCenter HRI cases were matched to UB diagnostic data. Diagnosis codes for these cases were for a variety of conditions classified under “general symptoms”; fluid balance disorders; asthma; diabetes; and unspecified hypertension. Conclusions The evaluation found that using chief complaint data to monitor HRI was relatively insensitive in comparison to the UB diagnosis codes, with a sensitivity of just over 16% for any UB HRI diagnosis. Sensitivity and PPV improved during a peak heat event. The evaluation of the non-matched data (both EpiCenter and UB) provided little guidance for modifying the algorithm. While expanding the algorithm to include complaints such as syncope, dizziness, or weakness may capture a few more HRI cases, it would also likely result in a greater number of false positive cases (i.e., higher background noise). Though not especially sensitive, EpiCenter data did identify all major episodes of HRI in 2011. The degree of correspondence indicates that the EpiCenter HRI algorithm provides a useful real-time gauge of the daily HRI trends. Graph 1. 2011 HRI visits identified by EpiCenter data and UB data subset for the same EpiCenter reporting facilities.

Berry, Michael; Fagliano, Jerald; Tsai, Stella; McGreevy, Katharine; Walsh, Andrew; Hamby, Teresa

2013-01-01

268

To: Anesthesiologists - Back & Pain Clinic, Emergency Medicine Physicians, Family Physicians, General Internists, Geriatric Medicine Physicians, Neurologists, Obstetricians\\/Gynecologists, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Physicians, Psychiatrists, and Rheumatologists From: GUIDES (Guideline Utilization Implementation Development and Evaluation Studies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-dimensional approaches should be used for evaluation and treatment. Consider the patient's functional status, psychiatric comorbidities, social stressors and barriers to care. Treatment is more than medications. Treatment goals must focus on realistic improvement of functioning at work, at home, with social contacts and in pleasurable pursuits. Complete analgesia (pain score of \\

William Chavey; Connie Standiford

269

Realistically coupled neural mass models can generate EEG rhythms.  

PubMed

We study the generation of EEG rhythms by means of realistically coupled neural mass models. Previous neural mass models were used to model cortical voxels and the thalamus. Interactions between voxels of the same and other cortical areas and with the thalamus were taken into account. Voxels within the same cortical area were coupled (short-range connections) with both excitatory and inhibitory connections, while coupling between areas (long-range connections) was considered to be excitatory only. Short-range connection strengths were modeled by using a connectivity function depending on the distance between voxels. Coupling strength parameters between areas were defined from empirical anatomical data employing the information obtained from probabilistic paths, which were tracked by water diffusion imaging techniques and used to quantify white matter tracts in the brain. Each cortical voxel was then described by a set of 16 random differential equations, while the thalamus was described by a set of 12 random differential equations. Thus, for analyzing the neuronal dynamics emerging from the interaction of several areas, a large system of differential equations needs to be solved. The sparseness of the estimated anatomical connectivity matrix reduces the number of connection parameters substantially, making the solution of this system faster. Simulations of human brain rhythms were carried out in order to test the model. Physiologically plausible results were obtained based on this anatomically constrained neural mass model. PMID:17206872

Sotero, Roberto C; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Carbonell, Felix; Jimenez, Juan C

2007-02-01

270

Inflation in Realistic D-Brane Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find successful models of D-brane/anti-brane inflation within a string context. We work within the GKP-Bbb KLT class of type IIB string vacua for which many moduli are stabilized through fluxes, as recently modified to include `realistic' orbifold sectors containing standard-model type particles. We allow all moduli to roll when searching for inflationary solutions and find that inflation is not generic inasmuch as special choices must be made for the parameters describing the vacuum. But given these choices inflation can occur for a reasonably wide range of initial conditions for the brane and antibrane. We find that D-terms associated with the orbifold blowing-up modes play an important role in the inflationary dynamics. Since the models contain a standard-model-like sector after inflation, they open up the possibility of addressing reheating issues. We calculate predictions for the CMB temperature fluctuations and find that these can be consistent with observations, but are generically not deep within the scale-invariant regime and so can allow appreciable values for dns/dln k as well as predicting a potentially observable gravity-wave signal. It is also possible to generate some admixture of isocurvature fluctuations.

Burgess, C. P.; Cline, J. M.; Stoica, H.; Quevedo, F.

2004-09-01

271

Realistic Simulation of NDCX-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy-Ion Fusion Science is now constructing NDCX-II, an accelerator facility for studying ion-heated warm dense matter and aspects of ion-driven targets for inertial-fusion energy. Plans call for using twelve or more induction cells to accelerate 30-50 nC of Li^+ ions to 1.2-3 MeV. Plasma neutralization will enable compression of the beam to the sub-millimeter radius and sub-nanosecond duration needed for the desired target experiments. The initial NDXC-II physics design was developed using idealized analytic waveforms. Acceleration schedules were first worked out with a fast-running 1-D particle-in-cell code ASP (Acceleration Schedule Program), then 2-D and 3-D Warp simulations were used to verify the 1-D model, design transverse focusing, and establish tolerances for beam and lattice errors. As part of recent work to refine and validate this physics design, the idealized waveforms in the simulations have been replaced by experimentally measured ones. ASP and Warp results obtained with these realistic waveforms are compared with those from earlier simulations, and ongoing work to optimize the acceleration schedule is discussed.

Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Cohen, R. H.; Lund, S. M.; Leitner, M. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.

2010-11-01

272

Evaluation of Work-related Psychosocial and Ergonomics Factors in Relation to Low Back Discomfort in Emergency Unit Nurses  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: High prevalence of low back pain is one of the most common problems among nurses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of the intensity of low back discomfort to two low back pain contributor factors (Ergonomics risk factors and psychosocial factors). Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on 120 emergency unit nurses in Esfahan. Job content, ergonomics hazards and nordic questionnaire were used in that order for daily assessment of Psychosocial and Ergonomics factors and the intensity of low back discomfort. Nurses were questioned during a 5-week period, at the end of each shift work. The final results were analyzed with SPSS software18/PASW by using Spearman, Mann-Whitney and Kolmogorov-Smirnove test. Results: There was a significant relationship between work demand, job content, social support and intensity of low back discomfort (P value <0.05). But, there was not any link between intensity of low back discomfort and job control. Also, there was significant relationship between intensity of low back discomfort and ergonomics risk factors. Conclusion: This study showed an indirect relationship between the intensity of low back discomfort and social support. This study also confirmed a direct relationship between the intensity of low back discomfort and work demand, job content, ergonomics factors (Awkward Postures (rotating and bending), manual patient handling and repetitiveness, standing continuously more than 30 min). So, to decrease work related low back discomfort, psychosocial factors should be attended in addition to ergonomics factors.

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Pourabdian, Siamak; Atabaki, Azadeh Kianpour; Hoseini, Mohsen

2012-01-01

273

Evaluation of the operational atmospheric model used in emergency response system at Kalpakkam on the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a triple-nested mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) implemented in the Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) at Kalpakkam on southeast coast of India is evaluated. Real-time atmospheric model predictions are used to compute radiological plume dispersion in the mesoscale ranges using Lagrangian particle models. About 280 days falling in dry and wet weather and distributed in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years are considered. About 25 upper air, 100 surface station data including radiosonde, GPS sonde, micrometeorological tower and automated weather stations are used for model evaluation. Results indicate that model could reproduce the synoptic pressure, geopotential heights, winds and precipitation patterns in the coarse domain as well as the fine scale features of the atmospheric circulation in the inner fine domain. Model diagnosis with observations shows correlation (r), mean absolute error (MAE) and bias as (0.685, 1.87 C, 1.28 C) for temperature, (0.93, 1.55 hPa, 0.113 hpa) for pressure, (0.56,15 m, 0.53 m) for geopotential, (0.55, 12%, -10.5%) for humidity and (0.45, 2.3 m s -1, 1.70 m s -1) for wind speed indicating appreciable performance in the lower atmosphere for both dry and wet weather events. Model error in wind speed/direction reduced with height and slightly increased for temperature and humidity. Model performance is relatively better for dry weather cases than for the rainfall events. Also simulations from high resolution domain-3 are found to be better with relatively lower error metrics than those over coarse domains 1 and 2.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Yesubabu, V.; Nagaraju, C.; Venkatraman, B.; Chellapandi, P.

2011-12-01

274

Overuse of Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical decision rules have been developed and validated for the evaluation of patients presenting with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) to the emergency department (ED). Objectives To assess the percentage of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CT-PA) which could have been avoided by use of the Wells score coupled with D-dimer testing (Wells/D-dimer) or Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria (PERC) in ED patients with suspected PE. Methods The authors conducted a prospective cohort study of adult ED patients undergoing CT-PA for suspected PE. Wells score and PERC were calculated. A research blood sample was obtained for D-dimer testing for subjects who did not undergo testing as part of their ED evaluation. The primary outcome was PE by CT-PA or 90-day follow-up. Secondary outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS) and CT-PA time as defined by time from order to initial radiologist interpretation. Results Of 152 suspected PE subjects available for analysis (mean age 46.3±15.6 years, 74% female, 59% black or African American, 11.8% diagnosed with PE), 14 (9.2%) met PERC, none of whom were diagnosed with PE. A low-risk Wells score (?4) was assigned to 110 (72%) subjects, of whom only 38 (35%) underwent clinical D-dimer testing (elevated in 33/38). Of the 72 subjects with low-risk Wells scores who did not have D-dimers performed in the ED, archived research samples were negative in 16 (22%). All 21 subjects with low-risk Wells scores and negative D-dimers were PE-negative. CT-PA time (median 160 minutes) accounted for more than half of total ED LOS (median 295 minutes). Conclusions In total, 9.2% and 13.8% of CT-PA could have been avoided by use of PERC and Wells/D-dimer, respectively.

Crichlow, Amanda; Cuker, Adam; Mills, Angela M.

2012-01-01

275

Randomized controlled trial to evaluate screening and brief intervention for drug-using multiethnic emergency and trauma department patients  

PubMed Central

Background Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is a comprehensive, integrated public health approach to identify and deliver a spectrum of early detection and intervention services for substance use in general medical care settings. Although the SBI approach has shown promise for alcohol use, relatively little is known about its effectiveness for illicit drug use. We are evaluating the SBI approach for drug use using a rigorous randomized controlled trial. The purpose of the report is to describe the overall trial and its programmatic and methodological strengths with a focus on health educator (HE) selection and training. In addition, the baseline characteristics of the recently enrolled multiethnic cohort are described. Methods/design A randomized two-group repeated measures design is being used in which drug-related outcomes of an intervention group will be compared with those of an attention-placebo control group. Selection of bicultural paraprofessional HEs—their training in research concepts, comorbid mental health issues, special treatment of marijuana use, and nonscripted enhanced motivational interviewing as well as their ongoing monitoring and evaluation—are among the features described. The HEs enrolled, consented, and conducted an intervention among 700 illicit drug users in two large hospital emergency departments/trauma units. To be eligible, a participant needed to be an adult (age ?18 years), an English or Spanish speaker, awake and able to give consent, and reachable by telephone to schedule a six-month follow-up interview. Discussion A comprehensive HE training protocol combined with rigorous, ongoing process measurement resulted in skill mastery in many areas and a successful participant recruitment period. Strengths and limitations of the study protocol are discussed as well as the characteristics of those recruited. This trial will be among the first to provide information about the effectiveness of SBI for illicit drug use. Outcome analysis has not yet been completed, but demonstrated programming and design successes have implications for future research and service delivery. Trial registration http://NCT01683227

2013-01-01

276

Realistic wireless emulation for performance evaluation of tactical MANET protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approaches for testing MANET protocols and applications prior to field experimentation often involve simulation tools or small-sized physical testbeds. However, simulation tools typically do not run in real-time and rely on simplified models rather than a real system, while physical testbeds are prohibitively expensive to build and operate. A more practical method is to use emulation tools as they

Michael A. Kaplan; Ta Chen; Mariusz A. Fecko; Provin Gurung; Ibrahim Hokelek; Sunil Samtani; Larry Wong; Mitesh Patel; Aristides Staikos; Ben Greear

2009-01-01

277

Identification of seniors at risk: process evaluation of a screening and referral program for patients aged ?75 in a community hospital emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the authors' experience with a patient safety quality improvement program, intended to reduce the incidence and severity of adverse outcomes for emergency department (ED) patients aged ?75. The Identification of Seniors at Risk scale was used for screening, and those at high risk were referred for appropriate intervention. The plan-do-study-act improvement cycle was followed, conducting process evaluation to

Rebecca N. Warburton; Belinda Parke; Wynona Church; Jane McCusker

2004-01-01

278

Realistic Versus the Spherical Head Model in EEG Dipole Source Analysis in the Presence of Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of the three-shell spherical head model versus the performance of the realistic head model is investigated when solving the inverse problem with a single dipole, in the presence of noise. This is evaluated by inspecting the average dipole ...

B. Vanrumste G. Van Hoey R. Van de Walle P. Van Hese M. D'Have

2001-01-01

279

Preschoolers' Judgments Regarding Realistic and Cartoon-based Moral Transgressions in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate young children's informational assumptions about realistic and cartoon-based moral transgressions. Seventy-two urban US preschoolers were presented with drawings of transgressions, such as hitting, pushing, stealing, and failing to share. Preschoolers were asked whether the transgressions were permissible and deserved punishment, and to assess the severity or level of harm caused by the transgression and

Kristen Peters Bierwirth; Fran C. Blumberg

2010-01-01

280

A realistic trace-based mobility model for first responder scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic modeling of the nodes' mobility is essential for obtaining credible results from the simulative performance evaluation of wireless multi-hop networks. However, most of the mobility models in the literature have not been validated with real world movement traces. To overcome this issue, we follow a trace-based approach to mobility modeling, where movement traces from the real world scenario are

Matthias Schwamborn; Nils Aschenbruck; Peter Martini

2010-01-01

281

Effects of Realistic Job Previews: A Comparison Using an Enhancement and a Reduction Preview  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of two different realistic job previews on subsequent turnover and to clarify the processes responsible for any such effects. One, enhancement preview, was constructed to enhance overly pessimistic expectations, whereas the other, reduction preview, was designed to reduce overly optimistic expectations. Subjects, 533 male and female trainees in the U.S.

Bruce M. Meglino; Angelo S. DeNisi; Stuart A. Youngblood; Kevin J. Williams

1988-01-01

282

Promoting the development of preschool children’s emergent literacy skills: a randomized evaluation of a literacy-focused curriculum and two professional development models  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there have been few causally interpretable evaluations of the impacts of preschool curricula on the skills of children\\u000a at-risk for academic difficulties, and even fewer studies have demonstrated statistically significant or educationally meaningful\\u000a effects. In this cluster-randomized study, we evaluated the impacts of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum and two types\\u000a of professional development on the emergent literacy skills

Christopher J. Lonigan; JoAnn M. Farver; Beth M. Phillips; Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti

2011-01-01

283

Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping

Duberstein; Corey A

2011-01-01

284

Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

Chen, Chi-Tung

2012-01-01

285

The emergence of emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using chemical intuition often allows one to predict what might transpire on throwing a batch of chemicals into a beaker, but sometimes the unexpected can occur. Bruce C. Gibb discusses how you define an 'emergent phenomenon', recognizing that it's not a simple exercise and can actually be different for each of us.

Gibb, Bruce C.

2011-01-01

286

How realistic are solar model atmospheres?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Recently, new solar model atmospheres have been developed to replace classical 1D local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) hydrostatic models and used to for example derive the solar chemical composition. Aims: We aim to test various models against key observational constraints. In particular, a 3D model used to derive the solar abundances, a 3D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) model (with an imposed 10 mT vertical magnetic field), 1D NLTE and LTE models from the PHOENIX project, the 1D MARCS model, and the 1D semi-empirical model of Holweger & Müller. Methods: We confronted the models with observational diagnostics of the temperature profile: continuum centre-to-limb variations (CLVs), absolute continuum fluxes, and the wings of hydrogen lines. We also tested the 3D models for the intensity distribution of the granulation and spectral line shapes. Results: The predictions from the 3D model are in excellent agreement with the continuum CLV observations, performing even better than the Holweger & Müller model (constructed largely to fulfil such observations). The predictions of the 1D theoretical models are worse, given their steeper temperature gradients. For the continuum fluxes, predictions for most models agree well with the observations. No model fits all hydrogen lines perfectly, but again the 3D model comes ahead. The 3D model also reproduces the observed continuum intensity fluctuations and spectral line shapes very well. Conclusions: The excellent agreement of the 3D model with the observables reinforces the view that its temperature structure is realistic. It outperforms the MHD simulation in all diagnostics, implying that recent claims for revised abundances based on MHD modelling are premature. Several weaknesses in the 1D hydrostatic models (theoretical and semi-empirical) are exposed. The differences between the PHOENIX LTE and NLTE models are small. We conclude that the 3D hydrodynamical model is superior to any of the tested 1D models, which gives further confidence in the solar abundance analyses based on it.

Pereira, T. M. D.; Asplund, M.; Collet, R.; Thaler, I.; Trampedach, R.; Leenaarts, J.

2013-06-01

287

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.  

PubMed

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2009-09-08

288

Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield  

PubMed Central

Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease.

Madouasse, Aurelien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehebel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriette; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

2013-01-01

289

Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield.  

PubMed

Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

2013-09-12

290

Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED) medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex) which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT) for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors...). Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist). Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes) showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3). Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The most frequent cause of lack of processing was non-recognition of the term by UrgIndex (9.7%). Overall precision was 79.1% (95% CI: 77.3-80.8). It varied from 81.4% for respiratory syndromes to 77.0% for cutaneous syndromes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of and interest in developing an automated method for extracting and encoding medical concepts from ED narrative reports, the first step required for the detection of potentially infectious patients at epidemic risk.

2011-01-01

291

Engineering emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore various definitions and characteristics of emergence, how we might recognise and measure emergence, and how we might engineer emergent systems. We discuss the TUNA (Theory Underpinning Nanotech Assemblers) project, which is investigating emergent engineering in the context of molecular nanotechnology, and use the TUNA case study to explore an architecture suitable for emergent complex systems

Susan Stepney; Fiona A. C. Polack; Heather R. Turner

2006-01-01

292

Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).  

PubMed

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

2013-06-14

293

Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

Lawrence Bobo

1983-01-01

294

Fast Realistic Human Body Deformations for Animation and VR Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Actors now play an important role in Computer-generated films, Virtual Environments, Telecooperative work, and multimedia. In order to make these actors realistic, it is essential to represent their body shape during the motion. In this paper, we present different methods for representing realistic deformations for virtual humans with various characteristics: sex, age, height, weight. Our methods based on a

Daniel Thalmann; Jianhua Shen; Eric Chauvineau

1996-01-01

295

Diabetic Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... should go here Social Media ACEP in Social Media Campaigns Campaigns Read Patient Stories Health News About Emergencies Childhood / Student Emergencies Diseases & Infections Disaster Preparedness Elderly Safety ...

296

Office emergencies and emergency kits.  

PubMed

Preparedness to recognize and appropriately manage medical emergencies in the dental environment includes the following: current BLS certification for all office staff; didactic and clinical courses in emergency medicine; periodic office emergency drills; telephone numbers of EMS or other appropriately trained health care providers; emergency drug kit and equipment, and the knowledge to properly use all items. This update on office emergencies and emergency kits replaces the previous Association report, prepared in 1980 by the Council on Dental Therapeutics. PMID:11934192

2002-03-01

297

Blending critical realist and emancipatory practice development methodologies: making critical realism work in nursing research.  

PubMed

This paper examines the efficacy of facilitation as a practice development intervention in changing practice within an Older Person setting and in implementing evidence into practice. It outlines the influences exerted by the critical realist paradigm in guiding emancipatory practice development activities and, in particular, how the former may be employed within an emancipatory practice development study to elucidate and increase understanding pertinent to causation and outcomes. The methodology is based upon an emancipatory practice development approach set within a realistic evaluation framework. This allows for systematic analysis of the social and contextual elements that influence the explication of outcomes associated with facilitation. The study is concentrated upon five practice development cycles, within which a sequence of iterative processes is integrated. The authors assert that combining critical realist and emancipatory processes offers a robust and practical method for translating evidence and implementing changes in practice, as the former affirms or falsifies the influence that emancipatory processes exert on attaining culture shift, and enabling transformation towards effective clinical practice. A new framework for practice development is proposed that establishes methodological coherency between emancipatory practice development and realistic evaluation. This augments the existing theoretical bases for both these approaches by contributing new theoretical and methodological understandings of causation. PMID:21992448

Parlour, Randal; McCormack, Brendan

2011-10-13

298

Oligonucleotides as antivirals: dream or realistic perspective?  

PubMed

Many reports have been published on antiviral activity of synthetic oligonucleotides, targeted to act either by a true antisense effect or via non-sequence specific interactions. This short review will try to evaluate the current status of the field by focusing on the effects as reported for inhibition of either HSV-1, HCMV or HIV-1. Following an introduction with a historical background and a brief discussion on the different types of constructs and mechanisms of action, the therapeutic potential of antisense oligonucleotides as antivirals, as well as possible pitfalls upon their evaluation will be discussed. PMID:16621039

Van Aerschot, Arthur

2006-04-03

299

Emergency nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building upon a historical context, the current and future roles of the clinical emergency nurse are reviewed. For several reasons, emergency nurse availability is expected to be insufficient to meet staffing demands in the near future. Emergency physicians can partner with emergency nurses and hospital administrators to pursue the following strategies for addressing the nursing shortage: (1) improve the workplace

John A Schriver; Robin Talmadge; Roberta Chuong; Jerris R Hedges

2003-01-01

300

Realistic prospects for stem cell therapeutics.  

PubMed

Studies of the regenerating hematopoietic system have led to the definition of many of the fundamental principles of stem cell biology. Therapies based on a range of tissue stem cells have been widely touted as a new treatment modality, presaging an emerging new specialty called regenerative medicine that promises to harness stem cells from embryonic and somatic sources to provide replacement cell therapies for genetic, malignant, and degenerative conditions. Insights borne from stem cell biology also portend development of protein and small molecule therapeutics that act on endogenous stem cells to promote repair and regeneration. Much of the newfound enthusiasm for regenerative medicine stems from the hope that advances in the laboratory will be followed soon thereafter by breakthrough treatments in the clinic. But how does one sort through the hype to judge the true promise? Are stem cell biologists and the media building expectations that cannot be met? Which diseases can be treated, and when can we expect success? In this review, we outline the realms of investigation that are capturing the most attention, and consider the current state of scientific understanding and controversy regarding the properties of embryonic and somatic (adult) stem cells. Our objective is to provide a framework for appreciating the promise while at the same time understanding the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology into novel clinical therapies. PMID:14633792

Daley, George Q; Goodell, Margaret A; Snyder, Evan Y

2003-01-01

301

[Psychiatric emergencies].  

PubMed

The present work is divided into four parts, the first part is a brief "Discourse on Emergency" that attempts to clarify the elements that distinguish psychiatric from medical emergency. The second part reviews the "Clinical pictures in which psychiatric emergency is not common". Psychopathological emergencies are briefly reviewed and mention is made of psychiatric emergencies deriving from non-psychiatric pathologies. The third part gives "Advice on the right approach to adopt in response to calls". Some integrated approaches are suggested. The fourth part presents several models of "Short-term psychotherapy in psychiatric emergency". Two cases of emergency treatment using multiple approach techniques are reported. PMID:3763026

Merra, S

1986-09-15

302

Generating Realistic Network Traffic for Security Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results of an effort to develop a test environment in which “live” attack-free background traffic reflects the characteristics of the network to be defended. The expectation is that new intrusion detection techniques can be better evaluated (and tuned), in such a background, against inserted attacks and no others. Based on analysis of traffic captured from an example

Song Luo; Gerald A. Marin

2004-01-01

303

Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

2011-03-01

304

Construction of realistic images using R-functions  

SciTech Connect

Realistic images are plane images of three-dimensional bodies in which volume effects are conveyed by illumination. This is how volume is displayed in photographs and paintings. Photographs achieve a realistic volume effect by choosing a certain arrangement, brightness, and number of light sources. Painters choose for their paintings a color palette based entirely on sensory perception. In this paper, we consider the construction of realistic images on a computer display. The shape of the imaged objects is not always known in advance: it may be generated as a result of complex mathematical computations. The geometrical information is described using R-functions.

Shevchenko, A.N.; Tsukanov, I.G.

1995-09-01

305

Effects of realistic tensor force on nuclear structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-order tensor-force effects on nuclear structure are investigated in the self-consistent mean-field and RPA calculations with the M3Y-type semi-realistic interactions, which contain the realistic tensor force. The tensor force plays a key role in Z- or N-dependence of the shell structure, and in transitions involving spin degrees-of-freedom. It is demonstrated that the semi-realistic interactions successfully describe the N-dependence of the shell structure in the proton-magic nuclei (e.g. Ca and Sn), and the magnetic transitions (e.g. M1 transition in 208Pb).

Nakada, H.

2012-10-01

306

Economic Outcome of Cardiac CT-Based Evaluation and Standard of Care for Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome In the Emergency Department: A Decision Analytic Model  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in the Emergency Department may be cost saving for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but economic outcome data are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the cost of CCT-based evaluation versus standard of care (SOC) using the results of a clinical trial. Materials and Methods We developed a decision analytic cost-minimization model to compare CCT-based and SOC evaluation costs to obtain a correct diagnosis. Model inputs, including Medicare-adjusted patient costs, were primarily obtained from a cohort study of 102 patients at low to intermediate risk for ACS who underwent an Emergency Department SOC clinical evaluation and a 64 channel CCT. SOC costs included stress testing in 77% of patients. Data from published literature completed the model inputs and expanded data ranges for sensitivity analyses. Results Modeled mean patient costs for CCT-based evaluation were $750 (24%) lower than the SOC ($2,384 and $3,134, respectively). Sensitivity analyses indicated that CCT was less expensive over a wide range of estimates and was only more expensive with a CCT specificity below 67%. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that CCT-based evaluation had a 98.9% probability of being less expensive compared to SOC. Conclusion Using a decision analytic model, CCT-based evaluation resulted in overall lower cost than the SOC for possible ACS patients over a wide range of cost and outcome assumptions, including CT-related complications and downstream costs.

Branch, Kelley R.; Bresnahan, Brian W.; Veenstra, David L.; Shuman, William P.; Weintraub, William S.; Busey, Janet M.; Elliott, Daniel J.; Mitsumori, Lee; Strote, Jared; Jobe, Kathleen; Dubinsky, Ted; Caldwell, James

2011-01-01

307

Clinical Evaluation of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Ambulance Dispatch-Based Syndromic Surveillance System, New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Since 1998, the New York City Department of Health has used New York City Emergency,Medical Services (EMS) ambulance,dispatch,data to monitor,for a communitywide,rise in influenzalike illness (ILI) as an early detection system,for bio- terrorism. A clinical validation study was,conducted,during,peak,influenza season,at six New York City emergency,departments,(EDs) to compare,patients with ILI brought in by ambulance,with other patients to examine,potential biases associated with

Jane Greenko; Farzad Mostashari; Annie Fine; Marci Layton

2003-01-01

308

Emergency Department Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may present to the emergency department (ED) via emergency medical services or\\u000a self-transport. When they present via emergency medical services, a diagnostic-quality prehospital 12-lead EKG may enhance\\u000a the sensitivity and specificity of ACS diagnosis and shorten time to treatment. The ED evaluation of the patient at risk for\\u000a ACS includes a thorough history and

Jeffrey A. Holmes; Sean Collins

309

Realistic calculations of solar-neutrino oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reexamine the possible effects of oscillations on the apparent solar-neutrino flux, integrated over the theoretical solar spectrum weighted by the ³⁷Cl or ⁷¹Ga neutrino capture cross section. Spectral, thermal, and distance averaging do not reduce all oscillations to their mean values. The averaged ..nu..\\/sub e\\/..--> nu..\\/sub e\\/ transition probability can fall as low as 0.1. Annual variations are evaluated.

V. Barger; K. Whisnant; R. J. N. Phillips

1981-01-01

310

Realistic calculations of solar-neutrino oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We reexamine the possible effects of oscillations on the apparent solar-neutrino flux, integrated over the theoretical solar spectrum weighted by the /sup 37/Cl or /sup 71/Ga neutrino capture cross section. Spectral, thermal, and distance averaging do not reduce all oscillations to their mean values. The averaged ..nu../sub e/..--> nu../sub e/ transition probability can fall as low as 0.1. Annual variations are evaluated.

Barger, V.; Whisnant, K.; Phillips, R.J.N.

1981-07-15

311

Relativistic description of finite nuclei based on realistic NN interactions  

SciTech Connect

A set of relativistic mean-field models is constructed, which includes the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations accounting for the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons as well as the pion. Density-dependent coupling functions are determined to reproduce the components of the nucleon self-energy at the Fermi surface, obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-HF (DBHF) approach by using a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is investigated to which extent the various mean-field models can reproduce the DBHF results for the momentum dependence of the self-energies and the total energy of infinite matter. Also, the mean-field models are used to evaluate the bulk properties of spherical closed-shell nuclei. We find that the HF model, which allows for the exchange of {sigma}, {omega}, {rho}, and {delta} mesons and pions, yields the best reproduction of the DBHF results in infinite matter and also provides a good description of the properties of finite nuclei without any adjustment of parameters.

Dalen, E. N. E. van; Muether, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2011-08-15

312

In-house CAD training: a realistic approach  

SciTech Connect

The need for industry to retrain its engineering personnel to use a CAD system can be demanding, as well as frustrating. In fact, the larger and more diverse the organization, the more demanding these requirements may be. It should be noted that in preparing for CAD implementation, the training needs and requirements are often underestimated. Additionally, most engineering organizations implementing CAD do not have personnel experienced in developing training programs or in teaching manipulative skills. This text describes the evolution of the in-house CADAM basic training program at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Rather than emphasize the theoretical aspects of designing such a program, the paper will concentrate on the practical, more realistic aspects of program development. The paper should serve as a guide to others desiring to develop a similar program. This paper first presents a brief look at factors concerning retraining the experienced engineering employee. Then, the actual planning, organization, structuring, implementation, and evaluation of the training program, as well as possible future directions are presented. Finally, the paper offers advice to those planning similar in-house CAD training programs.

Whitus, T.

1986-04-10

313

From value chain, supply network, towards business ecosystem (BE): Evaluating the BE concept's implications to emerging industrial demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two industrial challenges of uncertainty and interoperability arose as the new forms of industries structure have emerged. Network theories are systematically reviewed in three streams of network structure, network strategy and network evolution in order to find out the current theories' contribution on those two challenging issues, which include supply chain management (SCM), business network (BN), global manufacturing virtual networks

Ke Rong; Jie Hou; Yongjiang Shi; Qiang Lu

2010-01-01

314

Use of Electron-Beam Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: We sought to determine whether electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) could be used as a triage tool in the emergency department for patients with angina-like chest pain, no known history of coronary disease, normal or indeterminate ECG findings, and normal initial cardiac enzyme concentrations. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 105 patients admitted between December 1995 and

Dennis A Laudon; Larry F Vukov; Jerome F Breen; John A Rumberger; Peter C Wollan; Patrick F Sheedy

1999-01-01

315

Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

2008-01-01

316

Evaluating the application of the European spatial development perspective in the United Kingdom: Methodological considerations and emerging trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to consider how the emerging European spatial development policy agenda is influencing the performance of regional strategic planning in the United Kingdom. In May 1999 the Ministers of Spatial Planning meeting at Potsdam, Germany, agreed on the final version of the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) to guide spatially significant public policy making at

Olivier John Sykes

2002-01-01

317

A prospective evaluation of the Cape triage score in the emergency department of an urban public hospital in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Until recently South Africa had no triage system for emergency department (ED) use. The Cape triage group developed a triage scale called the Cape triage score (CTS). This system consists of a basic physiology score, mobility score and a short list of important discriminators that cannot be accurately triaged on a physiological score alone. Highest priority is given to

S R Bruijns; L A Wallis; V C Burch

2008-01-01

318

Superrotation in a Venus GCM with Realistic Radiative Forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will discuss the Ashima Research Venus GCM with an integrated radiation scheme that simulates realistic solar and infrared fluxes. We will show simulations using this GCM that develop superrotation and SS-AS circulation.

Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Lian, Y.

2012-06-01

319

Clinically Realistic Large Animal Model of Intra-Articular Fracture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project is to develop a novel large animal survival model of intra-articular fracture (IAF) in which all major pathophysiological attributes of corresponding human clinical injuries are realistically replicated, and in which ...

Y. Tochigi

2012-01-01

320

Creating Realistic Corpora for Security and Forensic Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present work on the design, implementation, distribution, and use of realistic forensic datasets to support digital forensics and security education. We describe in particular the 'M57-Patents' scenario a multi-modal corpus consisting of hard drive ima...

A. Russell C. A. Lee D. Dittrich K. Woods S. Garfinkel

2011-01-01

321

Evaluation Design Elements for an Emerging Secondary Science Teacher Preparation Program (SSTPP). Teacher Education Forum Series. Vol. 2, No. 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the necessity for a holistic, responsive evaluation of the educational process due to education's complex, dynamic, and humanistic nature. Holistic evaluation involves the assessment of all intended goals, interactions, and program results, as opposed to selective evaluation of only a few key variables. Responsive evaluation…

Repicky, Paul A.

322

Cartoons vs. realistic illustration: picture preferences of adolescent patients.  

PubMed

Illustrations are an important element in patient education materials because they engage the interest of the audience. However, little research has been conducted to determine the style of illustration that most effectively engages a patient population. This study tested the picture preferences of 39 adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). A survey instrument asked them to choose between cartoons and realistic illustrations. A significant number preferred realistic illustrations to cartoons. PMID:2600074

Dirr, K L; Katz, A A

1989-01-01

323

A left realist approach to antifeminist fathers’ rights groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite earlier critiques of left realists’ failure to adequately address feminist concerns, recent left realist theorizing\\u000a and empirical research have made valuable contributions to the understanding of woman abuse and other forms of gendered violence.\\u000a Left realism has further potential to contribute to the criminological understanding of woman abuse and its contributing socioeconomic\\u000a and cultural contexts. This article describes left

Molly Dragiewicz

2010-01-01

324

An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children. Currently there are several vaccine and immunoprophylaxis candidates against RSV in the developmental phase targeting active and passive immunization. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against RSV relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results In the case of candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV, the experts expressed very low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability and low cost of development; moderate levels of optimism regarding the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and acceptance to end users for the interventions; and high levels of optimism regarding impact on equity and acceptance to health workers. While considering the candidate vaccines targeting pregnant women, the panel expressed low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability, answerability and low development cost; moderate levels of optimism for likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and impact on equity; high levels of optimism regarding acceptance to end users and health workers. The group also evaluated immunoprophylaxis against RSV using monoclonal antibodies and expressed no optimism towards low product cost; very low levels of optimism regarding deliverability, affordability, sustainability, low implementation cost and impact on equity; moderate levels of optimism against the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, acceptance to end-users and health workers; and high levels of optimism regarding low development cost. They felt that either of these vaccines would have a high impact on reducing burden of childhood ALRI due to RSV and reduce the overall childhood ALRI burden by a maximum of about 10%. Conclusion Although monoclonal antibodies have proven to be effective in providing protection to high-risk infants, their introduction in resource poor settings might be limited by high cost associated with them. Candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV hold greatest promise. Introduction of a low cost vaccine against RSV would reduce the inequitable distribution of burden due to childhood ALRI and will most likely have a high impact on morbidity and mortality due to severe ALRI.

2011-01-01

325

An alternative model for teaching emergency procedures.  

PubMed

Emergency/critical care is a new veterinary specialty that poses special challenges in veterinary education. Traditional methods of teaching emergency procedures in the teaching hospital place novices in a high-stress, high-stakes environment not conducive to learning or to optimum patient care. Our innovative emergency-procedures laboratory enables students to acquire a high degree of proficiency, in a realistic setting, with focused, controlled instruction and practice, replicable in schools with or without emergency/critical care facilities. PMID:14648502

Hansen, Bernie D

2003-01-01

326

Chemical Emergency  

MedlinePLUS

... Prepare Your Workplace Types of Emergency Chemical Emergency Drought Preparedness Earthquake Home Fire Flood Flu Food Safety ... you have been advised by medical professionals. Next Drought Preparedness & Water Conservation Be Red Cross Ready Are ...

327

A re-evaluation of social, environmental and sustainability accounting : An exploration of an emerging trans-disciplinary field?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In responding to prior critiques, the paper seeks to re-examine social accounting as a problem focused, multi-disciplinary field and explores some of the possible directions the emerging field might take. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach taken is a discursive, polemical essay. Findings – The very nature of social accounting as a problem-based field seems to encourage – even require

Rob Gray

2010-01-01

328

A randomized controlled evaluation of specialist nurse education following accident and emergency department attendance for acute asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether hospital-based specialist asthma nurses improved recognition and self-treatment of asthma episodes by patients followed up after attending accident and emergency departments (A&E) for asthma exacerbations.We carried out a randomized prospective controlled trial of adult asthma self-management, following a hospital outpatient nurse consultation in two outer-London District General Hospitals (secondary care centres).The study included 211 adults, over 18

M. L. LEVY; M. ROBB; J. ALLEN; C. DOHERTY; J. M. BLAND; R. J. D. WINTER

2000-01-01

329

Experimental evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines for emergency use in ruminants and pigs: a review  

PubMed Central

Changes to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control policies since 2001 mean that emergency vaccination must be considered more readily as a control measure in the future. Since field application of vaccine for emergency use has only rarely been applied, the effectiveness of single dose administration, as a control measure in an outbreak situation, is poorly understood. In this review we consider all the available experimental data from studies utilizing either experimental or readily available, commercially produced vaccines, in order to assess their likely effectiveness as an additional means of controlling FMD transmission and spread in an emergency. Overall it is concluded that such vaccines offer an additional and valuable means of FMD control for both ruminants and pigs. They are able to reduce clinical disease, sub-clinical infection and excretion and onward transmission of virus. However, to be most effective, vaccination should be rapidly applied to give maximum opportunity for immunity to develop. We also identify areas for future research and emphasize the importance of vaccine efficacy studies in providing data for models that can help to predict the efficacy of differing FMD control strategies.

Cox, Sarah J.; Barnett, Paul V.

2009-01-01

330

Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants.  

PubMed

The capacity of a full-scale reclamation pond-constructed wetland (CW) system to eliminate 27 emerging contaminants (i.e. pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers) and the seasonal occurrence of these contaminants is studied. The compounds with the highest concentrations in the secondary effluent are diclofenac, caffeine, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine. The results show that the constructed wetland (61%) removes emerging contaminants significantly more efficiently than the pond (51%), presumably due to the presence of plants (Phragmites and Thypa) as well as the higher hydraulic residence time (HRT) in the CW. A greater seasonal trend to the efficient removal of these compounds is observed in the pond than in the CW. The overall mass removal efficiency of each individual compound ranged from 27% to 93% (71% on average), which is comparable to reported data in advanced treatments (photo-fenton and membrane filtration). The seasonal average content of emerging contaminants in the river water (2488 ng L(-1)) next to the water reclamation plant is found to be higher than the content in the final reclaimed water (1490 ng L(-1)), suggesting that the chemical quality of the reclaimed water is better than available surface waters. PMID:22051341

Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

2011-11-01

331

Developing the protocol for the evaluation of the health foundation's 'engaging with quality initiative' - an emergent approach  

PubMed Central

In 2004 a UK charity, The Health Foundation, established the 'Engaging with Quality Initiative' to explore and evaluate the benefits of engaging clinicians in quality improvement in healthcare. Eight projects run by professional bodies or specialist societies were commissioned in various areas of acute care. A developmental approach to the initiative was adopted, accompanied by a two level evaluation: eight project self-evaluations and a related external evaluation. This paper describes how the protocol for the external evaluation was developed. The challenges faced included large variation between and within the projects (in approach, scope and context, and in understanding of quality improvement), the need to support the project teams in their self-evaluations while retaining a necessary objectivity, and the difficulty of evaluating the moving target created by the developmental approach adopted in the initiative. An initial period to develop the evaluation protocol proved invaluable in helping us to explore these issues.

Soper, Bryony; Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Stephen; Oortwijn, Wija; Scoggins, Amanda; Steel, Nick; Ling, Tom

2008-01-01

332

Middletown 2010-A Realistic Interactive Emergency Simulation and Response System for the U.S. Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype has been developed to handle positioned based photos videos voice and environmental data. This prototype forms the basis for the following solutions. Middletown can provide an advanced simulation solution to provide better training. It can be ...

H. Gundersen

2008-01-01

333

Using polychromatic X-radiography to examine realistic imitation firearms.  

PubMed

Sections 36-41 of the Violent Crimes Reduction Act (2006), which came into force in England and Wales on 1st October 2007, have placed significant restrictions on the sale and possession of 'realistic imitation firearms'. This legislation attempts to produce a definition of a 'realistic imitation' which clearly differentiates these items from other imitation firearms (which are not covered by the legislation). This paper will go a stage further by demonstrating techniques by which blank firing realistic imitation firearms which may be suitable for illegal conversion to fire live rounds may be differentiated from other less 'suitable' (but visually identical) realistic imitations. The article reports on the use of X-radiography, utilizing the bremsstrahlung of a commercial broad spectrum X-ray source, to identify the differences between alloys constituting the barrels of distinct replica and/or blank firing handguns. The resulting pseudo-signatures are transmission spectra over a range from 20 to 75 kV, taken at 1 kV intervals, which are extracted from stacks of registered, field flattened images. It is shown that it is possible to quantify differences between transmission spectra for components of different realistic imitation fire arms, and apply the results to determine the suitability of particular gun barrels from blank firing imitation firearms for illegal conversion to fire live rounds, or related illegal modifications. PMID:18842365

Austin, J C; Day, C R; Kearon, A T; Valussi, S; Haycock, P W

2008-10-07

334

Evaluation/disposition of observations no. 6-17, 6-18, and 6-22 from site electrical assessment report, 300 area powerhouse and emergency sys.  

SciTech Connect

Disposition of Observations 6-17, 6-18, 6-22 of Site Electrical Assessment Report. Application of generator differential protection, and synchro-check relay rewiring for generators of building 3621-D. In 1990, the WHC Site Electrical Task Group issued a Site Electrical Assessment Report, ``300 Area Powerhouse and Emergency System.`` This report included numerous findings and observations relating to observed deficiencies or opportunities for improvement in maintenance of the inspected electrical systems. The purpose of this letter report is to provide an evaluation and proposed disposition of Observations No. 6-1 7, 6-1 8, and 6-22 of the Site Electrical Assessment Report.

Ahola, E.L.

1996-09-30

335

Higher Education Institutional and Program Evaluations in Taiwan and the Emerging Roles of Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-secondary education institutions in Taiwan are divided into two tracks, general higher education (HE) and technological and vocational education (TVE). The evaluation of all universities/colleges is mandated by the University Act. Higher education institutions receive mandated institutional evaluation every six years and program evaluation…

Lee, Lung-Sheng; Wei, Yen-Shun; Wang, Li-Yun

2013-01-01

336

Validation of the Deterministic Realistic Method Applied to CATHARE on LB LOCA Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Framatome-ANP and EDF have defined a generic approach for using a best-estimate code in design basis accident studies called Deterministic Realistic Method (DRM). It has been applied to elaborate a LB LOCA ECCS evaluation model based on the CATHARE code. From a prior statistical analysis of uncertainties, the DRM derives a conservative deterministic model, preserving the realistic nature of the simulation, to be used in the further applications. The conservatism of the penalized model is demonstrated comparing penalized calculations with relevant experimental data. The DRM proved to be a highly flexible tool and has been applied successfully to meet the specific French and specific Belgian requirements of Safety Authorities. (authors)

Sauvage, Jean-Yves [Framatome ANP (France); Laroche, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

2002-07-01

337

Homogeneous nucleation of methane hydrates: unrealistic under realistic conditions.  

PubMed

Methane hydrates are ice-like inclusion compounds with importance to the oil and natural gas industry, global climate change, and gas transportation and storage. The molecular mechanism by which these compounds form under conditions relevant to industry and nature remains mysterious. To understand the mechanism of methane hydrate nucleation from supersaturated aqueous solutions, we performed simulations at controlled and realistic supersaturation. We found that critical nuclei are extremely large and that homogeneous nucleation rates are extremely low. Our findings suggest that nucleation of methane hydrates under these realistic conditions cannot occur by a homogeneous mechanism. PMID:23148735

Knott, Brandon C; Molinero, Valeria; Doherty, Michael F; Peters, Baron

2012-11-19

338

Renormalized interactions with a realistic single-particle basis  

SciTech Connect

Neutron-rich isotopes in the sdpf space with Z{<=}14 require modifications to derived effective interactions to agree with experimental data away from stability. A quantitative justification is given for these modifications because of the weakly bound nature of model space orbits via a procedure using realistic radial wave functions and realistic NN interactions. The long tail of the radial wave function for loosely bound single-particle orbits causes a reduction in the size of matrix elements involving those orbits, most notably for pairing matrix elements, resulting in a more condensed level spacing in shell-model calculations. Example calculations are shown for {sup 36}Si and {sup 38}Si.

Signoracci, Angelo; Brown, B. Alex [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Hjorth-Jensen, Morten [Department of Physics and Center of Mathematics for Applications, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

2011-02-15

339

The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport  

SciTech Connect

Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Fields Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of 'realistic' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The findings in this paper may be applicable to the lower energy particle transport system design.

Gu X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

2011-02-17

340

The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport  

SciTech Connect

Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Field Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of 'realistic' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The finding in this paper may be applicable to some lower energy particle transport system design.

Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

2011-02-01

341

Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce new realistic three-dimensional tissue phan- toms which can help to understand the optical properties of human epithelium as well as the optical signatures associated with the dys- plasia to carcinoma sequence. The phantoms are based on a step by step multilayer reconstitution of the epithelial tissue using main com- ponents characteristic for the human epithelium. Each consecutive step

Konstantin V. Sokolov; Javier Galvan; Alexey V. Myakov; Alicia Lacy; Rueben Lotan; Rebecca R. Richards-Kortum

2002-01-01

342

A Realist Interpretation of the Quantum Measurement Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, realist interpretation of the quantum measurement processes is given. In this scenario a quantum measurement is a non-equilibrium phase transition in a ``resonant cavity'' formed by the entire physical universe including all its material and energy content. Both the amplitude and the phase of the quantum mechanical wavefunction acquire substantial meaning in this picture, and the probabilistic element

Xiaolei Zhang

2006-01-01

343

Superfluidity in neutron matter and nuclear matter with realistic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1S0 superfluidity of neutron matter and nuclear matter is studied by solving the gap equation exactly for two realistic nuclear potentials, namely the Paris and the Argonne v14 potential. For neutron matter, the predicted domain of superfluidity is very close to previous results, whereas differences appear in the predicted value of the maximum gap. The results are, however, very

M. Baldo; J. Cugnon; A. Lejeune; U. Lombardo

1990-01-01

344

Two-Capacitor Problem: A More Realistic View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the two-capacitor problem by considering the self-inductance of the circuit used and by determining how well the usual series RC circuit approximates the two-capacitor problem when realistic values of L, C, and R are chosen. (GA)

Powell, R. A.

1979-01-01

345

Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

2010-01-01

346

Brain Imaging and Brain Privacy: A Realistic Concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging has been used to study a wide array of psychological traits, including aspects of personality and intelligence. Progress in identifying the neural correlates of individual differences in such traits, for the sake of basic science, has moved us closer to the applied science goal of measuring them and thereby raised ethical concerns about privacy. How realistic are such

Martha J. Farah; M. Elizabeth Smith; Cyrena Gawuga; Dennis Lindsell; Dean Foster

2008-01-01

347

Brain Imaging and Brain Privacy: A Realistic Concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging has been used to study a wide array of psychological traits, including aspects of personality and intelligence. Progress in identifying the neural correlates of individual differences in such traits, for the sake of basic science, has moved us closer to the applied science goal of measuring them and thereby raised ethical concerns about privacy. How realistic are such

Martha J. Farah; M. Elizabeth Smith; Cyrena Gawuga; Dennis Lindsell; Dean Foster

2009-01-01

348

A Control Center Laboratory with a Realistic Power System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the control systems that supervise and control power systems increases rapidly. As more advanced functions and operational procedures are integrated in energy management systems, the need for a realistic environment for studying, designing and development of such functions and procedures becomes more vital. This paper describes the installation and start-up of a full scale control system for

Bo Hagengren; Ulf Sandberg

1986-01-01

349

A fast Poisson solver for realistic semiconductor device structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combines the techniques of fast Fourier transforms, Buneman cyclic reduction and the capacity matrix in a finite difference Poisson solver specifically designed for modelling realistic electronic device structures. A solution may be determined on a number of connected rectangular regions which correctly accounts for continuity of the electric displacement at dielectric interfaces. Suggests the method is particularly well suited to

M. Walmsley; R. A. Abram

1996-01-01

350

Realistic speech animation based on observed 3-D face dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient system for realistic speech animation. The system supports all steps of the animation pipeline, from the capture or design of 3D head models up to the synthesis and editing of the performance. This pipeline is fully 3D, which yields high flexibility in the use of the anima ted character. Real detailed 3D face dynamics, observed at

Pascal Muller; Gregor A. Kalberer; Marc Proesmans; Luc Van Gool

2005-01-01

351

Experience with widening based equivalence checking in realistic multimedia systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers often apply manual or semi-automatic loop and data transformations on array and loop intensive programs to improve performance. For the class of static affine programs, automatic methods exist for proving the correctness of these transformations. Realistic multimedia systems, however, often contain constructs that fall outside of this class. We present an extension of a widening based approach to handle

Sven Verdoolaege; Martin Palkovic; Maurice Bruynooghe; Gerda Janssens; Francky Catthoor

2009-01-01

352

Realistic inhomogeneous phantoms using an equivalent black volume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Monte Carlo simulations we demonstrate that a realistic absorption inhomogeneity embedded in a diffusive medium can be effectively mimicked by a small black object of a proper volume (Equivalence Relation). Applying this concept we propose the construction of simple and well reproducible inhomogeneous phantoms.

Martelli, Fabrizio; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Di Ninni, Paola; Zaccanti, Giovanni

2013-06-01

353

Measuring the Capacity of a Web Server Under Realistic Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web and its related applications place substantial performance demands on network servers. The ability to measure the effect of these demands is important for tuning and optimizing the various software components that make up a Web server. To measure these effects, it is necessary to generate realistic HTTP client requests in a test-bed environment. Unfortunately, the state-of-

Gaurav Banga; Peter Druschel

1999-01-01

354

Magical Realist Pathways into and under the Psychotherapeutic Imaginary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|My experience of people's life stories from my work as a narrative therapist consistently destabilised distinctions between imagined/magical and real experiences. I came to realise that the day-to-day magical realist juxtapositions I came upon were encounters with people's daily lives, as lived, that have remained unacknowledged within the…

Speedy, Jane

2011-01-01

355

On realistic human motion simulation for virtual manipulation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive motion on industrial workstations is at the origin of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). There is a need for new simulation tools that allows for human motion prediction. This paper addresses the problem of realistic human motion simulation on industrial workstations. It is based on motion analysis and control synthesis on a kinematics basis. Literature and motion captures are compared. Then,

Valentin Hue; Jean-yves Fourquet; Pascale Chiron

2008-01-01

356

Adaptive high-resolution simulation of realistic gaseous detonation waves  

SciTech Connect

The numerical approximation of detonation waves in gaseous combustible mixtures is extremely demanding since a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. A dynamically adaptive high-resolution finite volume method is described that has enabled accurately resolved computational investigations of the transient behavior of regularly oscillating detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in realistic two-dimensional geometry.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2007-01-01

357

Impact of realistic turbulence conditions on laser beam propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodology is presented using observations from a radar and new measurement system to address several fundamental turbulence issues related to laser beam propagation that impact high energy laser (HEL) and laser communication systems. The successful design and operation of these laser systems require high-fidelity realistic laser beam propagation models coupled with a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the real turbulent

Frank D. Eaton; Patrick R. Kelly; Demos T. Kyrazis; Jennifer C. Ricklin

2004-01-01

358

Automated Finger Spelling by Highly Realistic 3D Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The…

Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo

2004-01-01

359

Power, causality and normativity: a critical realist critique of Foucault  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical realist account is developed of two aspects of the study of power which are normally left implicit: the theory of causation presupposed and the way in which the normative connotations of power are dealt with. These matters are discussed partly by reference to Foucault’s views on power, particularly as set out in Volume 1 of The History of

Andrew Sayer

2012-01-01

360

Ronald Coase's Method of Building More Realistic Models of Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that Ronald Coase's major contributions to economic theory are best understood in terms of the distinct method he used to build more realistic models of choice. We call his method the benchmark-comparison method. It consists of building models of choice and then using them as benchmarks in the further investigation of economic interaction, either by comparing the

Bingyuang Hsiung; J. Patrick Gunning

2002-01-01

361

Realistic Smoke Simulation Using A Frustum Aligned Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Realistic simulation of smoke is used in the special effects industry to pro- duce smoke in both feature films and video games. Traditional simulations utilize uniformly spaced rectangular computational grids to perform the smoke simulation. Various changes had been proposed to improve different aspects of the simulation, including level of details, memory usage and simulation speed. In this thesis,

Alan Wai; Lun Woo

2006-01-01

362

Analysis of reflex modulation with a biologically realistic neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a neuromusculoskeletal model was built to give insight into the mechanisms behind the modulation of reflexive feedback strength as exper- imentally identified in the human shoulder joint. The model is an integration of a biologically realistic neural network consisting of motoneurons and interneurons, modeling 12 populations of spinal neurons, and a one degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal model, including proprioceptors.

Arno H. A. Stienen; Alfred C. Schouten; Jasper Schuurmans; Frans C. T. Van Der Helm

2007-01-01

363

Capturing reflexivity modes in IS: A critical realist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical realism is a subject of growing interest in the IS literature. This article aims at implementing a critical realist framework: Archer [Archer, M. (2003). Structure, agency and the internal conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] internal conversation theory. As a contemporary sociologist, Archer suggests both a general vision of social practice and a typology of reflexivity modes. Her multilayered framework

François-Xavier de Vaujany

2008-01-01

364

Proton decay and realistic models of quark and lepton masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in realistic SUSY GUT models of quark and lepton masses both the proton decay rate and branching ratios differ in general from those predicted in the minimal SU(5) supersymmetric model. The observation of proton decay, and in particular the branching ratio B[(p ? ?+?)(p ? K+?)], would thus allow decisive tests of these fermion mass schemes.

K. S. Babu; S. M. Barr

1996-01-01

365

Sample-Based Synthesis of Photo-Realistic Talking Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system that generates photo- realistic video animations of talking heads. First the system derives head models from existing video footage using image recognition techniques. It locates, extracts and labels facial parts such as mouth, eyes, and eyebrows into a compact library. Then, using these face models and a text-to-speech synthesizer, it synthesizes new video sequences of

Eric Cosatto; Hans Peter Graf

1998-01-01

366

Thesis Proposal: Creating Realistic Physical Simulations From Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical simulation techniques are widely used in computer graphics to produce realistic animations of complex natural phenomenon. The behavior of a physical simulator is governed by a set of parameters, typically specified by the animator. Tuning complex simulations, like rigid bodies and cloth is extremely laborious because of the large number of parameters that must be adjusted to achieve the

Kiran Bhat

367

Foreword: In situ gas surface interactions: approaching realistic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue is devoted to the application of in situ surface-sensitive techniques in the elucidation of catalysed reactions at (model) catalyst surfaces. Both reaction intermediates and the nature of the catalytically active phase are the targets of these investigations. In situ surface science techniques are also used to study the interaction of water with surfaces under realistic conditions. Since

Edvin Lundgren; Herbert Over

2008-01-01

368

Emergency SMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivering first aid before transferring patients to hospital is among keys to survival. Moreover, calling the emergency center as soon as possible and providing brief information about the patient are helpful for the emergency center to dispatch specialized medical team and equipments proportionate to the conditions of the patient. Mobile phone is a device which many people use and always

M. Shirali-Shahreza

2006-01-01

369

Humanitarian Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries or regions affected by humanitarian emergencies remain challenging situations for the provision of health and nutrition services in developing countries. Major advances in recent decades have been made regarding our knowledge of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, the availability of standardized guidance protocols and indicators, and the development of new products, especially for severely

Reinhard Kaiser; Paul B. Spiegel

370

Nuclear emergencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The ...

1991-01-01

371

Emergency colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different diagnostic techniques for massive active lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage are reviewed. According to data in the literature and personal experience in 409 emergency endoscopic examinations of the large bowel, emergency colonoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in cases of massive colorectal bleeding.

Francesco Paolo Rossini; Arnaldo Ferrari; Mauro Spandre; Mariella Cavallero; Carlo Gemme; Carlo Loverci; Alberto Bertone; Marco Pinna Pintor

1989-01-01

372

Comparative Evaluation of Stroke Triage Algorithms for Emergency Medical Dispatchers (MeDS): Prospective Cohort Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a major cause of death and leading cause of disability in the United States. To maximize a stroke patient's chances of receiving thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke, it is important to improve prehospital recognition of stroke. However, it is known from published reports that emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) using Card 28 of the Medical Priority Dispatch System protocols recognize stroke poorly. Therefore, to improve EMD's recognition of stroke, the National Association of Emergency Medical Dispatchers recently designed a new diagnostic stroke tool (Cincinnati Stroke Scale -CSS) to be used with Card 28. The objective of this study is to determine whether the addition of CSS improves diagnostic accuracy of stroke triage. Methods/Design This prospective experimental study will be conducted during a one-year period in the 911 call center of Santa Clara County, CA. We will include callers aged ? 18 years with a chief complaint suggestive of stroke and second party callers (by-stander or family who are in close proximity to the patient and can administer the tool) ? 18 years of age. Life threatening calls will be excluded from the study. Card 28 questions will be administered to subjects who meet study criteria. After completion of Card 28, CSS tool will be administered to all calls. EMDs will record their initial assessment of a cerebro-vascular accident (stroke) after completion of Card 28 and their final assessment after completion of CSS. These assessments will be compared with the hospital discharge diagnosis (ICD-9 codes) recorded in the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database after linking the EMD database and OSHPD database using probabilistic linkage. The primary analysis will compare the sensitivity of the two stroke protocols using logistic regression and generalizing estimating equations to account for clustering by EMDs. To detect a 15% difference in sensitivity between the two groups with 80% power, we will enroll a total of 370 subjects in this trial. Discussion A three week pilot study was performed which demonstrated the feasibility of implementation of the study protocol.

2011-01-01

373

Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research  

PubMed Central

Background Realist synthesis is an increasingly popular approach to the review and synthesis of evidence, which focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which an intervention works (or not). There are few published examples of realist synthesis. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions and strategies are effective in enabling evidence-informed healthcare?’ The strengths and challenges of conducting realist review are also considered. Methods The realist approach involves identifying underlying causal mechanisms and exploring how they work under what conditions. The stages of this review included: defining the scope of the review (concept mining and framework formulation); searching for and scrutinising the evidence; extracting and synthesising the evidence; and developing the narrative, including hypotheses. Results Based on key terms and concepts related to various interventions to promote evidence-informed healthcare, we developed an outcome-focused theoretical framework. Questions were tailored for each of four theory/intervention areas within the theoretical framework and were used to guide development of a review and data extraction process. The search for literature within our first theory area, change agency, was executed and the screening procedure resulted in inclusion of 52 papers. Using the questions relevant to this theory area, data were extracted by one reviewer and validated by a second reviewer. Synthesis involved organisation of extracted data into evidence tables, theming and formulation of chains of inference, linking between the chains of inference, and hypothesis formulation. The narrative was developed around the hypotheses generated within the change agency theory area. Conclusions Realist synthesis lends itself to the review of complex interventions because it accounts for context as well as outcomes in the process of systematically and transparently synthesising relevant literature. While realist synthesis demands flexible thinking and the ability to deal with complexity, the rewards include the potential for more pragmatic conclusions than alternative approaches to systematic reviewing. A separate publication will report the findings of the review.

2012-01-01

374

Psychiatric Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry. The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.) In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine.

Bayrakal, Sadi

1972-01-01

375

An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

1998-06-01

376

Life cycle assessment of two emerging sewage sludge-to-energy systems: evaluating energy and greenhouse gas emissions implications.  

PubMed

A "cradle-to-grave" life cycle assessment was conducted to examine the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprints of two emerging sludge-to-energy systems. One system employs a combination of anaerobic digestion (AD) and fast pyrolysis for bioenergy conversion, while the other excludes AD. Each system was divided into five process phases: plant construction, sludge pretreatment, sludge-to-bioenergy conversion, bioenergy utilizations and biochar management. Both systems achieved energy and GHG emission benefits, and the AD-involving system performed better than the AD-excluding system (5.30 vs. 0.63 GJ/t sludge in net energy gain and 0.63 vs. 0.47 t CO(2)eq/t sludge in emission credit for base case). Detailed contribution and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify how and to what degree the different life-cycle phases are responsible for the energy and emission impacts. The energy and emission performances were significantly affected by variations in bioenergy production, energy requirement for sludge drying and end use of bioenergy. PMID:23131626

Cao, Yucheng; Paw?owski, Artur

2012-10-08

377

A need for more realistic ice-sheet models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generation of prognostic ice-sheet models fails to adequately capture rapid and non-linear responses of the polar ice masses to environmental forcings, such as dramatic increase in ice discharge following weakening and disintegration of buttressing ice shelves and ice tongues. While the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change acknowledged the potential importance of ice-dynamical effects, processes that could render the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets more vulnerable to future warming are not incorporated into forecasts of future sea-level rise, primarily because of limited understanding of the processes involved. The challenge facing the glaciological community is to move beyond the prevailing "shallow ice paradigm" - which necessarily produces sluggish ice masses - and to develop the next generation of models that include non-linear processes in a more realistic manner. To achieve this goal, a concerted community effort will be needed that involves targeted data collection and interpretation for better process understanding, novel modeling approaches to incorporate processes acting over small spatial scales into models simulating the evolution of entire ice sheets, and model evaluation against current behavior as well as paleo-reconstructions. Many of the controlling processes are not well understood. Particular challenges include documenting and analyzing the response of grounded outlet glaciers and ice streams to ice-marginal forcings, and how this response may be modulated by bed topography and ice-dynamical flow adjustments. Fortuitously, ongoing ice shelf collapse in the Antarctic Peninsula as well as collapse of floating fjord glaciers in Greenland, offer the opportunity to study grounding-line instability at various stages of ice-shelf retreat and collapse. Coupled with advances in remote-sensing techniques that allow us to better constrain the geological nature of the bed, and geothermal heat supplied to the basal ice, major advances in understanding physical processes are possible through concerted multi- disciplinary efforts that involve both targeted field campaigns and theoretical developments and data interpretation. The objective of this contribution is to summarize the discussion ongoing in the glaciological community and to present possible directions for future research efforts.

van der Veen, C. J.

2007-12-01

378

Critical evaluation of justifications for the transfusion of red blood cells: the reality of a government emergency hospital  

PubMed Central

Background Blood products and derivatives are indispensable resources in medical therapies. However, it is important to note that the number of donations is far from ideal. Despite constant campaign efforts, a deficit of 1 million units is expected by 2030. Objectives To determine the adequacy of the indications for red blood cell transfusion in an emergency hospital in Alagoas. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Alagoas Blood Center. Of a total of 2936 red blood cell transfusion requests in 2009, 334 were randomized and compared with transfusion parameters described in the literature (primary variable). After analysis, the transfusion requests were categorized as adequate, inadequate or inconclusive. This last group included all red blood cell transfusion requests with insufficient clinical information, rendering their classification as adequate or inadequate impossible. The secondary variable involved the reasons for red blood cell transfusion. A 95% confidence interval was used in the statistical analysis. Results Forty-seven (14.07%) requests were adequate and 30 (8.98%) were inadequate. Most of the requests were classified as inconclusive (76.94%). The main indications for transfusion were upper gastrointestinal bleeding (26.95%), anemia (46.71%), hypovolemia/hypovolemic shock (10.78%) and sepsis/septic shock (3.29%). Conclusion It was not possible to reach a conclusion on the adequacy of the indication for transfusion in most of the cases. Therefore, it is important to adopt a transfusion protocol, rigorously analyze blood bank requests, to provide awareness campaigns on the rational use of blood and to implement strategies to use blood products more effectively.

de Souza, Diego Agra; Silva, Felipe Gama e; Costa, Paulo Jose Medeiros de Souza

2013-01-01

379

Particles and gaseous emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellet heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous and particulate emissions from six residential wood pellet heating systems are determined at a realistic six day operation sequence. The study aims to investigate the total emissions from a realistic operation of the heating systems including start-up and stop phases. Five combined solar and pellet heating systems and one reference boiler without solar system with an integrated DHW preparation was tested in a laboratory at realistic operation conditions. The investigated emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, the emissions are presented as accumulated total emissions from the whole six days period and the emissions from start-up and stop phases are also presented separately to evaluate the influence of the emissions from these phases on the total emissions. Emission factors of the measured systems from the six day period are between 192 and 547 mg MJ-1 for the CO emissions, between 61 and 95 mg MJ-1 for the NO, between 6 and 45 mg MJ-1 for the TOC, between 31 and 116 mg MJ-1 for the particulate matter and between 2.1 × 1013 and 4 × 1013 for the number of particles. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases are significantly high for the CO (63-95 %) and the TOC (48-93 %). NO and particles emissions are shown to dominate during stationary operation. However, 30-40 % of the particle emissions arise from the start and stop periods. It is also shown that the average emissions of CO, TOC and particles under the realistic annual conditions were higher than the limit values of two eco labels.

Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris

2012-11-01

380

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Skip Content Marketing Share this: Research at NIAID ... emerging infectious diseases. Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Anthrax Antimicrobial ... Fever Ehrlichiosis ...

381

A Developmental Contextual Perspective on Identity Construction in Emerging Adulthood: Change Dynamics in Commitment Formation and Commitment Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A developmental contextual test of a dual-cycle model of identity formation is presented. In addition to a commitment-formation cycle—represented by Marcia's (1966) classical dimensions of exploration in breadth and commitment making—the model comprises a commitment-evaluation cycle—constituted by 2 additional dimensions of exploration in depth and identification with commitment. In a sample of 402 college students assessed 4 times over 2

Koen Luyckx; Luc Goossens; Bart Soenens

2006-01-01

382

A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite\\/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis

Richard E. Martin; Donald J. Roth; Charles G. Pergantis; Jaswinder S. Sandhu

2004-01-01

383

Comparative evaluation of incidence of emergence agitation and post-operative recovery profile in paediatric patients after isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background: Emergence agitation (EA), although well documented in the clinical literature, still has uncertainties and confusion abound on this subject because of the absence of a clear definition and lack of reliable and valid assessment tools. Aim: To compare the incidence and severity of EA and recovery characteristics in paediatric patients under isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane anaesthesia and evaluate the effect of age and duration of anaesthesia on the incidence of EA. Settings and Design: Randomized prospective double-blinded study. Methods: Seventy-five American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients, aged between 4 months and 7 years, were included in the study. Patients were induced with sevoflurane and oxygen. Anaesthesia was maintained with O2 + N2O and isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane according to randomization. Caudal block and paracetamol suppository was administered before the surgical incision. In the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU), degree of agitation was assessed using the Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale. Aldrette score, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability score and any adverse events were noted. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square/Fischer exact test was applied for categorical variables; for continuous variables, the analysis of variance/non-parametric Kruskall–Wallis test was applied. Two-sample t-test/non-parametric Wisconsin Mann–Whitney test was applied between the two groups. Statistical significance was determined at P<0.05. Results: Incidence and intensity of EA were comparable in all three groups. Age and duration of anaesthesia do not appear to have any bearing on the incidence of EA. Rapid emergence with sevoflurane and desflurane did not translate into early discharge from PACU. Conclusions: EA is a multifactorial syndrome. More well-conducted studies using validated scales and standardized protocols should be carried out to better understand this phenomenon.

Singh, Rahil; Kharbanda, Meera; Sood, Nishant; Mahajan, Vikram; Chatterji, Chitra

2012-01-01

384

Prevention of aortic valve stenosis: a realistic therapeutic target?  

PubMed

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common form of valvular heart disease in the Western world, affecting ~40% of the population over the age of 80; to date the only established treatment is valve replacement. However, AS progression occurs over many years, and is associated from its earliest stages with increased risk of coronary events. Recent insight into the pathophysiology of AS has included central roles for angiotensin II, for diminished nitric oxide effect at the level of valve endothelium and matrix, and for inflammatory activation/redox stress culminating in activation of pro-calcific stimuli. Despite the presence of atheroma within the stenotic valve, hyperlipidemia per se does not play a critic role in the development of obstructive disease. We review emerging options for pharmacotherapy of AS, including in particular retardation of disease progression. The various clinical evaluations of lipid-reducing therapy have been uniformly unsuccessful in slowing AS progression. However, recent studies in animal models and retrospective evaluations in humans suggest that ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers may be effective in this regard. Furthermore, agents normally utilized to treat osteoporosis also offer promise in retarding AS. Given the considerable morbidity, mortality and health care costs associated with AS, such therapeutic developments should be expedited. PMID:22516738

Ngo, D T; Sverdlov, A L; Horowitz, J D

2012-04-06

385

Realistic spatial and temporal earthquake distributions in a modified Olami-Feder-Christensen model.  

PubMed

The Olami-Feder-Christensen model describes a limiting case of an elastic surface that slides on top of a substrate and is one of the simplest models that display some features observed in actual seismicity patterns. However, temporal and spatial correlations of real earthquakes are not correctly described by this model in its original form. I propose and study a modified version of the model, which includes a mechanism of structural relaxation. With this modification, realistic features of seismicity emerge, which are not obtained with the original version, mainly: aftershocks that cluster spatially around the slip surface of the main shock and follow the Omori law, and averaged frictional properties similar to those observed in rock friction, in particular the velocity-weakening effect. In addition, a Gutenberg-Richter law for the decaying of number of earthquakes with magnitude is obtained, with a decaying exponent within the range of experimentally observed values. Contrary to the original version of the model, a realistic value of the exponent appears without the necessity to fine tune any parameter. PMID:20481796

Jagla, E A

2010-04-28

386

Short Delay in Timing of Emergence Determines Establishment Success in Pinus sylvestris across Microhabitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The date of emergence may have far-reaching implications for seedling performance. Seedlings emerging early in the growing season often have a greater rate of survival or grow better if early emergence provides advantages with respect to an environmental cue. As a result, the benefits of early emergence may be lost if the environmental stress creating the differences among cohorts disappears. The experimental manipulation under field conditions of the factors that constitute the main sources of stress for seedling establishment is thus a straightforward method to evaluate the impact of date of emergence on seedling establishment under realistic conditions. • Methods Two field experiments were performed to analyse the effect of emergence date on survival and first-year growth of Scots pine seedlings in natural mountain forests in south-east Spain. Two main environmental factors that determine seedling success in these mountains were considered: (1) microhabitat type (monitoring the effect of date of emergence in the three most common microhabitats where seedlings recruit); (2) summer drought (monitored by an irrigation treatment with control and watered sampling points). • Key Results Overall, early emergence resulted in a higher probability of survival and better growth in the two experiments and across microhabitats. However, the reduction in summer drought did not diminish the differences observed among cohorts: all cohorts increased their survival and growth, but early cohorts still had a clear advantage. • Conclusions Date of emergence determines establishment success of Pinus sylvestris seedlings, even if cohorts are separated by only a few days, irrespective of the intensity of summer drought. The experimental design, covering a gradient of light intensity and soil moisture that simulates conditions of the regeneration niche of Scots pine across its geographical range, allows the results to be extrapolated to other areas of the species. Date of emergence is thus likely to have a large impact on the demography of Scots pine across its geographical range.

CASTRO, JORGE

2006-01-01

387

Emergency laparoscopy – current best practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency laparoscopic surgery allows both the evaluation of acute abdominal pain and the treatment of many common acute abdominal disorders. This review critically evaluates the current evidence base for the use of laparoscopy, both diagnostic and interventional, in the emergency abdomen, and provides guidance for surgeons as to current best practise. Laparoscopic surgery is firmly established as the best intervention

Oliver Warren; James Kinross; Paraskevas Paraskeva; Ara Darzi

2006-01-01

388

911 Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... sick, or has a headache might have a concussion or other head injury. Dealing with an emergency ... Know What to Do After a Car Crash Concussions Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

389

Radiation Emergencies  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Safety (3/2011); Radiation Emergencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). ... increase the rates of elimination of these substances from the ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

390

Paediatric emergencies.  

PubMed

The care of sick children can be challenging for the anaesthetist who is only involved in the occasional care of paediatric patients. This paper outlines the care of medical and surgical paediatric emergencies for which an anaesthetist working at a district general hospital or equivalent may encounter. Conditions discussed include paediatric respiratory emergencies, sepsis, status epilepticus, the acute abdomen in the newborn, intussusception, the bleeding tonsil, trauma and the child with burns. PMID:23210557

McDougall, R J

2013-01-01

391

Algorithmic Issues and Applications of BOUT++ to Simulation of Realistic Tokamak Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reported on simulations of electrostatic resistive ballooning instabilities in realistic tokamak geometries using the BOUT++ three-dimensional fluid code [1]. The simulations extend to include the open flux region and a single divertor with X-point, using the actual magnetic geometry of the DIII-D tokamak. Comparisons of the growth rates for linear instabilities are made to those from the 2DX linear code [2]. It is found that unphysical grid oscillations tend to emerge in the parallel coordinate at the shortest wavelength, and two methods are used to control it - inclusion of an artificial spatial diffusion operator or use of a staggered grid. Simulations of a nonlinear saturated state are presented along with initial comparison to experimental data from DIII-D. [4pt] [1] B. D. Dudson, et al., Computer Phys. Comm. 180, 1467 (2009). [0pt] [2] D. A. Baver, J. R. Myra and M.V. Umansky, Computer Phys. Comm. 182, 1610 (2011).

Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Makowski, Michael

2011-11-01

392

Prospects of realistic Quark-model baryon-baryon interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The QCD-inspired spin-flavor SU6 quark model for the baryon- baryon interaction, proposed by the Kyoto-Niigata group, is a unified model for the full octet-baryons (B8=N, ?, ? and ?), which has achieved very accurate descriptions of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) and hyperon-nucleon (YN) interactions. The present model, fss2, is not only more sophisticated than the previous model, FSS, for the description of the realistic NN and YN interaction, but also valid for reproducing of the existing experimental data in the strangeness S=-2 sector. We attempt to construct the more realistic quark-model baryon- baryon interactions possessing both the desirable feature of the quark model and the accuracy equivalent with fss2 for the experimental data.

Nakamoto, Choki; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2009-10-01

393

The construction of ‘So What?’ criminology: a realist analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a realist perspective there is a growing body of criminology that can be classified as ‘So What?’ criminology in that\\u000a it involves a low level of theorisation, thin, inconsistent or vague concepts and categories, embodies a dubious methodology\\u000a or has little or no policy relevance. The production of ‘So What?’ criminology is, of course, no accident but the outcome

Roger A. Matthews

2010-01-01

394

Menger’s causal-realist analysis in modern economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carl Menger pioneered a unique theoretical research method which served as the foundation of the early Austrian school of\\u000a economics. Menger’s causal-realist analysis was revived and formalized just before and after World War 2 by Ludwig von Mises\\u000a as the “praxeological method.” Murray Rothbard, a student of von Mises’, utilized the method in formulating a comprehensive\\u000a system of economic theory

Joseph T. Salerno

2010-01-01

395

A Realistic Chat Environment for Virtual Avatars in Cyber Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chat is a crucial function in current virtual worlds. Since virtual worlds are becoming increasingly popular, we need a realistic and efficient communication framework for multi-agents participating in a virtual world. This paper proposes a unified communication framework for multiple avatars in a virtual world, (e.g., second-life). Current chat systems in virtual worlds provide a set of special communication protocols

Soo-hyun Park; Seung-hyun Ji; Dong-sung Ryu; Hwan-gue Cho

2008-01-01

396

Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayermirrors  

SciTech Connect

Aperiodic multilayers have been designed for various applications, using numeric algorithms and analytical solutions, for many years with varying levels of success. This work developed a more realistic model for simulating aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers to be used in these algorithms by including the formation of MoSi{sub 2}. Using a genetic computer code we were able to optimize a 45{sup o} multilayer for a large bandpass reflection multilayer that gave good agreement with the model.

Aquila, A.L.; Salmassi, F.; Dollar, F.; Liu, Y.; Gullikson, E.M.

2006-04-05

397

Development of realistic RDD scenarios and their radiological consequence analyses.  

PubMed

The terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, brought about deep interest on the radiological dispersal device (RDD) and the malevolent radiological event. In this study, realistic potential scenarios using RDD were developed. Among those probable radionuclides, (137)Cs and (241)Am were selected to simulate the radiological effects caused by dirty bomb. Their radiological consequences were assessed in terms of total effective dose, projected cumulative external and internal dose and ground deposition of radioactivity. PMID:19318261

Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul

2009-02-20

398

Realistic modeling of chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Transport of intense heavy-ion beams to an inertial-fusion target after final focus is simulated here using a realistic computer model. It is found that passing the beam through a rarefied plasma layer before it enters the fusion chamber can largely neutralize the beam space charge and lead to a usable focal spot for a range of ion species and input conditions.

Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.

2003-05-01

399

Unbiased Monte Carlo simulations of realistic models: Colossal magnetoresistive manganites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the one-orbital model for manganites with cooperative phonons and superexchange coupling JAF via large-scale Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Results for two-orbitals are also briefly discussed. Focusing on an the realistic electronic density n=0.75, a regime of competition between ferromagnetic (FM) metallic and charge-ordered (CO) insulating states was identified in the finite temperature phase diagram. In the vicinity of

Cengiz ?en; Gonzalo Alvarez; Adriana Moreo; Elbio Dagotto

2010-01-01

400

A Laboratory Wood Chipper for Chipping Under Realistic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood chipping is a critical component part of many pulp and paper making processes. In order to study the damage mechanisms,\\u000a when wood chips are created through the wood chipping process, it is crucial to have access to an experimental equipment in\\u000a which chips can be produced under realistic conditions. In this paper, a laboratory chipper is presented, which has

L. M. Hellström; P. A. Gradin; M. Gulliksson; T. Carlberg

401

Analytic Approach for Controlling Realistic Quantum Chaotic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytic approach for controlling quantum states, which was originally applied to fully random matrix systems [T. Takami and H. Fujisaki, Phys. Rev. E 75, 036219 (2007)], is extended to deal with more realistic quantum systems with a banded random matrix (BRM). The validity of the new analytic field is confirmed by directly solving the Schrödinger equation with a BRM interaction. We find a threshold of the width of the BRM for the quantum control to be successful.

Takami, Toshiya; Fujisaki, Hiroshi

2007-12-01

402

Speech-driven facial animation with realistic dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integral system capable of generating animations with realistic dynamics, including the in- dividualized nuances, of three-dimensional (3-D) human faces driven by speech acoustics. The system is capable of capturing short phenomena in the orofacial dynamics of a given speaker by tracking the 3-D location of various MPEG-4 facial points through stereovi- sion. A perceptual transformation of

Ricardo Gutierrez-osuna; Praveen K. Kakumanu; Anna Esposito; Oscar N. Garcia; Adriana Bojórquez; José Luis Castillo; Isaac Rudomín

2005-01-01

403

Robustly Testable Array Multipliers under Realistic Sequential Cell Fault Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional combinational fault models are not sufficient to detect to most common failure mechanisms in CMOS Iterative Logic Arrays (ILAs). The Realistic Sequential Cell Fault Model (RS-CFM) provides a comprehensive, robust test methodology for ILAs. It also satisfies the requirements for low test complexity and cell implementation independence. Adopting RS-CFM, we first provide sufficient conditions for two-dimensional (2D) ILAs to

Mihalis Psarakis; Dimitris Gizopoulos; Antonis M. Paschalis; Yervant Zorian

1998-01-01

404

Belief revision: cognitive constraints for modeling more realistic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some of the current formal accounts of belief revision (cf. 2.1) are discussed from the point of view of their expressive power concerning cognitive features of realistic agents. The framework from which such features are derived is a well-known model of cognitive social action (cf. 2.2). Seven basic requirements are proposed to characterize belief revision in cognitive

Fabio Paglieri

2003-01-01

405

Photo-Realistic Talking-Heads from Image Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for creating aphoto-realistic model of the human head that can be animatedand lip-synched from phonetic transcripts of text. Combined witha state-of-the-art text-to-speech synthesizer (TTS), it generatesvideo animations of talking heads that closely resemble real people.To obtain a naturally looking head, we choose a "data-driven"approach. We record a talking person and apply image recognitionto extract automatically

Eric Cosatto; Hans Peter Graf

2000-01-01

406

A Real-Time Photo-Realistic Visual Flythrough  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a comprehensive flythrough system whichgenerates photo-realistic images in true real-time. The high performanceis due to an innovative rendering algorithm based on a discreteray casting approach, accelerated by ray coherence and multiresolutiontraversal. The terrain as well as the 3D objects are represented bya textured mapped voxel-based model. The system is based on a puresoftware algorithm and

Eran Rich; Uri Lerner; Victor Shenkar

1996-01-01

407

A Realistic and Robust Model for Chinese Word Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A realistic Chinese word segmentation tool must ada pt to textual variations with minimal training input and yet robust enough to yield relia ble segmentation result for all variants. Various lexicon-driven approaches to Chinese segmentation, e.g. (1,16), achieve high f-scores yet require massive training for any variation. Tex t-driven approach, e.g. (12), can be easily adapted for domain and genre

Chu-Ren Huang; Shu-Kai Hsieh

408

Synthesizing Realistic Expressions in 3D Face Data Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a robust method for synthesizing realistic expressions on 3D human face surfaces captured from frontal photographs with neutral expression. The generated facial expressions could be used to improve the performance of existing face identification systems, or to enhance human recognition. Firstly, the 3D face surface map is recovered using an analysis-by-synthesis approach based on a statistical model

Jacey-Lynn Minoi; S. H. Amin; C. E. Thomaz; D. F. Gillies

2008-01-01

409

Face to Face: From Real Humans to Realistic Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for photo-realistic facial model- ing and animation, which includes several tools that fa- cilitate necessary tasks such as mesh processing, texture registration, and assembling of facial components. The resulting head model reflects the anatomical structure of the human head including skull, skin, and muscles. Semi- automatic generation of high-quality models from scan data for physics-based animation

Irene Albrecht; Hitoshi Yamauchi; Hans-Peter Seidel

410

Depigmented skin and phantom color measurements for realistic prostheses.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data was analyzed from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared with 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. RESULTS: The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162). CONCLUSION: Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

2013-06-10

411

Quantum communication with photon-number entangled states and realistic photodetection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the effects of realistic photodetection, with nonunit quantum efficiency and background noise (dark counts), on the performances of quantum communication schemes based on photon-number entangled states (PNES). We consider channels based on Gaussian twin-beam states (TWB) and non-Gaussian two-mode coherent states (TMC) and evaluate the channel capacity by optimizing the bit discrimination threshold. We found that TWB-based channels are more robust against noise than TMC-based ones and that this result is almost independent on the statistics of dark counts.

Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Paris, Matteo G. A.

2010-03-01

412

Fire service emergency management handbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This planning guide was prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency by the International Association of Fire Chiefs as part of an effort to update and improve emergency management information available to the fire service. Intended as a primary source for fire chiefs, fire executives, and planners, it incorporates the following main topic areas: instruction for the use of the handbook; description of the emergency management process; and checklists for specific hazards. The volume includes a self evaluation form for determining community risk, concepts of emergency management, and specific steps in community risk reduction in the four phases of emergency management process. Sample forms, tables, and letters of agreement are also included.

1985-01-01

413

A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis for comparison. Specimens were then inspected using acoustography, a large field ultrasonic inspection technique that is analogous to real-time X-ray imaging. Acoustography utilizes a unique, wide area two-dimensional (2-D) detector, called an acousto-optic (AO) sensor, to directly convert ultrasound into visual images; much like an image intensifier in real-time radiography. Finally, a newly developed guided wave scanning system was utilized to inspect the same set of samples. This system uses two transducers in a pitch catch configuration to examine the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Results are presented for all of the methods demonstrating each technique's detection capabilities and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Pergantis, Charles G.; Sandhu, Jaswinder S.

2004-07-01

414

Chemical and toxicological evaluation of an emerging pollutant (enrofloxacin) by catalytic wet air oxidation and ozonation in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the degradation efficiency of enrofloxacin (ENR) by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) and ozonation. Results obtained by CWAO experiments show that 99.5% degradation, 37.0% chemical oxidation demand (COD) removal and 51.0% total organic carbon (TOC) conversion were obtained when 100 mol% FeCl(3) and 25 mol% NaNO(2) at 150 °C under 0.5 MPa oxygen pressure after 120 min are used. The degradation products are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). The oxidation end products, F(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) were determined by IC. The BOD(5)/COD ratio as a measure of the biodegradability of the parent compound increased from 0.01 to 0.12 after 120 min of reaction time, indicating an improved biodegradability of the parent compound. The inhibition of bioluminescence of the marine bacteria V. fischeri decreased from 43% to 12% demonstrating a loss in toxicity of ENR during CWAO. Ozonation of 0.2 mM ENR was carried out with an ozone concentration of 7.3 g m(-3) at pH 7. ENR decomposition with a degradation rate of 87% was obtained corresponding to the reaction time. Moderate changes in COD (18%) and TOC (17%) removal has been observed. The bioluminescence inhibition increased from 8% to 50%, due to the generation of toxic degradation products during ozonation. In comparison to the widely use of well developed method of ozonation CWAO exhibits better performance in terms of COD, TOC removals and generates less toxic products. PMID:22858256

Li, Yan; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao; Yediler, Ayfer

2012-08-01

415

Comparing the intended consequences of three theories of evaluation.  

PubMed

This paper compares selected evaluation theories (Practical Participatory Evaluation, Values-Engaged Evaluation, Emergent Realist Evaluation) on the basis of their stated consequences. The discussion follows Mark's (2008) framework for research on evaluation and uses Miller's (2010) criteria of discernible impact and reproducibility in order to delineate the theories. The research on evaluation outcomes shows that some of the claims made by each evaluation theory are supported with evidence, but many substantial claims remain untested. The short term and long term goals espoused by each theory show noticeable differences in the consequences of each evaluation approach, with different emphases placed on organizational capacity, use of findings, or perceptions of the evaluation as outcomes of the prescribed evaluation approach. PMID:22459670

Luskin, Rebecca J C; Ho, Timothy

2012-03-10

416

Emergent spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the possibility that spacetime geometry may be an emergent phenomenon. This idea has been motivated by the Analogue Gravity programme. These are systems where the kinematics of small perturbations are dominated by an effective gravitational field. In these models there is no obvious connection between the "gravitational" field tensor and the Einstein equations, as the emergent spacetime geometry arises as a consequence of linearising around some classical field. After a brief introduction on this topic, we present our recent contributions to the field.

Weinfurtner, Silke

2007-11-01

417

Emerging equity market volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding volatility in emerging capital markets is important for determining the cost of capital and for evaluating direct investment and asset allocation decisions. We provide an approach that allows the relative importance of world and local information to change through time in both the expected returns and conditional variance processes. Our time-series and cross-sectional models analyze the reasons that volatility

Geert Bekaert; Campbell R. Harvey

1997-01-01

418

Emergency department triage revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triage is a process that is critical to the effective management of modern emergency departments. Triage systems aim, not only to ensure clinical justice for the patient, but also to provide an effective tool for departmental organisation, monitoring and evaluation. Over the last 20 years, triage systems have been standardised in a number of countries and efforts made to ensure

Gerard FitzGerald; George A Jelinek; Deborah Scott; Marie Frances Gerdtz

2010-01-01

419

Cardiac emergencies.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and management of pediatric cardiac emergencies can be challenging and complicated. Early presentations are usually the result of ductal-dependent lesions and appear with cyanosis and shock. Later presentations are the result of volume overload or pump failure and present with signs of congestive heart failure. Acquired diseases also present as congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. PMID:23915599

Barata, Isabel Araujo

2013-08-01

420

Emerging Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce…

Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

421

Dental Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral.

Symington, J.M.

1988-01-01

422

EMERGING ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to better fulfill its mission under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement for the restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem GLNPO has funded strategic or emerging issues of basin-wide importance: ...

423

Radiation Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and ...

424

["Emergency measures"].  

PubMed

This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime. PMID:22693924

Louis, Jean-Jacques

2012-03-01

425

Generalized seniority in a major shell with realistic interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized seniority scheme has long been proposed as a means of dramatically reducing the dimensionality of nuclear shell model calculations, when strong pairing correlations are present. However, systematic benchmark calculations, comparing results obtained in a model space truncated according to generalized seniority with those obtained in the full shell model space, are required to assess the viability of this scheme. Here, we extend recent calculations for semimagic nuclei, the Ca isotopes, to include nuclei with both valence protons and valence neutrons, namely, the Ti and Cr isotopes, taken in a full major shell and with realistic interactions.

Caprio, M. A.; Luo, F. Q.; Cai, K.; Constantinou, Ch.; Hellemans, V.

2012-10-01

426

Measurement of automobile exhaust emissions under realistic road conditions  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas measurement system for on-board use has been developed, which enables the direct and continuous determination of the exhaust mass emissions in vehicles on the road. Such measurements under realistic traffic conditions are a valuable supplement to measurements taken on test benches, the latter, however, still being necessary. In the last two years numerous test runs were undertaken. The reliability of the on-board system could be demonstrated and a very informative view of the exhaust emissions behavior of a vehicle on the road was obtained from the test results.

Staab, J.; Schurmann, D.

1987-01-01

427

The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models  

SciTech Connect

In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

Giedt, Joel

2000-07-05

428

Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the strong diffusion limit DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower limit to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> DSD in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the dependence of DSD on geomagnetic condition, spatial location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic conditions. Use of more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a strong dependence on the spatial location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> of DSD besides scattering rates in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetosphere, especially at high spatial locations and under geomagnetically disturbed conditions for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemodynamic Changes Caused by Flow Diverters in Rabbit Aneurysm Models: Comparison of Virtual and <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> FD Deployments Based on Micro-CT Reconstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adjusting hemodynamics via flow diverter (FD) implantation is <span class="hlt">emerging</span> as a novel method of treating cerebral aneurysms. However, most previous FD-related hemodynamic studies were based on virtual FD deployment, which may produce different hemodynamic outcomes than <span class="hlt">realistic</span> (in vivo) FD deployment. We compared hemodynamics between virtual FD and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> FD deployments in rabbit aneurysm models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. FDs were implanted for aneurysms in 14 rabbits. Vascular models based on rabbit-specific angiograms were reconstructed for CFD studies. Real FD configurations were reconstructed based on micro-CT scans after sacrifice, while virtual FD configurations were constructed with SolidWorks software. Hemodynamic parameters before and after FD deployment were analyzed. According to the metal coverage (MC) of implanted FDs calculated based on micro-CT reconstruction, 14 rabbits were divided into two groups (A, MC >35%; B, MC <35%). Normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS), relative residence time (RRT), inflow velocity, and inflow volume in Group A were significantly different (P<0.05) from virtual FD deployment, but pressure was not (P>0.05). The normalized mean WSS in Group A after <span class="hlt">realistic</span> FD implantation was significantly lower than that of Group B. All parameters in Group B exhibited no significant difference between <span class="hlt">realistic</span> and virtual FDs. This study confirmed MC-correlated differences in hemodynamic parameters between <span class="hlt">realistic</span> and virtual FD deployment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang, Yibin; Yu, Ying; Cheng, Jiyong; Wang, Shengzhang; Wang, Kuizhong; Liu, Jian-Min; Huang, Qinghai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/532610"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward the classification of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> free fermionic models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">realistic</span> free fermionic models have had remarkable success in providing plausible explanations for various properties of the Standard Model which include the natural appearance of three generations, the explanation of the heavy top quark mass and the qualitative structure of the fermion mass spectrum in general, the stability of the proton and more. These intriguing achievements makes evident the need to understand the general space of these models. While the number of possibilities is large, general patterns can be extracted. In this paper the author presents a detailed discussion on the construction of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> free fermionic models with the aim of providing some insight into the basic structures and building blocks that enter the construction. The role of free phases in the determination of the phenomenology of the models is discussed in detail. The author discusses the connection between the free phases and mirror symmetry in (2,2) models and the corresponding symmetries in the case of (2,0) models. The importance of the free phases in determining the effective low energy phenomenology is illustrated in several examples. The classification of the models in terms of boundary condition selection rules, real world-sheet fermion pairings, exotic matter states and the hidden sector is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faraggi, A.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4450301C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Late-Stage Planet Formation with <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The final stage of terrestrial planet formation is thought to begin with a few tens to a few hundred planetary embryos with sizes comparable to the Moon or Mars. Simulations of late-stage accretion usually rely on N-body integrations to follow the complex orbital evolution of these embryos, which determines which objects collide and what their final orbits will be. However, most simulations to date have used a greatly simplified model for the collisions themselves, assuming that colliding bodies merge, conserving mass and momentum. Recently, Leinhardt and Stewart (2012, Astrophys. J. 745, 79) have performed a detailed study of the outcome of collisions between planetary embryos, allowing simulations of planetary accretion to include more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> collisions as a result. Here, I will describe the results of a new set of N-body simulations of late-stage planetary growth that include a range of impact outcomes such as fragmentation, and hit and run collisions, as well as simple mergers. The results will be compared with simulations that assume all collisions yield a merger, paying particular attention to growth timescales, planetary compositions, and the kind of final systems that form. The use of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> collision model also makes it possible to examine core-mantle fractionation over time for different objects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chambers, John E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22049364"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> analytical phantoms for parallel magnetic resonance imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quantitative validation of reconstruction algorithms requires reliable data. Rasterized simulations are popular but they are tainted by an aliasing component that impacts the assessment of the performance of reconstruction. We introduce analytical simulation tools that are suited to parallel magnetic resonance imaging and allow one to build <span class="hlt">realistic</span> phantoms. The proposed phantoms are composed of ellipses and regions with piecewise-polynomial boundaries, including spline contours, Bézier contours, and polygons. In addition, they take the channel sensitivity into account, for which we investigate two possible models. Our analytical formulations provide well-defined data in both the spatial and k-space domains. Our main contribution is the closed-form determination of the Fourier transforms that are involved. Experiments validate the proposed implementation. In a typical parallel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction experiment, we quantify the bias in the overly optimistic results obtained with rasterized simulations-the inverse-crime situation. We provide a package that implements the different simulations and provide tools to guide the design of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> phantoms. PMID:22049364</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guerquin-Kern, M; Lejeune, L; Pruessmann, K P; Unser, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1000420"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation Dose Estimation Using <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Postures with PIMAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For correct radiation dose assessment, it is important to take the posture into account. A computational phantom with moving arms and legs was previously developed to address this need. Further, an accompanying graphical user interface (GUI), called PIMAL, was developed to enable dose estimation using <span class="hlt">realistic</span> postures in a user-friendly manner such that the analyst's time could be substantially reduced. The importance of the posture for correct dose estimation has been demonstrated with a few case studies in earlier analyses. The previous version of PIMAL was somewhat limited in its features (i.e., it contained only a hermaphrodite phantom model and allowed only isotropic source definition). Currently GUI is being further enhanced by incorporating additional phantom models, improving the features, and increasing the user friendliness in general. This paper describes recent updates to the PIMAL software. In this summary recent updates to the PIMAL software, which aims to perform radiation transport simulations for phantom models in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> postures in a user-friendly manner, are described. In future work additional phantom models, including hybrid phantom models, will be incorporated. In addition to further enhancements, a library of input files for the case studies that have been analyzed to date will be included in the PIMAL.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akkurt, Hatice [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPD....4410404O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling coronal loop oscillations in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetic and density structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, ubiquitous coronal loop oscillations were detected in active region loops by SDO/AIA. Hinode/EIS observations indicate that quasi-periodic flows are present at footpoints of loops in active regions, and related propagating disturbances (PD's) were detected in open and closed loop structures. Recent 3D MHD models in idealized (bipolar) active regions (Ofman et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2013, this meeting) have demonstrated that the flows can produce slow magnetosonic waves in loops, as well as transverse oscillations. We extend the idealized studies by considering more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetic field structures modeled by including photospheric magnetic field extrapolated to the corona as boundary and initial conditions for the 3D MHD modeling. We use potential and nonlinear magnetic field extrapolations combined with gravitationally stratified density and introduce flows at the corona-transition region boundary in our 3D MHD model. We apply coronal seismology to the resulting loop oscillations and compare to oscillation events detected by SDO/AIA. We aim to improve the accuracy of coronal seismology by modeling coronal loop oscillations in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetic geometry and density structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ofman, Leon; Wang, T.; Malanushenko, A.; Davila, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explicit modeling of human-object interactions in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> videos.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce an approach for learning human actions as interactions between persons and objects in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> videos. Previous work typically represents actions with low-level features such as image gradients or optical flow. In contrast, we explicitly localize in space and track over time both the object and the person, and represent an action as the trajectory of the object w.r.t. to the person position. Our approach relies on state-of-the-art techniques for human detection, object detection, and tracking. We show that this results in human and object tracks of sufficient quality to model and localize human-object interactions in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> videos. Our human-object interaction features capture the relative trajectory of the object w.r.t. the human. Experimental results on the Coffee and Cigarettes dataset, the video dataset of, and the Rochester Daily Activities dataset show that 1) our explicit human-object model is an informative cue for action recognition; 2) it is complementary to traditional low-level descriptors such as 3D--HOG extracted over human tracks. We show that combining our human-object interaction features with 3D-HOG improves compared to their individual performance as well as over the state of the art. PMID:22889819</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prest, Alessandro; Ferrari, Vittorio; Schmid, Cordelia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6914E.170R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A software assistant for the design of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> software phantoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Segmentation and quantification of medical image data are difficult problems in image analysis. Especially, an accurate and robust assessment of quantitative parameters is a key issue in many fields, and can have a direct impact on diagnosis and treatment planning. To this end, physical and software phantom data sets have become an integral tool during the design, implementation, and optimization of new algorithms. Unfortunately, a common research resource has not been established until now for many applications. In this work we propose a software assistant for the development of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> software phantoms. Our aim is an easy-to-use tool with an intuitive user interface. Furthermore, we provide a software for researchers including a common basis of reference data, which facilitates a standardized and objective validation of performance and limitations of own developments, as well as the comparison of different methods. The fundamental phantom design focuses on objects that can be incorporated into a given background. This can either be a homogeneous artificial background, or a volunteer or patient data set. For each phantom the exact ground truth of the investigated object is available, which provides us with an excellent tool for the generation of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> data sets. Several experiments are carried out for a number of different applications including software phantoms of small, hyperintense brain lesions, as well as software phantoms of liver metastases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rexilius, Jan; Konrad, Olaf; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2023B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> 3-D imaging based on colour holography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bjelkhagen, H. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953703"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dimits Shift in More <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Gyrokinetic Plasma Turbulence Simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In simulations of turbulent plasma transport due to long wavelength, (k?pi ? 1), electrostatic drift-type instabilities we find that a nonlinear upshift of the effective threshold persists. This `Dimits shift' represents the difference between the linear threshold, at the onset of instability, and the nonlinear threshold, where transport increases suddenly as the driving temperature gradient is increased. As the drive increases, the magnitudes of turbulent eddies and zonal ows grow until the zonal flows become nonlinearly unstable to 'tertiary' modes and their sheared ows no longer grow fast enough to strongly limit eddy size. The tertiary mode threshold sets the effective nonlinear threshold for the heat transport, and the Dimits shift arises when this occurs at a zonal flow magnitude greater than that needed to limit transport near the linear threshold. Nextgeneration tokamaks will likely benefit from the higher effective threshold for turbulent transport, and transport models should incorporate suitable corrections to linear thresholds. These gyrokinetic simulations are more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> than previous reports of a Dimits shift because they include nonadiabatic electron dynamics, strong collisional damping of zonal flows, and finite electron and ion collisionality together with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> shaped magnetic geometry. Reversing previously reported results based on idealized adiabatic electrons, we find that increasing collisionality reduces the heat flux because collisionality reduces the nonadiabatic electron drive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D.R. Mikkelsen and W. Dorland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences/ucm214030.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EMERGING</span> INFECTIOUS DISEASES: <span class="hlt">EVALUATION</span> TO ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text Version... Page 46. hot vehicles bush meat comes to mind. Climate change isn't going to help and we've talked about the need to improve preparedness and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60428274"> <span id="translatedtitle">Righteous <span class="hlt">realists</span>: Perceptions of American power and responsibility in the nuclear age</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a study of the moral and ethical dimensions of political realism in post-World War II America, especially in relation to <span class="hlt">realist</span> thought on nuclear weapons issues. Emphasis is placed on evolving notions of power and responsibility as they form the basis for a <span class="hlt">realist</span> philosophy of power in the nuclear age. It is argued that the <span class="hlt">realists</span> developed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenthal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community falls prevention for people who call an <span class="hlt">emergency</span> ambulance after a fall: an economic <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> alongside a randomised controlled trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: we estimated the cost-effectiveness of a community falls prevention service compared with usual care from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective over the 12 month trial period. Design: a cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial Setting: community. Participants: people over 60 years of age living at home or in residential care who had fallen and called an <span class="hlt">emergency</span> ambulance but were not taken to hospital. Interventions: referral to community fall prevention services or usual health and social care. Measurements: incremental cost per fall prevented and incremental cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) Results: a total of 157 participants (82 interventions and 75 controls) were used to perform the economic <span class="hlt">evaluation</span>. The mean difference in NHS and personal social service costs between the groups was £-1,551 per patient over 1 year (95% CI: £-5,932 to £2,829) comparing the intervention and control groups. The intervention patients experienced on average 5.34 fewer falls over 12 months (95% CI: ?7.06 to ?3.62). The mean difference in QALYs was 0.070 (95% CI: ?0.010 to 0.150) in favour of the intervention group. Conclusion: the community falls prevention service was estimated to be cost-effective in this high-risk group. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67535605. (controlled-trials.com)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sach, Tracey H.; Logan, Philippa A.; Coupland, Carol A. C.; Gladman, John R. F.; Sahota, Opinder; Stoner-Hobbs, Valarie; Robertson, Kate; Tomlinson, Vicki; Ward, Marie; Avery, Anthony J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB94154721"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recommended <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Preparedness Guidelines for Passenger Trains.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The document contains recommended guidelines designed to assist system operating and <span class="hlt">emergency</span> response organization management in <span class="hlt">evaluating</span> and modifying or supplementing their <span class="hlt">emergency</span> response plans. The recommendations address guidelines relating to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Markos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24912528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Addressing <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Preparedness and Response Competencies for Nurses through Simulation Experiences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The critical need for a competency-based curriculum for nurses in <span class="hlt">emergency</span> planning and response has <span class="hlt">emerged</span>. Though actual <span class="hlt">emergency</span> situations do not present an appropriate milieu for competency-based education of our nation's nurses, simulations allow nurses to acquire and demonstrate competencies in settings that draw as near as possible to a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> <span class="hlt">emergency</span>.The International Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elizabeth Weiner</p>