Sample records for emergent realist evaluation

  1. Faculty development for educators: a realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sorinola, Olanrewaju O; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Davies, David; Peile, Ed

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities for educators in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study used a realist approach to evaluate FD and to test the hypothesis that motivation, engagement and perception are key mechanisms of effective FD activities. The authors observed and interviewed 33 course participants at one UK medical school in 2012. An observed engagement scale scored participants' engagement while interviews explored motivation for attendance, engagement during the course and perception of relevance/usefulness. Six months later, using the realist framework, 12 interviews explored impact on learning outcomes/behavioural changes, the mechanisms that led to the changes and the context that facilitated those mechanisms. The authors derived bi-axial constructs for motivation, engagement and perception from two data-sources. The predominant motivation was individualistic rather than altruistic with no difference between external and internal motives. Realist evaluation showed engagement to be the key mechanism influencing learning; the contextual factor was participatory learning during the course. Six months later, engagement remained the key mechanism influencing learning/behavioural changes; the context was reflective practice. The main outcome reported was increased confidence in teaching and empowerment to utilise previously unrecognised teaching opportunities. Individual motivation drives FD participation; however engagement is the key causal mechanism underpinning learning as it induces deeper learning with different facilitating contexts at various time points. The metrics of motivation, engagement and perception, combined with the realist framework offers FD developers the potential to understand 'what works for whom, in what context and why'. PMID:25096791

  2. Emergent properties from organisms to ecosystems: towards a realistic approach

    PubMed Central

    Ponge, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    More realistic approaches are needed to understand the complexity of ecological systems. Emergent properties of real systems can be used as a basis for a new, neither reductionist nor holistic, approach. Three systems, termed here BUBBLEs, WAVEs and CRYSTALs, have been identified as exhibiting emergent properties. They are non-hierarchical assemblages of individual components, with amplification and connectedness being two main principles that govern their build-up, maintenance and mutual relationships. Examples from various fields of biological and ecological science are referred to, ranging from individual organisms to landscapes. PMID:16094806

  3. Performance Evaluation of Realistic Vanet Using Traffic Light Scenario

    E-print Network

    Nidhi,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is attracting considerable attention from the research community and the automotive industry to improve the services of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). As today's transportation system faces serious challenges in terms of road safety, efficiency, and environmental friendliness, the idea of so called "ITS" has emerged. Due to the expensive cost of deployment and complexity of implementing such a system in real world, research in VANET relies on simulation. This paper attempts to evaluate the performance of VANET in a realistic environment. The paper contributes by generating a real world road Map of JNU using existing Google Earth and GIS tools. Traffic data from a limited region of road Map is collected to capture the realistic mobility. In this work, the entire region has been divided into various smaller routes. The realistic mobility model used here considers the driver's route choice at the run time. It also studies the clustering effect caused by traffic lights...

  4. A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on understanding how context influences evidence-based practice. The strengths and limitations of the approach are considered, including how to operationalise it and some of the challenges. This approach provided a useful interpretive framework with which to make sense of the multiple factors that were simultaneously at play and being observed through various data sources, and for developing explanatory theory about using standardised care approaches in practice. PMID:20504293

  5. The use and limitation of realistic evaluation as a tool for evidence-based practice: a critical realist perspective.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The use and limitation of realistic evaluation as a tool for evidence-based practice: a critical realist perspective In this paper, we assess realistic evaluation's articulation with evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of critical realism. We argue that the adoption by realistic evaluation of a realist causal ontology means that it is better placed to explain complex healthcare interventions than the traditional method used by EBP, the randomized controlled trial (RCT). However, we do not conclude from this that the use of RCTs is without merit, arguing that it is possible to use both methods in combination under the rubric of realist theory. More negatively, we contend that the rejection of critical theory and utopianism by realistic evaluation in favour of the pragmatism of piecemeal social engineering means that it is vulnerable to accusations that it promotes technocratic interpretations of human problems. We conclude that, insofar as realistic evaluation adheres to the ontology of critical realism, it provides a sound contribution to EBP, but insofar as it rejects the critical turn of Bhaskar's realism, it replicates the technocratic tendencies inherent in EBP. PMID:22212367

  6. A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Realist evaluation offers an interesting approach to evaluation of interventions in complex settings, but has been little applied in health care. We report on a realist case study of a well performing hospital in Ghana and show how such a realist evaluation design can help to overcome the limited external validity of a traditional case study. Methods We developed a realist evaluation framework for hypothesis formulation, data collection, data analysis and synthesis of the findings. Focusing on the role of human resource management in hospital performance, we formulated our hypothesis around the high commitment management concept. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual and group interviews, observations and document reviews. Results We found that the human resource management approach (the actual intervention) included induction of new staff, training and personal development, good communication and information sharing, and decentralised decision-making. We identified 3 additional practices: ensuring optimal physical working conditions, access to top managers and managers' involvement on the work floor. Teamwork, recognition and trust emerged as key elements of the organisational climate. Interviewees reported high levels of organisational commitment. The analysis unearthed perceived organisational support and reciprocity as underlying mechanisms that link the management practices with commitment. Methodologically, we found that realist evaluation can be fruitfully used to develop detailed case studies that analyse how management interventions work and in which conditions. Analysing the links between intervention, mechanism and outcome increases the explaining power, while identification of essential context elements improves the usefulness of the findings for decision-makers in other settings (external validity). We also identified a number of practical difficulties and priorities for further methodological development. Conclusion This case suggests that a well-balanced HRM bundle can stimulate organisational commitment of health workers. Such practices can be implemented even with narrow decision spaces. Realist evaluation provides an appropriate approach to increase the usefulness of case studies to managers and policymakers. PMID:20100330

  7. Considerations for realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Chexal, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies the various phenomena which govern the course of large and small break LOCAs in LWRs, and affect the key parameters such as Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and timing of the end of blowdown, beginning of reflood, PCT, and complete quench. A review of the best-estimate models and correlations for these phenomena in the current literature has been presented. Finally, a set of models have been recommended which may be incorporated in a present best-estimate code such as TRAC or RELAP5 in order to develop a realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for future LWRs and have also been compared with the requirements of current ECCS evaluation methodology as outlined in Appendix K of 10CFR50. 58 refs.

  8. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David, Ed.; Hricko, Mary, Ed.; Howell, Scott, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" provides a view of the possibilities and challenges facing online educators and evaluators in the 21st Century. As technology evolves and online measurement and assessment follow, "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" uses established evaluation

  9. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  10. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  11. Evaluating a realistic agent in an advice-giving task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne C. Berry; Laurie T. Butler; Fiorella De Rosis

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate an embodied,conversational,agent called GRETA in an effort to answer,two main,questions: (1) What are the benefits (and costs) of presenting information via an animated agent, with certain characteristics, in a ‘persuasion’ task, compared to other forms of display? (2) How important is it that emotional expressions are added in a way

  12. Realistic nurse-led policy implementation, optimization and evaluation: novel methodological exemplar.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Jane; Lewis, Mary; Bennett, Virginia; Widdas, David; Brombley, Karen

    2013-05-28

    AIM: To report the first large-scale realistic nurse-led implementation, optimization and evaluation of a complex children's continuing-care policy. BACKGROUND: Health policies are increasingly complex, involve multiple Government departments and frequently fail to translate into better patient outcomes. Realist methods have not yet been adapted for policy implementation. DESIGN: Research methodology - Evaluation using theory-based realist methods for policy implementation. METHODS: An expert group developed the policy and supporting tools. Implementation and evaluation design integrated diffusion of innovation theory with multiple case study and adapted realist principles. Practitioners in 12 English sites worked with Consultant Nurse implementers to manipulate the programme theory and logic of new decision-support tools and care pathway to optimize local implementation. Methods included key-stakeholder interviews, developing practical diffusion of innovation processes using key-opinion leaders and active facilitation strategies and a mini-community of practice. New and existing processes and outcomes were compared for 137 children during 2007-2008. RESULTS: Realist principles were successfully adapted to a shorter policy implementation and evaluation time frame. Important new implementation success factors included facilitated implementation that enabled 'real-time' manipulation of programme logic and local context to best-fit evolving theories of what worked; using local experiential opinion to change supporting tools to more realistically align with local context and what worked; and having sufficient existing local infrastructure to support implementation. Ten mechanisms explained implementation success and differences in outcomes between new and existing processes. CONCLUSIONS: Realistic policy implementation methods have advantages over top-down approaches, especially where clinical expertise is low and unlikely to diffuse innovations 'naturally' without facilitated implementation and local optimization. PMID:23713840

  13. A New Realistic Evaluation Analysis Method: Linked Coding of Context, Mechanism, and Outcome Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Suzanne F.; Kolla, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    In attempting to use a realistic evaluation approach to explore the role of Community Parents in early parenting programs in Toronto, a novel technique was developed to analyze the links between contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) directly from experienced practitioner interviews. Rather than coding the interviews into themes in terms of…

  14. Realistic numerical simulations of solar convection: emerging flux, pores, and Stokes spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgobiani, D.; Stein, R.; Nordlund, A.

    2012-12-01

    We report on magneto-convection simulations of magnetic flux emerging through the upper layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Simulations by Georgobiani, Stein and Nordlund start from minimally structured, uniform, untwisted horizontal field advected into the computational domain by supergranule scale inflows at 20 Mm depth. At the opposite extreme, simulations by Cheung (2007, 2008, 2011) start with a coherent flux tube inserted into or forced into the bottom of the computational domain. Several robust results have emerged from the comparison of results from these two very different initial states. First, rising magnetic flux gets deformed into undulating, serpentine shapes by the influence of the convective up- and down-flows. The flux develops fine structure and appears at the surface first as a "pepper and salt" pattern of mixed polarity. Where magnetic flux approaches the surface, granules become darker and elongated in the direction of the field. Subsequently, the underlying large scale magnetic structures make the field collect into unipolar regions. Magneto-convection produces a complex, small-scale magnetic field topology, whatever the initial state. A heirarchy of magnetic loops corresponding to the different scales of convective motions are produced. Vertical vortex tubes form at intergranule lane vertices which can lead to tornado-like magnetic fields in the photosphere. Gradients in field strength and velocity produce asymmetric Stokes spectra. Where emerging Omega loops leave behind nearly vertical legs, long lived pores can spontaneously form. The field in the pores first becomes concentrated and evacuated near the surface and the evacuated flux concentration then extends downward.

  15. How does capacity building of health managers work? A realist evaluation study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve delivery of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. Methods and analysis The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use realist evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory—organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a realist evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and validate an improved theory on ‘what works for whom and under what conditions’. Discussion The scope for applying realist evaluation to study human resource management interventions in health are discussed. PMID:22466036

  16. The management challenge for household waste in emerging economies like Brazil: realistic source separation and activation of reverse logistics.

    PubMed

    Fehr, M

    2014-09-01

    Business opportunities in the household waste sector in emerging economies still evolve around the activities of bulk collection and tipping with an open material balance. This research, conducted in Brazil, pursued the objective of shifting opportunities from tipping to reverse logistics in order to close the balance. To do this, it illustrated how specific knowledge of sorted waste composition and reverse logistics operations can be used to determine realistic temporal and quantitative landfill diversion targets in an emerging economy context. Experimentation constructed and confirmed the recycling trilogy that consists of source separation, collection infrastructure and reverse logistics. The study on source separation demonstrated the vital difference between raw and sorted waste compositions. Raw waste contained 70% biodegradable and 30% inert matter. Source separation produced 47% biodegradable, 20% inert and 33% mixed material. The study on collection infrastructure developed the necessary receiving facilities. The study on reverse logistics identified private operators capable of collecting and processing all separated inert items. Recycling activities for biodegradable material were scarce and erratic. Only farmers would take the material as animal feed. No composting initiatives existed. The management challenge was identified as stimulating these activities in order to complete the trilogy and divert the 47% source-separated biodegradable discards from the landfills. PMID:24990590

  17. Emergency School Assistance Program: Background and Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    This compendium of materials concerning the Emergency School Assistance Program, prepared by the Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, contains the following: (1) An evaluation prepared by the American Friends Service Committee, et. al., Nov. 1970; (2) Department of Health, Education and Welfare report on the program, Feb.…

  18. Radiation Emergencies: Evaluation, Management, and Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Weisdorf; Jane Apperley; Patrick Courmelon; Norbert-Claude Gorin; John Wingard; Nelson Chao

    2007-01-01

    Radiation or marrow toxic emergencies can lead to severe pancytopenia along with other multiorgan injury. Experience in managing severe myelosuppression suggests that hematology, oncology and transplantation physicians should participate in preparedness planning for such events. Evaluation and management of marrow injured patients requires their expertise. Understanding of the biology of radiation injury, clinical dosimetry to estimate exposure and defined elements

  19. Evaluating protective actions for chemical agent emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H.; Sharp, R.D.; Carnes, S.A.

    1990-04-01

    In the process of completing a Congressionally mandated destruction of the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons, the US Army decided that enhanced emergency planning was needed to reduce the consequences of an accidental release of agent. This research supports that efforts by developing a method of evaluation for the principle protective action alternatives-evacuation, in-place shelter, and respiratory protection. A model was developed to examine the effect various protective actions have on expected exposure under a variety of release and meteorological conditions. This report analyzed a total of 1134 scenarios. This preliminary analysis focused on 14 classes of accidents, for a range of meteorological condition, and for a series of downwind distances. These 126 accident scenarios were examined for emergency responses involving evacuation, in-place shelter, and respiratory protection. All of the scenarios examined assumed that the protective actions would be implemented in the context of a state-of-the-art emergency response system. Such a system is characterized as being able to detect and assess an accident, communicate that to off-site officials and make a decision to warn the public in five minutes or less; have both indoor and outdoor emergency warning systems, such as siren and telephone ring-down systems; stimulate public response at a rate that is 25% faster than previous disasters, including response to five chemical evacuations. 144 refs., 45 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Mechanisms for achieving adolescent-friendly services in Ecuador: a realist evaluation approach

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite evidence showing that adolescent-friendly health services (AFSs) increase young people's access to these services, health systems across the world are failing to integrate this approach. In Latin America, policies aimed at strengthening AFS abound. However, such services are offered only in a limited number of sites, and providers’ attitudes and respect for confidentiality have not been addressed to a sufficient extent. Methods The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms that triggered the transformation of an ‘ordinary’ health care facility into an AFS in Ecuador. For this purpose, a realist evaluation approach was used in order to analyse three well-functioning AFSs. Information was gathered at the national level and from each of the settings including: (i) statistical information and unpublished reports; (ii) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with policy makers, health care providers, users and adolescents participating in youth organisations and (iii) observations at the health care facilities. Thematic analysis was carried out, driven by the realist evaluation approach, namely exploring the connections between mechanisms, contexts and outcomes. Results The results highlighted that the development of the AFSs was mediated by four mechanisms: grounded self-confidence in trying new things, legitimacy, a transformative process and an integral approach to adolescents. Along this process, contextual factors at the national and institutional levels were further explored. Conclusion The Ministry of Health of Ecuador, based on the New Guidelines for Comprehensive Care of Adolescent Health, has started the scaling up of AFSs. Our research points towards the need to recognise and incorporate these mechanisms as part of the implementation strategy from the very beginning of the process. Although contextually limited to Ecuador, many mechanisms and good practices in these AFS may be relevant to the Latin American setting and elsewhere. PMID:22855646

  1. How do primary health care teams learn to integrate intimate partner violence (IPV) management? A realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of ample literature dealing, on the one hand, with the integration of innovations within health systems and team learning, and, on the other hand, with different aspects of the detection and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) within healthcare facilities, research that explores how health innovations that go beyond biomedical issues—such as IPV management—get integrated into health systems, and that focuses on healthcare teams’ learning processes is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce if not absent. This realist evaluation protocol aims to ascertain: why, how, and under what circumstances primary healthcare teams engage (if at all) in a learning process to integrate IPV management in their practices; and why, how, and under what circumstances team learning processes lead to the development of organizational culture and values regarding IPV management, and the delivery of IPV management services. Methods This study will be conducted in Spain using a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from selected cases (primary healthcare teams) through different methods: individual and group interviews, routinely collected statistical data, documentary review, and observation. Cases will be purposively selected in order to enable testing the initial middle-range theory (MRT). After in-depth exploration of a limited number of cases, additional cases will be chosen for their ability to contribute to refining the emerging MRT to explain how primary healthcare learn to integrate intimate partner violence management. Discussion Evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are scarce, and even fewer focus on why, how, and when the healthcare services integrate IPV management. There is a consensus that healthcare professionals and healthcare teams play a key role in this integration, and that training is important in order to realize changes. However, little is known about team learning of IPV management, both in terms of how to trigger such learning and how team learning is connected with changes in organizational culture and values, and in service delivery. This realist evaluation protocol aims to contribute to this knowledge by conducting this project in a country, Spain, where great endeavours have been made towards the integration of IPV management within the health system. PMID:23522404

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA): Introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, John J.; Rohr, Annette C.; Kang, Choong M.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Determining the health impacts of sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents that are likely to differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study focused on two PM sources—coal-fired power plants and mobile sources—and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to emissions from these sources. The set of papers published here document the power plant experiments. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. TERESA involved withdrawal of emissions from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the United States. The emissions were aged and atmospherically transformed in a mobile laboratory simulating downwind power plant plume processing. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in laboratory rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. The approach employed in TERESA was ambitious and innovative. Technical challenges included the development of stack sampling technology that prevented condensation of water vapor from the power plant exhaust during sampling and transfer, while minimizing losses of primary particles; development and optimization of a photochemical chamber to provide an aged aerosol for animal exposures; development and evaluation of a denuder system to remove excess gaseous components; and development of a mobile toxicology laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, design, and methods employed in the study. PMID:21639692

  3. Evaluation of the no-disparity realistic image from a sense of presence and low fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nate, H.; Natsui, N.; Hayashi, N.; Ishikawa, K.; Hatada, T.; Ichihara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Ushio, Y.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated an observer's fatigue and a sense of presence, in observing the no-disparity realistic image (NDR image) [1-3]. NDR image is consisted of two images (right and left image). Right image is created by shifting all pixels in left image same amount. Consequently, there are no disparities in all area of NDR image. NDR image which is reconfigured the contents that contain image with large disparity might have a possibility that it suppress an observer's fatigue and let him feel high presence. Subjects observed three condition's videos (stereoscopic, NDR and 2D). Subjects observed two videos in each condition. Each video was 30 minutes. There were scenes with large disparity (more than 5 degrees) in videos. Subjects responded SSQ (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire), VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) for fatigue and questionnaire on realism and were measured CFF (Critical Frequency Fusion), accommodation tremor, stereoscopic vision test, ocular position measurement and eye sight test. Results showed that NDR image let observer feel high presence and an observer's fatigue was low. NDR image is effective, even if contents which contain large disparity are converted into NDR image.

  4. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of realistic emission source aerosols (TERESA): summary and conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, John J.; Rohr, Annette C.; Coull, Brent A.; Kang, Choong-Min; Diaz, Edgar A.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The toxicological evaluation of realistic emissions of source aerosols (TERESA) study seeks to delineate health effects of aerosols formed from emissions of particulate matter sources. This series of papers reports the findings of experiments using coal-fired power plants as the source of emissions and this paper summarizes the findings and knowledge acquired from these studies. Emissions were drawn directly from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the US, and photochemically aged in a mobile laboratory to simulate downwind power plant plume processing. The power plants used different sources of coal and had different emission controls. Exposure scenarios included primary particles, secondary particles and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents (?-pinene and ammonia). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, and toxicological outcomes were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different emission scenarios. Breathing pattern, pulmonary inflammatory responses, in vivo pulmonary and cardiac chemiluminescence and cardiac response in a model of acute myocardial infarction were assessed. The results showed no response or relatively mild responses to the inhaled aerosols studied; complex scenarios which included oxidized emissions and ?-pinene to simulate biogenic secondary organic aerosol tended to induce more statistically significant responses than scenarios of oxidized and non-oxidized emissions alone. Relating adverse effects to specific components did not consistently identify a toxic constituent. These findings are consistent with most of the previously published studies using pure compounds to model secondary power plant emissions, but importantly add substantial complexity and thus have considerable merit in defining toxicological responses. PMID:21913822

  6. Emergency Medicine Clerkship MID-ROTATION EVALUATION

    E-print Network

    Issa, Naoum

    Behavior Did Not Observe Observer Reporter Interpreter Manager Educator 9. Demonstrates reliability's Performance Professionalism: Communications with patients, faculty, peers and ancillary staff: Clinical in Emergency Medicine 1. Applies clinical knowledge in conducting a focused and time appropriate history

  7. A critical realist approach to understanding and evaluating heart health programmes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander M; MacIntyre, Paul D; Cruickshank, Justin

    2007-10-01

    Secondary prevention programmes for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) aim to reduce cardiovascular risks and promote health in people with heart disease. Though programmes have been associated with health improvements in study populations, access to programmes remains low, and quality and effectiveness is highly variable. Current guidelines propose significant modifications to programmes, but existing research provides little insight into why programme effectiveness varies so much. Drawing on a critical realist approach, this article argues that current research has been based on an impoverished ontology, which has elements of positivism, does not explore the social determinants of health or the effects on outcomes of salient contextual factors, and thereby fails to account for programme variations. Alternative constructivist approaches are also weak and lacking in clinical credibility. An alternative critical realist approach is proposed that draws on the merits of subjectivist and objectivist approaches but also reflects the complex interplay between individual, programme-related, socio-cultural and organizational factors that influence health outcomes in open systems. This approach embraces measurement of objective effectiveness but also examines the mechanisms, organizational and contextual-related factors causing these outcomes. Finally, a practical example of how a critical realist approach can guide research into secondary prevention programmes is provided. PMID:17855471

  8. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  9. Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Jozsef; Raczkevy-Deak, Gabriella; Gyimesine, Katalin P.; Szakmary, Andras; Farkas, Istvan; Vegh, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary), who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions (“attentional myopia”) and promotes a bias toward hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e., before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness. PMID:25374519

  10. INTRINSIC EVALUATION OF TEXT MINING TOOLS MAY NOT PREDICT PERFORMANCE ON REALISTIC TASKS

    PubMed Central

    CAPORASO, J. GREGORY; DESHPANDE, NITA; FINK, J. LYNN; BOURNE, PHILIP E.; COHEN, K. BRETONNEL; HUNTER, LAWRENCE

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical text mining and other automated techniques are beginning to achieve performance which suggests that they could be applied to aid database curators. However, few studies have evaluated how these systems might work in practice. In this article we focus on the problem of annotating mutations in Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries, and evaluate the relationship between performance of two automated techniques, a text-mining-based approach (MutationFinder) and an alignment-based approach, in intrinsic versus extrinsic evaluations. We find that high performance on gold standard data (an intrinsic evaluation) does not necessarily translate to high performance for database annotation (an extrinsic evaluation). We show that this is in part a result of lack of access to the full text of journal articles, which appears to be critical for comprehensive database annotation by text mining. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy and completeness of manually annotated mutation data in the PDB, and find that it is far from perfect. We conclude that currently the most cost-effective and reliable approach for database annotation might incorporate manual and automatic annotation methods. PMID:18229722

  11. Towards a holistic framework for the evaluation of emergency plans in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

  12. Towards a Holistic Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Plans in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

  13. Implementing health research through academic and clinical partnerships: a realistic evaluation of the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The English National Health Service has made a major investment in nine partnerships between higher education institutions and local health services called Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). They have been funded to increase capacity and capability to produce and implement research through sustained interactions between academics and health services. CLAHRCs provide a natural 'test bed' for exploring questions about research implementation within a partnership model of delivery. This protocol describes an externally funded evaluation that focuses on implementation mechanisms and processes within three CLAHRCs. It seeks to uncover what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Design and methods This study is a longitudinal three-phase, multi-method realistic evaluation, which deliberately aims to explore the boundaries around knowledge use in context. The evaluation funder wishes to see it conducted for the process of learning, not for judging performance. The study is underpinned by a conceptual framework that combines the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services and Knowledge to Action frameworks to reflect the complexities of implementation. Three participating CLARHCS will provide in-depth comparative case studies of research implementation using multiple data collection methods including interviews, observation, documents, and publicly available data to test and refine hypotheses over four rounds of data collection. We will test the wider applicability of emerging findings with a wider community using an interpretative forum. Discussion The idea that collaboration between academics and services might lead to more applicable health research that is actually used in practice is theoretically and intuitively appealing; however the evidence for it is limited. Our evaluation is designed to capture the processes and impacts of collaborative approaches for implementing research, and therefore should contribute to the evidence base about an increasingly popular (e.g., Mode two, integrated knowledge transfer, interactive research), but poorly understood approach to knowledge translation. Additionally we hope to develop approaches for evaluating implementation processes and impacts particularly with respect to integrated stakeholder involvement. PMID:21771329

  14. Creating realistic, scenario-based synthetic data for test and evaluation of information analytics software

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Varley, Caroline F.

    2008-04-10

    The Threat Stream Generator (TSG) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing synthetic datasets to test and evaluate visual analytics tools for the past four years. Our activities have ranged from supporting the evaluation of major U.S. Government analytical frameworks to creating four datasets for the IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) contest over the past two years. We have developed a reasonable method and supporting toolset for creating believable synthetic data sets for different uses. A key differentiator for our datasets is that they contain data concerning one or more invented threats, based on a scenario. Embedding a known threat into the data provides ground truth for analytic tools to work against in evaluating their performance, as well as new opportunities for evaluation researchers to explore techniques given ground truth exists. We describe the process of creating the scenarios and threats and the process of transforming them into data elements, and then we describe how this data is embedded in other data to form a TSG dataset.

  15. What's Wrong Is What's Right: Setting Realistic Expectations for Peer Evaluation (a Bildungsroman).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Argues that peer evaluation can work effectively if the teacher realizes that success should be measured more in long-term, cumulative benefits than in the immediate success or failure. Uses a fictitious scenario involving a teacher's first efforts at peer editing to make the above point. (TB)

  16. Framework for developing and evaluating MAV control algorithms in a realistic urban setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew W. Orr; Steven J. Rasmussen; Etan D. Karni; William B. Blake

    2005-01-01

    An investigation has begun to evaluate the behavior of small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs) and micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) flying through an urban setting. This research is focused on a cooperative scenario between a SUAV and MAVs for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Cooperative Operations in UrbaN TERrain (COUNTER) 6.2 research and flight demonstration program. There is great interest

  17. A Realist Evaluation Approach to Unpacking the Impacts of the Sentencing Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kim Steven; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of complex interventions such as sentencing guidelines provide an opportunity to understand the mechanisms by which policies and programs can impact intermediate and long-term outcomes. There is limited previous discussion of the underlying frameworks by which sentencing guidelines can impact outcomes such as crime rates. Guided by a…

  18. Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece); Department of Radiology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography.

  19. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)—Power plant studies: assessment of breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Coull, Brent; Long, Mark S.; Rohr, Annette C.; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Our approach to study multi-pollutant aerosols isolates a single emissions source, evaluates the toxicity of primary and secondary particles derived from this source, and simulates chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere after emission. Three U.S. coal-fired power plants utilizing different coals and with different emission controls were evaluated. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from ?-pinene and/or ammonia was added in some experiments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Scenarios studied at each plant included the following: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + SOA (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS); additional control scenarios were also studied. Continuous respiratory data were obtained during exposures using whole body plethysmography chambers. Of the 12 respiratory outcomes assessed, each had statistically significant changes at some plant and with some of the 4 scenarios. The most robust outcomes were found with exposure to the PO scenario (increased respiratory frequency with decreases in inspiratory and expiratory time); and the PONS scenario (decreased peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50%). PONS findings were most strongly associated with ammonium, neutralized sulfate, and elemental carbon (EC) in univariate analyses, but only with EC in multivariate analyses. Control scenario O (oxidized without primary particles) had similar changes to PO. Adjusted R2 analyses showed that scenario was a better predictor of respiratory responses than individual components, suggesting that the complex atmospheric mixture was responsible for respiratory effects. PMID:21639693

  20. Challenges in integrating nondestructive evaluation and finite-element methods for realistic structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

    2000-05-01

    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity2 in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  1. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  2. Towards a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: i) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; ii) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; iii) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; iv) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; v) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and vi) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems.

  3. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    PubMed Central

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C.; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

  4. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System(ERDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Lambert, Winifred C.; Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    The emergency response dose assessment system (ERDAS) is a protype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) region. ERDAS provides emergency response guidance to operations at KSC/CCAS in the case of an accidental hazardous material release or an aborted vehicle launch. This report describes the evaluation of ERDAS including: evaluation of sea breeze predictions, comparison of launch plume location and concentration predictions, case study of a toxic release, evaluation of model sensitivity to varying input parameters, evaluation of the user interface, assessment of ERDA's operational capabilities, and a comparison of ERDAS models to the ocean breeze dry gultch diffusion model.

  5. Evaluating phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of ornamental plants as phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail emergence, and compared their performance with predictions based upon calendar date, cumulative growing degree-days (GDD) and the WeedCast program. From 1997 to 2001, we monitored giant foxtail emergenc...

  6. Evaluating the influence of the 'unity assumption' on the temporal perception of realistic audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Vatakis, A. and Spence, C. (in press) [Crossmodal binding: Evaluating the 'unity assumption' using audiovisual speech stimuli. Perception &Psychophysics] recently demonstrated that when two briefly presented speech signals (one auditory and the other visual) refer to the same audiovisual speech event, people find it harder to judge their temporal order than when they refer to different speech events. Vatakis and Spence argued that the 'unity assumption' facilitated crossmodal binding on the former (matching) trials by means of a process of temporal ventriloquism. In the present study, we investigated whether the 'unity assumption' would also affect the binding of non-speech stimuli (video clips of object action or musical notes). The auditory and visual stimuli were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which modality stream had been presented first. The auditory and visual musical and object action stimuli were either matched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the corresponding sound) or else mismatched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the sound of a guitar string being plucked). However, in contrast to the results of Vatakis and Spence's recent speech study, no significant difference in the accuracy of temporal discrimination performance for the matched versus mismatched video clips was observed. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:17258164

  7. Development and evaluation of realistic microbioassays in freely suspended droplets on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vinayak; Velev, Orlin D.

    2007-01-01

    A novel technique for biomolecular detection in microliter droplets floating on the surface of high density oil is presented. Each droplet was captured and manipulated dielectrophoretically and was used as a site for a microscopic bioassay based on agglutination of antibody-conjugated particles. The results were read out by the pattern of unagglomerated gold nanoparticles collected on the droplet surface. Two formats of bioassays, namely gold only agglutination and gold and latex agglutination, were investigated experimentally by varying analyte concentration, particle size and concentration, number of antigen binding sites per particle, time for incubation, and rate of particle collection on the droplet surface. The microbioassays performance was also evaluated with ricin antibodies and compared to the ricin assays in field use. It is estimated that the droplet based assays require 100× smaller sample volume and are ten times more sensitive, though they require longer times to complete. The experiments were interpreted by modeling the kinetics of particle agglutination and mass transfer processes inside the droplets. The incubation time and antigen concentration values calculated by the model correlate well with the experimental results. The results could allow for development of efficient immunoassays on a chip requiring even smaller sample volumes. PMID:19693356

  8. Realistic Subscale Evaluations of the Mechanical Properties of Advanced Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Konkel, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of experimental powder metallurgy disk alloys were evaluated for their processing characteristics and high temperature mechanical properties. Powder of each alloy was hot compacted, extruded, and isothermally forged into subscale disks. Disks were subsolvus and supersolvus heat treated, then quenched using procedures designed to reproduce the cooling paths expected in large-scale disks. Mechanical tests were then performed at 538, 704, and 815 C. Several alloys had superior tensile and creep properties at 704 C and higher temperatures, but were difficult to process and prone to quench cracking, chiefly due to their high gamma prime solvus temperature. Several other alloys had more favorable processing characteristics due to their lower gamma prime solvus temperature and balanced time-dependent properties at 704 C. Results indicate an experimental low solvus, high refractory alloy can build upon the best attributes of all these alloys, giving exceptional tensile and creep properties at high temperatures with good processing characteristics due to a low gamma prime solvus.

  9. The Management of Long-Term Sickness Absence in Large Public Sector Healthcare Organisations: A Realist Evaluation Using Mixed Methods.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

    2014-11-11

    Purpose The success of measures to reduce long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in public sector organisations is contingent on organisational context. This realist evaluation investigates how interventions interact with context to influence successful management of LTSA. Methods Multi-method case study in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland comprising realist literature review, semi-structured interviews (61 participants), Process-Mapping and feedback meetings (59 participants), observation of training, analysis of documents. Results Important activities included early intervention; workplace-based occupational rehabilitation; robust sickness absence policies with clear trigger points for action. Used appropriately, in a context of good interpersonal and interdepartmental communication and shared goals, these are able to increase the motivation of staff to return to work. Line managers are encouraged to take a proactive approach when senior managers provide support and accountability. Hindering factors: delayed intervention; inconsistent implementation of policy and procedure; lack of resources; organisational complexity; stakeholders misunderstanding each other's goals and motives. Conclusions Different mechanisms have the potential to encourage common motivations for earlier return from LTSA, such as employees feeling that they have the support of their line manager to return to work and having the confidence to do so. Line managers' proactively engage when they have confidence in the support of seniors and in their own ability to address LTSA. Fostering these motivations calls for a thoughtful, diagnostic process, taking into account the contextual factors (and whether they can be modified) and considering how a given intervention can be used to trigger the appropriate mechanisms. PMID:25385199

  10. Evaluation of emergency ambulance characteristics under several criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Siler, K F

    1979-01-01

    A methodology and analysis are presented for evaluating response time characteristics of emergency ambulance systems. The methodology is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique and a heuristic optimal-seeking technique for locating emergency ambulances under several criteria based on response time distribution. Optimization criteria include minimum mean system response time, minimum system fractile response time and minimum level-loaded response time. The evaluation methodology is applied to the metropolitan area of Los Angeles County. Ambulance response characteristics and loads are discussed in detail. From these results alternative dispatch polices can be evaluated. Complementing the analysis is a presentation of a sensitivity analysis and an analysis of existing ambulance sites. Unique to the methodology is the adaption of the heuristic optimal-seeking technique to include any of the three criteria and the effectiveness of the methodology for analyzing small or large ambulance systems. PMID:511579

  11. Evaluation of physician competency and clinical performance in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, William E

    2009-11-01

    This article (1) provides the background history of assessing health care quality; (2) presents an overview of current interest and importance of measuring physician competency and performance, including requirements related to certifying bodies and those integral to pay-for-performance programs; (3) describes some of the current methods of evaluating the practice performance of emergency physicians, including peer review and use of health care quality measures; and (4) discusses the state of the literature as it pertains to health care quality and individual emergency physician performance. PMID:19932396

  12. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-01

    TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the scenarios utilizing secondary particles (oxidized emissions) ranged from 70-256 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and some of the atmospheres contained high acidity levels (up to 49 {micro}g/m{sup 3} equivalent of sulfuric acid). However, caution must be used in generalizing these results to other power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations, as the emissions may vary based on these factors.

  13. Rapid Generation of Realistic Mobility Models for VANET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feliz Kristianto Karnadi; Zhi Hai Mo; Kun-chan Lan

    2007-01-01

    One emerging, new type of ad-hoc network is the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), in which vehicles constitute the mobile nodes in the network. Due to the prohibitive cost of deploying and implementing such a system in real world, most research in VANET relies on simulations for evaluation. A key component for VANET simulations is a realistic vehicular mobility model that

  14. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

  15. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

  16. More than a checklist: a realist evaluation of supervision of mid-level health workers in rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mid-level health workers (MLHWs) form the front-line of service delivery in many low- and middle-income countries. Supervision is a critical institutional intervention linking their work to the health system, and it consists of activities intended to support health workers’ motivation and enable them to perform. However its impact depends not only on the frequency of these activities but also how they are carried out and received. This study aims to deepen understanding of the mechanisms through which supervision activities support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of MLHWs, in rural Guatemala. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to examine the operation of supervision of five health posts using a realist evaluation approach. A program theory was formulated describing local understanding of how supervision activities are intended to work. Data was collected through interviews and document review to test the theory. Analysis focused on comparison of activities, outcomes, mechanisms and the influence of context across cases, leading to revision of the program theory. Results The supervisor’s orientation was identified as the main mechanism contributing to variation observed in activities and their outcomes. Managerial control was the dominant orientation, reflecting the influence of standardized performance criteria and institutional culture. Humanized support was present in one case where the auxiliary nurse was motivated by the sense that the full scope of her work was valued. This orientation reflected the supervisor’s integration of her professional identity as a nurse. Conclusions The nature of the support health workers received was shaped by supervisors’ orientation, and in this study, nursing principles were central to humanized support. Efforts to strengthen the support that supervision provides to MLHWs should promote professional ethos as a means of developing shared performance goals and orient supervisors to a more holistic view of the health worker and their work. PMID:24602196

  17. Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heather, Paul; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Conger, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.

  18. Differential Evaluations of Alcohol-related Consequences Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Ray, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) to reduce drinking in college students often provide feedback about negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by students to motivate them to drink less. Yet, there is evidence which suggests that not everyone perceives consequences as negative and raises questions regarding the utility of consequence-specific feedback for some individuals. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research to examine salience of consequences among both college and non-college emerging adults, differences in ratings by sex, age, and frequency of experiencing consequences, and the relationship between salience measured in emerging adulthood and drinking patterns in young adulthood. Data were from an accelerated cohort study of males and females (N = 1308), who were either age 18, 21, or 24 years at the time of consequence evaluation and followed up 7 years later. Most experienced consequences were rated as at least a little bothersome. Regression analyses indicated that females, older participants, and those who experienced a consequence more often evaluated consequences as more bothersome but there were no differences by college status. Mean ratings of bother did not predict quitting drinking or alcohol problems 7 years later, whereas the number of consequences experienced did. Overall, the results suggest that most consequences are rated similarly by emerging adults regardless of college attendance but that feedback on consequences may be more salient for females and older emerging adults. PFIs may need to differ in the types of feedback they provide depending on demographic characteristics and baseline level of alcohol problems. PMID:23412945

  19. Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery. PMID:24903401

  20. Integration of robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration, and decision making: a realist process evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery offers many potential benefits for patients. While an increasing number of healthcare providers are purchasing surgical robots, there are reports that the technology is failing to be introduced into routine practice. Additionally, in robotic surgery, the surgeon is physically separated from the patient and the rest of the team, with the potential to negatively impact teamwork in the operating theatre. The aim of this study is to ascertain: how and under what circumstances robotic surgery is effectively introduced into routine practice; and how and under what circumstances robotic surgery impacts teamwork, communication and decision making, and subsequent patient outcomes. Methods and design We will undertake a process evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and robotic surgery for the curative treatment of rectal cancer. Realist evaluation provides an overall framework for the study. The study will be in three phases. In Phase I, grey literature will be reviewed to identify stakeholders’ theories concerning how robotic surgery becomes embedded into surgical practice and its impacts. These theories will be refined and added to through interviews conducted across English hospitals that are using robotic surgery for rectal cancer resection with staff at different levels of the organisation, along with a review of documentation associated with the introduction of robotic surgery. In Phase II, a multi-site case study will be conducted across four English hospitals to test and refine the candidate theories. Data will be collected using multiple methods: the structured observation tool OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery); video recordings of operations; ethnographic observation; and interviews. In Phase III, interviews will be conducted at the four case sites with staff representing a range of surgical disciplines, to assess the extent to which the results of Phase II are generalisable and to refine the resulting theories to reflect the experience of a broader range of surgical disciplines. The study will provide (i) guidance to healthcare organisations on factors likely to facilitate successful implementation and integration of robotic surgery, and (ii) guidance on how to ensure effective communication and teamwork when undertaking robotic surgery. PMID:24885669

  1. Emergency management evaluation by a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision support system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangquan Zhang; Jun Ma; Jie Lu

    2009-01-01

    Emergency risk management (ERM) is a process which involves dealing with risks to the community arising from emergency events.\\u000a Emergency management evaluation as one of the important parts of ERM aims assessing and improving social preparedness and\\u000a organizational ability in identifying, analyzing, and treating emergency risks. This study first develops an emergency management\\u000a evaluation model. It then proposes an extended

  2. 009. Evaluation of respiratory symptoms in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Kalkantzi, Athanasia; Filippidou, Elisabeth-Christina; Liolios, Emanuel; Margaritopoulos, George; Politis, Alexis; Charalampous, Polimnia; Tsouknida, Ekaterini; Argiriadou, Theodora; Ioannidis, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and comorbidities, the final diagnosis and the management of patients reviewed in the emergency department of a district hospital of Kavala. Methods We have retrospectively reviewed medical records of adult patients presented in the emergency department in January 2013. Most frequent symptoms included cough, dyspnea, chest pain, haemoptysis. Statistical analysis has been performed using SPSS 18. Results Of the 142 people who visited the emergency department, 73 out of 142 patients (51.4%) were males, 69 out of 142 patients (48.6%) were females of average age 59.6±21.6 years old. The most frequent symptoms are as follows: Most frequent comorbidities included: arterial hypertension (23, 16.2%), congestive heart failure (CHF) (16, 11.3%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (18, 12.7%), diabetes mellitus (15, 10.6%), coronary artery diseases (CAD) (25, 17.7%), lung cancer (8, 5.6%), bronchial asthma (7, 4.9%), neurologic disorders (5, 3.5%), chronic renal failure (4, 2.8%) others 9.8%. Final diagnosis included: lower tract respiratory infection (85, 59.9%), upper tract respiratory infection (12, 8.5%), COPD exacerbation (12, 8.5%), lung cancer (7, 4.9%), CHF and CAD (9, 6.3%), asthma exacerbation (2, 1.4%), tuberculosis (2, 1.4%), fever of unknown origin (2, 1.4%), pleural effusion (1, 0.7%), pulmonary embolism (1, 0.7%), pneumothorax (1, 0.7%), panic attack (1, 0.7%), musculoskeletal pain (1, 0.7%). Management: drug prescription, no need for admission (83, 58.4%), admission in the Respiratory Medicine Department (44, 31%). Referral to: Cardiology Department (9, 6.3%), Internal Medicine Department (2, 1.4%), General Surgery Department (1, 0.7%), Orthopedic Department (1, 0.7%), ENT Department (1, 0.7%), Psychology Department (1, 0.7%). Conclusions Respiratory symptoms need to be evaluated carefully in the emergency department. They are not specific for respiratory disorders, can be also associated with other diseases and require a very detailed diagnostic work-up. Careful evaluation of comorbidities is equally important.

  3. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    The interest on outdoor photocatalytic materials is growing in the last years. Nevertheless, most of the experimental devices designed for the assessment of their performance operate at controlled laboratory conditions, i.e., pollutant concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and water vapor contents, far from those of real outdoor environments. The aim of the present study was the design and development of an experimental device for the continuous test of photocatalytic outdoor materials under sun irradiation using real outdoor air as feed, with the concomitant fluctuation of pollutant concentration, temperature, and water vapor content. A three-port measurement system based on two UV-transparent chambers was designed and built. A test chamber contained the photoactive element and a reference chamber to place the substrate without the photoactive element were employed. The third sampling point, placed outdoors, allowed the characterization of the surrounding air, which feeds the test chambers. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and UV-A irradiance were monitored at each sampling point with specific sensors. NO x concentration was measured by a chemiluminescence NO x analyzer. Three automatic valves allowed the consecutive analysis of the concentration at the three points at fixed time intervals. The reliability of the analytical system was demonstrated by comparing the NO x concentration data with those obtained at the nearest weather station to the experimental device location. The use of a chamber-based reaction system leads to an attenuation of NO x and atmospheric parameter profiles, but maintaining the general trends. The air characterization results showed the wide operating window under which the photoactive materials should work outdoors, depending on the traffic intensity and the season, which are reproduced inside the test chambers. The designed system allows the measurement of the photoactivity of outdoor materials or the comparison of several samples at the same time. The suitability of the system for the evaluation of the DeNO x properties of construction elements at realistic outdoor conditions was demonstrated. The designed experimental device can be used 24/7 for testing materials under real fluctuations of NO x concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and relative humidity and the presence of other outdoor air pollutants such as VOCs, SO x , or NH3. The chamber-based design allows comparing a photocatalytic material with respect to a reference substrate without the photoactive phase, or even the comparison of several outdoor elements at the same time. PMID:24652575

  4. Evaluation and management of oral lesions in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Alisa M; Sommerkamp, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    This article reviews the emergency diagnosis and treatment of oral lesions. It presents a framework for developing a differential diagnosis based on the color of the lesions, describes emergency department interventions, and identifies pitfalls for the emergency physician. PMID:23601482

  5. Evaluation of emergency medicine residents competencies in electrocardiogram interpretation.

    PubMed

    Talebian, Mohammad Taghi; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Toliat, Alireza; Ghasemzadeh, Rezvaneh; Saeedi, Morteza; Momeni, Mehdi; Nejati, Amir

    2014-01-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) leads physicians to diagnose many potentially life-threatening cardiac, metabolic, electrolyte, and toxicological conditions. This study was designed to evaluate the competency of emergency medicine residents (EMRs) in comparison with cardiologists in the interpretation of ECG when an interpretation checklist is used. This clinical trial was done in the emergency wards of the first grand general hospital of Iran. Patients were categorized in three classes of disorder severity based on ECG abnormalities. The two stages of the study included the survey phase (Stage I), training phase and intervention phase (Stage II). Accuracy of ECG interpretation by EMRs and cardiologists was compared before and after using a Daily ECG Check List (DECKList). One hundred and fifty ECGs were evaluated in Stage I, before DECKList usage, and 150 ECGs were evaluated in stage II, after DECKList usage by EMRs. Mean age of participants was 60.13 years in Stage I and 61.66 years in Stage II. Stage I and II were similar to each other in terms of disorder severity (P=0.22). Mean the ECG interpretation score was significantly different between Stages I and II (P<0.001). Concordance of ECG diagnosis between EMRs and cardiologists was significantly different in Stages I and II (P<0.01). In first-year EMRs, ECG diagnosis scores in stages I and II were not changed significantly. However, ECG interpretation scores increased significantly in first-year EMRs (P=0.04). In second-year EMRs, both ECG interpretation and ECG diagnosis scores improved significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). In third year EMRs, ECG interpretation was not improved but ECG diagnosis based on two methods improved significantly (P<0.05). The significant increase in accuracy of ECG interpretation and final diagnosis can be attributed to the utilization of a checklist by EMRs especially in the first year and second residents. PMID:25415819

  6. Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Young; Alan M Snyder

    2007-11-01

    During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the fundamentals of this emerging technology, applciations for emergency response and specific results of the technology evaluation conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. Noninvasive Evaluation of Portal Hypertension: Emerging Tools and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, V. K.; Guha, N.; Fallowfield, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is the main cause of complications in patients with cirrhosis. However, evaluating the development and progression of portal hypertension represents a challenge for clinicians. There has been considerable focus on the potential role of noninvasive markers of portal hypertension that could be used to stratify patients with respect to the stage of portal hypertension and to monitor disease progression or treatment response in a longitudinal manner without having to undertake repeated invasive assessment. The pathogenesis of portal hypertension is increasingly understood and emerging knowledge of the vascular processes that underpin portal hypertension has paved the way for exploring novel biomarkers of vascular injury, angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction. In this paper we focus on the pathogenesis of portal hypertension and potential non-invasive biomarkers with particular emphasis on serum analytes. PMID:22720166

  8. Performance evaluation of two emerging media processors: VIRAM and imagine

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Duell, Jason; Narayanan, Manikandan; Chatterji, Sourav

    2003-01-01

    This work presents two emerging media microprocessors, VIRAM and Imagine, and compares the implementation strategies and performance results of these unique architectures. VIRAM is a complete system on a chip which uses PIM technology to combine vector processing with embedded DRAM. Imagine is a programmable streaming architecture with a specialized memory hierarchy designed for computationally intensive data-parallel codes. First, we present a simple and effective approach for understanding and optimizing vector/stream applications. Performance results are then presented from a number of multimedia benchmarks and a computationally intensive scientific kernel. We explore the complex interact ions between programming paradigms, the architectural support at the ISA lever and the underlying microarchitecture of these two systems. Our long term goal is to evaluate leading media microprocessors as possible building blocks for future high performance systems.

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2004-12-02

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Significant progress was made on the Project during this reporting period, with field work being initiated at Plant 0. Initial testing of the stack sampling system and reaction apparatus revealed that primary particle concentrations were lower than expected in the emissions entering the mobile chemical laboratory. Initial animal exposures to primary emissions were carried out (Scenario 1) to ensure successful implementation of all study methodologies and toxicological assessments. Results indicated no significant toxicological effects in response to primary emissions exposures. Exposures were then carried out to diluted, oxidized, neutralized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (Scenario 5), both during the day and also at night when primary particle concentrations in the sampled stack emissions tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

  10. Realist RCTs of complex interventions - an oxymoron.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Westhorp, Gill; Wong, Geoff; Van Belle, Sara; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kegels, Guy; Pawson, Ray

    2013-10-01

    Bonell et al. discuss the challenges of carrying out randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate complex interventions in public health, and consider the role of realist evaluation in enhancing this design (Bonell, Fletcher, Morton, Lorenc, & Moore, 2012). They argue for a "synergistic, rather than oppositional relationship between realist and randomised evaluation" and that "it is possible to benefit from the insights provided by realist evaluation without relinquishing the RCT as the best means of examining intervention causality." We present counter-arguments to their analysis of realist evaluation and their recommendations for realist RCTs. Bonell et al. are right to question whether and how (quasi-)experimental designs can be improved to better evaluate complex public health interventions. However, the paper does not explain how a research design that is fundamentally built upon a positivist ontological and epistemological position can be meaningfully adapted to allow it to be used from within a realist paradigm. The recommendations for "realist RCTs" do not sufficiently take into account important elements of complexity that pose major challenges for the RCT design. They also ignore key tenets of the realist evaluation approach. We propose that the adjective 'realist' should continue to be used only for studies based on a realist philosophy and whose analytic approach follows the established principles of realist analysis. It seems more correct to call the approach proposed by Bonell and colleagues 'theory informed RCT', which indeed can help in enhancing RCTs. PMID:23850482

  11. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital, France. Results will be published in scientific journals, and communicated to respondents and relevant institutions. PMID:25631314

  12. EVALUATION OF EMERGING DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR COMMERCIAL HVAC SYSTEMS Hannah Friedman Mary Ann Piette

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF EMERGING DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR COMMERCIAL HVAC SYSTEMS Hannah Friedman Mary Ann Piette Berkeley, CA ABSTRACT This paper compares and evaluates the capabilities of six emerging diagnostic tools for commercial HVAC systems. We present a brief description of the diagnostic tools, and then focus on evaluating

  13. What works in ‘real life’ to facilitate home deaths and fewer hospital admissions for those at end of life?: results from a realist evaluation of new palliative care services in two English counties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated end of life care services in two English counties including: coordination centres, telephone advice line, ‘Discharge in Reach’ nurses, a specialist community personal care team and community nurse educators. Elsewhere, we published findings detailing high family carer satisfaction and fewer hospital admissions, Accident and Emergency attendances and hospital deaths for service users compared to controls. The aim of this paper is to discuss what contributed to those outcomes. Methods Using realist evaluation, data collection included documentation (e.g. referral databases), 15 observations of services and interviews with 43 family carers and 105 professionals. Data were analysed using framework analysis, applying realist evaluation concepts. Findings were discussed at successive team meetings and further data was collected until team consensus was reached. Results Services ‘worked’ primarily for those with cancer with ‘fast track’ funding who were close to death. Factors contributing to success included services staffed with experienced palliative care professionals with dedicated (and sufficient) time for difficult conversations with family carers, patients and/or clinical colleagues about death and the practicalities of caring for the dying. Using their formal and informal knowledge of the local healthcare system, they accessed community resources to support homecare and delivered excellent services. This engendered confidence and reassurance for staff, family carers and patients, possibly contributing to less hospital admissions and A&E attendances and more home deaths. Conclusions With demand for 24-hour end of life care growing and care provision fragmented across health and social care boundaries, services like these that cut across organisational sectors may become more important. They offer an overview to help navigate those desiring a home death through the system. PMID:25075202

  14. Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current generations of GPUs lack a sufficient balance of computational resources to replace the general-purpose microprocessor found in most traditional supercomputer architectures. ARSC has also worked with the Cell Broadband Engine in a small Playstation3 cluster, as well as a 24-processor system based on IBM's QS22 blades. The QS22 system, called Quasar, features the PowerXCell 8i processor found in the RoadRunner system, along with an InfiniBand network and high performance storage. Quasar overcomes the limitations of the small memory and relatively slow network of the PS3 systems. The presentation will include system-level benchmarks on Quasar, as well as evaluation of the WRF test cases. Another technology evaluation focused on Sun's UltraSPARC T2+ processor, which ARSC evaluated in a two-way system. Each T2+ provides eight processor cores, each of which provides eight threads, for a total of 128 threads in a single system. WRF scalability was good up to the number of cores, but multiple threads per core did not scale as well. Throughout the discussion, practical findings from ARSC will be summarized. While multicore general-purpose microprocessors are anticipated to remain important for large computers running earth and space science applications, the role of other potentially disruptive technologies is less certain. Limitations of current and future technologies will be discussed. class="ab'>

  15. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2004-02-29

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Modifications to the original study design, which will improve the atmospheric aging component of the project and ensure that emissions are as realistic as possible, have resulted in project delays, and, at the time of report preparation, fieldwork at the Upper Midwest plant had not begun. However, such activities are imminent. This report therefore does not present data for activities covered by the Agreement, but does present results for the laboratory methods development work. This work is critical for the future success of the project. In particular, the atmospheric reaction simulation system is of paramount importance to the TERESA study design, since the basis for the toxicity assessment lies in the generation of realistic exposure atmospheres. The formation, composition, and toxicity of particles will be related to different atmospheric conditions and plume dilution scenarios through variations in reaction conditions. Because of the critical role played by this component in ensuring the overall success of the project, more time was required to develop and optimize the system, and the one-chamber simulation system outlined in the original Scope of Work for the Agreement was modified to comprise a more realistic dual chamber system. We are confident that the additional time required to optimize these methodologies will result in a significant improvement in the study. We fully expect that results for tasks covered under the Agreement, and a complete discussion of their relevance and value, will be included in the next semiannual progress report.

  16. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating the comparison with respect to a representative range of efficiencies in dishwasher units, a realistic comparison was made. A statistical approach was devised to process the available output by combining a Z-score test with the Cox method for confidence intervals. Despite the common use of LCA software with Monte Carlo analysis, this approach to compare distributions has not been discovered in LCA-related literature and offers a straightforward method for extending analysis under conditions of positive skew approximated by a lognormal distribution, which is common in LCA parameters. The two case studies provide product developer and consumer guidance, respectively. They furthermore may be used to inform policy in both direct and nuanced manners. The encouragement of product reuse is facilitated for individuals and organizations providing food-service facilities. Caution in efforts to increase power generation capacity with renewable energy not coupled with reduction of demand is implied.

  17. Modeling language change: An evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand English

    E-print Network

    McKane, Alan

    Modeling language change: An evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand S T R A C T Trudgill (2004) proposed that the emergence of New Zealand English, and of isolated new's theory of new- dialect formation, as applied to the emergence of New Zealand English (Trudgill, 2004; see

  18. Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeunier, M.-H.; Travere, J.-M. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Les-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2010-10-15

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.

  19. Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER.

    PubMed

    Aumeunier, M-H; Travere, J-M

    2010-10-01

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed. PMID:21034052

  20. 1992 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has encouraged and financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies suitable for use at hazardous waste sites for five year...

  1. The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-02-01

    We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24? × ?48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of 99mTc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion correction methods for improved SPECT/CT imaging.

  2. The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2015-02-21

    We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24? × ?48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of (99m)Tc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion correction methods for improved SPECT/CT imaging. PMID:25612263

  3. Accuracy Evaluation of Emergency Department Tracking System Timestamps

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Bradley D.; Flottemesch, Thomas J.; Asplin, Brent R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Managers use timestamps from computerized tracking systems to evaluate emergency department (ED) processes. This study was designed to determine how accurately these timestamps reflect the actual ED events they purport to represent. METHODS An observer manually timestamped patient and provider movement events during all hours. The observed timestamps were then systematically matched to equivalent timestamps collected by an active tracking system (timestamps created by staff with keyboard/mouse) and a passive tracking system (timestamps created by sensor badge worn by staff members). The deviation time intervals between the matched timestamps were analyzed. RESULTS The observer noted a total of 901 events; 686 (76%) of these were successfully matched to active system timestamps and 60 (6.7%) were matched to passive system timestamps. For the active system, the median event was recorded 1.8 minutes before it was observed [IQR: 30.7 minutes before to 2.9 minutes after]. Protocol execution difficulties limited the study of the passive system (low number of successfully matched events). The median event was recorded by the passive system 1.1 minutes before it was observed [IQR: 1.3 minutes before to 0.9 minutes before] (n=60). CONCLUSIONS The timestamps recorded by both active and passive tracking systems contain systematic errors and non-normal distributions. The active system had much lower precision than the passive system, but similar accuracy when large numbers of active system observations are used. Medians should be used to represent timestamp and interval data for reporting purposes. Site specific data validation should be performed before using data in high-profile situations.Introduction PMID:18313799

  4. Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases 

    E-print Network

    Meredith, Anna Louise

    2012-06-30

    New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

  5. Performance Evaluation of an Efficient Counter-Based Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on Realistic Mobility Model

    E-print Network

    Aminu, M.

    Aminu,M. Ould-Khaoua,M. Mackenzie,L.M. Abdulai,J. Proceedings of the 2008 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems(SPECT'08), 16 - 18 June 2008, Edinburgh, UK, pp 181 - 188 IEEE Computer Society Press

  6. A preliminary evaluation of the emergence of novel mand forms.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Emma; Hanley, Gregory P; Ingvarsson, Einar T; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Strategies that produce generalized responding are valuable, especially with regard to language acquisition, because relatively little training may result in large behavior changes. Conditions that result in generalized manding were analyzed in the current study. We demonstrated in reversal designs that undesirable or single-word responses were the predominant mand forms of 3 preschool children. Multiple baseline designs with 2 participants and a reversal design with 1 participant were then used to demonstrate the extent to which differential reinforcement of single-word mands (e.g., "cars") or framed mands (e.g., "I want the cars, please") would result in the emergence of other single-word and framed mands for different items (e.g., mands for music, puppets, or puzzles). Results showed that prompting and differential reinforcement of one or two mand frames resulted in the emergence of other framed mands for all participants. PMID:17471798

  7. Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Alfred Paul

    2004-01-01

    The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

  8. Evaluation of phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity potentials of a cyanobacterial extract containing microcystins under realistic environmental concentrations and in a soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Sylvain; Mougin, Christian; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Crouzet, Olivier; Bru, David; Nélieu, Sylvie; Bouaïcha, Noureddine

    2015-06-01

    The impact of a crude extract of Microcystis aeruginosa (PCC7820) containing 14 microcystin variants was investigated on seeds germination and radicles development of four agricultural plants: two tomato varieties Solanum lycopersicum (MicroTom and Saint-Pierre), the wheat Triticum aestivum and the lettuce Lactuca sativa. In addition, the effect of 14d-exposure to irrigation water containing realistic concentrations of microcystins (0-0.1mgeq. microcystin-LRL(-)(1)) on the tomato MicroTom seedling growth was further evaluated on roots and aerial part biomasses. Impacts on soil bacterial parameters, as such extracellular enzymatic activities, nitrification activity and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms were also investigated. In germination-test, the cyanobacterial extract inhibited only the germination of the wheat seeds, with an EC50 of 11mgeq. microcystin-LRL(-1); which is 13 times lower than that of the cadmium chloride (EC50 of 145mgL(-1)). Moreover, the cyanobacterial extract containing low concentrations of microcystins increased the growth of primary roots; however, high concentrations decreased it for all plants except for the wheat. In the soil-plant approach, only aerial part biomass of the tomato MicroTom was enhanced significantly. In addition, only soil nitrification potential and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial abundances were consistently impacted. A significant positive correlation (r=0.56) was found between the increase of nitrification potential and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. This work suggested, that exposure to a cyanobacterial extract containing realistic environmental microcystins concentrations could affect seed germination, depending plant species. It was also highlighted, for the first time, disturbances in soil bacteria functioning, evidences on soil nitrification process. PMID:25754013

  9. 1994 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE), Emerging Technology Partnership (ETP) has initiated actions since 1987 that support the Clinton Administration's policy to foster and accelerate the research and development of inn...

  10. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2005-03-31

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2004 through February 28, 2005. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, all fieldwork at Plant 0 was completed. Stack sampling was conducted in October to determine if there were significant differences between the in-stack PM concentrations and the diluted concentrations used for the animal exposures. Results indicated no significant differences and therefore confidence that the revised stack sampling methodology described in the previous semiannual report is appropriate for use in the Project. Animal exposures to three atmospheric scenarios were carried out. From October 4-7, we conducted exposures to oxidized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Later in October, exposures to the most complex scenario (oxidized, neutralized emissions plus SOA) were repeated to ensure comparability with the results of the June/July exposures where a different stack sampling setup was employed. In November, exposures to oxidized emissions were performed. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biological endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. No significant differences between exposed animals and sham animals (exposed to filtered air) were observed for any of the endpoints; histopathological results are pending and will be reported in the next semiannual report. The scenarios evaluated during this reporting period were slightly modified from those originally proposed. We substituted a new scenario, secondary aerosol + SOA, to investigate the effects of a strongly acidic aerosol with a biogenic component. Since we did not observe any biological response to this scenario, the neutralized secondary aerosol scenario (i.e., oxidized emissions + ammonia) was deemed unnecessary. Moreover, in light of the lack of response observed in the Stage I assessment, it was decided that a Stage II assessment (evaluation of cardiac function in a compromised rat model) was unlikely to provide useful information. However, this model will be employed at Plant 1 and/or 2. During this reporting period, significant progress was made in planning for fieldwork at Plant 1. Stack sampling was carried out at the plant in mid-December to determine the concentration of primary particles. It was found that PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations were approximately three times higher than those observed at Plant 0. In mid-February, installation and setup for the mobile laboratories began. Animal exposures are scheduled to begin at this plant on March 21, 2005. During the next reporting period, we will initiate fieldwork at Plant 1. At either or both Plants 1 and 2, a detailed Stage II assessment will be performed, even if no significant findings are observed in Stage I. The next semiannual report is expected to include a detailed description of the fieldwork at Plant 1, including toxicological findings and interpretation.

  11. Improved evaluation of the impedance to simulated seedling emergence caused by rainfall induced crusts

    E-print Network

    Holder, Cephas Bernard

    1973-01-01

    IMPROVED EVALUATION OF THE IMPEDANCE TO SIMULATED SEEDLING EMERGENCE CAUSED BY RAINFALL INDUCED CRUSTS A Thesis by CEPHAS BERNARD HOLDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6? University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Soil physics IMPROVED EVALUATION OF THE IMPEDANCE TO SIMULATED SEEDLING EMERGENCE CAUSED BY RAINFALL INDUCED CRUSTS A Thesis by CEPHAS BERNARD HOLDER Approved as to style and content by...

  12. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  13. TECHNICAL EVALUATION REPORT EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS STUDY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K. R.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to review technical specifications for emergency diesel generators in the context of new information developed in the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and the application of current NRC regulatory concepts and knowledge. Aging and reliability relationships related to the standard technical specifications are reviewed and supported by data and published information to ensure that conservative and beneficial specifications are identified. Where technical specifications could adversely influence aging and reliability, the technical issues and reasonable alternatives are identified for consideration. This report documents and spans the technical progress from the published and approved regulatory documents to the current knowledge basis. This ensures that the technical bases for the technical specifications discussed are documented and relatively complete subject information is contained in one document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has participated in the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program directed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Engineering. The NPAR study of emergency diesel generator aging was performed in two phases. In Phase I, plant operating experience, ~ata, expert opinion and statistical methods were used to produce a new data base related to aging, reliability, and operational readiness of nuclear service diesel generators. Phase II was chiefly concerned with aging mitigation measures.

  14. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide. PMID:21501447

  15. An evaluation of the emerging vaccines against influenza in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza is an under-appreciated cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 20 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 97% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in 28000 to 112000 deaths annually in young children. Apart from hospitalisations and deaths, influenza has significant economic consequences. The current egg-based inactivated influenza vaccines have several limitations: annual vaccination, high production costs, and cannot respond adequately to meet the demand during pandemics. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging cross-protective vaccines against influenza relevant to several criteria of interest: answerability; cost of development, production and implementation; efficacy and effectiveness; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential impact on disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results The experts expressed very high level of optimism for deliverability, impact on equity, and acceptability to health workers and end users. However, they expressed concerns over the criteria of answerability, low development cost, low product cost, low implementation cost, affordability and, to a lesser extent sustainability. In addition they felt that the vaccine would have higher efficacy and impact on disease burden reduction on overall influenza-associated disease rather than specifically influenza-associated pneumonia. Conclusion Although the landscape of emerging influenza vaccines shows several promising candidates, it is unlikely that the advancements in the newer vaccine technologies will be able to progress through to large scale production in the near future. The combined effects of continued investments in researching new vaccines and improvements of available vaccines will hopefully shorten the time needed to the development of an effective seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine suitable for large scale production. PMID:24564565

  16. Evaluations over the medical emergency responding to chemical terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Karayilano?lu, Turan; Kenar, Levent; Gulec, Mahir

    2003-08-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents intentionally has become a great concern in the arena of the cold war. On the other hand, there has always been a threat on civilian population due to their mass destruction effects, including psychological damage and a great deal of discussion how to respond to it in terms of medical management. It is very important to provide the best lifesaving medical care and triage in a chemical-contaminated area. Mass casualties exposed to chemical agents require immediate medical intervention to save their lives and should be classified in accordance to medical care priorities and available medical sources, including antidotes and sophisticated health facilities. Establishing the decontamination area for chemical casualties where it is located at the suitable place with respect to the wind direction is necessary. To overcome the mass destruction effects of chemical warfare agents following the terrorist attack, we must have the emergency medical response plan involving experienced triage officers and medical care providers to be able to perform medical management in the chemical-contaminated area and health facilities. PMID:12943031

  17. EVALUATION OF FORMALDEHYDE LEVELS IN OCCUPIED FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY-OWNED TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF FORMALDEHYDE LEVELS IN OCCUPIED FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY-OWNED TEMPORARY and Mobile, AL, as a Category 4 storm. Families were evacuated from the US Gulf Coast to return later to provide an evaluation of exposures to formaldehyde in temporary housing for hurricane-displaced people

  18. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  19. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-07-16

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Evaluating the effect of emergency department crowding on triage destination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Department (ED) crowding has been studied for the last 20 years, yet many questions remain about its impact on patient care. In this study, we aimed to determine if ED crowding influenced patient triage destination and intensity of investigation, as well as rates of unscheduled returns to the ED. We focused on patients presenting with chest pain or shortness of breath, triaged as high acuity, and who were subsequently discharged home. Methods This pilot study was a health records review of 500 patients presenting to two urban tertiary care EDs with chest pain or shortness of breath, triaged as high acuity and subsequently discharged home. Data extracted included triage time, date, treatment area, time to physician initial assessment, investigations ordered, disposition, and return ED visits within 14 days. We defined ED crowding as ED occupancy greater than 1.5. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the ?2 and Fisher exact tests. Results Over half of the patients, 260/500 (52.0%) presented during conditions of ED crowding. More patients were triaged to the non-monitored area of the ED during ED crowding (65/260 (25.0%) vs. 39/240 (16.3%) when not crowded, P?=?0.02). During ED crowding, mean time to physician initial assessment was 132.0 minutes in the non-monitored area vs. 99.1 minutes in the monitored area, P <0.0001. When the ED was not crowded, mean time to physician initial assessment was 122.3 minutes in the non-monitored area vs. 67 minutes in the monitored area, P?=?0.0003. Patients did not return to the ED more often when triaged during ED crowding: 24/260 (9.3%) vs. 29/240 (12.1%) when ED was not crowded (P?=?0.31). Overall, when triaged to the non-monitored area of the ED, 44/396 (11.1%) patients returned, whereas in the monitored area 9/104 (8.7%) patients returned, P?=?0.46. Conclusions ED crowding conditions appeared to influence triage destination in our ED leading to longer wait times for high acuity patients. This did not appear to lead to higher rates of return ED visits amongst discharged patients in this cohort. Further research is needed to determine whether these delays lead to adverse patient outcomes. PMID:24860626

  1. Investigating the organisational impacts of quality improvement: a protocol for a realist evaluation of improvement approaches drawing on the Resource Based View of the Firm

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Christopher R; Rycroft Malone, Jo; Robert, Glenn; Willson, Alan; Hopkins, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is understood about the role of quality improvement in enabling health organisations to survive and thrive in the contemporary context of financial and economic challenges. We will draw on the theoretical foundations of the ‘Resource Based View of the Firm’ (RBV) to develop insights into why health organisations engage in improvement work, how impacts are conceptualised, and ‘what works’ in delivering these impacts. Specifically, RBV theorises that the mix and use of resources across different organisations may explain differences in performance. Whether improvement work influences these resources is unclear. Methods and analysis Case study research will be conducted across health organisations participating in four approaches to improvement, including: a national improvement programme; a multiorganisational partnership around implementation; an organisational strategy for quality improvement; and a coproduction project designed to enhance the experience of a clinical service from the perspective of patients. Data will comprise in-depth interviews with key informants, observation of key events and documents; analysed within and then across cases. Adopting a realist perspective, the core tenets of RBV will be evaluated as a programme theory, focusing on the interplay between organisational conditions and behavioural or resource responses that are reported through engagement in improvement. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by Bangor University Ethics Committee. The investigation will not judge the relative merits of different approaches to healthcare quality improvement. Rather, we will develop unique insights into the organisational consequences, and dependencies of quality improvement, providing an opportunity to add to the explanatory potential of RBV in this and other contexts. In addition to scientific and lay reports of the study findings, research outputs will include a framework for constructing the economic impacts of quality improvement and practical guidance for health service managers that maximises the impacts of investment in quality improvement. PMID:25082421

  2. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: realist evaluation of the Leadership Development Programme for district manager decision-making in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is widespread agreement that strong district manager decision-making improves health systems, understanding about how the design and implementation of capacity-strengthening interventions work is limited. The Ghana Health Service has adopted the Leadership Development Programme (LDP) as one intervention to support the development of management and leadership within district teams. This paper seeks to address how and why the LDP ‘works’ when it is introduced into a district health system in Ghana, and whether or not it supports systems thinking in district teams. Methods We undertook a realist evaluation to investigate the outcomes, contexts, and mechanisms of the intervention. Building on two working hypotheses developed from our earlier work, we developed an explanatory case study of one rural district in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data collection included participant observation, document review, and semi-structured interviews with district managers prior to, during, and after the intervention. Working backwards from an in-depth analysis of the context and observed short- and medium-term outcomes, we drew a causal loop diagram to explain interactions between contexts, outcomes, and mechanisms. Results The LDP was a valuable experience for district managers and teams were able to attain short-term outcomes because the novel approach supported teamwork, initiative-building, and improved prioritisation. However, the LDP was not institutionalised in district teams and did not lead to increased systems thinking. This was related to the context of high uncertainty within the district, and hierarchical authority of the system, which triggered the LDP’s underlying goal of organisational control. Conclusions Consideration of organisational context is important when trying to sustain complex interventions, as it seems to influence the gap between short- and medium-term outcomes. More explicit focus on systems thinking principles that enable district managers to better cope with their contexts may strengthen the institutionalisation of the LDP in the future. PMID:24935521

  3. A REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF EMERGING DRIVER FATIGUE DETECTION MEASURES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    E-print Network

    , the interaction of the principal physiological factors that underlie the formation of sleepiness, namely- 1 - A REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF EMERGING DRIVER FATIGUE DETECTION MEASURES AND TECHNOLOGIES researchers have all identified driver drowsiness as a high priority commercial vehicle safety issue

  4. Development of a checklist for evaluating emergency procedures used in nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Brune; M. Weinstein

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the process for developing a checklist to be used by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Inspection and Enforcement (I and E) inspectors during their evaluation of emergency procedures used in nuclear power plants. The objective of the checklist is to aid inspectors in identifying procedural characteristics that can lead to reactor operator performance deviations. Four nuclear

  5. Realistic collective nuclear Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, M.; Zuker, A.P. [Groupe de Physique Theorique Bat40/1 CRN IN2P3--CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)] [Groupe de Physique Theorique Bat40/1 CRN IN2P3--CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    1996-10-01

    The residual part of the realistic forces{emdash}obtained after extracting the monopole terms responsible for bulk properties{emdash}is strongly dominated by pairing and quadrupole interactions, with important {sigma}{tau}{center_dot}{sigma}{tau}, octupole, and hexadecapole contributions. Their forms retain the simplicity of the traditional pairing plus multipole models, while eliminating their flaws through a normalization mechanism dictated by a universal {ital A}{sup {minus}1/3} scaling. Coupling strengths and effective charges are calculated and shown to agree with empirical values. Comparisons between different realistic interactions confirm the claim that they are very similar. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Trauma in elderly patients evaluated in a hospital emergency department in Konya, Turkey: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Akinci, Murat; Tufekci, Necmettin; Degirmenci, Selim; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Trauma is a common cause of admission to the hospital emergency department. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cause of admission, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients aged ?65 years admitted to an emergency department in Turkey because of blunt trauma. Materials and methods Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 568 patients (314 women and 254 men) aged ?65 years who were admitted to an emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. Results Trauma was caused by low-energy fall in 379 patients (67%), traffic accident in 79 patients (14%), high-energy fall in 69 patients (12%), and other causes in 41 patients (7%). The most frequent sites of injury were the lower extremity, thorax, upper extremity, and head. The femur was the most frequent fracture site. After evaluation in the emergency department, 377 patients (66%) were hospitalized. There were 31 patients (5%) who died. Risk of hospitalization after trauma was significantly associated with trauma to the lower extremity, thorax, and spine; fractures of the femur and rib; and intracranial injury. Conclusion Emergency department admission after trauma in patients aged ?65 years is common after low-energy falls, and most injuries occur to the extremities. It is important to focus on prevention of falls to decrease the frequency of trauma in the elderly. PMID:24376346

  7. Realistic Animation of Liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Foster; Dimitris N. Metaxas

    1996-01-01

    We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our ap- proach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the Navier-Stokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and

  8. Realistic Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Sue; Gough, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, researchers at the Freudenthal Institute in The Netherlands have developed a mathematics curriculum and a theory of pedagogy known as Realistic Maths Education (RME). This curriculum uses "imaginable" contexts to help pupils to develop mathematically, with a strong emphasis on pupils "making sense" of the subject. In this…

  9. Simulation of realistic retinoscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Baker, K.; Lewis, J. W.; Swartz, T.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, M.

    2007-03-01

    Realistic simulation of ophthalmic measurements on normal and diseased eyes is presented. We use clinical data of ametropic and keratoconus patients to construct anatomically accurate three-dimensional eye models and simulate the measurement of a streak retinoscope with all the optical elements. The results show the clinical observations including the anomalous motion in high myopia and the scissors reflex in keratoconus. The demonstrated technique can be applied to other ophthalmic instruments and to other and more extensively abnormal eye conditions. It provides promising features for medical training and for evaluating and developing ocular instruments.

  10. Development and use of consolidated criteria for evaluation of emergency preparedness plans for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, K.; Kier, P.H.; Baldwin, T.E.

    1995-07-01

    Emergency preparedness at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is promoted by development and quality control of response plans. To promote quality control efforts, DOE has developed a review document that consolidates requirements and guidance pertaining to emergency response planning from various DOE and regulatory sources. The Criteria for Evaluation of Operational Emergency Plans (herein referred to as the Criteria document) has been constructed and arranged to maximize ease of use in reviewing DOE response plans. Although developed as a review instrument, the document also serves as a de facto guide for plan development, and could potentially be useful outside the scope of its original intended DOE clientele. As regulatory and DOE requirements are revised and added in the future, the document will be updated to stay current.

  11. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 ?g/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the ?rst report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins.

  12. Evaluation of a simulation-based workshop on clinical performance for emergency physicians and nurses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi Ho; Chan, Tung Ning; Yuen, Man Cheuk; Tung, Wai Kit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education has been growing rapidly and becomes one of the most popular teaching methods for improving patient safety and patient care. The Simulation Subcommittee of the Hong Kong College of Emergency Medicine organized an educational program emphasizing the team training, clinical decision-making and communication skills. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of the participants toward a new training program and the change in the knowledge on clinical performance in emergency physicians and nurses after attending the educational program. METHODS: A course evaluation form was filled in by the participants at the end of the workshop. An assessment of 20 multiple-choice questions with 5 options was administered to the participants before and after the 2-day simulation-based training workshop. RESULTS: A total of 72 doctors and nurses working in the Accident and Emergency Department were enrolled. The average pretest and posttest scores were 12 and 14.3 respectively. The percentage improvement in the mean score of the pretest and posttest was 11.5%. The Chi-square test showed significant improvement in the pretest and posttest score grading (P=0.00). Paired t-test revealed significant difference between the mean scores of the pretest and posttest (P=0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Participants had positive attitude toward this new training program. Significant improvement of the knowledge on clinical performance in healthcare professionals in the Accident and Emergency Department was observed after the participation in this simulation-based educational program. PMID:25802561

  13. Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

    Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

  14. Evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital: assessment of radiology performance in the accident and emergency department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwyneth C. Weatherburn; Stirling Bryan; Robert Cocks

    1993-01-01

    In the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) x-ray images are used to assist in the initial diagnosis and management of the patient. It is therefore expected that the main benefits of PACS in A&E will arise from the ability of clinicians to manipulate the digital image and thus potentially improve their diagnostic performance. In order to evaluate whether this benefit

  15. The Evaluation Exchange: Emerging Strategies in Evaluating Child and Family Services, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, M. Elena, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 2002 issues of a newsletter of the Harvard Family Research Project, designed to share new ideas and experiences in evaluating systems reform and comprehensive child and family services. The Spring issue focuses on family support evaluations and their role in advancing the field of family support and includes…

  16. The Evaluation Exchange: Emerging Strategies in Evaluating Child and Family Services, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Leslie, Ed.; Bohan-Baker, Marielle, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two 2001 issues of a newsletter of the Harvard Family Research Project, designed to share new ideas and experiences in evaluating systems reform and comprehensive child and family services. The first issue focuses on strategic communications and efforts of nonprofit agencies to evaluate strategic communication…

  17. [Preparedness - decisions in the face of uncertainty. Evaluation of nurses' response readiness in hospital emergency exercises].

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Ramona; Michalzik, Elisabeth; Lenz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Events in which the health and life of a large number of people are at stake impose particular challenges to all who are involved in healthcare. An effective response requires prompt decision-making under time pressure, in a context characterised by uncertainty and low routine. The hypothesis is that healthcare staffs' preparedness-related competency increases response quality. An evaluation tool was developed to assess response-relevant competencies of emergency nurses. Competencies relevant to the German healthcare system were systematically defined and operationalised into observable items. Multiple phases of qualitative field studies were employed to develop a conceptual guide to planning and conducting the evaluation. The usability of the evaluation tool was piloted and iteratively optimised. The resulting evaluation approach has the potential to substantiate education and training in the context of curriculum development. PMID:24315332

  18. Teaching and evaluating multitasking ability in emergency medicine residents - what is the best practice?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multitasking is an essential skill to develop during Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. Residents who struggle to cope in a multitasking environment risk fatigue, stress, and burnout. Improper management of interruption has been causally linked with medical errors. Formal teaching and evaluation of multitasking is often lacking in EM residency programs. This article reviewed the literature on multitasking in EM to identify best practices for teaching and evaluating multitasking amongst EM residents. With the advancement in understanding of what multitasking is, deliberate attempts should be made to teach residents pitfalls and coping strategies. This can be taught through a formal curriculum, role modeling by faculty, and simulation training. The best way to evaluate multitasking ability in residents is by direct observation. The EM Milestone Project provides a framework by which multitasking can be evaluated. EM residents should be deployed in work environments commiserate with their multitasking ability and their progress should be graduated after identified deficiencies are remediated. PMID:25635201

  19. SimNewB is an interactive simulator, designed by Laerdal with the American Academy of Pediatrics to meet the training requirements of neonatal emergency medicine and resuscitation courses. With realistic newborn traits

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    of Pediatrics to meet the training requirements of neonatal emergency medicine and resuscitation courses, pneumonia and others Heart : Normal, diastolic murmur, systolic murmur and others Other Features

  20. Maternal Evaluations of Children's Emergent Literacy Level, Maternal Mediation in Book Reading, and Children's Emergent Literacy Level: A Comparison Between SES Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Haglili, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether maternal evaluations of children's emergent literacy (EL) levels, maternal mediation during a book-reading activity with children, and the children's EL levels differ as a function of socioeconomic status (SES; low vs. high), and whether the relationships between these variables differ as a function of SES levels. Study…

  1. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to identify, measure, and value the likely effectiveness and the costs and consequences of the new technology, handling of uncertainty), and whether the study results adequately address the main study question or objective. Data will be summarized overall and stratified by publication status. Discussion This study is timely to inform early economic evaluation practice, given the international trend in early health technology assessment initiatives. PMID:25055987

  2. Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zantal-Wiener, Kathy; Horwood, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs. This framework involves a logic model that incorporates Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of…

  3. A process for evaluation and state approval of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1991-11-06

    This document contains copies of the vugraphs used by C. R. Hodgin for the November 6, 1991 presentation summarizing the process to be used for evaluation of the Emergency Response Dispersion Model. (MHB)

  4. Analysis of the Evaluative Components on the Standard Letter of Recommendation (SLOR) in Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Grall, Kristi H.; Hiller, Katherine M.; Stoneking, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The standard letter of recommendation in emergency medicine (SLOR) was developed to standardize the evaluation of applicants, improve inter-rater reliability, and discourage grade inflation. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of categorical variables on the SLOR in order to characterize scoring tendencies of writers. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all SLORs written on behalf of applicants to the three Emergency Medicine residency programs in the University of Arizona Health Network (i.e. the University Campus program, the South Campus program and the Emergency Medicine/Pediatrics combined program) in 2012. All “Qualifications for Emergency Medicine” and “Global Assessment” variables were analyzed. Results 1457 SLORs were reviewed, representing 26.7% of the total number of Electronic Residency Application Service applicants for the academic year. Letter writers were most likely to use the highest/most desirable category on “Qualifications for EM” variables (50.7%) and to use the second highest category on “Global Assessments” (43.8%). For 4-point scale variables, 91% of all responses were in one of the top two ratings. For 3-point scale variables, 94.6% were in one of the top two ratings. Overall, the lowest/least desirable ratings were used less than 2% of the time. Conclusions SLOR letter writers do not use the full spectrum of categories for each variable proportionately. Despite the attempt to discourage grade inflation, nearly all variable responses on the SLOR are in the top two categories. Writers use the lowest categories less than 2% of the time. Program Directors should consider tendencies of SLOR writers when reviewing SLORs of potential applicants to their programs. PMID:25035747

  5. Emergency department evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of cocaine metabolites in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Belfer, R A; Klein, B L; Boenning, D A; Soldin, S J

    1996-04-01

    We evaluated the Abuscreen ONTRAK assay for cocaine metabolites, a rapid immunoassay for the detection of cocaine metabolites in a pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The ONTRAK uses a cutoff point of 300 micrograms/L for benzoylecgonine (BEC), cocaine's major urinary metabolite. One hundred and thirty-two urine specimens obtained from infants, children, and adolescents whose clinical findings warranted toxicology screening were evaluated. The ONTRAK identified all 15 specimens with BEC values of 300 micrograms/L, but did not detect seven additional specimens positive for cocaine metabolites at concentrations less than 300 micrograms/L. One third of the positive specimens for cocaine metabolite identified by fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA), cutoff point set at 80 micrograms/L, and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GUMS), cutoff point 50 micrograms/L, were not detected by the ONTRAK. These false negative specimens were seen exclusively in young children, whose concentration of cocaine metabolite was less than the ONTRAK's cutoff value. The test was sensitive to drug concentration at or around the stated cutoff values. The ONTRAK test for cocaine metabolites, although both a sensitive and specific screening test for adolescents who smoke or snort cocaine, lacks the sensitivity to be a useful screening too[ for detecting cocaine metabolites in young children. Limitations of currently performed toxicology screening tests (ie, stated cutoff levels) may cause emergency physicians to miss most young children whose symptoms may he related to cocaine exposure. PMID:8859922

  6. Evaluation of compressed video-images for emergency telemedicine work with trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Kang, Ho-Hyun; Park, In-Cheol; Youn, Yoo S; Kim, Seung H

    2004-01-01

    Video-encoders in telemedicine systems need to adjust their coding methods for operation on heterogeneous networks on which bandwidth fluctuates. We evaluated MPEG-4 compressed video-pictures of three trauma patients. We compared the original video-frames with compressed video-frames in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). In a qualitative evaluation, three emergency specialists scored the quality of the video-images blind, on a five-point scale (1= bad to 5 = excellent). The PSNR increased as the bit rate increased from 0.2 to 6 Mbit/s. When the bit rate was fixed, in other words at a given network bandwidth, a higher PSNR was obtained at the expense of spatial resolution and frame rate. The video quality was highly affected by the amount of camera shake. Emergency telemedicine systems require a high bit rate, high spatial resolution and a high frame rate to achieve optimum video quality. However, if the bandwidth is limited (i.e. the bit rate is fixed), temporal resolution becomes more important than spatial resolution. PMID:15603613

  7. TOPAZ0 4.0 - A new version of a computer program for evaluation of de-convoluted and realistic observables at LEP 1 and LEP 2

    E-print Network

    G. Montagna; O. Nicrosini; G. Passarino; F. Piccinini

    1998-04-02

    The program TOPAZ0 was developed for computing a variety of physical observables which are related to the e+e- annihilation into fermion pairs and to the large angle Bhabha scattering around the Z resonance. Among them, the Z parameters or pseudo-observables, the de-convoluted cross sections and those dressed with QED radiation, and finally the forward-backward asymmetries. The calculations are performed both for a completely inclusive experimental set-up and for a realistic one, i.e. a set-up with cuts on the acollinearity angle, on the energy of the outgoing fermions or on their invariant mass and angular acceptance. The new version, 4.0, includes several innovative features. First of all, the most important new capabilities since previous versions are recently computed electroweak and QCD correction factors that are relevant at the Z resonance in the light of the present experimental accuracy. Among them, the effect of the next-to-leading O(alpha^2 m_t^2) corrections and those radiative corrections to the hadronic decay of the Z which provide complete corrections of O(alpha alpha_s) to Gamma(Z --> q\\bar{q}) with q=u,d,s,c and b. Secondly, the program has been upgraded to cover two-fermion final states at LEP 2 energies, where some of the assumptions made for earlier versions are no longer valid. In particular, to this aim all the electroweak radiative corrections that are negligible at the Z peak, but relevant far from it, have been added for s-channel processes, e.g. purely weak boxes, next-to-leading O(alpha^2) and leading O(alpha^3) QED corrections.

  8. Characteristics and disposition of youth referred from schools for emergency psychiatric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Grudnikoff, Eugene; Taneli, Tolga; Correll, Christoph U

    2014-09-27

    We aimed to describe the characteristics and disposition of youth referred from schools to the emergency department (ED) for psychiatric evaluations. Consecutive 12-month records of ED psychiatric consultations at a large urban hospital from 07.01.2009 to 06.30.2010 were retrospectively analyzed. School-initiated referrals were deemed inappropriate if youth were discharged from the ED without any recommended mental health follow-up. Of the 551 psychiatric ED evaluations, 243 (44.1 %) were initiated by schools. Of all school referrals, only 19 (7.8 %) children were psychiatrically hospitalized, 108 (44.4 %) were discharged from the ED with a follow-up appointment; and 116 (47.7 %) were discharged without arranged follow-up. Those with a chief complaint of "suicidality" (n = 109, 44.9 %) were more likely to be discharged without arranged follow-up than youth with other presenting complaints (56.0 vs. 41.0 %, p = 0.021). Altogether, only 37 (18.5 %) of 200 school-referred youth with information were evaluated by a school nurse, social worker, or other professional before being sent to the ED. Students without in-school screening were significantly more frequently discharged without follow-up than students with in-school evaluations prior to the ED referral (51.5 vs. 27.0 %, p = 0.0070; odds ratio = 2.87 (95 % CI 1.30-6.31). Multivariate predictors of inappropriate school referrals of youth discharged without any outpatient follow-up were higher Children's Global Assessment Scale score (p < 0.0001), absent in-school evaluation (p = 0.0069), absent prior psychiatric history (p = 0.011) and absent current psychotropic medication treatment (p = 0.012) (r (2) = 0.264 %, p < 0.0001). Altogether 44.1 % of ED consultations were school referred, of which 47.7 % were potentially inappropriate for the emergency setting. In-school screening, which occurred infrequently, reduced unnecessary evaluations by 52 %. PMID:25260234

  9. Realistic performance analysis of WSN protocols through trace based simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Marchiori; Lin Guo; Josh Thomas; Qi Han

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficult endeavor to realistically evaluate the performance of wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols. Generic network simulators are often used, but they tend to rely on synthetic models. Because WSN performance can be affected by many subtle features, these simulators lack a certain level of realism. The most realistic performance assessment is to implement the protocol in question

  10. Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

  11. Nursing Home Revenue Source and Information Availability During the Emergency Department Evaluation of Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Timothy F.; Biese, Kevin; LaMantia, Michael; Zamora, Zeke; Patel, Laura N.; McCall, Brenda; Egbulefu, Fortune; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Cairns, Charles B.; Kizer, John S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Lack of access to medical information for nursing home residents during Emergency Department (ED) evaluation is a barrier to quality care. We hypothesized that the quantity of information available in the ED differs based on the funding source of the resident’s nursing home. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING Single academic ED. PARTICIPANTS 128 skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents age 65 or older from 12 SNFs. MEASUREMENTS Emergency physicians documented knowledge of 9 essential information items. SNFs were categorized as accepting or not accepting Medicaid. RESULTS Questionnaires were completed for 128 patients, of whom 95 (74%) were from one of 8 Medicaid-funded SNFs and 33 (26%) were from one of 4 SNFs not accepting Medicaid. Patients from SNFs accepting Medicaid were younger (79 vs. 87, p<.001) and less frequently white (62% vs. 97%, p<.001). The mean number of 9 possible information items available was lower for patients from SNFs that accept Medicaid (7.13 vs. 8.15, p<.001). Emergency providers also reported lower satisfaction regarding access to information for residents from SNFs that accept Medicaid (p<.05). The association between residence in a SNF that accepts Medicaid and lower ED information scores remained after linear regression with clustering by SNF controlling for age, gender, and race. The most common source of information for residents from both types of SNFs was transfer papers from the SNF. CONCLUSION Less information is available to ED providers for patients from SNFs that accept Medicaid than for residents from SNFs that do not accept Medicaid. Further study is needed to examine this information gap. PMID:21450234

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted, multilevel continuous quality improvement program in primary health care: developing a realist theory of change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation in effectiveness of continuous quality improvement (CQI) interventions between services is commonly reported, but with little explanation of how contextual and other factors may interact to produce this variation. Therefore, there is scant information available on which policy makers can draw to inform effective implementation in different settings. In this paper, we explore how patterns of change in delivery of services may have been achieved in a diverse range of health centers participating in a wide-scale program to achieve improvements in quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Methods We elicited key informants’ interpretations of factors explaining patterns of change in delivery of guideline-scheduled services over three or more years of a wide-scale CQI project, and inductively analyzed these interpretations to propose fine-grained realist hypotheses about what works for whom and in what circumstances. Data were derived from annual clinical audits from 36 health centers operating in diverse settings, quarterly project monitoring reports, and workshops with 12 key informants who had key roles in project implementation. We abstracted potential context-mechanism-outcome configurations from the data, and based on these, identified potential program-strengthening strategies. Results Several context-specific, mechanism-based explanations for effectiveness of this CQI project were identified. These were collective valuing of clinical data for improvement purposes; collective efficacy; and organizational change towards a population health orientation. Health centers with strong central management of CQI, and those in which CQI efforts were more dependent on local health center initiative and were adapted to resonate with local priorities were both favorable contexts for collective valuing of clinical data. Where health centers had prior positive experiences of collaboration, effects appeared to be achieved at least partly through the mechanism of collective efficacy. Strong community linkages, staff ability to identify with patients, and staff having the skills and support to take broad ranging action, were favorable contexts for the mechanism of increased population health orientation. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support strategies for program strengthening described in the literature, and extends the understanding of mechanisms through which strategies may be effective in achieving particular outcomes in different contexts. PMID:24098940

  13. Toxicological evaluation of three contaminants of emerging concern by use of the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Herrero, O; Pérez Martín, J M; Fernández Freire, P; Carvajal López, L; Peropadre, A; Hazen, M J

    2012-03-18

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, triclosan and propylparaben are contaminants of emerging concern that have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, but for which limited information is currently available concerning adverse effects on terrestrial plant systems. The Allium cepa test, which is considered one of the most efficient approaches to assess toxic effects of environmental chemicals, was selected to evaluate the potential risks of these ubiquitous pollutants. Our data demonstrate that all three compounds studied may in some way be considered toxic, but different effects were noted depending on the chemical and the end point analysed. Results derived from the analysis of macroscopic parameters used in testing for general toxicity, revealed that while di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate had no apparent effects, the other two chemicals inhibited A. cepa root growth in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, although all three compounds caused alterations in the mitotic index of root-tip cells, propylparaben was the only one that did not show evidence of genotoxicity in assays for chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. The results of the present study clearly indicate that sensitive plant bioassays are useful and complementary tools to determine environmental impact of contaminants of emerging concern. PMID:22249112

  14. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  15. Preclinical biosafety evaluation of cell-based therapies: emerging global paradigms.

    PubMed

    Basu, Joydeep; Assaf, Basel T; Bertram, Timothy A; Rao, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have the potential to treat a diversity of disease conditions, many representing significant and long-standing unmet medical needs. Certain properties of cell-based therapies, such as differentiation potential and proliferative potential, present safety concerns uniquely distinct from those of small molecule drugs and other macromolecule biologics. These cellular products carry risks associated with localized host tissue response, long-term persistence, ectopic tissue formation, differentiation to undesirable cell and tissue types, uncontrollable biodistribution, tumorigenicity, and immunogenicity. Such risks are generally evaluated in preclinical animal model studies as part of a comprehensive safety program prior to administration in humans. However, safety assessment for these products can be challenging because of inconsistent approaches to product characterization, inadequately defined product parameters that anticipate adverse events, and the lack of standardized approaches in evaluating in vivo host responses. In this symposium, we introduced cell-based therapies as an emerging product class to the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and highlighted key challenges for consideration during product biosafety evaluation. PMID:25476796

  16. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over?the?counter medication clobutinol

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva?B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life?threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE?mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection?associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non?specific summation effects. Accidental re?exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non?proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

  17. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over-the-counter medication clobutinol.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva-B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-03-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life-threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection-associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non-specific summation effects. Accidental re-exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non-proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

  18. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  19. Drug Screens for Psychiatric Patients in the Emergency Department: Evaluation and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, David S.; Smallwood, Jennifer; Chang, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Objective To better understand how toxicology screening for psychiatric patients in the emergency department (ED) setting affects diagnostic decisions. Methods Retrospective chart review of 439 ED visits of adult patients receiving psychiatry consultations at two hospitals, one an academic medical center (n = 224) and the other a community hospital (n = 220), between July 2008 and February 2009. Clinical, demographic, and ED length of stay (LOS) information was abstracted from the psychiatry consultation notes and the medical records. Results Positive urine toxicology results, when combined with a basic substance abuse history, were not associated independently with a patient’s receiving a substance-related diagnosis as part of the psychiatric assessment. By contrast, a positive blood alcohol level was associated independently with a patient’s receiving one of these diagnoses while a positive alcohol use history was not. Conclusions Urine toxicology screens do not add significant diagnostic value to all ED psychiatric evaluations when combined with standard substance use histories. PMID:23194932

  20. Headache in Pregnancy: An Approach to Emergency Department Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Jessica C.; Campbell, Ronna L.; Sadosty, Annie T.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes benign primary causes as well as ominous secondary causes. The diagnosis and management of headache in the pregnant patient presents several challenges. There are important unique considerations regarding the differential diagnosis, imaging options, and medical management. Physiologic changes induced by pregnancy increase the risk of cerebral venous thrombosis, dissection, and pituitary apoplexy. Preeclampsia, a serious condition unique to pregnancy, must also be considered. A high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide toxicity should be maintained. Primary headaches should be a diagnosis of exclusion. When advanced imaging is indicated, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used, if available, to reduce radiation exposure. Contrast agents should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Medical therapy should be selected with careful consideration of adverse fetal effects. Herein, we present a review of the literature and discuss an approach to the evaluation and management of headache in pregnancy

  1. HPM coupling into realistic targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Toth, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    High-Power Microwave coupling into targets of interest is extremely difficult to assess analytically or numerically. The practicalities of accurately modeling physical structures, as well as the subtlety of determining which simplifications are allowable for the accuracy needed, require that target interaction calculations be verified by careful laboratory measurements. In addition, the differences in construction techniques and tolerances on joints and seams make an experimental scan of the parameter space essential if we are to establish rules-of-thumb for coupling into systems. To meet this need for a benchmark for HPM coupling calculations, we have designed and constructed several RF shielding enclosures with generic but realistic joints and seams. We measured the coupling of RF into these enclosures over the frequency range of 45 MHz to 18 GHz, recording both amplitude and phase information. These data allow us to evaluate the response of various ports-of-entry to both continuous wave and pulsed sources. We can see trends with frequency for various port of entry types that relate to relatively simple geometric factors. This paper outlines what these results for generic targets imply for HPM coupling to real systems.

  2. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  3. An Independent Human Factors Analysis and Evaluation of the Emergency Medical Protocol Checklist for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Ortiz, Rosie; Segal, Michele; Smart, Kieran; Hughes, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Emergency medical capabilities aboard the ISS include a Crew Medical Officer (CMO) (not necessarily a physician), and back-up, resuscitation equipment, and a medical checklist. It is essential that CMOs have reliable, usable and informative medical protocols that can be carried out independently in flight. The study evaluates the existing ISS Medical Checklist layout against a checklist updated to reflect a human factors approach to structure and organization. Method: The ISS Medical checklist was divided into non-emergency and emergency sections, and re-organized based on alphabetical and a body systems approach. A desk-top evaluation examined the ability of subjects to navigate to specific medical problems identified as representative of likely non-emergency events. A second evaluation aims to focus on the emergency section of the Medical Checklist, based on the preliminary findings of the first. The final evaluation will use Astronaut CMOs as subjects comparing the original checklist against the updated layout in the task of caring for a "downed crewmember" using a Human Patient Simulator [Medical Education Technologies, Inc.]. Results: Initial results have demonstrated a clear improvement of the re-organized sections to determine the solution to the medical problems. There was no distinct advantage for either alternative, although subjects stated having a preference for the body systems approach. In the second evaluation, subjects will be asked to identify emergency medical conditions, with measures including correct diagnosis, time to completion and solution strategy. The third evaluation will compare the original and fully updated checklists in clinical situations. Conclusions: Initial findings indicate that the ISS Medical Checklist will benefit from a reorganization. The present structure of the checklist has evolved over recent years without systematic testing of crewmember ability to diagnose medical problems. The improvements are expected to enable ISS Crewmembers to more speedily and accurately respond to medical situations on the ISS.

  4. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  5. Pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department: practice evaluation in Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on European recommendations of ESPGHAN/ESPID from 2008, first line therapy for dehydration caused by acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is oral rehydration solution (ORS). In case of oral route failure, nasogastric tube enteral rehydration is as efficient as intra-venous rehydration and seems to lead to fewer adverse events. The primary objective was to describe rehydration strategies used in cases of AGE in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. Methods An electronic survey describing a scenario in which a toddler had moderate dehydration caused by AGE was sent to physicians working in pediatric emergency departments. Analytical data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Kruskal –Wallis Rank test. Results We analyzed 68 responses, distributed as follows: Belgium N?=?10, France N?=?37, The Netherlands N?=?7, and Switzerland N?=?14. Oral rehydration with ORS was the first line of treatment for 90% of the respondents. In case of first line treatment failure, intravenous rehydration was preferred by 95% of respondents from France, whereas nasogastric route was more likely to be used by those from Belgium (80%), The Netherlands (100%) and Switzerland (86%). Serum electrolyte measurements were more frequently prescribed in France (92%) and Belgium (80%) than in The Netherlands (43%) and Switzerland (29%). Racecadotril was more frequently used in France, and ondansetron was more frequently used in Switzerland. No respondent suggested routine use of antibiotics. Conclusion We found variations in practices in terms of invasiveness and testing. Our study supports the need for further evaluation and implementation strategies of ESPGHAN/ESPID guidelines. We plan to extend the study throughout Europe with support of the Young ESPID Group. PMID:24884619

  6. Evaluation of the Precision of Emergency Department Diagnoses of Young Children with Fever

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Joshua M; Jaffe, David M; Muenzer, Jared T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize causes of fever in otherwise healthy children presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods One-year retrospective review of ED records. Inclusion criteria 2–36 months of age with a documented temperature ? 39° C presenting between August 1st,, 2006 and July 31st, 2007. Exclusion criteria elopement, repeat visit in < 1 month or underlying diagnosis with a predisposition to infection. Medical records were reviewed using a predefined, study-specific, data abstraction tool. Based on diagnosis and pathogen detection, visits were assigned to three groups, laboratory confirmed pathogen and focal or non-focal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. Results 1091 total visits met inclusion criteria (denominator for all percents). 14% had a pathogen detected: 8% viral and 6% bacterial. 56 % had a focal diagnosis without a confirmed pathogen: 21% otitis media, 13% upper respiratory infection, 7% pneumonia, 16% rarer diagnoses. 30% had a non-focal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen: 15% viral infection not otherwise specified, 8% fever of unknown etiology, 3% febrile seizure, 4% rarer diagnoses. Focal and non-focal diagnoses without detected pathogens had 35% and 61% microbiological tests performed respectively (p<0.001). Admission rates were 49% for patients with confirmed pathogens, 7% with focal diagnoses and 13% with non-focal diagnoses without confirmed pathogen (p<0.001). Conclusions In a cohort of febrile children 2–36 months of age evaluated in a pediatric emergency department, only 14% had a confirmed pathogen. New rapid viral diagnostic techniques may provide an opportunity to improve diagnostic certainty in young children presenting with fever. PMID:21868591

  7. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan). Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22 PMID:23360677

  8. Any realistic theory must be computationally realistic: a response to N. Gisin's definition of a Realistic Physics Theory

    E-print Network

    Arkady Bolotin

    2014-01-14

    It is argued that the recent definition of a realistic physics theory by N. Gisin cannot be considered comprehensive unless it is supplemented with requirement that any realistic theory must be computationally realistic as well.

  9. Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

  10. Content, Conciousness, and Colleagues: Emerging Themes from a Program Evaluation of Graduate Student Progress toward Multidisciplinary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusmierek, Kristin N.; Piontek, Mary

    Multidisciplinary education attempts to produce individuals with new capacities to address the problems of an increasingly interconnected world. Although these programs are often exciting, descriptions of optimal design and measures of success are few. Emerging evaluation results from one multidisciplinary graduate training program provide…

  11. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT AND CLEAN-UP OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides an overview of the Phase III Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. It also contains the key conclusions of the Pilot Study and recommendations for further act...

  12. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

  13. Trauma emergency unit: long-term evaluation of a quality assurance programme

    PubMed Central

    Gagneux, E.; Lombrail, P.; Vichard, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term evaluation of a quality assurance programme (after an assessment in 1993). DESIGN: Review of medical records. SETTING: Emergency area of an orthopaedic, trauma, and plastic surgery unit in a French teaching hospital (Besancon). SUBJECTS: 1187 consecutive ambulatory patients' records, from July 1995. MAIN MEASURES: Occurrence of near adverse events (at risk events causing situations which could lead to the occurrence of an adverse event). RESULTS: 71 near adverse events were identified (5.9% of the ambulatory visits). There was a significant decrease in the rate of near adverse events between 1993 (9.9% (2056 ambulatory visits, 204 near adverse events)), and 1995 (5.9% (1187 ambulatory visits, 71 near adverse events)), and significant change in the proportion of each category of adverse event (decrease in departures from prevention protocols). CONCLUSIONS: Despite their limitations, the effectiveness and efficiency of quality assurance programmes seem to be real and valuable. Maintaining quality improvement requires conditions which include some of the basic principles of total quality management (leadership, participatory management, openness, continuous feed back). The organisation of this unit as a specialised trauma centre was also a determining factor in the feasibility of a quality assurance programme (specialisation and small size, high activity volume, management of the complete care process). Quality assurance is an important initial step towards quality improvement, that should precede consideration of a total quality management programme. PMID:10178144

  14. Evaluation of an Emergency Department Educational Campaign for Recognition of Suicidal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Glenn W; Litts, David; Walsh, Patrick; Schneider, Sandra; Richardson, Thomas; Grant, William; Triner, Wayne; Robak, Nancy; Moscati, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the impact of a simple emergency department (ED)–based educational intervention designed to assist ED providers in detecting occult suicidal behavior in patients who present with complaints that are not related to behavioral health. Methods Staff from 5 ED sites participated in the study. Four ED staff members were exposed to a poster and clinical guide for the recognition and management of suicidal patients. Staff members in 1 ED were not exposed to training material and served as a comparator group. Results At baseline, only 36% of providers reported that they had sufficient training in how to assess level of suicide risk in patients. Greater than two thirds of providers agreed that additional training would be helpful in assessing the level of patient suicide risk. More than half of respondents who were exposed to the intervention (51.6%) endorsed increased knowledge of suicide risk during the study period, while 41% indicated that the intervention resulted in improved skills in managing suicidal patients. Conclusion This brief, free intervention appeared to have a beneficial impact on providers' perceptions of how well suicidality was recognized and managed in the ED. PMID:22461920

  15. Predicting pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the emergency department: evaluation of clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Huijts, S M; Boersma, W G; Grobbee, D E; Gruber, W C; Jansen, K U; Kluytmans, J A J W; Kuipers, B A F; Palmen, F; Pride, M W; Webber, C; Bonten, M J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the value of clinical predictors available in the emergency department (ED) in predicting Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A prospective, observational, cohort study of patients with CAP presenting in the ED was performed. Pneumococcal aetiology of CAP was based on either bacteraemia, or S. pneumoniae being cultured from sputum, or urinary immunochromatographic assay positivity, or positivity of a novel serotype-specific urinary antigen detection test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors and various cut-off values of probability scores were used to evaluate the usefulness of the model. Three hundred and twenty-eight (31.0%) of 1057 patients with CAP had pneumococcal CAP. Nine independent predictors for pneumococcal pneumonia were identified, but the clinical utility of this prediction model was disappointing, because of low positive predictive values or a small yield. Clinical criteria have insufficient diagnostic capacity to predict pneumococcal CAP. Rapid antigen detection tests are needed to diagnose S. pneumoniae at the time of hospital admission. PMID:24975428

  16. Electrocardiographic and Respiratory Responses to Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in a Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Long, Mark; Kang, Choong Min; Coull, Brent A.; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ambient particulate matter (PM) derived from coal-fired power plants may have important cardiovascular effects, but existing toxicological studies are inadequate for understanding these effects. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study aims to evaluate the toxicity of primary and secondary PM derived from coal-fired power plants. As part of this effort, we evaluated in susceptible animals the effect of stack emissions on cardiac electrophysiology and respiratory function under exposure conditions intended to simulate an aged plume with unneutralized acidity and secondary organic aerosols (POS exposure scenario). Methods Rats with acute myocardial infarction were exposed to either stack emissions (n=15) or filtered air (n=14) for 5 hours at a single power plant. Respiration and electrocardiograms were continuously monitored via telemetry and heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), premature ventricular beat (PVB) frequency, electrocardiographic intervals, and respiratory intervals and volumes were evaluated. Similar experiments at another power plant were attempted but were unsuccessful. Results POS exposure (fine particle mass = 219.1 ?g/m3; total sulfate = 172.5 ?g/m3; acidic sulfate = 132.5 ?g/m3; organic carbon = 50.9 ?g/m3) was associated with increased PVB frequency and decreased respiratory expiratory time and end-inspiratory pause, but not with changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals. Results from a second power plant were uninterpretable. Conclusions Short-term exposure to primary and unneutralized secondary particulate matter formed from aged emissions from a coal-fired power plant, as simulated by the POS scenario, may be associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias in susceptible animals. PMID:21401387

  17. Impact of emergency oral rabies vaccination of foxes in northeastern Italy, 28 December 2009-20 January 2010: preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Capello, K; Mulatti, P; Comin, A; Gagliazzo, L; Guberti, V; Citterio, C; De Benedictis, P; Lorenzetto, M; Costanzi, C; Vio, P; Zambotto, P; Ferri, G; Mutinelli, F; Bonfanti, L; Marangon, S

    2010-01-01

    Fox rabies re-emerged in northeastern Italy in 2008, in an area bordering Slovenia. In 2009, the infection spread westward to Veneto region and in 2010 to the provinces of Trento and Bolzano. Aerial emergency oral fox vaccination was implemented in the winter 2009-10. Since this vaccination was performed at altitudes below the freezing level, a statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate its impact. Of the foxes sampled following the vaccination campaign, 77% showed a rabies antibody titre of >or=0.5 IU/ml. PMID:20650054

  18. Evaluating Crisis Intervention Services for Youth within an Emergency Department: A View from within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Kennedy, Allison; Cloutier, Paula; Gray, Clare

    2010-01-01

    An innovative crisis intervention programme was created at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Canada in order to provide emergency assessments for youth presenting with mental health crises. The current investigation presents an overview of the programme and examines the emergency staff's perception and satisfaction with it.…

  19. Identifying Preschool Children at Risk of Later Reading Difficulties: Evaluation of Two Emergent Literacy Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children's early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to effective emergent

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost permanent emergency lighting system based on high-efficiency LEDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rico-Secades; A. J. Calleja; J. Ribas; E. L. Corominas; J. M. Alonso; J. Cardesin; J. Garcia-Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, Permanent Emergency Lighting Systems (PELSs) are widely used in many applications, including emergency exit indication and lighting in critical or strategic points. Limitation in operation hours in classical lamps (10 000-20 000 h for fluorescent lamps) implies short lamp replacement times and, therefore, high maintenance costs. This paper shows an alternative solution based on high-efficiency LEDs. The long operation

  1. Evaluating the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) System for Admitted Patients in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Delia L.; Mihalov, Leslie K.; Cohen, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) systems were developed to provide a reproducible assessment of a child’s clinical status while hospitalized. Most studies investigating the PEWS evaluate its usefulness in the inpatient setting. Limited studies evaluate the effectiveness and integration of PEWS in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to explore the test characteristics of an ED-assigned PEWS score for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or clinical deterioration in admitted patients. Methods This was a prospective 12-month observational study of patients, aged 0 to 21 years, admitted from the ED of an urban, tertiary care children’s hospital. ED nurses were instructed in PEWS assignment and electronic medical record (EMR) documentation. Interrater reliability between nurses was evaluated. PEWS scores were measured at initial assessment (P0) and time of admission (P1). Patients were stratified into outcome groups: those admitted to the ICU either from the ED or as transfers from the floor and those admitted to the floor only. Clinical deterioration was defined as transfer to the ICU within 6 hours or within 6 to 24 hours of admission. PEWS scores and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared for patients admitted to the floor, ICU, and with clinical deterioration. Results The authors evaluated 12,306 consecutively admitted patients, with 99% having a PEWS documented in the EMR. Interrater reliability was excellent (intraclass coefficient 0.91). A total of 1,300 (10.6%) patients were admitted to the ICU and 11,066 (89.4%) were admitted to the floor. PEWS scores were higher for patients in the ICU group (P0 = 2.8, SD ± 2.4; P1 = 3.2, SD ± 2.4; p < 0.0001) versus floor patients (P0 = 0.7, SD ± 1.2; P1 = 0.5, SD ± 0.9; p < 0.0001). To predict the need for ICU admission, the optimal cutoff points on the ROC are P0 = 1 and P1 = 2, with areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of 0.79 and 0.86, respectively. The likelihood ratios (LRs) for these optimal cutoff points were as follows: P0 +LR = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4 to 2.6, p < 0.05), ?LR = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.28 to 0.36, p < 0.05); and P1 +LR = 6.2 (95% CI = 5.8 to 6.6, p < 0.05), ?LR = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.29 to 0.35, p < 0.05). For every unit increase in P0 and P1, the odds of admission to the ICU were 1.9 times greater (95% CI = 1.8 to 1.9, p < 0.0001) and 2.9 times greater (95% CI = 2.7 to 3.1, p < 0.0001) than to the floor. There were 89 patients in the clinical deterioration group, with 36 (0.3%) patients transferred to the ICU within 6 hours of admission and 53 (0.4%) patients transferred within 6 to 24 hours. In this group, an elevated P0 and P1 were statistically associated with an increased risk of transfer with optimal cutoff points similar to above; however, there were poorer AUCs and test characteristics. Conclusions A PEWS system was implemented in this pediatric ED with excellent data capture and nurse interrater reliability. The study found that an elevated PEWS is associated with need for ICU admission directly from the ED and as a transfer, but lacks the necessary test characteristics to be used independently in the ED environment. PMID:25377402

  2. Realistic modeling for facial animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

    1995-01-01

    A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

  3. Systems approach to detect and evaluate contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of chemicals of emerging concern threatens near shore health in the Great Lakes, particularly in regions already suffering from degradation of water and environmental quality due to past and present anthropogenic activities. Critical issues remain in delisting Areas ...

  4. Evaluation of preparedness for medical emergencies at dental offices: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumarswami, Shweta; Tiwari, Anish; Parmar, Mayank; Shukla, Manisha; Bhatt, Amit; Patel, Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The best way to handle an emergency is to be prepared in advance. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of medical emergency drugs at dental offices and to determine the level of knowledge and preparedness of dentists to manage medical emergencies at their dental offices. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2014 with 250 dental graduates to determine their knowledge and ability in the management of medical emergencies and assess availability of emergency drugs and equipments in dental offices in the Ahmedabad and Udaipur areas of India. The questionnaire consisted of mainly objective questions, requiring a simple yes or no reply. Mann–Whitney test was used for the analysis. A 95% confidence level was used and a P value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results of our study showed that almost all the surveyed dentists (98%) enquired about medical history, but only 12% obtained filled health history proforma from patients regarding the above. Only 38.4% participants recorded the vital signs of patients before commencing any treatment. Also, 7.6% reported about having attended any workshops on emergency training or management programs. Emergency kits were available with only 24% participants and the available kits were assessed for the availability of emergency drugs. Also, 34% were confident about giving intramuscular injection and only 6.6% were sure about giving intravenous injections. The P value was found to be highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study reflect an alarming situation about the capability of dentists to deal with such conditions.

  5. Is This an Outbreak? A retrospective evaluation of syndromic surveillance for emerging infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wijngaard van den C. C

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, worldwide several major infectious disease events occurred — like the anthrax attacks in the\\u000aUSA in 2001, the SARS epidemic in 2003 and the 2009 influenza pandemic. As a result, public-health authorities\\u000aworldwide have acknowledged the need for improved surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, as early\\u000adetection and control may well mitigate the impact of emerging

  6. Research Paper: Forecasting Emergency Department Crowding: A Prospective, Real-time Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan R. Hoot; Larry J. LeBlanc; Ian Jones; Scott R. Levin; Chuan Zhou; Cynthia S. Gadd; Dominik Aronsky

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveEmergency department crowding threatens quality and access to health care, and a method of accurately forecasting near-future crowding should enable novel ways to alleviate the problem. The authors sought to implement and validate the previously developed ForecastED discrete event simulation for real-time forecasting of emergency department crowding.Design and MeasurementsThe authors conducted a prospective observational study during a three-month period (5\\/1\\/07–8\\/1\\/07)

  7. Use of standardized multidimensional evaluation tools and the emergence of the case manager's professional identity in France.

    PubMed

    Nugue, Mathilde; De Stampa, Matthieu; Couturier, Yves; Somme, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    In France, the national public health plan proposes a group of innovations including the initiation of case management for older adults in complex situations, particularly those with cognitive disorders. In this context, public authorities asked case managers to use a standardized multidimensional evaluation tool. The results of a qualitative study on the pertinence of such a tool relative to the emergence of this new professional field are described. Early use of an evaluation tool seems to be linked to the emergence of a new professional identity for recently recruited case managers. Factors determining the strength of this link are training tool standardization, computerization, and local structure's involvement. Our results contribute to identifying one of the ways by which professional identity can be changed to become a case manager. PMID:23383583

  8. Role of cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of acute chest pain in the emergency department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Salah; David J. Moliterno; Roger Humphries; Mushabbar A. Syed

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of patients presenting with chest pain to the emergency department remains a challenging task because of a variety\\u000a of etiologies that range from benign to potentially fatal. Although majority of patients do not have myocardial ischemia as\\u000a the cause of their presentation, the clinical work up can be time consuming, costly and inconclusive. Recent technical advances\\u000a in cardiac computed

  9. Strategies to Evaluate Synchronous Carcinomas of the Colon and Rectum in Patients That Present for Emergent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Jennifer L.; Abbadessa, Benjamin; Leitman, I. Michael

    2013-01-01

    It is not always possible to evaluate patients that present acutely with carcinoma of the colon and rectum for synchronous lesions. Patients that require emergent surgery necessitate urgent and efficient operation. Patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction represent a challenging subset of patients with colorectal cancer. An organized approach to these patients in the effort not to overlook a synchronous carcinoma is important. The present paper provides an evidenced-based approach to this special situation. PMID:23476758

  10. Prototyping iPhone apps: realistic experiences on the device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders P. Jørgensen; Matthijs Collard; Christian Koch

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate Touch Application Prototype - a tool for designers to quickly create interactive and realistic prototypes of Apple® iPhone® apps and test them on the device. We define 5 requirements such as Speed, Practicality and Realism, and evaluate the tool during the development of a mobile work tool. Users intuitively use their inherent knowledge about touch

  11. Thallium myocardial scanning in the emergency department evaluation of chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, S.E.

    1989-05-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint of patients seen in the emergency department. The causes are legion, and range from the non-life threatening to the potentially catastrophic. Thallium heart scanning was done prospectively in 20 patients with a ''classic'' history for myocardial infarction (eight patients) or atypical chest pain and/or associated symptoms plus an abnormal ECG (12 patients) to discern a subset of patients from whom thallium scintography may be indicated in the emergency department. Although further investigation is needed, our preliminary study suggests that myocardial scanning with thallium can be a safe, fairly rapid, and useful objective parameter in the emergency department detection of suspected myocardial infarction, and in differential diagnosis of chest pain when other data such as the history, physical examination, ECG, or enzymes are inconclusive.

  12. The effect of pharmacist-led medication review in high-risk patients in the emergency department: an evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    McGrail, Kimberlyn; Sobolev, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events are unintended and harmful events related to medication use. They are a leading cause of visits to the emergency department, unplanned admissions to hospital and death. Adverse drug events can be misdiagnosed in the emergency department, resulting in treatment delays. Our objective was to describe a process to evaluate the effect of pharmacist-led medication review in high-risk patients in the emergency department on the number of days these patients subsequently spent in hospital within 30 days of their index visit. Methods We describe the evaluation of a prospective multicentre quality improvement program. During the evaluation period, triage nurses will flag incoming patients to the emergency department at high risk for adverse drug events by applying a clinical decision rule consisting of 4 variables (comorbid conditions, antibiotic use within 7 days, medication changes within 28 days and age). Consecutive eligible patients will be enrolled in the study and systematically allocated to either a pharmacist-led medication review group or a control group. In the intervention group, pharmacists will collect best-possible medication histories, review the patient’s medications for appropriateness and adverse drug events, and communicate the results of their medication review to patients, caregivers and physicians. In the control group, nurses will start medication reconciliation by collecting best-possible medication histories, and physicians will refer patients to onsite pharmacists for specific medication management questions as needed. Health outcomes will be assessed using anonymized data linkage to administrative health databases. The primary outcome will be the percent days spent in hospital over a 30-day period. Interpretation This protocol describes the methods for evaluating the effect of pharmacist-led medication review in high-risk patients in the emergency department on use of health services, and highlights the methodological challenges that will be encountered. We plan to disseminate the results of this evaluation through articles published in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at scientific meetings and briefing notes to institutional, provincial and national stakeholders. PMID:25844362

  13. Evaluation of Maternal-Fetal Outcomes After Emergency Vaginal Cerclage Performed With Shirodkar-McDonald Combined Modified Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ciancimino, Leonarda; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Imbesi, Giovanna; Chiofalo, Benito; Mancuso, Alfredo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Background Several techniques of emergency vaginal cerclage have been proposed in case of unexpected and abrupt cervical incompetence (CI), in order to prolong the pregnancy as much as possible and to reduce the adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency cervical cerclage, performed with the combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique. Methods We selected 12 cases of emergency vaginal cerclage, performed between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2013. The age of the patients was between 20 and 38 years (mean 29.0 ± standard deviation (SD) 5.69), parity between 0 and 2 (mean 0.7 ± SD 0.65), and gestational age at the time of admission ranged between 17 and 26 weeks (mean 21.0 ± SD 3.44). In all these cases, we used a combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique to perform the procedure. Results The neonatal survival rate was 83.3%. The cesarean section rate was 16.7%. The average pregnancy prolongation was 89.9 days, higher than that reported for other studies in the literature. Conclusions We can assume that the emergency vaginal cerclage performed with the combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique is the best option of surgical therapy for the treatment of unexpected and abrupt CI. PMID:25780480

  14. Evaluation of Emerging Alternative Chemicals for Control of Pathogens and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emerging chemicals were tested in 2 field trials in combination with metham sodium as replacements for methyl bromide. These included 2-bromoethanol, dimethyl disulfide, furfural, propylene oxide, and sodium azide. Populations of weed and pathogens were measured after chemical application....

  15. Investigating Attitudes towards an Emerging Standard of English: Evaluations of Newscasters' Accents in Trinidad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuber, Dagmar; Leung, Glenda-Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the emergence of new standards of English in the postcolonial world by means of a language attitude study conducted in the Caribbean island of Trinidad that involved rating the accents of newscasters. Accents represented in the clips played to respondents comprised various local as well as non-local ones. The…

  16. Prospective, randomized evaluation of a personal digital assistant-based research tool in the emergency department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris L Rivera; Jason Donnelly; Blair A Parry; Anthony Dinizio; Charles L Johnson; Jeffrey A Kline; Christopher Kabrhel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDA) offer putative advantages over paper for collecting research data. However, there are no data prospectively comparing PDA and paper in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the performance of PDA and paper enrollment instruments with respect to time required and errors generated. METHODS: We randomized consecutive patients enrolled in

  17. EVALUATION OF NEW AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research program was completed to identify new and emerging waste management technologies in the metal finishing industry. A limited field sampling and analytical program was pursued to define performance at full scale operating facilities for the following technologies: (1) bu...

  18. Vibration Signaling in Mobile Devices for Emergency Alerting: A Study with Deaf Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Judith; Tucker, Paula E.; Williams, Norman; Sauro, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, a nationwide Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) is being planned to alert cellular mobile device subscribers to emergencies occurring near the location of the mobile device. The plan specifies a unique audio attention signal as well as a unique vibration attention signal (for mobile devices set to vibrate) to identify…

  19. Pilot testing and preliminary evaluation of a suicide prevention education program for emergency department personnel.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ruth S; Compton, Michael T

    2010-12-01

    Emergency department personnel play an important role in recognizing individuals with suicidality and intervening to prevent completed suicide. An educational program was designed to be offered to emergency department personnel, and was piloted with a convenience sample of 54 clinicians. Pre-test and post-test measures showed an increase in knowledge scores (from 7.9 ± 1.9 to 13.6 ± 2.1, P < .001) and self-efficacy scores (from 24.0 ± 9.1 to 32.3 ± 9.2, P < .001) regarding management of suicidal patients or those at elevated risk for suicide in the emergency department immediately after participating in the training session. In addition, participants favorably rated the training session, and would recommend it to others. With further development and refinement, this program could be implemented on a statewide level and targeted at emergency department personnel to enhance their ability to provide appropriate resources, support, and treatment for individuals identified as being at risk for suicide. PMID:19731019

  20. An evaluation of the management of dental emergencies by the school nurse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Meadow

    1981-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of Boston Public School nurses was undertaken to determine the extent of their dental knowledge. The results of the study indicated that although the nurses state that s sizable number (18-22) of dental emergencies occur during a typical school month, the diagnosis and treatment of these problems is often inadequate when judged by currently accepted standards. Ttn's

  1. CT evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a practical review for the radiologist interpreting emergency room studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Provenzale; Lotfi Hacein-Bey

    2009-01-01

    Radiologists working in an emergency radiology setting frequently interpret computed tomography (CT) studies of patients with\\u000a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This article reviews the sensitivity of CT for detection of SAH, some major patterns\\u000a of SAH related to a ruptured aneurysm, and the differential diagnosis of SAH not due to aneurysmal rupture.

  2. A new head phantom with realistic shape and spatially varying skull resistivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tang, Chi; Dai, Meng; Liu, Geng; Shi, Xue-Tao; Yang, Bin; Xu, Can-Hua; Fu, Feng; You, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging method for monitoring brain injuries. To effectively evaluate brain EIT systems and reconstruction algorithms, we have developed a novel head phantom that features realistic anatomy and spatially varying skull resistivity. The head phantom was created with three layers, representing scalp, skull, and brain tissues. The fabrication process entailed 3-D printing of the anatomical geometry for mold creation followed by casting to ensure high geometrical precision and accuracy of the resistivity distribution. We evaluated the accuracy and stability of the phantom. Results showed that the head phantom achieved high geometric accuracy, accurate skull resistivity values, and good stability over time and in the frequency domain. Experimental impedance reconstructions performed using the head phantom and computer simulations were found to be consistent for the same perturbation object. In conclusion, this new phantom could provide a more accurate test platform for brain EIT research. PMID:24196845

  3. [Evaluation of a Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opening hotel].

    PubMed

    Erdo?an, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2013-04-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infection caused by Legionella species especially colonized in the water systems. Hotels are common locations in which waterwork-associated sporadic or epidemic legionellosis can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate a small Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opened 600-bed hotel in Alanya, a touristic county in Mediterranean part of Turkey. A 66 years old male patient who stayed in this hotel opened on May 15th, 2009, was admitted to our hospital on May 21st, 2009 with the complaints of high fever, headache and diarrhea lasting for three days. Since chest X-ray revealed non-homogenous density increase in left middle and inferior zone, the patient was diagnosed as atypical pneumoniae and LD was confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen test (Card test, BinaxNOW®Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Alere Co, USA) result. Following the identification of the index case, the records of our hospital were reviewed and revealed another case being treated with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia who was also the guest of the same hotel. This patient was then diagnosed as LD by positive urinary antigen test. Since new cases were identified during the following days (May 22, 25 and 26) the Antalya County Health Department and hotel management were informed about a cluster of LD. In addition subsequent investigation for environmental surveillance and water sampling were conducted. The LD diagnosis and environmental inspections were performed according to the procedure described in the guideline from "Turkish Ministry of Health Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Control Programme". Five definitive cases and one presumptive case of LD were identified during the outbreak period (May 20-26, 2009). All of the cases were successfully treated (intravenous ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin or clarithromycin), however one patient died due to sudden death during sleep after being discharged. Since sputum samples could not be obtained from the cases, the diagnosis were not confirmed by culture but by urinary antigen test. Besides high antibody titer in single serum sample was accepted as a diagnostic marker. Additionally 26 cases who accommodated in the same hotel and presented with high fever without pneumonia were treated in the outpatient clinics of our hospital. Urinary antigen test was performed in 11 of those patients to confirm the prediagnosis of pontiac fever, however all were found negative. Likewise convalescent phase sera for the confirmation of the diagnosis by seroconversion could not be obtained since they all were foreign tourists. Investigation of water sources of the hotel revealed that the municipal drinking water network had not been connected yet and the hotel supplied water from groundwater sources. The analysis of multiple samples from multiple sites of hotel's water system indicated that the water temperature was between 35-45°C and the iron level was beyond the acceptable limits (245 µg/L) recommended for drinking water in the regulation guides. These properties were considered as the factors that enhanced the growth and survival of Legionella species. Water samples were cultivated on BCYE-_ (Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract a-Ketoglutarate) and GVPC (Glycine-Vancomycin-Polymyxin-Cycloheximide) agar plates and 11 out of a total 13 samples yielded Legionella spp. growth. All isolates were identified as L.pneumophila serogroup 1 by specific antisera. Legionella decontamination of hotel's water system was managed by implementation of hyperchlorination method as well as superheating (> 60°C) of water. The hotel was not closed during the outbreak and cultures of water samples obtained for one year later did not yield any Legionella spp. growth. This outbreak emphasized that hotel residents are at risk for acquiring LD in the presence of a colonized water system, even in a newly constructed building. In conclusion, effective control and decontamination programmes for the prevention of Legionella colonization should be applied even in

  4. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in Community Hospital Emergency Departments: Multicenter Evaluation of a Quality Improvement Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Mickanin, Joyce; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Grant, Freda H.; Henderson, Michelle C.; Corley, Glenda; Blaschke, D. Glen; McNaughton, Candace D.; Barrett, Tyler W.; Talbot, Thomas R.; Paul, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common and preventable problem in the emergency department (ED). In a previous single-center study, changing the process of ED blood culture collection from the traditional “clean,” nonsterile procedure to a fully sterile procedure with standardized use of sterile gloves, large volume chlorhexidine skin antisepsis, and fenestrated sterile drapes resulted in a substantial reduction in contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this sterile blood culture collection process for reducing blood culture contamination in two community hospital EDs. Methods The authors implemented the sterile blood culture collection process in the ED of two hospitals, including Hospital A, which historically had a contamination rate of approximately 5%, and Hospital B, with a 2.5% historical contamination rate. Using an interrupted times series design and segmented regression analysis to adjust for secular trends and autocorrelation, the monthly percentages of cultures contaminated at each hospital during an intervention period (sterile technique) were compared to a 10-month baseline period immediately preceding implementation (clean technique). At Hospital A, the full sterile blood culture collection process was used throughout the 16-month intervention period. At Hospital B, user feedback indicated poor compliance due to difficulty implementing the fenestrated drape component; therefore, the process was simplified to the modified sterile collection process, in which the fenestrated drape component was dropped and sterile gloves and large volume skin antisepsis were emphasized. Hence, at Hospital B, two intervention periods were compared to the baseline period—the 8-month intervention period 1 (full sterile process) and the subsequent 8-month intervention period 2 (modified sterile process). Results Hospital A: During the baseline period 165 / 3417 (4.83%) cultures were contaminated, while 142 / 5238 (2.71%) were contaminated during the intervention period (p < 0.01). In the segmented regression model, the full sterile blood culture collection process was associated with an immediate 2.68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43% to 3.52%) absolute reduction in contamination and sustained reductions during the entire intervention period. Hospital B: During the baseline, 63/2509 (2.51%) cultures were contaminated. In intervention period 1 with the full sterile process, 51/1865 (2.73%) cultures were contaminated (p=0.65), with segmented regression results showing no changes compared to baseline. After simplification of the process to address poor compliance, the modified sterile process during intervention period 2 was associated with a significant reduction in contamination, with 17/1860 (0.91%) cultures contaminated (p<0.01 compared to baseline). The segmented regression model demonstrated the modified sterile process was associated with an immediate 1.53% (95% CI: 1.00% to 1.88%) absolute reduction in contamination with significant sustained reductions. Conclusions Changing the method of blood culture collection from the commonly-used non-sterile technique to a sterile process resulted in significant reductions in blood culture contamination at two community hospital EDs, including one with low baseline contamination. Monitoring the implementation process at both sites was important to identify and overcome operational challenges. At one study site, simplification of the process by removing the fenestrated drape component was a key for successful implementation. PMID:24628752

  5. Realistic modeling of neurons and networks: towards brain simulation

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Garrido, Jesus; Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Prestori, Francesca

    Summary Realistic modeling is a new advanced methodology for investigating brain functions. Realistic modeling is based on a detailed biophysical description of neurons and synapses, which can be integrated into microcircuits. The latter can, in turn, be further integrated to form large-scale brain networks and eventually to reconstruct complex brain systems. Here we provide a review of the realistic simulation strategy and use the cerebellar network as an example. This network has been carefully investigated at molecular and cellular level and has been the object of intense theoretical investigation. The cerebellum is thought to lie at the core of the forward controller operations of the brain and to implement timing and sensory prediction functions. The cerebellum is well described and provides a challenging field in which one of the most advanced realistic microcircuit models has been generated. We illustrate how these models can be elaborated and embedded into robotic control systems to gain insight into how the cellular properties of cerebellar neurons emerge in integrated behaviors. Realistic network modeling opens up new perspectives for the investigation of brain pathologies and for the neurorobotic field. PMID:24139652

  6. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  7. Nuclear matter with realistic hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Lagaris, I.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis we first review some of the theoretical methods designed to handle the nuclear matter many-body problem. The emphasis is put on the variational theory developed by Pandharipande and Wiringa. This method treats the so called v/sub 6/ model, in which the two-nucleon interaction is assumed to have only central, spin, isospin and tensor components, and there are no many nucleon interactions. A realistic v/sub 14/ model of the two-nucleon interaction is obtained by fitting the available two-body data in S, P, D and F waves. This interaction has terms that are linear and quadratic in spin orbit and quadratic in the relative orbital angular momentum. The variational theory is extended to treat this realistic interaction model and nuclear matter properties are calculated with it neglecting many-nucleon interactions. The results of these calculations show that the empirically known properties of nucelar matter, such as its ground state energy, equilibrium density and compressibility, cannot be explained by this nuclear hamiltonian that incorporates only two-body interactions. Results obtained with other realistic two-nucleon interactions also fail to reproduce the empirical nuclear matter properties. Hence we postulate a form for a three-nucleon interaction (TNI), inspired from the meson theory of nuclear interactions. Instead of attempting to develop a variational theory to treat TNI microscopically in nuclear matter, we parametrize the effect of TNI on the energy of nuclear matter with three parameters. These are varied to obtain the empirical energy, density and compressibility of nuclear matter. The results of our calculations show that the TNI contribution on the energy is much smaller than that of the two-body v/sub 14/ interaction, as expected, and thus it may be reasonable to neglect four and more nucleon interactions in the nuclear hamiltonian.

  8. Electromagnetic Scattering from Realistic Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shung- Wu; Jin, Jian-Ming

    1997-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop computational tools for calculating radar signature of realistic targets. A hybrid technique that combines the shooting-and-bouncing-ray (SBR) method and the finite-element method (FEM) for the radiation characterization of microstrip patch antennas in a complex geometry was developed. In addition, a hybridization procedure to combine moment method (MoM) solution and the SBR method to treat the scattering of waveguide slot arrays on an aircraft was developed. A list of journal articles and conference papers is included.

  9. An Evaluation of Technologies for Identifying Acute Cardiac Ischemia in the Emergency Department: A Report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry P Selker; Robert J Zalenski; Elliott M Antman; Tom P Aufderheide; Sheilah Ann Bernard; Robert O Bonow; W. Brian Gibler; Michael D Hagen; Paula Johnson; Joseph Lau; Robert A McNutt; Joseph Ornato; J. Sanford Schwartz; Jane D Scott; Paul A Tunick; W. Douglas Weaver

    1997-01-01

    [Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, Gibler WB, Hagen MD, Johnson P, Lau J, McNutt RA, Ornato J, Schwartz JS, Scott JD, Tunick PA, Weaver WD: An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: A report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group. Ann Emerg Med January

  10. An Evaluation of Technologies for Identifying Acute Cardiac Ischemia in the Emergency Department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry P Selker; Robert J Zalenski; Elliott M Antman; Tom P Aufderheide; Sheilah Ann Bernard; Robert O Bonow; W. Brian Gibler; Michael D Hagen; Paula Johnson; Joseph Lau; Robert A McNutt; Joseph Ornato; J. Sanford Schwartz; Jane D Scott; Paul A Tunick; W. Douglas Weaver

    1997-01-01

    [Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, Gibler WB, Hagen MD, Johnson P, Lau J, McNutt RA, Ornato J, Schwartz JS, Scott JD, Tunick PA, Weaver WD: An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group report. Ann Emerg Med

  11. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Prochlorperazine Versus Metoclopramide for Emergency Department Treatment of Migraine Headache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Coppola; Donald M Yealy; Robert A Leibold

    1995-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of IV metoclopramide and prochlorperazine for the initial emergency department treatment of migraine headache.Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Military community hospital ED with an annual census of 75,000. Participants: Seventy consenting adults from a convenience sample of patients presenting with migraine headache similar to that experienced in at least one prior

  12. Traumatic Brain Injuries Evaluated in U.S. Emergency Departments, 1992-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Jager; Harold B. Weiss; Jeffrey H. Coben; Paul E. Pepe

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the incidence and patient characteristics of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs). Methods: A secondary analysis was performed on data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey administered from 1992 to 1994. An ED visit was determined to represent a case of TBI if the case record contained ICD-9-CM codes of 800.0-

  13. Breaking bad news: realistic versus unrealistic hopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Links; Jocelyn Kramer

    1994-01-01

    Hope is an essential aspect of the therapeutic relationship between cancer patients and their carers. Realistic hopes provide considerable support, whereas unrealistic hopes can be destructive by impairing the ability to make appropriate decisions about future plans, treatment, and issues of personal importance. Realistic hopes exist for cancer patients at all stages of their illness. Provision of realistic hope facilitates

  14. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Emergency Department Intervention for Persons with Mental Health Concerns Using a Population Health Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Vingilis; Kathleen Hartford; Kristine Diaz; Beth Mitchell; Raj Velamoor; Marnie Wedlake; Dawn White

    2007-01-01

    Purpose:  To evaluate an emergency department’s use of a mental health triage and mental health crisis counsellor for persons presenting\\u000a with mental health concerns.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method:  Mixed method (qualitative and quantitative), multiple measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results:  Significant pre- and post-intervention reductions for wait time, security incidents and hospital admissions were found. Follow\\u000a ups with a community agency, medications and a psychiatrist increased post-intervention, while follow ups

  15. Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

  16. Evaluation of a New Nonnvasive Device in Determining Hemoglobin Levels in Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Tristan; Della-Giustina, David; Tomich, Eric; Wills, Brandon; Luerssen, Emily; Reynolds, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Masimo Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter is a medical device recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that performs noninvasive oximetry and estimated venous or arterial hemoglobin measurements. A portable, noninvasive device that rapidly measures hemoglobin concentration could be useful in both austere and modern hospital settings. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of variation between the device's estimated hemoglobin measurement and the actual venous hemoglobin concentration in undifferentiated emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to the ED. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample of adult ED patients who required a complete blood count as part of their care in the ED. A simultaneous probe hemoglobin was obtained and recorded. Results: Bias between probe and laboratory hemoglobin measurements was –0.5 (95% confidence interval, – 0.8 to –0.1) but this was not statistically significant from 0 (t0.05,124 = 0.20, P > 0.5). The limits of agreement were –4.7 and 3.8, beyond the clinically relevant standard of equivalency of ± 1 g/dL. Conclusion: These data suggest that noninvasive hemoglobin determination is not sufficiently accurate for emergency department use. PMID:23687550

  17. BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE IN THE EVALUATION OF EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT DYSPNEA: IS THERE A ROLE?

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Keim, Samuel M.; Worster, Andrew; Rosen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute decompensated congestive heart failure (ADCHF) is a common etiology of dyspnea in emergency department (ED) patients. Delayed diagnosis of ADCHF increases morbidity and mortality. Two cardiac biomarkers, N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have demonstrated excellent sensitivity in diagnostic accuracy studies, but the clinical impact on patient-oriented outcomes of these tests remains in question. Clinical Question Does emergency physician awareness of BNP or NT-proBNP level improve ADCHF patient-important outcomes including ED length of stay, hospital length of stay, cardiovascular mortality, or overall health care costs? Evidence Review Five trials have randomized clinicians to either knowledge of or no knowledge of ADCHF biomarker levels in ED patients with dyspnea and some suspicion for heart failure. In assessing patient-oriented outcomes such as length-of-stay, return visits, and overall health care costs, the randomized controlled trials fail to provide evidence of unequivocal benefit to patients, clinicians, or society. Conclusion Clinician awareness of BNP or NT-proBNP levels in ED dyspnea patients does not necessarily improve outcomes. Future ADCHF biomarker trials must assess patient-oriented outcomes in conjunction with validated risk-stratification instruments. PMID:22123173

  18. Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

  19. 76 FR 72431 - Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...Nation's nuclear power plants, as well as requirements...of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), FEMA and the...NRC and FEMA have also developed a number of evaluation...Planning for Nuclear Power Plants, respectively....

  20. Perioperative evaluation of cardiac surgical risk: particularities in the emergency surgery – from the guidelines to the clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Andronescu, AM; Nechita, AC; Ittu, G; Delcea, C; Dumitrescu, G; Vintila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery depends on many factors from the patient's cardiovascular history to the surgical procedure itself, with its particularities, the type of anesthesia, fluid exchanges and the supervision of the patient. Therefore, this risk must be carefully considered and it determines the endorsement of perioperative measures with important medical implications. Objective: Perioperative cardiac risk evaluation guidelines were published since 2010 and they represent a highly important assessmnet tool. Emergency surgery requires an adaptation of the guidelines to the actual medical situations in extreme conditions. Methods, Results, Discussion: Analyzing the way the perioperative evaluation itself is conducted is an extremely important tool. Quantifying the clinical application of the guidelines, one can monitor real parameters and find solutions for improving medical care. The current study was conducted on a representative sample of 8326 patients, respecting the recommendation strategies for calculating the surgical risk adapted for the emergency surgery setting. The dominant conclusion is the need to develop a standardized form, summarized for quick and objective assessment of perioperative cardiac risk score. Only a complex medical team could calculate this score while the decisional team leader for the surgical patient remains the surgeon. PMID:24146693

  1. Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described.

  2. TraNS: Realistic Joint Traffic and Network Simulatorfor VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pi'orkowski; Maxim Raya; A. Lezama Lugo; Panagiotis Papadimitratos; Matthias Grossglauser; Jean-pierre Hubaux

    2008-01-01

    Realistic simulation is a necessary tool for proper evaluation of newly developed protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Several recent efiorts focused on achieving this goal. Yet, to this date, none of the proposed solutions full- fllls all the requirements of the VANET environment. This is so, mainly because road tra-c and communication network simulators evolve in disjoint research

  3. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  4. Evaluation of the precision of emergency department diagnoses in young children with fever.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Joshua M; Jaffe, David M; Muenzer, Jared T

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize causes of fever in children presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS. One-year retrospective review of ED records. Inclusion criteria were 2 to 36 months of age with a documented temperature ? 39°C. Exclusion criteria were elopement, repeat visit, and underlying diagnosis with a predisposition to infection. Medical records were reviewed using a predefined, study-specific, data abstraction tool. Based on diagnosis and pathogen detection, visits were assigned to 3 groups, laboratory confirmed pathogen and focal or nonfocal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. RESULTS. A total of 1091 visits met inclusion criteria. Fourteen percent had a pathogen detected, 56% had a focal diagnosis without a confirmed pathogen, and 30% had a nonfocal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. CONCLUSIONS. In a cohort of febrile children 2 to 36 months of age, only 14% had a confirmed pathogen. New rapid viral diagnostic techniques may provide an opportunity to improve diagnostic certainty in young children presenting with fever. PMID:21868591

  5. Imaging-Based Tumor Treatment Response Evaluation: Review of Conventional, New, and Emerging Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Tumor response may be assessed readily by the use of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor version 1.1. However, the criteria mainly depend on tumor size changes. These criteria do not reflect other morphologic (tumor necrosis, hemorrhage, and cavitation), functional, or metabolic changes that may occur with targeted chemotherapy or even with conventional chemotherapy. The state-of-the-art multidetector CT is still playing an important role, by showing high-quality, high-resolution images that are appropriate enough to measure tumor size and its changes. Additional imaging biomarker devices such as dual energy CT, positron emission tomography, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI shall be more frequently used for tumor response evaluation, because they provide detailed anatomic, and functional or metabolic change information during tumor treatment, particularly during targeted chemotherapy. This review elucidates morphologic and functional or metabolic approaches, and new concepts in the evaluation of tumor response in the era of personalized medicine (targeted chemotherapy). PMID:22778559

  6. The emergence of manganese-related health problems in Quebec: an integrated approach to evaluation, diagnosis, management and control.

    PubMed

    Ostiguy, Claude; Asselin, Paul; Malo, Sylvain

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the strategy developed in Quebec to deal with an emerging problem: manganism in welders. Only two cases of manganism had been reported to the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST, Workers Compensation Board in Quebec) before 2000. In the fall of 2001, the CSST was informed of a possible cluster of manganism and received 20 compensation claims from one plant. Action was rapidly taken to understand and tackle this emerging problem. Under the leadership of the CSST, a coordinating working group implemented medical and environmental subcommittees involving representatives of the different partners of the prevention network. After a literature review to document the health risks associated with manganese and the lack of some important information, a panel of international experts was formed to try to reach agreement on the parameters to consider in the diagnosis and management of manganism. The CSST compensation management policies would be adjusted accordingly. Simultaneously, all the available industrial hygiene data were analyzed to estimate where and at what levels workers were exposed to manganese. To complete these data, the exposure of workers in more than 50 industrial plants was evaluated and existing control measures were documented. All these data have been presented for a revision of the Quebec permissible exposure limit (PEL). In this integrated approach, the next step targets the formation of neurologists and neuropsychologists for a standardized medical evaluation, to complete workplace evaluation in the high risk sectors, inform workers and employers and recommend control measures where required, based on a revised PEL. Many strategies will be used to inform the prevention network (about 1000 people), employers and employees of the risks of overexposure to manganese and of the measures to control exposure in all the plants where workers are susceptible to be exposed to manganese. PMID:16337003

  7. Bedside Ultrasonography as an Adjunct to Routine Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Samuel H.F.; Grippo, Anthony; Kerwin, Chistopher; Konicki, P. John; Goodwine, Diana; Lambert, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Appendicitis is a common condition presenting to the emergency department (ED). Increasingly emergency physicians (EP) are using bedside ultrasound (BUS) as an adjunct diagnostic tool. Our objective is to investigate the test characteristics of BUS for the diagnosis of appendicitis and identify components of routine ED workup and BUS associated with the presence of appendicitis. Methods Patients four years of age and older presenting to the ED with suspected appendicitis were eligible for enrollment. After informed consent was obtained, BUS was performed on the subjects by trained EPs who had undergone a minimum of one-hour didactic training on the use of BUS to diagnose appendicitis. They then recorded elements of clinical history, physical examination, white blood cell count (WBC) with polymophonuclear percentage (PMN), and BUS findings on a data form. We ascertained subject outcomes by a combination of medical record review and telephone follow-up. Results A total of 125 subjects consented for the study, and 116 had adequate image data for final analysis. Prevalence of appendicitis was 40%. Mean age of the subjects was 20.2 years, and 51% were male. BUS was 100% sensitive (95% CI 87–100%) and 32% specific (95% CI 14–57%) for detection of appendicitis, with a positive predictive value of 72% (95% CI 56–84%), and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI 52–100%). Assuming all non-diagnostic studies were negative would yield a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 81%. Subjects with appendicitis had a significantly higher occurrence of anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and a higher WBC and PMN count when compared to those without appendicitis. Their BUS studies were significantly more likely to result in visualization of the appendix, appendix diameter >6mm, appendix wall thickness >2mm, periappendiceal fluid, visualization of the appendix tip, and sonographic Mcburney’s sign (p<0.05). In subjects with diagnostic BUS studies, WBC, PMN, visualization of appendix, appendix diameter >6mm, appendix wall thickness >2mm, periappendiceal fluid were found to be predictors of appendicitis on logistic regression. Conclusion BUS is moderately useful for appendicitis diagnosis. We also identified several components in routine ED workup and BUS that are associated with appendicitis generating hypothesis for future studies. PMID:25493122

  8. Evaluating the components of an emergent literacy intervention for preschool children at risk for reading difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Walker, Patricia M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    Many preschool children are at risk for reading problems because of inadequate emergent literacy skills. Evidence supports the effectiveness of interventions to promote these skills, but questions remain about which intervention components work and whether combining intervention components will result in larger gains. In this study, 324 preschoolers (mean age = 54.32 months, SD = 5.88) from low-income backgrounds (46% girls and 54% boys; 82% African American, 14% White, and 4% other) were randomized to combinations of meaning-focused (dialogic reading or shared reading) and code-focused (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, or both) interventions or a control group. Interventions had statistically significant positive impacts only on measures of their respective skill domains. Combinations of interventions did not enhance outcomes across domains, indicating instructional needs in all areas of weakness for young children at risk for later reading difficulties. Less time for each intervention in the combined phonological awareness and letter knowledge intervention conditions, however, did not result in reduced effects relative to nearly twice as much time for each intervention when children received either only the phonological awareness intervention or only the letter knowledge intervention. This finding suggests that a relatively compact code-focused intervention can address the needs of children with weaknesses in both domains. PMID:23073367

  9. Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Carles; Oller, Joaquim; Paradells, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 ?s, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.

  10. Generating realistic workloads for network intrusion detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spyros Antonatos; Kostas G. Anagnostakis; Evangelos P. Markatos

    2004-01-01

    While the use of network intrusion detection systems (nIDS) is becoming pervasive, evaluating nIDS performance has been found to be challenging. The goal of this study is to determine how to generate realistic workloads for nIDS performance evaluation. We develop a workload model that appears to provide reasonably accurate estimates compared to real workloads. The model attempts to emulate a

  11. Imaging acute complications in cancer patients: what should be evaluated in the emergency setting?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increased incidence world-wide of cancer and increased survival has also resulted in physicians seeing more complications in patients with cancer. In many cases, complications are the first manifestations of the disease. They may be insidious and develop over a period of months, or acute and manifest within minutes to days. Imaging examinations play an essential role in evaluating cancer and its complications. Plain radiography and ultrasonography (US) are generally performed initially in an urgent situation due to their wide availability, low cost, and minimal or no radiation exposure. However, depending on a patient’s symptoms, evaluation with cross-sectional imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often necessary. In this review article, we discuss some of the most important acute noninfectious oncological complications for which imaging methods play an essential role in diagnosis. PMID:25609051

  12. Imaging acute complications in cancer patients: what should be evaluated in the emergency setting?

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Marcos D; Bitencourt, Almir G V; Marchiori, Edson; Chojniak, Rubens; Gross, Jefferson L; Kundra, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Increased incidence world-wide of cancer and increased survival has also resulted in physicians seeing more complications in patients with cancer. In many cases, complications are the first manifestations of the disease. They may be insidious and develop over a period of months, or acute and manifest within minutes to days. Imaging examinations play an essential role in evaluating cancer and its complications. Plain radiography and ultrasonography (US) are generally performed initially in an urgent situation due to their wide availability, low cost, and minimal or no radiation exposure. However, depending on a patient's symptoms, evaluation with cross-sectional imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often necessary. In this review article, we discuss some of the most important acute noninfectious oncological complications for which imaging methods play an essential role in diagnosis. PMID:25609051

  13. Evaluation of emergence traps for monitoring blueberry gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults and within field distribution of midge infestation.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Liburd, Oscar E

    2010-08-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a key pest of rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton, in the southeastern United States, but it has not been studied extensively and little is known about its ecology and management. Studies were conducted to develop an improved method for monitoring D. oxycoccana adults and to determine the within-field distribution of infestation. Four emergence traps were evaluated in an organic rabbiteye blueberry planting for their effectiveness in capturing D. oxycoccana adults early in the season. These traps included a jar trap, wheat blossom midge trap, petri dish trap, and bucket trap. The petri dish and bucket traps captured the highest numbers of adults in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Both traps had a clear plastic panel coated with adhesive. Adult midges emerging from the soil beneath the traps were caught in the adhesive as they flew up toward the light. Emergence traps are useful for detecting the presence of adults early in the season before larval infestation is apparent in the flower buds. To determine the pattern of midge infestation, flower buds were collected weekly from January to March in 2006 from rabbiteye blueberry plants located in a plot at the southwest border of an existing blueberry planting. There were no differences found in the number of larvae collected from various distances within blueberry rows. However, when flower buds were collected from an isolated rabbiteye plot in 2007 and 2008, D. oxycoccana infestation was not uniform. In both years, the southern border row had a significantly higher number of midge larvae per bud compared with the other rows. PMID:20857735

  14. The consumer quality index (CQ-index) in an accident and emergency department: development and first evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of patients’ views are essential to provide a patient-centred health service and to evaluating quality of care. As no standardized and validated system for measuring patients’ experiences in accident and emergency departments existed, we have developed the Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department (CQI A&E). Methods Qualitative research has been undertaken to determine the content validity of the CQI A&E. In order to assess psychometric characteristics an 84-item questionnaire was sent to 653 patients who had attended a large A&E in the Netherlands. Also, fifty importance questions were added to determine relevance of the questions and for future calculations of improvement scores. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to detect the domains of the questionnaire. Results Survey data of 304 (47%) patients were used for the analysis. The first exploratory factor analysis resulted in three domains based on 13 items: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Environment and impression of the A&E’ and ‘Respect for and explanation to the patient’. The first two had an acceptable internal consistency. The second analysis, included 24 items grouped into 5 domains: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Information and explanation’, ‘Environment of the A&E’,’Leaving the A&E’ and ‘General information and rapidity of care’. All factors were internal consistent. According to the patients, the three most important aspects in healthcare performance in the A&E were: trust in the competence of the healthcare professionals, hygiene in the A&E and patients’ health care expectations. In general, the highest improvement scores concerned patient information. Conclusions The Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department measures patients’ experiences of A&E healthcare performance. Preliminary psychometric characteristics are sufficient to justify further research into reliability and validity. PMID:22929061

  15. Evaluating competing and emerging technologies for stereotactic body radiotherapy and other advanced radiotherapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Martin, A G R; Thomas, S J; Harden, S V; Burnet, N G

    2015-05-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) refers to the precise irradiation of an image-defined extracranial lesion, using a high total radiation dose delivered in a small number of fractions. A significant proportion of SBRT treatment has been successfully delivered using conventional gantry-based linear accelerators with appropriate image guidance and motion management techniques, although a number of specialist systems are also available. Evaluating the competing SBRT technologies is difficult due to frequent refinements to all major platforms. Comparison of geometric accuracy or treatment planning performance can be hard to interpret and may not provide much useful information. Nevertheless, a general specification overview can provide information that may help radiotherapy providers decide on an appropriate system for their centre. A number of UK randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that better radiotherapy techniques yield better results. RCTs should play an important part in the future evaluation of SBRT, especially where there is a smaller volume of existing data, and where outcomes from conventional radiotherapy are very good. RCT comparison of SBRT with surgery is more difficult due to the radically different treatment arms, although successful recruitment can be possible if the lessons from previous failed trials are learned. The evaluation of new technology poses a number of challenges to the conventional RCT methodology, and there may be situations where it is genuinely not possible, with careful observational studies or decision modelling being more appropriate. Further development in trial design may have an important role in providing clinical evidence in a more timely manner. PMID:25727646

  16. An evaluation of the emerging vaccines and immunotherapy against staphylococcal pneumonia in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of human skin and nares. It is also one of the leading nosocomial pathogens in both developed and developing countries and is responsible for a wide range of life threatening infections, especially in patients who are immunocompromised, post-surgery, undergoing haemodialysis and those who are treated with catheters and ventilators. Over the past two decades, the incidence of nosocomial staphylococcal infections has increased dramatically. Currently there are at least seven vaccine and immunotherapy candidates against S. aureus in the developmental phase targeting both active and passive immunization. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against Staphylococcus aureus relevant to several criteria of interest: answerability; cost of development, production and implementation; efficacy and effectiveness; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential impact on disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies) to participate. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results The panel of experts expressed low levels of optimism (score around or below 50%) on the criteria of answerability, efficacy, maximum disease burden reduction potential, low cost of production, low cost of implementation and affordability; moderate levels of optimism (scores around 60 to 80%) that these vaccines could be developed at a low cost, and thus on the deliverability, sustainability and impact on equity; and high levels of optimism (scores above 80%) regarding acceptable of such a product to both the end-users and health workers. While assessing the candidates for passive immunization against S.aureus, the experts were poorly optimistic regarding low production cost, low implementation cost, efficacy, deliverability, sustainability, affordability and equity; moderately optimistic regarding answerability and acceptability to health workers and end-users. They were of the opinion that these interventions would have only a modest impact (3 to 5%) on the burden of childhood pneumonia. . Conclusion In order to provide an effective vaccine against S. aureus, a number of unresolved issues in vaccine development relating to optimal antigenic target identification, criteria for acceptable efficacy, identification of target population, commercial development limitations, optimal timing of immunization strategy, storage, cold chain requirements and cost need to be addressed properly. There is still a great deal unknown about the complex interaction between S. aureus and the human host. However, given the nature of S. aureus and the lessons learned from the recent failure of two emerging vaccines, it is clear that a multi-component vaccine is essential. Combating only one virulence factor is not sufficient in the human host but finding the right combination of factors will be very challenging. PMID:21501445

  17. Evaluation and Management of Sickle Cell Disease in the Emergency Department (An 18-year Experience): 1974--1992.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Mabel; Leikin, Jerrold; Dorn, Louise; Lebby, Thomas; Talischy, Nasrin; Telfert, Margaret C.

    1994-12-01

    Painful episodes are the most frequent complaints of patients with sickle cell disease. The Emergency Department (ED) has provided management for acute events using the usual triage format for emergencies. A prospective study evaluated the role of the ED in the care of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). The protocol, thus, addressed issues of acute events related to SCD and provided better care for patients with SCD in the ED. Approximately 37% of ED visits were for painful events. An inciting cause was identified in 35% of painful events and 75% of these required admission to the hospital. A 15-year follow-up prospectively showed similar results and that uncomplicated pain crisis can be treated with ED protocols. Outpatient clinics and urgent centers could reduce these visits. Absolute indications for admission include sepsis, fever >102 degreeF, white cell counts >20 000, worsening anemia, hypoxemia, acute chest syndrome and new CNS events. Patient database in the ED must be revised annually to avoid extensive workup in the ED and a complete history/physical examination, and a CBC could be sufficient for triage in an uncomplicated pain crisis. An acceptable protocol for care should be available at all EDs and a registry and information system for SCD will discourage overutilization of investigational tests and visits to multiple EDs. PMID:11835105

  18. Evaluation of results of a numerical simulation of dispersion in an idealised urban area for emergency response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, R. P.; Lyons, T. J.; Flassak, T.

    WinMISKAM is evaluated from an emergency response perspective. Comparisons are made between ground level concentrations observed during selected Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) field trials and predictions generated by the model. The model was driven by 5 min averaged on-site meteorological data, and used minimum grid spacing of 0.5 m in both the horizontal and vertical. The code was found to perform well, with 46% of all predictions (paired in time and space) and 83% of arc maxima predictions within a factor of two of observed concentrations. The model was found to perform better for neutral cases than stable cases with 27% of stable case predictions and 57% of neutral case predictions within a factor of two when compared in time and space.

  19. Evaluation and improvement of doctor–patient communication competence for emergency neurosurgeons: a standardized family model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xi; Wang, Zhinong; Hong, Bo; Shen, Shengjuan; Guo, Yan; Huang, Qinghai; Liu, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Disease treatments have been significantly influenced by the communications between patients, their families, and doctors the lack of which may lead to malpractice allegations and complaints. In particular, inadequate communication may delay diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, for doctors communication and interpersonal skills, are as important as clinical skills and medical knowledge. In this study we intended to develop two detailed communication content checklists and a modified interpersonal skills inventory, aiming to evaluate their integrity in the midst of communication skills assessments, to provide feedback for some participants, and to observe their communication competence in both aspects PMID:25018623

  20. Kenya’s emergency-hire nursing programme: a pilot evaluation of health service delivery in two districts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of utilizing a small-scale, low-cost, pilot evaluation in assessing the short-term impact of Kenya’s emergency-hire nursing programme (EHP) on the delivery of health services (outpatient visits and maternal-child health indicators) in two underserved health districts with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Methods Six primary outcomes were assessed through the collection of data from facility-level health management forms—total general outpatient visits, vaginal deliveries, caesarean sections, antenatal care (ANC) attendance, ANC clients tested for HIV, and deliveries to HIV-positive women. Data on outcome measures were assessed both pre-and post-emergency-hire nurse placement. Informal discussions were also conducted to obtain supporting qualitative data. Findings The majority of EHP nurses were placed in Suba (15.5%) and Siaya (13%) districts. At the time of the intervention, we describe an increase in total general outpatient visits, vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections within both districts. Similar significant increases were seen with ANC attendance and deliveries to HIV-positive women. Despite increases in the quantity of health services immediately following nurse placement, these levels were often not sustained. We identify several factors that challenge the long-term sustainability of these staffing enhancements. Conclusions There are multiple factors beyond increasing the supply of nurses that affect the delivery of health services. We believe this pilot evaluation sets the foundation for future, larger and more comprehensive studies further elaborating on the interface between interventions to alleviate nursing shortages and promote enhanced health service delivery. We also stress the importance of strong national and local relationships in conducting future studies. PMID:24636052

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-04-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  2. Computer Simulation in Mass Emergency and Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness as a Tool for Demonstrating Strategic Competency in Emergency Department Medical Responders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the capability of computer simulation as a tool for assessing the strategic competency of emergency department nurses as they responded to authentically computer simulated biohazard-exposed patient case studies. Thirty registered nurses from a large, urban hospital completed a series of computer-simulated case studies of…

  3. The Howard Government's Foreign Policy: Really Realist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David McCraw

    2008-01-01

    Several scholars have suggested that the Howard government took a Realist approach to foreign policy, and others have claimed that it made important deviations from Realism. This article constructs a template of a Realist foreign policy and examines the Howard government's policies against it. It finds that the government scores highly on two of the indicators of Realism – emphasis on military

  4. Learning realistic human actions from movies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Laptev; Marcin Marszalek; Cordelia Schmid; Benjamin Rozenfeld

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address recognition of natural human actions in diverse and realistic video settings. This challenging but important subject has mostly been ignored in the past due to several problems one of which is the lack of realistic and annotated video datasets. Our first contri- bution is to address this limitation and to investigate the

  5. Databases for lncRNAs: a comparative evaluation of emerging tools

    PubMed Central

    Fritah, Sabrina; Niclou, Simone P.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the human transcriptome does not code for proteins. Advances in transcriptome arrays and deep sequencing are giving rise to a fast accumulation of large data sets, particularly of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although it is clear that individual lncRNAs may play important and diverse biological roles, there is a large gap between the number of existing lncRNAs and their known relation to molecular/cellular function. This and related information have recently been gathered in several databases dedicated to lncRNA research. Here, we review the content of general and more specialized databases on lncRNAs. We evaluate these resources in terms of the quality of annotations, the reporting of validated or predicted molecular associations, and their integration with other resources and computational analysis tools. We illustrate our findings using known and novel cancer-related lncRNAs. Finally, we discuss limitations and highlight potential future directions for these databases to help delineating functions associated with lncRNAs. PMID:25323317

  6. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect. PMID:24729712

  7. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the results of the 2014 consensus conference as well as related original research with the goal of bringing high-quality equitable care to male and female emergency patients. PMID:25420469

  8. Evaluation of Publicly Financed and Privately Delivered Model of Emergency Referral Services for Maternal and Child Health Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Lakshmi, P. V. M.; Mokashi, Tushar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Reddy, K. Rahul; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency referral services (ERS) are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. Methods Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS) standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. Results On an average, an ambulance transported 3–4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7) per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35) per km travelled. Conclusion Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system. PMID:25360798

  9. Evaluation of efficacy of intra-nasal lidocaine for headache relief in patients refer to emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadkarimi, Naser; Jafari, Mohammadali; Mellat, Ali; Kazemi, Ehsan; Shirali, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Headache is a common complaint for emergency visits. Common drugs used in relief of headache are opioids and their agonists and antagonists, ergot alkaloids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Lack of appropriate medications or serious side effects of available drugs, motivated us to perform the study for evaluating the efficacy of intranasal lidocaine on different types of headache. Materials and Methods: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT) was performed among 90 adult patients with acute headache in Shahid Rahnemoon Emergency Center of Yazd city of Iran (45 patients in lidocaine group and 45 patients in placebo group). Patients with history of epilepsy, allergy to lidocaine, signs of skull base fracture, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) < 15, patients younger than 14 years and patients who had received any medication in previous 2 h were excluded. After checking vital signs and taking the demographic data, one puff of 10% lidocaine or normal saline (placebo) was sprayed into each nostril. Patients’ headache severity measured by visual analog scale (VAS) before drug administration and at 1, 5, 15, and 30 min after intervention. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and statistical tests including t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test were performed. Descriptive variables were expressed by mean ± standard deviation (SD) and quantitative variables reported by frequency and percentages. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: 57.8% of patients were female. The mean age of patients was 35.32 years. According to sex and age, there was no significant difference between groups (P-values were 0.83 and 0.21; respectively). The mean base pain score was 6.97 in lidocaine group and 6.42 in placebo group which was not significantly different (P-value = 0.198). After intervention, the mean scores were significantly lower in lidocaine group than placebo group in all mentioned times (P-value < 0.001). The primary and secondary headaches had no significant difference in mean pain relief score in lidocaine group (P = 0.602). Conclusion: Intranasal lidocaine is an efficient method for pain reduction in patients with headache. Regarding easy administration and little side effects, we recommend this method in patients referred to emergency department (ED) with headache. PMID:25097606

  10. Is pituitary gene therapy realistic?

    PubMed

    Davis, J R; McNeilly, A S

    2001-10-01

    Current therapies for pituitary tumours are moderately successful in many cases but still suffer from significant limitations, with relatively poor long-term rates of endocrine cure from surgery, and long-term hypopituitarism after radiotherapy. Even in the case of the most readily treatable tumours, prolactinomas, medical therapy with dopamine agonists is limited by lack of response or side-effects in up to 10% of patients. This has led to increasing interest in the application of our knowledge of pituitary cell and molecular biology to evaluate the potential of gene therapy. Various vectors are available to facilitate gene delivery, and recombinant adenoviruses have been studied in detail because of their ability to transduce the postmitotic, nondividing cells of the pituitary gland. Various studies with reporter genes such as beta-galactosidase have demonstrated high efficiency and long lasting expression of adenoviral transgenes in cultured pituitary cells in vitro. The feasibility of high level transgene expression has also been shown in vivo, but so far this requires stereotaxic intrapituitary injection to achieve adequate transduction. Ablation of pituitary cells has been demonstrated in cultured cell lines and in subcutaneous tumours in nude mice, though alternative animal models will be required to evaluate efficacy in more slowly proliferating tumours as found in man. Inflammatory responses have been documented in the pituitary gland as in other tissues, and this will require the evaluation of modified vectors to avoid significant adverse effects before human applications can be considered. In summary, gene therapy for pituitary disease is likely to be feasible in the future, but will require careful and extensive evaluation of efficacy and safety, using a variety of possible methods of gene delivery. PMID:11678822

  11. Vulnerability and Vaccination Strategies on realistic complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platini, Thierry; Apolloni, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    The general understanding of non-equilibrium stochastic processes evolving on complex networks become an important challenge. In the framework of epidemiology, one of the key challenges is the identification and the understanding of the role of critical and vulnerable nodes in the diffusion process. Considering the SIER model evolving on a large realistic complex networks, we present a study of the vulnerability for different viral strength. Our result are used to evaluate the possible vaccination strategies.

  12. Stability of realistic strange stars (RSS)

    E-print Network

    Bhowmick, S; Dey, M; Ray, S; Ray, R; Bhowmick, Siddhartha; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira; Ray, Subharthi; Ray, Ranjan

    2001-01-01

    Strange stars (SS) calculated from a realistic equation of state (EOS) are very stable, for example under fast rotation but have a soft surface, on which ripples may occur when radiation is emitted close to it. We suggest this as a natural explanation of the fluctuations observed in the intensity profile of X-ray pulsars. In contrast, SS based on EOS derived from the bag models (Bag SS) are less stable against fast rotation and do not have a hard surface and cannot explain these ripples. There are other important differences between Bag SS and the SS, based on a realistic EOS, which we call realistic strange stars (RSS).

  13. Promoting the development of preschool children’s emergent literacy skills: a randomized evaluation of a literacy-focused curriculum and two professional development models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Lonigan; JoAnn M. Farver; Beth M. Phillips; Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few causally interpretable evaluations of the impacts of preschool curricula on the skills of children\\u000a at-risk for academic difficulties, and even fewer studies have demonstrated statistically significant or educationally meaningful\\u000a effects. In this cluster-randomized study, we evaluated the impacts of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum and two types\\u000a of professional development on the emergent literacy skills

  14. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  15. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

  16. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  17. The potential of the EMINENT tool in the screening and evaluation of emerging technologies for CO2 reduction related to buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Perry; Igor Bulatov

    The EC supported project EMINENT has resulted in a tool for evaluating the potential impact of emerging energy technologies. It consists of an integrated resource manager, a demand manager, an Early Stage Technology Manager, and an Analysis tool. The various tools are linked to a number of complex and comprehensive databases. It is a web flexible based tool. This paper

  18. Blend Shape Interpolation and FACS for Realistic Avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Saba, Tanzila

    2015-03-01

    The quest of developing realistic facial animation is ever-growing. The emergence of sophisticated algorithms, new graphical user interfaces, laser scans and advanced 3D tools imparted further impetus towards the rapid advancement of complex virtual human facial model. Face-to-face communication being the most natural way of human interaction, the facial animation systems became more attractive in the information technology era for sundry applications. The production of computer-animated movies using synthetic actors are still challenging issues. Proposed facial expression carries the signature of happiness, sadness, angry or cheerful, etc. The mood of a particular person in the midst of a large group can immediately be identified via very subtle changes in facial expressions. Facial expressions being very complex as well as important nonverbal communication channel are tricky to synthesize realistically using computer graphics. Computer synthesis of practical facial expressions must deal with the geometric representation of the human face and the control of the facial animation. We developed a new approach by integrating blend shape interpolation (BSI) and facial action coding system (FACS) to create a realistic and expressive computer facial animation design. The BSI is used to generate the natural face while the FACS is employed to reflect the exact facial muscle movements for four basic natural emotional expressions such as angry, happy, sad and fear with high fidelity. The results in perceiving the realistic facial expression for virtual human emotions based on facial skin color and texture may contribute towards the development of virtual reality and game environment of computer aided graphics animation systems.

  19. Evaluation of emergency department performance – a systematic review on recommended performance and quality-in-care measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of emergency department (ED) performance remains a difficult task due to the lack of consensus on performance measures that reflects high quality, efficiency, and sustainability. Aim To describe, map, and critically evaluate which performance measures that the published literature regard as being most relevant in assessing overall ED performance. Methods Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review of review articles reporting accentuated ED performance measures was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Study eligibility criteria includes: 1) the main purpose was to discuss, analyse, or promote performance measures best reflecting ED performance, 2) the article was a review article, and 3) the article reported macro-level performance measures, thus reflecting an overall departmental performance level. Results A number of articles addresses this study’s objective (n?=?14 of 46 unique hits). Time intervals and patient-related measures were dominant in the identified performance measures in review articles from US, UK, Sweden and Canada. Length of stay (LOS), time between patient arrival to initial clinical assessment, and time between patient arrivals to admission were highlighted by the majority of articles. Concurrently, “patients left without being seen” (LWBS), unplanned re-attendance within a maximum of 72 hours, mortality/morbidity, and number of unintended incidents were the most highlighted performance measures that related directly to the patient. Performance measures related to employees were only stated in two of the 14 included articles. Conclusions A total of 55 ED performance measures were identified. ED time intervals were the most recommended performance measures followed by patient centeredness and safety performance measures. ED employee related performance measures were rarely mentioned in the investigated literature. The study’s results allow for advancement towards improved performance measurement and standardised assessment across EDs. PMID:23938117

  20. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. PMID:24793331

  1. Comparative evaluation of differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy as a technique to discriminate emerging skin pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozikowski, Raymond T.; Smith, Sarah E.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Castleman, William L.; Sorg, Brian S.; Hahn, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely investigated as a technique for identifying pathological tissue; however, unrelated subject-to-subject variations in spectra complicate data analysis and interpretation. We describe and evaluate a new biosensing technique, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), based on deep ultraviolet (UV) photochemical perturbation in combination with difference spectroscopy. This technique combines sequential fluorescence probing (pre- and post-perturbation) with sub-ablative UV perturbation and difference spectroscopy to provide a new spectral dimension, facilitating two improvements over fluorescence spectroscopy. First, the differential technique eliminates significant variations in absolute fluorescence response within subject populations. Second, UV perturbations alter the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly coupling the DLIPS response to the biological structure. Improved biosensing with DLIPS is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of chemically induced skin lesion development. Component loading analysis of the data indicates that the DLIPS technique couples to structural proteins in the ECM. Analysis of variance shows that DLIPS has a significant response to emerging pathology as opposed to other population differences. An optimal likelihood ratio classifier for the DLIPS dataset shows that this technique holds promise for improved diagnosis of epithelial pathology. Results further indicate that DLIPS may improve diagnosis of tissue by augmenting fluorescence spectra (i.e. orthogonal sensing).

  2. Parallel Quality Assessment of Emergency Departments by European Foundation for Quality Management Model and Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    IMANI NASAB, Mohammad Hasan; MOHAGHEGH, Bahram; KHALESI, Nader; JAAFARIPOOYAN, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is a widely used quality management system (QMS) worldwide, including Iran. Current study aims to verify the quality assessment results of Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation (INPHE) based on those of EFQM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a sample of emergency departments (EDs) affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. The standard questionnaire of EFQM (V-2010) was used to gather appropriate data. The results were compared with those of INPHE. MS Excel was used to classify and display the findings. Results: The average assessment score of the EDs based on the INPHE and EFQM model were largely different (i.e. 86.4% and 31%, respectively). In addition, the variation range among five EDs’ scores according to each model was also considerable (22% for EFQM against 7% of INPHE), especially in the EDs with and without prior record of applying QMSs. Conclusion: The INPHE’s assessment results were not confirmed by EFQM model. Moreover, the higher variation range among EDs’ scores using EFQM model could allude to its more differentiation power in assessing the performance comparing with INPHE. Therefore, a need for improvement in the latter drawing on other QMSs’ (such as EFQM) strengths, given the results emanated from its comparison with EFQM seems indispensable. PMID:23967429

  3. Synthesizing realistic environments in an anechoic chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rudant; C. Delaveaud; M. AbouElAnouar

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental setup in anechoic chamber that synthesizes realistic frequency selective fading properties. Antennas for S-band mobile TV applications are tested in that synthesized environment.

  4. Results of recent calculations using realistic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results of recent calculations for the triton using realistic potentials with strong tensor forces are reviewed, with an emphasis on progress made using the many different calculational schemes. Several test problems are suggested. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Looking at terrorism through left realist lenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C. Gibbs

    2010-01-01

    While terrorism has moved into the spotlight of criminological study, including critical criminology, it has yet to be thoroughly\\u000a explored from a left realist perspective. Left realism addresses four aspects of crime: causes of offending, impact on the\\u000a victims, and both official and public responses to crime. A left realist approach to terrorism would argue that similar to\\u000a those who

  6. Photo-realistic 3D Model Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Se; Piotr Jasiobedzki

    2006-01-01

    Photo-realistic 3D modeling is a challenging problem and has been a research topic for many years. Quick genera- tion of photo-realistic three-dimensional calibrated models using a hand-held device is highly desirable for applica- tions ranging from forensic investigation, mining, to mobile robotics. In this paper, we present the instant Scene Mod- eler (iSM), a 3D imaging system that automatically creates

  7. Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield

    PubMed Central

    Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

  8. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duberstein; Corey A

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping

  9. Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Tung

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

  10. Evaluation of Risk for Late Language Emergence after In Utero Antiretroviral Drug Exposure in HIV-exposed Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zeldow, Bret; Siberry, George K.; Purswani, Murli; Malee, Kathleen; Hoffman, Howard J.; Frederick, Toni; Buchanan, Ashley; Sirois, Patricia A.; Allison, Susannah M.; Williams, Paige L

    2013-01-01

    Background Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. Methods We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HEU children enrolled in a US-based prospective cohort study. LLE was defined as a caregiver-reported score ? 10th percentile in any of 4 domains of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for one-year-olds and as ?1 standard deviation below age-specific norms for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for two-year-olds. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of in utero cARV exposure with LLE, adjusting for infant, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results 1,129 language assessments were conducted among 792 one- and two-year-olds (50% male, 62% black, and 37% Hispanic). Overall, 86% had in utero exposure to cARV and 83% to protease inhibitors. LLE was identified in 26% of one-year-olds and 23% of two-year-olds, with higher rates among boys. In adjusted models, LLE was not associated with maternal cARV or ARV drug classes in either age group. Among cARV-exposed one-year-olds, increased odds of LLE was observed for those exposed to atazanavir (aOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.10-3.04), particularly after the first trimester (aOR=3.56, p=0.001), compared to atazanavir-unexposed infants. No associations of individual ARV drugs with LLE were observed among two-year-olds. Conclusions In utero cARV exposure showed little association with LLE, except for a higher risk of language delay observed in one-year-old infants with atazanavir exposure. PMID:24067563

  11. Can routinely recorded reproductive events be used as indicators of disease emergence in dairy cattle? An evaluation of 5 indicators during the emergence of bluetongue virus in France in 2007 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Lehébel, Anne; van Schaik, Gerdien; Veldhuis, Anouk; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2014-10-01

    In response to increasing risks of emerging infectious diseases, syndromic surveillance can be a suitable approach to detect outbreaks of such diseases across a large territory in an early phase. To implement a syndromic surveillance system, the primary challenge is to find appropriate health-related data. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether routinely collected dates of reproductive events in dairy cattle could be used to build indicators of health anomalies for syndromic surveillance. The evaluation was performed on data collected in France between 2003 and 2009. First, a set of 5 indicators was proposed to assess several types of reproductive disorders. For each indicator, the demographic coverage over the total number of cattle at risk was analyzed in time and space. Second, the ability to detect an emerging disease in an early phase was retrospectively evaluated during epidemics of bluetongue serotypes 1 and 8 (BTV-1, BTV-8) in France in 2007 and 2008. Reproductive indicators were analyzed weekly during these epidemics for each indicator in each infected French district (16 in 2007 and 50 in 2008 out of 94 districts). The indicators were able to detect the BTV epidemics despite their low demographic coverage on a weekly basis relatively to total number of cattle (median=1.21%; range=0-11.7%). Four indicators related to abortions, late embryonic death, and short gestations were abnormally elevated during both BTV epidemics. Median times to abnormal elevations in these indicators were 20 to 71 d after the first notification of clinical signs of BTV by veterinarians. These results demonstrate that reproduction data can be used as indicators of disease emergences, whereas in the specific case of these BTV epidemics, detection via these indicators was later than clinical detection by veterinarians. The emergence of bluetongue in 2007 in France was associated with gestations that were a few days shorter than expected. A short gestation indicator underwent high elevations relative to prior random fluctuations and was the earliest (out of the 4 indicators) to show abnormal elevations, making it possible to detect this emergence. PMID:25087027

  12. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    PubMed

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained. PMID:22558834

  13. Utility of point-of-care biliary ultrasound in the evaluation of emergency patients with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Srikar; Morrison, Daniel; Lyon, Matthew; Zeger, Wes; Krueger, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    To determine the utility of emergency physician-performed point-of-care biliary ultrasound in the evaluation of emergency department (ED) patients with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain. This was a multi-center prospective observational study of adult patients presenting to the ED with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain. Patients with abdominal tenderness at any site other than the epigastric region, or with a history of gall stones, cholecystectomy, gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic abdominal pain, trauma, or altered mental status were excluded. Emergency physician investigators performed point-of-care biliary ultrasound after clinical assessment. Demographic information, history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, additional diagnostic tests, and disposition data were collected. A total of 51 patients (39 women, 12 men) were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 36.4 years ± 13.6 (SD). All subjects had isolated epigastric tenderness. Gallstones were found in 20/51 (39%, 95% CI 26-52%) on point-of-care biliary ultrasound. Of the 20 patients who had gallstones, eight had sonographic signs of chloecystitis. The treating emergency physicians' initial evaluation did not plan to include an ultrasound in 17/20 patients with gallstones. 19/20 patients were initially given a GI cocktail by the treating emergency physicians. Point-of-care biliary ultrasound detected gall stones in more than one-third of ED patients with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain. All patients presenting to the ED with non-traumatic epigastric pain should be evaluated for biliary disease with an ultrasound imaging study. Bedside ultrasound can avoid misdiagnosis and expedite management in these patients. PMID:24442493

  14. Identifying Preschool Children At-Risk of Later Reading Difficulties: Evaluation of two Emergent Literacy Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children’s early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to good emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children’s overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills. PMID:19822699

  15. Studying computerized emergency operating procedures to evaluate the impact of strong procedure guidance on operators' work practices

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, G. [Electricite de France R and D, Industrial Risk Management Dept., 1 av du General de Gaule, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is based on EDF qualitative analysis of full-scope simulator tests which objective is to examine operators activity in NPP emergency operation. These tests have given insight on usually unexplored aspects of operator's characteristics using computerized emergency operation procedures. The first aspect concerns 'score-reading' and situation awareness, the second aspect concerns the attention-resources allocation, revealing the relationships between each operators courses of action and cooperation supported by the procedures. (authors)

  16. Keeping It Real: How Realistic Does Realistic Fiction for Children Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    O'Connor, an author of realistic fiction for children, shares her attempts to strike a balance between carefree, uncensored, authentic, realistic writing and age-appropriate writing. Of course, complicating that balancing act is the fact that what seems age-appropriate to her might not seem so to everyone. O'Connor suggests that while it may be…

  17. Spectral tunability of realistic plasmonic nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Portela, Alejandro; Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi, E-mail: tabata@bioeng.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yano, Takaaki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Hara, Masahiko [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J. F. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    Single nanoantenna spectroscopy was carried out on realistic dipole nanoantennas with various arm lengths and gap sizes fabricated by electron-beam lithography. A significant difference in resonance wavelength between realistic and ideal nanoantennas was found by comparing their spectral response. Consequently, the spectral tunability (96?nm) of the structures was significantly lower than that of simulated ideal nanoantennas. These observations, attributed to the nanofabrication process, are related to imperfections in the geometry, added metal adhesion layer, and shape modifications, which are analyzed in this work. Our results provide important information for the design of dipole nanoantennas clarifying the role of the structural modifications on the resonance spectra, as supported by calculations.

  18. Resonant scattering by realistic impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Wehling, T O; Yuan, S; Lichtenstein, A I; Geim, A K; Katsnelson, M I

    2010-07-30

    We develop a first-principles theory of resonant impurities in graphene and show that a broad range of typical realistic impurities leads to the characteristic sublinear dependence of the conductivity on the carrier concentration. By means of density functional calculations various organic groups as well as adatoms such as H absorbed to graphene are shown to create midgap states within ±0.03??eV around the neutrality point. A low energy tight-binding description is mapped out. Boltzmann transport theory as well as a numerically exact Kubo formula approach yield the conductivity of graphene contaminated with these realistic impurities in accordance with recent experiments. PMID:20867944

  19. Economic Outcome of Cardiac CT-Based Evaluation and Standard of Care for Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome In the Emergency Department: A Decision Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Kelley R.; Bresnahan, Brian W.; Veenstra, David L.; Shuman, William P.; Weintraub, William S.; Busey, Janet M.; Elliott, Daniel J.; Mitsumori, Lee; Strote, Jared; Jobe, Kathleen; Dubinsky, Ted; Caldwell, James

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in the Emergency Department may be cost saving for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but economic outcome data are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the cost of CCT-based evaluation versus standard of care (SOC) using the results of a clinical trial. Materials and Methods We developed a decision analytic cost-minimization model to compare CCT-based and SOC evaluation costs to obtain a correct diagnosis. Model inputs, including Medicare-adjusted patient costs, were primarily obtained from a cohort study of 102 patients at low to intermediate risk for ACS who underwent an Emergency Department SOC clinical evaluation and a 64 channel CCT. SOC costs included stress testing in 77% of patients. Data from published literature completed the model inputs and expanded data ranges for sensitivity analyses. Results Modeled mean patient costs for CCT-based evaluation were $750 (24%) lower than the SOC ($2,384 and $3,134, respectively). Sensitivity analyses indicated that CCT was less expensive over a wide range of estimates and was only more expensive with a CCT specificity below 67%. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that CCT-based evaluation had a 98.9% probability of being less expensive compared to SOC. Conclusion Using a decision analytic model, CCT-based evaluation resulted in overall lower cost than the SOC for possible ACS patients over a wide range of cost and outcome assumptions, including CT-related complications and downstream costs. PMID:22209422

  20. Near-realistic mobile exergames with wireless wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nyamathi, Suneil; Lee, Sunghoon Ivan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2014-03-01

    Exergaming is expanding as an option for sedentary behavior in childhood/adult obesity and for extra exercise for gamers. This paper presents the development process for a mobile active sports exergame with near-realistic motions through the usage of body-wearable sensors. The process begins by collecting a dataset specifically targeted to mapping real-world activities directly to the games, then, developing the recognition system in a fashion to produce an enjoyable game. The classification algorithm in this paper has precision and recall of 77% and 77% respectively, compared with 40% and 19% precision and recall on current activity monitoring algorithms intended for general daily living activities. Aside from classification, the user experience must be strong enough to be a successful system for adoption. Indeed, fast and intense activities as well as competitive, multiplayer environments make for a successful, enjoyable exergame. This enjoyment is evaluated through a 30 person user study. Multiple aspects of the exergaming user experience trials have been merged into a comprehensive survey, called ExerSurvey. All but one user thought the motions in the game were realistic and difficult to cheat. Ultimately, a game with near-realistic motions was shown to be an enjoyable, active video exergame for any environment. PMID:24608050

  1. Does the Mainz Emergency Evaluation Scoring (MEES) in combination with capnometry (MEESc) help in the prognosis of outcome from cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a prehospital setting?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Štefek Grmec; Dejan Kupnik

    2003-01-01

    We present an improved Mainz Emergency Evaluation Scoring (MEES) combined with capnometry. MEES combined with capnometry in a new scoring system MEESc compared with MEES is significantly better and has greater value in predicting survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with normothermic nontraumatic cardiac arrest. We show that higher pre-CPR and final post-CPR values of partial end-tidal CO2 pressure

  2. Optimising care in a Swiss University Emergency Department by implementing a multicentre trauma register (TARN): report on evaluation, costs and benefits of trauma registries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian J Hartel; Nicole Jordi; Dimitrios-Stergios Evangelopoulos; Rebecca Hasler; Kathrin Dopke; Heinz Zimmermann; Aristomenis K Exadaktylos

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundDiagnostic and therapeutic approaches to trauma patients are, depending on experience, equipment and different therapeutic doctrines, subject to wide variations. The ability to compare trauma centres using a standardised trauma register helps to reveal unresolved systemic issues and simplifies the quality management in an Emergency Department (ED).MethodsThis study describes the selection, implementation and initial evaluation process of an international trauma

  3. Realistic performance analysis of WSN protocols through trace based simulation, in 7th ACM workshop on Performance evaluation of wireless ad hoc, sensor, and ubiquitous networks (PE-WASUN’10

    E-print Network

    Alan Marchiori; Lin Guo; Josh Thomas; Qi Han

    2010-01-01

    properties. We then present a trace based WSN simulator built on the discrete event simulator SimPy using the standard Python. The use of the high level language Python allows new WSN protocols to be rapidly prototyped and evaluated under the real-world conditions captured by the WSN profiler. To validate

  4. Artificial Animals in Realistic Virtual Worlds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetri Terzopoulos

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a virtual marine ecosystem inhab- ited by realistic artificial life that emulates the appearan ce, movement, and behavior of real fishes. Each artificial fish is an autonomous agent in a simulated physical world. It has (i) a three-dimensional body with internal muscle ac- tuators and functional fins, which deforms and locomotes in accordance with biomechanic and hydrodynamic

  5. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  6. Realistic Species Losses Disproportionately Reduce Grassland

    E-print Network

    Zavaleta, Erika

    of the declines of individual species (7, 8) Ebut see (9)^. These studies focus on keystone species or on speciesRealistic Species Losses Disproportionately Reduce Grassland Resistance to Biological Invaders on the functional roles of individual species and the order in which species are lost. Most studies

  7. Modeling and Animating Realistic Faces from Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Pighin; Richard Szeliski; David H. Salesin

    2002-01-01

    We present a new set of techniques for modeling and animating realistic faces from photographs and videos. Given a set of face photographs taken simultaneously, our modeling technique allows the interactive recovery of a textured 3D face model. By repeating this process for several facial expressions, we acquire a set of face models that can be linearly combined to express

  8. Modeling and Animating Realistic Faces from Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic H. Pighin; Richard Szeliski; David Salesin

    2002-01-01

    We present a new set of techniques for modeling and animating realistic faces from photographs and videos. Given a set of face photographs taken simultaneously, our modeling technique allows the interactive recovery of a textured 3D face model. By repeating this process for several facial expressions, we acquire a set of faces models that can be linearly combined to express

  9. Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When Redwood City, California-based Electronic Arts (EA) decided to make SSX, its latest snowboarding video game, it faced challenges in creating realistic-looking mountains. The solution was NASA's ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map, made available by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which EA used to create 28 real-life mountains from 9 different ranges for its award-winning game.

  10. Making a Literature Methods Course "Realistic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William J.

    Recognizing that it can be a challenge to make an undergraduate literature methods course realistic, a methods instructor at a Michigan university has developed three major and several minor activities that have proven effective in preparing pre-student teachers for the "real world" of teaching and, at the same time, have been challenging and…

  11. ACCESSING REALISTIC MIXED COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS WITHIN MATLAB

    E-print Network

    Ferris, Michael C.

    of this author was based on research supported by the Department of Energy grant DE­FG03­94ER61915, the Air Force: This paper describes a suite of programs that allow realistic complemen­ tarity problems to be accessed from within the MATLAB programming environment. The suite of programs uses data generated from the GAMS

  12. Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

  13. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have used emergency contraception pills? • How is the copper intrauterine device (IUD) used as emergency contraception? • Glossary ... your next menstrual period starts. How is the copper intrauterine device (IUD) used as emergency contraception? The ...

  14. Emergency Alerts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Authorities website to learn more information. Wireless Emergency Alerts Why are Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) important to ... for the American Public Federal Communications Commission Emergency Alert System The Integrated Public Alert and Warning System ( ...

  15. Dynamic apeerture in damping rings with realistic wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2005-05-04

    The International Linear Collider based on superconducting RF cavities requires the damping rings to have extremely small equilibrium emittance, huge circumference, fast damping time, and large acceptance. To achieve all of these requirements is a very challenging task. In this paper, we will present a systematic approach to designing the damping rings using simple cells and non-interlaced sextupoles. The designs of the damping rings with various circumferences and shapes, including dogbone, are presented. To model realistic wigglers, we have developed a new hybrid symplectic integrator for faster and accurate evaluation of dynamic aperture of the lattices.

  16. Emergency Staff Before an emergency

    E-print Network

    ) 827-5222 from mobile phone 2. Evacuate self directly to the Emergency Assembly Area 3. Establish. Evacuate people to the Emergency Assembly Area (EAA) Emergency Assembly Area (EAA) locations 2. Conduct1 BSEC/BES Emergency Staff Checklist Prepare Before an emergency Task Resource 1. Confirm

  17. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & SAFETY GUIDE EMERGENCIES

    E-print Network

    EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & SAFETY GUIDE EMERGENCY CONTACTS REPORTING EMERGENCIES MEDICAL EMERGENCIES EVACUATION SHELTER-IN- PLACE FIRE FLOODING/ WATER LEAK UTILITY DISRUPTION SEVERE WEATHER WORKPLACE INJURIES Health & Safety (EH&S) EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION 911 617-495-1212 617-495-5560 617-432-1901 617

  18. The ILGDB database of realistic pen-based gestural commands Ney Renau-Ferrer, Peiyu Li, Adrien Delaye, Eric Anquetil

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The ILGDB database of realistic pen-based gestural commands Ney Renau-Ferrer, Peiyu Li, AdrienBase (ILGDB), a new publicly available database of realistic pen-based gestures for evaluation of recognition systems in pen-enabled interfaces. IL- GDB was collected in a real world context and in an immersive

  19. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  20. Retrospective Evaluation of a Computerized Physician Order Entry Adaptation to Prevent Prescribing Errors in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Sard; Kathleen E. Walsh; Gheorghe Doros; Megan Hannon; Wayne Moschetti; Howard Bauchner

    OBJECTIVE.The goal was to determine the impact on medication prescribing errors of adding a pediatric medication list (quicklist) to a computerized physician order entry system in a pediatric emergency department. METHODS.The quicklist is a drug dosing support tool that targets the most common medications in our clinical setting. We performed a retrospective comparison of orders from 420 randomly selected visits

  1. Development and evaluation of a leadership training program for public health emergency response: results from a Chinese study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chongjian Wang; Sheng Wei; Hao Xiang; Jing Wu; Yihua Xu; Li Liu; Shaofa Nie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 9\\/11 attack and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the development of qualified and able public health leaders has become a new urgency in building the infrastructure needed to address public health emergencies. Although previous studies have reported that the training of individual leaders is an important approach, the systemic and scientific training model need further improvement and

  2. A Chimeric Virus-Mouse Model System for Evaluating the Function and Inhibition of Papain-Like Proteases of Emerging Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M.; Nichols, Daniel B.; Wilson, Michael W.; StJohn, Sarah E.; Larsen, Scott D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR?/?) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. IMPORTANCE Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to facilitate evaluation of inhibitors directed against highly pathogenic coronaviruses. We used this system to demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor of the papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the chimeric-virus system can be adapted to study the proteases of emerging human pathogens, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. This system provides an important tool to rapidly assess the efficacy of protease inhibitors targeting existing and emerging human pathogens, as well as other enzymes capable of removing ISG15 from cellular proteins. PMID:25100850

  3. A chimeric virus-mouse model system for evaluating the function and inhibition of papain-like proteases of emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M; Nichols, Daniel B; Wilson, Michael W; StJohn, Sarah E; Larsen, Scott D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lenschow, Deborah J; Baric, Ralph S; Baker, Susan C

    2014-10-01

    To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. Importance: Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to facilitate evaluation of inhibitors directed against highly pathogenic coronaviruses. We used this system to demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor of the papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the chimeric-virus system can be adapted to study the proteases of emerging human pathogens, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. This system provides an important tool to rapidly assess the efficacy of protease inhibitors targeting existing and emerging human pathogens, as well as other enzymes capable of removing ISG15 from cellular proteins. PMID:25100850

  4. Large-System Transformation in Health Care: A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Lewis, Steven; Saul, Jessie E; Carroll, Simon; Bitz, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Context An evidence base that addresses issues of complexity and context is urgently needed for large-system transformation (LST) and health care reform. Fundamental conceptual and methodological challenges also must be addressed. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health in Canada requested a six-month synthesis project to guide four major policy development and strategy initiatives focused on patient- and family-centered care, primary health care renewal, quality improvement, and surgical wait lists. The aims of the review were to analyze examples of successful and less successful transformation initiatives, to synthesize knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, to clarify the role of government, and to outline options for evaluation. Methods We used realist review, whose working assumption is that a particular intervention triggers particular mechanisms of change. Mechanisms may be more or less effective in producing their intended outcomes, depending on their interaction with various contextual factors. We explain the variations in outcome as the interplay between context and mechanisms. We nested this analytic approach in a macro framing of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Findings Our rapid realist review identified five “simple rules” of LST that were likely to enhance the success of the target initiatives: (1) blend designated leadership with distributed leadership; (2) establish feedback loops; (3) attend to history; (4) engage physicians; and (5) include patients and families. These principles play out differently in different contexts affecting human behavior (and thereby contributing to change) through a wide range of different mechanisms. Conclusions Realist review methodology can be applied in combination with a complex system lens on published literature to produce a knowledge synthesis that informs a prospective change effort in large-system transformation. A collaborative process engaging both research producers and research users contributes to local applications of universal principles and mid-range theories, as well as to a more robust knowledge base for applied research. We conclude with suggestions for the future development of synthesis and evaluation methods. PMID:22985277

  5. Toward the Formation of Realistic Galaxy Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this review I demonstrate that a realistic model for the formation of galaxy disks depends on a proper treatment of the gas in galaxies. Historically, cosmological simulations of disk galaxy formation have suffered from a lack of resolution and a physically motivated feedback prescription. Recent computational progress has allowed for unprecedented resolution, which in turn allows for a more realistic treatment of feedback. These advances have led to a new examination of gas accretion, evolution, and loss in the formation of galaxy disks. Here I highlight the role that gas inflows, the regulation of gas by feedback, and gas outflows play in achieving simulated disk galaxies that better match observational results as a function of redshift.

  6. Triton binding energy with realistic precision

    E-print Network

    R. Navarro Perez; E. Garrido; J. E. Amaro; E. Ruiz Arriola

    2014-07-29

    We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain $E_t=-7.638(15) \\, {\\rm MeV}$. Setting the numerical precision as $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm num} \\lesssim 1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ we obtain the statistical error $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm stat}= 15(1) \\, {\\rm keV}$ which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S-waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm exp}= 0.1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ and provides a bottleneck in the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

  7. Triton binding energy with realistic precision

    E-print Network

    Perez, R Navarro; Amaro, J E; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain $E_t=-7.638(15) \\, {\\rm MeV}$. Setting the numerical precision as $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm num} \\lesssim 1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ we obtain the statistical error $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm stat}= 15(1) \\, {\\rm keV}$ which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S-waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm exp}= 0.1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ and provides a bottleneck in the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

  8. Triton binding energy with realistic statistical uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, R. Navarro; Garrido, E.; Amaro, J. E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.

    2014-10-01

    We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain Et=-7.638(15)MeV. Setting the numerical precision as ?Etnum?1keV we obtain the statistical error ?Etstat=15(1)keV which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision ?Etexp=0.1keV, and sets a limit on the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

  9. Standardized Patients Provide Realistic and Worthwhile Experiences for Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Standardized patients are more prominently used to both teach and evaluate students' clinical skills and abilities. Objective: To investigate whether athletic training students perceived an encounter with a standardized patient (SP) as realistic and worthwhile and to determine their perceived comfort in future lower extremity evaluations

  10. Emergency medicine physicians' and pediatricians' use of computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Grim, Paul Francis

    2014-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use. PMID:24391124

  11. Fast, Realistic Lighting for Video Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Iones; Anton Krupkin; Mateu Sbert; Sergey Zhukov

    2003-01-01

    Global lighting effects produced by diffuse interreflections are typically simulated using global illumination methods such as radiosity or ray tracing. Although diffuse interreflections are crucial to produce realistic images, radiosity-like methods are rarely used in production rendering because of slow performance, robustness problems and difficulty-to-control. We present a novel technology that produces natural-looking lighting effects in a much faster way

  12. Realistic Program Visualization in CafePie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Ogawa; Jiro Tanaka

    CafePie is a visual programming environment forCafeOBJ, an algebraic specification language based onterm rewriting. CafePie shows term rewriting directly byusing two types of visualizations: animated cartoon-likeand Obi-shaped. A more abstract visualization schema isnecessary instead of program understanding at theprogramming language level. Therefore we investigate thevisualization schema, which uses more realisticexpressions.Here we visualize term rewriting with more realistic...

  13. Radiology in emergency medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present.

  14. An evaluation of the professional, social and demographic profile and quality of life of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; Baitello, André Luciano; Lopes, Renato Delascio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil and to evaluate their quality of life. METHODS: Both a semi-structured questionnaire with 57 questions and the SF-36 questionnaire were sent to research departments within SAMU in the Brazilian state capitals, the Federal District and inland towns in Brazil. RESULTS: Of a total of 902 physicians, including 644 (71.4%) males, 533 (59.1%) were between 30 and 45 years of age and 562 (62.4%) worked in a state capital. Regarding education level, 45.1% had graduated less than five years before and only 43% were specialists recognized by the Brazilian Medical Association. Regarding training, 95% did not report any specific training for their work at SAMU. The main weaknesses identified were psychiatric care and surgical emergencies in 57.2 and 42.9% of cases, respectively; traumatic pediatric emergencies, 48.9%; and medical emergencies, 42.9%. As for procedure-related skills, the physicians reported difficulties in pediatric advanced support (62.4%), airway surgical access (45.6%), pericardiocentesis (64.4%) and thoracentesis (29.9%). Difficulties in using an artificial ventilator (43.3%) and in transcutaneous pacing (42.2%) were also reported. Higher percentages of young physicians, aged 25-30 years (26.7 vs 19.0%; p<0.01), worked exclusively in prehospital care (18.0 vs 7.7%; p<0.001), with workloads >48 h per week (12.8 vs 8.6%; p<0.001), and were non-specialists with the shortest length of service (<1 year) at SAMU (30.1 vs 18.2%; p<0.001) who were hired without having to pass public service exams* (i.e., for a temporary job) (61.8 vs 46.2%; p<0.001). Regarding quality of life, the pain domain yielded the worst result among physicians at SAMU. CONCLUSIONS: The doctors in this sample were young and within a few years of graduation, and they had no specific training in prehospital emergencies. Deficiencies were mostly found in pediatrics and psychiatry, with specific deficiencies in the handling of essential equipment and in the skills necessary to adequately attend to prehospital emergencies. A disrespectful labor scenario was also found; the evaluation of quality of life showed a notable presence of pain on the SF-36 among physicians at SAMU and especially among doctors who had worked for a longer length of time at SAMU. PMID:25318091

  15. Optimizing performance of hybrid FSO/RF networks in realistic dynamic scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, Jaime; Desai, Aniket; Baskaran, Eswaran; Milner, Stuart; Davis, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid Free Space Optical (FSO) and Radio Frequency (RF) networks promise highly available wireless broadband connectivity and quality of service (QoS), particularly suitable for emerging network applications involving extremely high data rate transmissions such as high quality video-on-demand and real-time surveillance. FSO links are prone to atmospheric obscuration (fog, clouds, snow, etc) and are difficult to align over long distances due the use of narrow laser beams and the effect of atmospheric turbulence. These problems can be mitigated by using adjunct directional RF links, which provide backup connectivity. In this paper, methodologies for modeling and simulation of hybrid FSO/RF networks are described. Individual link propagation models are derived using scattering theory, as well as experimental measurements. MATLAB is used to generate realistic atmospheric obscuration scenarios, including moving cloud layers at different altitudes. These scenarios are then imported into a network simulator (OPNET) to emulate mobile hybrid FSO/RF networks. This framework allows accurate analysis of the effects of node mobility, atmospheric obscuration and traffic demands on network performance, and precise evaluation of topology reconfiguration algorithms as they react to dynamic changes in the network. Results show how topology reconfiguration algorithms, together with enhancements to TCP/IP protocols which reduce the network response time, enable the network to rapidly detect and act upon link state changes in highly dynamic environments, ensuring optimized network performance and availability.

  16. EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS Medical Emergency

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    an emergency: Remain calm. Report all injuries first. Try to call from a desk phone, not a cell phone. Describe the type of emergency (fire, medical, utility disruption, public safety, etc). Give the phoneEMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS Medical Emergency 911 Harvard University Police Department (617) 495

  17. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  18. Toward more realistic drug–target interaction predictions

    PubMed Central

    Pahikkala, Tapio; Airola, Antti; Pietilä, Sami; Shakyawar, Sushil; Szwajda, Agnieszka; Tang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A number of supervised machine learning models have recently been introduced for the prediction of drug–target interactions based on chemical structure and genomic sequence information. Although these models could offer improved means for many network pharmacology applications, such as repositioning of drugs for new therapeutic uses, the prediction models are often being constructed and evaluated under overly simplified settings that do not reflect the real-life problem in practical applications. Using quantitative drug–target bioactivity assays for kinase inhibitors, as well as a popular benchmarking data set of binary drug–target interactions for enzyme, ion channel, nuclear receptor and G protein-coupled receptor targets, we illustrate here the effects of four factors that may lead to dramatic differences in the prediction results: (i) problem formulation (standard binary classification or more realistic regression formulation), (ii) evaluation data set (drug and target families in the application use case), (iii) evaluation procedure (simple or nested cross-validation) and (iv) experimental setting (whether training and test sets share common drugs and targets, only drugs or targets or neither). Each of these factors should be taken into consideration to avoid reporting overoptimistic drug–target interaction prediction results. We also suggest guidelines on how to make the supervised drug–target interaction prediction studies more realistic in terms of such model formulations and evaluation setups that better address the inherent complexity of the prediction task in the practical applications, as well as novel benchmarking data sets that capture the continuous nature of the drug–target interactions for kinase inhibitors. PMID:24723570

  19. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Since 2000, piping plover nesting habitat within the Gavins Point Reach, Garrison Reach, Lake Oahe, and Lake Sakakawea has fledged the majority of piping plovers produced along the Missouri River system. Habitats within Lewis and Clark Lake have also recently become important plover production areas. Mechanical construction of emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) within some of these reaches within the Missouri River began in 2004. Through 2009, 11 sandbar complexes had been constructed (10 in Gavins Point Reach, 1 in Lewis and Clarke Lake) totaling about 543 ac of piping plover and interior least tern nesting habitat. ESH Construction has resulted in a net gain of tern and plover nesting habitat. Both terns and plovers successfully nest and fledge young on constructed sandbars, and constructed habitats were preferred over natural habitats. Natural processes may limit the viability of constructed sandbars as nesting habitat. Continued research is needed to identify if changes in constructed sandbar engineering and management increase the length of time constructed habitats effectively function as nesting habitat. However, the transfer of information from researchers to planners through technical research reports may not be timely enough to effectively foster the feedback mechanisms of an adaptive management strategy.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Bio-Aerosols in Surgery Rooms and Emergency Department of an Educational Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Ramazan; Shahriary, Esmat; Qureshi, Mazhar Iqbal; Rakhshkhorshid, Ataollah; Khammary, Abdolali; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bio-aerosols are a potential hazard in hospitals and are mostly produced by hospital staff, patients and visitors. Bio-aerosols are solid or liquid particles pending in the air and they consist of aerosols accompanying micro-organisms or organic compounds of micro-organisms such as endotoxin, metabolite, toxin and other parts of organism. Those are a potential hazard in hospitals and are mostly produced by hospital staff, patients and visitors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the types and amount of bacterial contamination in operating rooms and emergency department of an educational hospital in Zahedan, South-East of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 72 samples were collected from three operating rooms and three rooms in the emergency department of an educational hospital during 2012. On the first day of every month, a sample was taken from each room during the morning shift; active sampling was done on plates consisting of blood agar and brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) for 10 minutes in the axis of a one-story Anderson impactor (flow rate 28.1 litter per minutes) and SIBATA air pump SIP 32-L and samples were then placed in a 35°C Incubator. Bacterial colonies were counted; warm coloring and differential tests were done and the data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Seventeen types of bacteria were detected including Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Viridians, Pneumococcus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Diphtheroid, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. Quantitative bacterial results showed that the number of observed bacteria in the emergency department with an average of 103.88 ± 33.84 cfu/m³ was more than that of the surgery rooms with an average of 63.32 ± 32.94 cfu/m³. Furthermore, the highest average number of all counted colonies (106 ± 28.45 cfu/m³) was determined in autumn. In all samples, S. aureus and Micrococcus were the most detected bacteria. Conclusions: The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested relatively relaxed limits of 100 cfu/m3 for bacteria and 50 cfu/m3 for fungi in the hospital air. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative outcomes of this study demonstrate that contamination level and bacterial variety in surgery rooms and emergency departments is high and effective measures must be taken to control the possible health risks. PMID:25632321

  1. Any realistic model of a physical system must be computationally realistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, A.

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that any possible definition of a realistic physics theory – i.e., a mathematical model representing the real world – cannot be considered comprehensive unless it is supplemented with requirement of being computationally realistic. That is, the mathematical structure of a realistic model of a physical system must allow the collection of all the system's physical quantities to compute all possible measurement outcomes on some computational device not only in an unambiguous way but also in a reasonable amount of time. In the paper, it is shown that a deterministic quantum model of a microscopic system evolving in isolation should be regarded as realistic since the NP-hard problem of finding the exact solution to the Schrödinger equation for an arbitrary physical system can be surely solved in a reasonable amount of time in the case, in which the system has just a small number of degrees of freedom. In contrast to this, the deterministic quantum model of a truly macroscopic object ought to be considered as non-realistic since in a world of limited computational resources the intractable problem possessing that enormous amount of degrees of freedom would be the same as mere unsolvable.

  2. Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

  3. Photodisintegration of the triton with realistic potentials

    E-print Network

    W. Schadow; W. Sandhas

    1997-12-08

    The process $\\gamma + t \\to n + d$ is treated by means of three-body integral equations employing in their kernel the W-Matrix representation of the subsystem amplitudes. As compared to the plane wave (Born) approximation the full solution of the integral equations, which takes into account the final state interaction, shows at low energies a 24% enhancement. The calculations are based on the semirealistic Malfliet-Tjon and the realistic Paris and Bonn B potentials. For comparison with earlier calculations we also present results for the Yamaguchi potential. In the low-energy region a remarkable potential dependence is observed, which vanishes at higher energies.

  4. A citywide evaluation of identification of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in emergency department patients complaining of chest pain.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H X; Tenner, T E; Jenkins, L A; Hansen, H Andrew; Lutherer, L O

    2002-03-01

    The local division of the American Heart Association in Lubbock, Tex, conducted a cooperative study involving all three local hospitals to assess how effectively risk factors for cardiovascular disease are identified in patients presenting in the emergency departments with a complaint of chest pain. The charts of 250 consecutive patients with chest pain were reviewed for risk factors identified by the triage nurse and by the emergency department physician or the attending physician or both. Although the rate at which risk factors were identified was good, identification was neither complete nor comprehensive. Comparison with statistics for the general population showed that some risk factors were over-reported, while others were markedly underreported. Each of the three specialties of health care professionals stressed different risk factors, and having all three involved markedly increased the level of identification. The data provide guidelines for improving risk factor identification, and the study led to the formation of strategic alliances among the different hospitals and health care professionals that should help improve secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease within the community. PMID:11915540

  5. What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Saji S.; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer –side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF’s functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF’s consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs’ effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public health This article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve health seeking behaviour. However, the existing evidence explores only its effectiveness and not the determinants of its effectiveness. It is also essential to understand the causal pathways of DSF’s effectiveness, i.e. what are the factors affecting its effectiveness. This Realist Review attempts to explore the causal pathways of effectiveness of many prominent DSF initiatives in the world. The study findings have policy implications and will be widely referred to in future. PMID:25553311

  6. What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

    2014-12-01

    This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer -side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF's functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF's consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs' effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public healthThis article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve health seeking behaviour. However, the existing evidence explores only its effectiveness and not the determinants of its effectiveness. It is also essential to understand the causal pathways of DSF's effectiveness, i.e. what are the factors affecting its effectiveness. This Realist Review attempts to explore the causal pathways of effectiveness of many prominent DSF initiatives in the world. The study findings have policy implications and will be widely referred to in future. PMID:25553311

  7. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include the following: A pill that contains levonorgestrel (some brand names: My Way, Next Choice, Plan ...

  8. Effect of realistic vegetation variability on seasonal forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Franco; Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2014-05-01

    A real predictability hindcast experiment with prescribed Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been performed using the state-of-the-art Earth System Model EC-Earth. LAI input to the climate model has been prescribed using a novel observational dataset based on the third generation GIMMS and MODIS satellite data. The LAI dataset has been pre-processed (monthly averaged, interpolated, gap-filled) to use it in the land surface scheme of EC-Earth (HTESSEL). The vegetation density is modeled by an exponential dependence on LAI, based on the Lambert-Beer formulation. Retrospective hindcasts have been performed with the following model setup: 7 months forecast length, 2 start dates (1st May and 1st November), 10 members, 28 years (1982-2009). Initial conditions were produced at IC3, based on ERA-40/ERA-Interim (atmosphere and land-surface) and NEMOVAR-ORAS4 (ocean and sea-ice) data. Model resolution is T159L62 for the atmosphere and the ORCA1 grid for the ocean. The effect of the realistic LAI prescribed from observation is evaluated with respect to a control experiment where LAI does not vary. Results of the retrospective hindcast experiment demonstrate that a realistic representation of vegetation has a significant effect on evaporation, temperature and precipitation. An improvement of model sensitivity to vegetation variability on the seasonal scale is also evidenced, especially during boreal winter. This may be attributed in particular to the effect of the high vegetation component on the snow cover.

  9. Delay modeling using ramp and realistic signal waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupal Gandhi; Jim Shiffer; Dhrumil Gandhi; Dimitrios Velenis

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimation of circuit delay has become a primary requirement to ensure the correct synchronization of high speed synchronous integrated circuits. In this paper, the difference in circuit delay simulated using ramp and realistic signal waveforms is investigated. It is shown that the realistic signal waveform produces larger delay estimates than the ramp waveform. Ramp and realistic waveforms are also

  10. Effects of realistic job previews on hiring bank tellers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger A. Dean; John P. Wanous

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of 3 types of job previews (realistically specific, realistically general, and no preview) on newly hired bank tellers. The 249 new employees were given booklets with specific or general realistic statements about their job, or no booklets. Ss completed the Job Descriptive Index at 1 day and 8 wks. Ss were monitored for 43 wks after entry

  11. Epidemiology and causation: a realist view.

    PubMed Central

    Renton, A

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the controversy over how to decide whether associations between factors and diseases are causal is placed within a description of the public health and scientific relevance of epidemiology. It is argued that the rise in popularity of the Popperian view of science, together with a perception of the aims of epidemiology as being to identify appropriate public health interventions, have focussed this debate on unresolved questions of inferential logic, leaving largely unanalysed the notions of causation and of disease at the ontological level. A realist ontology of causation of disease and pathogenesis is constructed within the framework of "scientific materialism", and is shown to provide a coherent basis from which to decide causes and to deal with problems of confounding and interaction in epidemiological research. It is argued that a realist analysis identifies a richer role for epidemiology as an integral part of an ontologically unified medical science. It is this unified medical science as a whole rather than epidemiological observation or experiment which decides causes and, in turn, provides a key element to the foundations of rational public health decision making. PMID:8138775

  12. Evaluation of a biologically-based filtration water reclamation plant for removing emerging contaminants: a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Sala, Lluís; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solar radiation and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 18 emerging contaminants has been studied in a biological filtration pilot plant based on Daphnia sp. The pilot plant consisted of a homogenization tank and two lines, A and B, each with four 1 m(3) tanks. One of these lines was directly exposed to sunlight whereas the other line was covered. Our results suggest that biodegradation and photodegradation are the most important removal pathways, whereas sorption makes a minor contribution. The removal efficiency ranged from no detectable removal to more than 90%. The kinetics of the degradation process was fit to a first order kinetic, with half-lives from 0.6 to 42 days, depending on the particular compound. However, a scaling effect comes into play as the pilot plant was found to be more efficient than a similar full-scale polishing pond. PMID:22153292

  13. Retained Intra-Abdominal Surgical Clamp Complicating Emergency Laparotomy: Incidental Finding on Hysterosalpingogram for Evaluation of Tubal Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Adesiyun, Adebiyi Gbadebo; Ameh, Nkeiruka; Umar-Sullayman, Hajaratu; Avidime, Solomon; Aliyu, Rabia't

    2014-01-01

    The finding of intraperitoneal foreign body complicating surgical intervention broadly remains as an issue of safety in the operative room, a source of emotive concern for the patient, and an upsetting but equally embarrassing situation to the surgeon and the team. However, in the media world, it is a source of sumptuous and captivating headline on the newspaper and to the legal profession, an attractive case to prosecute. A middle age teacher presented with secondary infertility. She had emergency laparotomy fifteen years ago for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in a private hospital and postoperative period was uneventful. Amongst other investigations to find out the cause of infertility, she had hysterosalpingography and a radio-opaque clamp was visualized on the films. She was counselled and had laparotomy. A pair of surgical Kocher clamps was retrieved buried in the mesentery. PMID:25436162

  14. Evaluation of the Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) Scale in Chinese Patients in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui-lin; Chan, Cangel Pui-yee; Leung, Yuk-ki; Li, Yun-mei; Graham, Colin A.; Rainer, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the Recognition Of Stroke In the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale in risk-stratifying Chinese patients with suspected stroke in Hong Kong. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic emergency department (ED) over a 7-month period. Patients over 18 years of age with suspected stroke were recruited between June 2011 and December 2011. ROSIER scale assessment was performed in the ED triage area. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the impacts of diagnostic variables, including ROSIER scale, past history and ED characteristics. Findings 715 suspected stroke patients were recruited for assessment, of whom 371 (52%) had acute cerebrovascular disease (302 ischaemic strokes, 24 transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), 45 intracerebral haemorrhages), and 344 (48%) had other illnesses i.e. stroke mimics. Common stroke mimics were spinal neuropathy, dementia, labyrinthitis and sepsis. The suggested cut-off score of>0 for the ROSIER scale for stroke diagnosis gave a sensitivity of 87% (95%CI 83–90), a specificity of 41% (95%CI 36–47), a positive predictive value of 62% (95%CI 57–66), and a negative predictive value of 75% (95%CI 68–81), and the AUC was 0.723. The overall accuracy at cut off>0 was 65% i.e. (323+141)/715. Interpretation The ROSIER scale was not as effective at differentiating acute stroke from stroke mimics in Chinese patients in Hong Kong as it was in the original studies, primarily due to a much lower specificity. If the ROSIER scale is to be clinically useful in Chinese suspected stroke patients, it requires further refinement. PMID:25343496

  15. Performance Evaluation of Vehicular DTN Routing under Realistic Mobility Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei'en Luo; Hongyu Huang; Wei Shu; Minglu Li; Min-you Wu

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—In performance,studies of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the underlying mobility model plays an important role. Since conventional mobile ad hoc network,(MANET) routing protocols do not work,efficiently in vehicular environments,due to the rapid topology changes, the Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) model is often applied. In this paper, we construct a new mobility model, the Shanghai Urban Vehicular Network (SUVnet) model by

  16. Evaluation of pulse oximetry in sickle cell anemia patients presenting to the emergency department in acute vasoocclusive crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T Comber; Bernard L Lopez

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study was done to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry as an indicator of hypoxemia in sickle cell anemia patients presenting to the ED in acute vasoocculsive crisis. Thirteen patients (age older than 18 years) presenting in crisis, with pulse oximetry readings less than 95% had arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis performed. The mean pulse oximetry reading was

  17. Southern Schools: An Evaluation of the Effects of the Emergency School Assistance Program and of School Desegregation. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L., Ed.

    This evaluation sampled 150 pairs of schools (50 pairs of high schools and 100 pairs of elementary schools) eligible for ESAP funds, randomly designating one school from each pair as a control school to receive no ESAP funds and using a flip of the coin to so designate. The first volume of the report comprises four chapters and seven appendices.…

  18. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF A REALISTIC MAGNETOCONVECTIVE SUNSPOT SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C. [Northwest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rempel, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, HAO Division, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr., E-mail: dbraun@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: aaronb@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: renpel@ucar.edu, E-mail: Thomas.L.Duvall@nasa.gov [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

  19. Evaluation of Coordination of Emergency Response Team through the Social Network Analysis. Case Study: Oil and Gas Refinery

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Bastani, Susan; Esaghi, Mahbobeh; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Saee, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the cohesions status of the coordination within response teams in the emergency response team (ERT) in a refinery. Methods For this study, cohesion indicators of social network analysis (SNA; density, degree centrality, reciprocity, and transitivity) were utilized to examine the coordination of the response teams as a whole network. The ERT of this research, which was a case study, included seven teams consisting of 152 members. The required data were collected through structured interviews and were analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 Social Network Analysis Program. Results The results reported a relatively low number of triple connections, poor coordination with key members, and a high level of mutual relations in the network with low density, all implying that there were low cohesions of coordination in the ERT. Conclusion The results showed that SNA provided a quantitative and logical approach for the examination of the coordination status among response teams and it also provided a main opportunity for managers and planners to have a clear understanding of the presented status. The research concluded that fundamental efforts were needed to improve the presented situations.

  20. Choosing profile double-sampling designs for survival estimation with application to President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief evaluation.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Wen; Frangakis, Constantine E; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2014-05-30

    Most studies that follow subjects over time are challenged by having some subjects who dropout. Double sampling is a design that selects and devotes resources to intensively pursue and find a subset of these dropouts, then uses data obtained from these to adjust naïve estimates, which are potentially biased by the dropout. Existing methods to estimate survival from double sampling assume a random sample. In limited-resource settings, however, generating accurate estimates using a minimum of resources is important. We propose using double-sampling designs that oversample certain profiles of dropouts as more efficient alternatives to random designs. First, we develop a framework to estimate the survival function under these profile double-sampling designs. We then derive the precision of these designs as a function of the rule for selecting different profiles, in order to identify more efficient designs. We illustrate using data from the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded HIV care and treatment program in western Kenya. Our results show why and how more efficient designs should oversample patients with shorter dropout times. Further, our work suggests generalizable practice for more efficient double-sampling designs, which can help maximize efficiency in resource-limited settings. PMID:24408038

  1. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  2. Validation of CT brain perfusion methods using a realistic dynamic head phantom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Riordan; Mathias Prokop; Max A. Viergever; Jan Willem Dankbaar; Ewoud J. Smit; Hugo W. A. M. de Jong

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Development and evaluation of a realistic hybrid head phantom for the validation of quantitative CT brain perfusion methods. METHODS: A combination, or hybrid, of CT images of an anthropomorphic head phantom together with clinically acquired MRI brain images was used to construct a dynamic hybrid head phantom. Essential CT imaging parameters such as spatially dependent noise, effects of resolution,

  3. Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization

    E-print Network

    Cho, Sung-Bae

    Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

  4. A new mobility trace for realistic large-scale simulation of bus-based DTNs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Doering; Tobias Pögel; Wolf-Bastian Pöttner; Lars Wolf

    2010-01-01

    Realistic scenarios are essential for the simulation-based evaluation of opportunistic routing protocols in vehicular networks. Synthetically generated scenarios are easy to obtain but fail to reproduce the complexity of the real world. Therefore, the generally accepted procedure is to use traces recorded in experiments. Unfortunately, this is almost impractical for large-scale scenarios. The advancing pervasion of ICT in transportation systems

  5. The standing wave FEL/TBA: Realistic cavity geometry and energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo, Henke, H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sharp, W.M.

    1993-05-01

    A set of parameters for standing wave free electron laser two beam accelerators (SWFEL/TBA) is evaluated for realistic cavity geometry taking into account beam-break-up and the sensitivity of output power to imperfections. Also given is a power extraction system using cavity coupled wave guides.

  6. Emergence of Joint Attention through Bootstrap Learning based on the Mechanisms of Visual Attention and Learning with Self-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yukie; Hosoda, Koh; Morita, Akio; Asada, Minoru

    This study argues how human infants acquire the ability of joint attention through interactions with their caregivers from a viewpoint of cognitive developmental robotics. In this paper, a mechanism by which a robot acquires sensorimotor coordination for joint attention through bootstrap learning is described. Bootstrap learning is a process by which a learner acquires higher capabilities through interactions with its environment based on embedded lower capabilities even if the learner does not receive any external evaluation nor the environment is controlled. The proposed mechanism for bootstrap learning of joint attention consists of the robot's embedded mechanisms: visual attention and learning with self-evaluation. The former is to find and attend to a salient object in the field of the robot's view, and the latter is to evaluate the success of visual attention, not joint attention, and then to learn the sensorimotor coordination. Since the object which the robot looks at based on visual attention does not always correspond to the object which the caregiver is looking at in an environment including multiple objects, the robot may have incorrect learning situations for joint attention as well as correct ones. However, the robot is expected to statistically lose the learning data of the incorrect ones as outliers because of its weaker correlation between the sensor input and the motor output than that of the correct ones, and consequently to acquire appropriate sensorimotor coordination for joint attention even if the caregiver does not provide any task evaluation to the robot. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the proposed mechanism could explain the developmental mechanism of infants' joint attention because the learning process of the robot's joint attention can be regarded as equivalent to the developmental process of infants' one.

  7. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  8. A realistic, minimal “middle layer” for neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Martin P.; Gass, Stephen F.; Mandell, Arnold J.

    1989-12-01

    To demonstrate some dynamical consequences of making the formal characteristic of neuronal elements and their connectivities more realistic than those of modern neural computer algorithms, we study two multiplicatively coupled logistic maps, each with the quadratic response characteristics of neurons with autoreceptor mechanisms, which iteratively exchange their outputs. The dynamic phenomenology of this two-neuron system, though noninvertible, demonstrates characteristics of both automorphisms of the real line and diffeomorphisms of the plane, with smooth parametric transitions between them. We portray a unified parameter space containing the negative, positive, and mixed-coupled regimes, categorize the phase space structures using characteristic exponent inequalities, explore representative parametric paths, demonstrate generic bifurcation sequences, and report number theoretic ordering in parameter space. We conjecture that most, if not all, “middle-layer-like” brain systems, in contrast to primary sensory and motor information transport systems, are dominated by intrinsic dynamics of the sort demonstrated here. External input serves as a perturbation of these already ongoing complex systems. The intrinsic instabilities of these middle-layer dynamics return the unpredictability required by theoretical studies of real brain function to models of neural networks. We demonstrate a variety of parameter-dependent intrinsically ordered attractor sequences and number theoretic series which emerge from the global dynamics and exemplify the rich dynamical “machine” language potential for specific coding by brain-like information transport and learning algorithms.

  9. The Implementation and Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Tremback, Craig J.; Lyons, Walter A.

    1996-01-01

    The Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) is a system which combines the mesoscale meteorological prediction model RAMS with the diffusion models REEDM and HYPACT. Operators use a graphical user interface to run the models for emergency response and toxic hazard planning at CCAS/KCS. The Applied Meteorology Unit has been evaluating the ERDAS meteorological and diffusion models and obtained the following results: (1) RAMS adequately predicts the occurrence of the daily sea breeze during non-cloudy conditions for several cases. (2) RAMS shows a tendency to predict the sea breeze to occur slightly earlier and to move it further inland than observed. The sea breeze predictions could most likely be improved by better parameterizing the soil moisture and/or sea surface temperatures. (3) The HYPACT/REEDM/RAMS models accurately predict launch plume locations when RAMS winds are accurate and when the correct plume layer is modeled. (4) HYPACT does not adequately handle plume buoyancy for heated plumes since all plumes are presently treated as passive tracers. Enhancements should be incorporated into the ERDAS as it moves toward being a fully operational system and as computer workstations continue to increase in power and decrease in cost. These enhancements include the following: activate RAMS moisture physics; use finer RAMS grid resolution; add RAMS input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, radar, and/or satellite data); automate data quality control; implement four-dimensional data assimilation; modify HYPACT plume rise and deposition physics; and add cumulative dosage calculations in HYPACT.

  10. The emerging role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided core biopsy for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, M; Koduru, P; Lanke, G; Bruno, M; Maitra, A; Giovannini, M

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment but only 20% are eligible for resection at the time of diagnosis. Early detection of cancer is of paramount importance in the management. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred modality for obtaining tissue diagnosis of pancreatic masses. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA may be limited by several factors like availability of onsite cytopathology, adequacy of tissue core for histology, location of the mass, presence of underlying chronic pancreatitis, and experience of the endoscopist. Modern oncology is focusing on personalizing treatment based on tissue analysis of genetic aberrations and molecular biomarkers which are now available. Core tissue also aids in the diagnosis of disease entities like lymphoma, metastatic tumors, neuroendocrine tumors and autoimmune pancreatitis whose diagnosis rely on preserved tissue architecture and immunohistochemistry. Making accurate diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses is critical to avoid unnecessary resections in patients with benign lesions like focal lesions of chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis which mimic cancer. To overcome the limitations of FNA and to obtain adequate core tissue, a Tru-Cut biopsy needle was developed which met with variable success due to stiffness, cumbersome operation and technical failure using it in the duodenum/pancreatic head. More recently fine needle biopsy needles, with reverse bevel technology have become available in different sizes (19, 22, 25-gauge). The aim of this article was to review the emerging role of core biopsy needles in acquiring tissue in solid pancreatic masses and discuss its potential role in personalized medicine. PMID:25675155

  11. Management of hypertension emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Although they have become less common, hypertensive emergencies occur with an incidence of approximately 1 to 2\\/100,000 people\\u000a per year. Our knowledge about this problem, its pathophysiology, risk factors, and appropriate treatment options has expanded\\u000a during the past decade. A hypertensive emergency can be declared when an elevated blood pressure is associated with acute\\u000a targetorgan damage. Rapid evaluation and treatment

  12. Evaluation of the impact of implementing the emergency medical services traumatic brain injury guidelines in Arizona: the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) study methodology.

    PubMed

    Spaite, Daniel W; Bobrow, Bentley J; Stolz, Uwe; Sherrill, Duane; Chikani, Vatsal; Barnhart, Bruce; Sotelo, Michael; Gaither, Joshua B; Viscusi, Chad; Adelson, P David; Denninghoff, Kurt R

    2014-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exacts a great toll on society. Fortunately, there is growing evidence that the management of TBI in the early minutes after injury may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. In response, evidence-based prehospital and in-hospital TBI treatment guidelines have been established by authoritative bodies. However, no large studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of implementing these guidelines in the prehospital setting. This article describes the background, design, implementation, emergency medical services (EMS) treatment protocols, and statistical analysis of a prospective, controlled (before/after), statewide study designed to evaluate the effect of implementing the EMS TBI guidelines-the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) study (NIH/NINDS R01NS071049, "EPIC"; and 3R01NS071049-S1, "EPIC4Kids"). The specific aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that statewide implementation of the international adult and pediatric EMS TBI guidelines will significantly reduce mortality and improve nonmortality outcomes in patients with moderate or severe TBI. Furthermore, it will specifically evaluate the effect of guideline implementation on outcomes in the subgroup of patients who are intubated in the field. Over the course of the entire study (~9 years), it is estimated that approximately 25,000 patients will be enrolled. PMID:25112451

  13. Emerging role of echocardiographic strain/strain rate imaging and twist in systolic function evaluation and operative procedure in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Haiyan; Shu, Xianhong; Hong, Tao; Lai, Hao; Wang, Chunsheng; Cheng, Leilei

    2013-01-01

    Systolic function of the left ventricle is vital for patients with aortic stenosis. Unfortunately, the most widely used clinical parameter, the left ventricular ejection fraction, is not sensitive enough, especially for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiographic strain/strain rate and twist are emerging parameters for left ventricular systolic and diastolic function evaluation. Aortic stenosis could reduce strain/strain rate while magnifying twist. Furthermore, strain/strain rate correlates well with the prognosis of patients with aortic stenosis. Most importantly the circumferential strain, strain rate and twist also play a role in differentiating cardiac compensation or decompensation. In any case, these parameters could normalize after successful surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Regardless of these advantages, clinical evidence is needed to ensure their usefulness. PMID:23644729

  14. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, K T; Sondheimer, S J

    1994-12-01

    Emergency contraception is the only form of contraception where implementation can occur after sexual relations or forced intercourse. Hormonal methods can be administered up to 72h after unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraception is safe, legal, and simple to administer. Widespread availability could dramatically decrease the number of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:7893964

  15. Humanitarian Emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Kaiser; Paul B. Spiegel

    Countries or regions affected by humanitarian emergencies remain challenging situations for the provision of health and nutrition services in developing countries. Major advances in recent decades have been made regarding our knowledge of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, the availability of standardized guidance protocols and indicators, and the development of new products, especially for severely

  16. Psychiatric Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bayrakal, Sadi

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry. The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.) In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  17. Fast sawtooth reconnection at realistic Lundquist numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günter, S.; Yu, Q.; Lackner, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection, a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysics, space science and magnetic confinement research, frequently proceeds much faster than predicted by simple resistive MHD theory. Acceleration can result from the break-up of the thin Sweet–Parker current sheet into plasmoids, or from two-fluid effects decoupling mass and magnetic flux transport over the ion inertial length {{v}A}/{?ci} or the drift scale \\sqrt{{{T}e}/{{m}i}}/{?ci}, depending on the absence or presence of a strong magnetic guide field. We describe new results on the modelling of sawtooth reconnection in a simple tokamak geometry (circular cylindrical equilibrium) pushed to realistic Lundquist numbers for present day tokamaks. For the resistive MHD case, the onset criteria and the influence of plasmoids on the reconnection process agree well with earlier results found in the case of vanishing magnetic guide fields. While plasmoids are also observed in two-fluid calculations, they do not dominate the reconnection process for the range of plasma parameters considered in this study. In the two-fluid case they form as a transient phenomenon only. The reconnection times become weakly dependent on the S-value and for the most complete model—including two-fluid effects and equilibrium temperature and density gradients—agree well with those experimentally found on ASDEX Upgrade ?ft(?slant 100 ? s\\right).

  18. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  19. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  20. Towards realistic representation of hydrological processes in integrated WRF-urban modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    To meet the demand of the ever-increasing urbanized global population, substantial conversion of natural landscapes to urban terrains is expected in the next few decades. The landscape modification will emerge as the source of many adverse effects that challenge the environmental sustainability of cities under changing climatic patterns. To address these adverse effects and to develop corresponding adaptation/mitigation strategies, physically-based single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) has been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) platform. However, due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes, simulation of urban climatology by current coupled WRF/SLUCM is inevitably inadequate. Aiming at improving the accuracy of simulations, in this study we implement physically-based parameterization of urban hydrological processes into the model, including (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation over water-holding engineered pavements, (4) urban oasis effect, and (5) green roof. In addition, we use an advanced Monte Carlo approach to quantify the sensitivity of urban hydrological modeling to parameter uncertainties. Evaluated against field observations at four major metropolitan areas, results show that the enhanced model is significantly improved in accurately predicting turbulent fluxes arising from built surfaces, especially the latent heat flux. Case studies show that green roof is capable of reducing urban surface temperature and sensible heat flux effectively, and modifying local and regional hydroclimate. Meanwhile, it is efficient in decreasing energy loading of buildings, not only cooling demand in summers but also heating demand in winters, through the combined evaporative cooling and insulation effect. Effectiveness of green roof is found to be limited by availability of water resources and highly sensitive to surface roughness heights. The enhanced WRF/SLUCM model deepens our insight into the dynamics of urban land surface processes and its impact on the regional hydroclimate through land-atmosphere interactions.

  1. A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Pergantis, Charles G.; Sandhu, Jaswinder S.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis for comparison. Specimens were then inspected using acoustography, a large field ultrasonic inspection technique that is analogous to real-time X-ray imaging. Acoustography utilizes a unique, wide area two-dimensional (2-D) detector, called an acousto-optic (AO) sensor, to directly convert ultrasound into visual images; much like an image intensifier in real-time radiography. Finally, a newly developed guided wave scanning system was utilized to inspect the same set of samples. This system uses two transducers in a pitch catch configuration to examine the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Results are presented for all of the methods demonstrating each technique's detection capabilities and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of an emerging pollutant (enrofloxacin) by catalytic wet air oxidation and ozonation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao; Yediler, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the degradation efficiency of enrofloxacin (ENR) by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) and ozonation. Results obtained by CWAO experiments show that 99.5% degradation, 37.0% chemical oxidation demand (COD) removal and 51.0% total organic carbon (TOC) conversion were obtained when 100 mol% FeCl(3) and 25 mol% NaNO(2) at 150 °C under 0.5 MPa oxygen pressure after 120 min are used. The degradation products are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). The oxidation end products, F(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) were determined by IC. The BOD(5)/COD ratio as a measure of the biodegradability of the parent compound increased from 0.01 to 0.12 after 120 min of reaction time, indicating an improved biodegradability of the parent compound. The inhibition of bioluminescence of the marine bacteria V. fischeri decreased from 43% to 12% demonstrating a loss in toxicity of ENR during CWAO. Ozonation of 0.2 mM ENR was carried out with an ozone concentration of 7.3 g m(-3) at pH 7. ENR decomposition with a degradation rate of 87% was obtained corresponding to the reaction time. Moderate changes in COD (18%) and TOC (17%) removal has been observed. The bioluminescence inhibition increased from 8% to 50%, due to the generation of toxic degradation products during ozonation. In comparison to the widely use of well developed method of ozonation CWAO exhibits better performance in terms of COD, TOC removals and generates less toxic products. PMID:22858256

  3. Evaluating validity of clinical criteria for requesting chest X-rays in trauma patients referred to emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, A; Khalaj, S; Azizkhani, Reza; Shahryarian, Shahriar; Kolahdouzan, Mohsen; Hossein, Montazer Seyyed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our goal was to identify the clinical criteria for requesting the chest X-ray in patients with blunt trauma and whether its findings such as clinical signs with a high sensitivity could be used to codify the final criteria. Materials and Methods: 386 patients with multiple trauma or blunt chest trauma examined by a physician and the injury mechanism, vital signs, O2 saturation, auscultation findings, abrasions and ecchymosis, crepitation, tenderness on palpation, and pain on lateral compression were noted. The physician's clinical judgment on the necessity of a chest X-ray was also noted in a questionnaire. After taking the X-ray, a digital photo was taken and showed to a radiologist to report any significant chest injury. Data were collected and the positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity were estimated. Results: 350 males (90.9%) and 35 females (9.1%) with the mean age of 47.1 ± 15.5 years old were evaluated. Falling down (37.7%) was the major mechanism of injury and chest pain (48%) the first complaint of patients. In 87.3% of the chest X-rays, there was no abnormal finding. Among several pathological findings in the chest X-rays, hemothorax, and rib fracture (each with 3.4% prevalence) had a higher prevalence. Tenderness on palpation with clinical judgment had a higher sensitivity about 95% and higher specificity about 100% in crepitation detected. Conclusion: Results showed the combination of positive chest pain and tachypnea in the patients could identify a significant chest injury with 100% sensitivity. More studies on this issue are warranted. PMID:23210081

  4. Fire service emergency management handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    This planning guide was prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency by the International Association of Fire Chiefs as part of an effort to update and improve emergency management information available to the fire service. Intended as a primary source for fire chiefs, fire executives, and planners, it incorporates the following main topic areas: instruction for the use of the handbook; description of the emergency management process; and checklists for specific hazards. The volume includes a self evaluation form for determining community risk, concepts of emergency management, and specific steps in community risk reduction in the four phases of emergency management process. Sample forms, tables, and letters of agreement are also included.

  5. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  6. Evaluation of the Use and Reasons for Not Using a Helmet by Motorcyclists Admitted to the Emergency Ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Faryabi, Javad; Rajabi, Mahboobeh; Alirezaee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motorcycle crashes are the cause of severe morbidity and mortality especially because of head injuries. It seems that wearing a helmet has an effective role in protection against head injuries. Nevertheless, motorcyclists usually have no tendency to wear a helmet when driving in cities and have several reasons for this behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the use and reasons for not using a helmet by motorcyclists admitted to an emergency ward of a trauma hospital due to accident in Kerman, Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out by recoding the opinions of motorcyclists who had been transferred to the emergency ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital (Kerman/Iran). Since no data was available on the frequency of the use of helmets, a pilot study was carried out and a sample size of 377 was determined for the main study. Then a researcher-made questionnaire was used to investigate the motorcyclists’ reasons for not using a helmet. Results: Only 21.5% of the motorcyclists had been wearing helmets at the time of the accident. The most frequent reasons for not using a helmet were the heavy weight of the helmet (77%), feeling of heat (71.4%), pain in the neck (69.4%), feeling of suffocation (67.7%), limitation of head and neck movements (59.6%) and all together, physical discomfort was the main cause of not wearing a helmet during motorcycle rides. Conclusions: In general, it appears that it is possible to increase the use of helmets by eliminating its physical problems, and increasing the knowledge of community members in relation to the advantages of helmet use, which will result in a significant decrease in traumas resulting from motorcycle accidents. PMID:25599066

  7. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  8. [Emergency sonography].

    PubMed

    Schieb, E; Greim, C-A

    2015-04-01

    Emergency sonography encompasses a number of targeted sonographic investigation techniques, which allow a quick response to frequently occurring situations arising in anesthesiology, including intensive care and emergency medicine. Emergency sonography supports point of care diagnostics to clarify the possible causes of hemodynamic and respiratory instability, e.g. to determine the extent of intra-abdominal bleeding in a still compensated patient with multiple trauma and to support interventions, such as pleural fluid drainage. Important emergency sonographic techniques include focused echocardiography, as well as thoracic and abdominal ultrasound, supplemented by various other applications, e.g in the head and neck region. In comparison to conventional sonographic examination techniques, these techniques are used with reduced examination times and a focussed assessment of specific clinical problems. By means of a few standardized cross-sectional planes, numerous questions can be quickly addressed and therapeutic consequences can be deduced. PMID:25893578

  9. 911 Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life After High School Confidence Smoking and Asthma Concussions Smart Snacking 911 Emergencies KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > ... sick, or has a headache might have a concussion or other head injury. View Survey Dealing with ...

  10. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye turns black and blue, gradually becoming purple, green, and yellow over several days. The abnormal color ... Brunette DD. Ophthalmology. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts ...

  11. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter Storm Tools ... and your family is to be prepared. In Case of Poisoning The most common home chemical emergencies ...

  12. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Simulation Tools CDC Response, Japan 2011 Specific Hazards Radiation Emergencies Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... loved ones, and your pets. Learn More » Radiation and Your Health Radiation can affect the body ...

  13. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is used contains a small amount of copper. Your doctor can remove it after your next period. You may also choose to leave it in place to provide ongoing birth control. MORE ABOUT EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS Women of any ...

  14. Testing the interaction of dark energy to dark matter through the analysis of virial relaxation of clusters Abell Clusters A586 and A1689 using realistic density profiles

    E-print Network

    Orfeu Bertolami; Francisco Gil Pedro; Morgan Le Delliou

    2012-01-19

    Interaction between dark energy and dark matter is probed through deviation from the virial equilibrium for two relaxed clusters: A586 and A1689. The evaluation of the virial equilibrium is performed using realistic density profiles. The virial ratios found for the more realistic density profiles are consistent with the absence of interaction.

  15. Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Bobo

    1983-01-01

    The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

  16. Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Cathie

    The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

  17. Fast Volume Preservation for Realistic Muscle Deformation Sunhwa Jung

    E-print Network

    Choi, Min-Hyung

    Fast Volume Preservation for Realistic Muscle Deformation Min Hong * Sunhwa Jung Min-Hyung Choi volume preservation is essential to achieve the realistic simulation of human muscle structure because approximately 75% of the human body is water and the overall volume is well maintained even during a large

  18. REALISTIC SIMULATION OF OCEAN SURFACE USING WAVE SPECTRA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REALISTIC SIMULATION OF OCEAN SURFACE USING WAVE SPECTRA Jocelyn Fr´echot LaBRI - Laboratoire CEDEX, France jocelyn.frechot@labri.fr Keywords: Natural phenomena, realistic ocean waves, procedural wave spectra are independent of the ocean model, Gerstner parametric equations and Fourier transform

  19. Comment on "Foundation of Statistical Mechanics under Experimentally Realistic Conditions"

    E-print Network

    Zhe-Xuan Gong; L. -M. Duan

    2011-09-22

    Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190403 (2008)] claimed that generic isolated macroscopic quantum system will equilibrate under experimentally realistic conditions by proving a theorem. We here show that the proof is invalid for most many-body systems and is unable to demonstrate equilibration in realistic experiment.

  20. Realistic Simulation of Network Protocols in VANET Scenarios

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    Realistic Simulation of Network Protocols in VANET Scenarios Christoph Sommer, Isabel Dietrich--Simulation of network protocol behavior in Vehicu- lar Ad Hoc Network (VANET) scenarios is the predominant basis in realistic VANET environments. In our work, we employed well-studied microsimulation models and wireless ad

  1. Click or Strike: Realistic Versus Standard Game Controls

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Click or Strike: Realistic Versus Standard Game Controls in Violent Video Games and Their Effects-Remote® , motion detection technology, gesture recognition, realistic interaction, violent video games, aggression, experiment. 1 Introduction Video games have come a long way since their first steps some decades ago

  2. Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP Ivan Enderlin, Fr´ed´eric Dadeau, Alain testing, contracts, realistic domains, PHP, random generation, rule coverage. I. INTRODUCTION Model-based,frederic.dadeau,alain.giorgetti,fabrice.bouquet}@femto-st.fr Abstract--This paper presents an integration of grammar- based testing in a framework for contract-based

  3. Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach

    E-print Network

    Aerts, Diederik

    Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach Diederik Aerts FUND of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach", International Journal of Theoretical examples in detail in the light of this formalism: a classical deterministic entity and a quantum entity

  4. A Physiological Torso Model for Realistic Breathing Simulation

    E-print Network

    Veltkamp, Remco

    A Physiological Torso Model for Realistic Breathing Simulation Remco C. Veltkamp and Berry Piest modeling of virtual humans, realistic breathing is an important aspect. This paper is about the simulation of breathing, based on anatomical and physiological principles. We have built a torso, including a thorax

  5. Fast Realistic Human Body Deformations for Animation and VR Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Thalmann; Jianhua Shen; Eric Chauvineau

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Actors now play an important role in Computer-generated films, Virtual Environments, Telecooperative work, and multimedia. In order to make these actors realistic, it is essential to represent their body shape during the motion. In this paper, we present different methods for representing realistic deformations for virtual humans with various characteristics: sex, age, height, weight. Our methods based on a

  6. Matter Enhanced Neutrino Oscillations with a Realistic Earth Density Profile

    E-print Network

    Martin Freund; Tommy Ohlsson

    2000-06-30

    We have investigated matter enhanced neutrino oscillations with a mantle-core-mantle step function and a realistic Earth matter density profile in both a two and a three neutrino scenario. We found that the realistic Earth matter density profile can be well approximated with the mantle-core-mantle step function and that there could be an influence on the oscillation channel $\

  7. Hierarchical Latent Dirichlet Allocation models for realistic action recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heping Li; Jie Liu; Shuwu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    It has always been very difficult to recognize realistic actions from unconstrained videos because there are tremendous variations from camera motion, background clutter, object appearance and so on. In this paper, a SingleFeature Hierarchical Latent Dirichlet Allocation model called SF-HLDA by extending Latent Dirichlet Allocation to the hierarchical one is first proposed for realistic action recognition. And then, by extending

  8. Realistic Load Testing of Web Applications Dirk Draheim

    E-print Network

    Grundy, John

    current tools for load testing support the creation of simple test cases consisting of a fixed sequenceRealistic Load Testing of Web Applications Dirk Draheim Institute of Computer Science Freie approach for performing load testing of web applications by simulating realistic user behaviour

  9. Emerging Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  10. An alumni-based evaluation of graduate training in health communication: results of a survey on careers, salaries, competencies, and emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Timothy; Hyde, James N

    2005-01-01

    Published information about career options and the core competencies necessary for health communication professionals (HCPs) is limited. Although the number of graduate programs in health communication continues to grow, no formal assessment of the success of this type of training has been conducted. The current study presents the results of an evaluation of the Master's Program in Health Communication offered collaboratively by Emerson College and the Tufts University School of Medicine. The program was one of the first of its kind and has graduated more health communication students than any other in the United States. To conduct the assessment of the program, the two schools collaborated on the development of an on-line survey for the alumni. Of the 131 graduates eligible to participate, 106 completed the survey. The survey yielded detailed information on the following: (1) career options for individuals with master's degrees in health communication; (2) value of graduate coursework for developing competencies in health communication; (3) salary expectations for individuals with graduate degrees in health communication; and (4) emerging trends in the field. These findings have important implications for the development of new programs and the refinement of existing ones in health communication. PMID:15764441

  11. Emerging phleboviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  12. Relativistic description of finite nuclei based on realistic NN interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dalen, E. N. E. van; Muether, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    A set of relativistic mean-field models is constructed, which includes the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations accounting for the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons as well as the pion. Density-dependent coupling functions are determined to reproduce the components of the nucleon self-energy at the Fermi surface, obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-HF (DBHF) approach by using a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is investigated to which extent the various mean-field models can reproduce the DBHF results for the momentum dependence of the self-energies and the total energy of infinite matter. Also, the mean-field models are used to evaluate the bulk properties of spherical closed-shell nuclei. We find that the HF model, which allows for the exchange of {sigma}, {omega}, {rho}, and {delta} mesons and pions, yields the best reproduction of the DBHF results in infinite matter and also provides a good description of the properties of finite nuclei without any adjustment of parameters.

  13. Optical forces and torques on realistic plasmonic nanostructures: a surface integral approach.

    PubMed

    Ji, Alok; Raziman, T V; Butet, Jérémy; Sharma, R P; Martin, Olivier J F

    2014-08-15

    We develop a novel formalism to calculate the optical forces and torques on complex and realistic nanostructures by combining the surface integral equation (SIE) technique with Maxwell's stress tensor. The optical force is calculated directly on the scatterer surface from the currents obtained from the SIE, which does not require an additional surface to evaluate Maxwell's stress tensor; this is especially useful for intricate geometries such as plasmonic antennas. SIE enables direct evaluation of forces from the surface currents very efficiently and accurately for complex systems. As a proof of concept, we establish the accuracy of the model by comparing the results with the calculations from the Mie theory. The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by simulating a realistic plasmonic system with intricate geometry. PMID:25121852

  14. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  15. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  16. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnancy and STDs. If a girl has been forced to have unwanted sex, she should see a doctor right away to ... It is also available to teens who are forced to have unprotected sex. Emergency contraception is not recommended for girls who ...

  17. [Outpatient emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient. PMID:24979919

  18. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a collection of air or gas in the space between the lungs and the chest that “collapses” the lung and prevents it from inflating completely. While this condition is usually not life-threatening, it should be considered an emergency. Symptoms ...

  19. Emerging options for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-02-18

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  20. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  1. Development and Evaluation of Educational Materials for Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department Personnel on the Care of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonigle, John J.; Migyanka, Joann M.; Glor-Scheib, Susan J.; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J.; Hegde, Gajanan G.; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there…

  2. Realistic training for effective crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of incident and accident statistics reveals that most problems occur not because of a lack of proficiency in pilot training, but because of the inability to coordinate skills into effective courses of action. Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) programs provide training which will develop both individual crew member skills, as well as those associated with effective group function. A study conducted by NASA at the request of the U.S. Congress supports the argument for training that enhances crew performance in addition to providing individual technical skills, and is described in detail.

  3. A time-responsive tool for informing policy making: rapid realist review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A realist synthesis attempts to provide policy makers with a transferable theory that suggests a certain program is more or less likely to work in certain respects, for particular subjects, in specific kinds of situations. Yet realist reviews can require considerable and sustained investment over time, which does not always suit the time-sensitive demands of many policy decisions. ‘Rapid Realist Review’ methodology (RRR) has been developed as a tool for applying a realist approach to a knowledge synthesis process in order to produce a product that is useful to policy makers in responding to time-sensitive and/or emerging issues, while preserving the core elements of realist methodology. Methods Using examples from completed RRRs, we describe key features of the RRR methodology, the resources required, and the strengths and limitations of the process. All aspects of an RRR are guided by both a local reference group, and a group of content experts. Involvement of knowledge users and external experts ensures both the usability of the review products, as well as their links to current practice. Results RRRs have proven useful in providing evidence for and making explicit what is known on a given topic, as well as articulating where knowledge gaps may exist. From the RRRs completed to date, findings broadly adhere to four (often overlapping) classifications: guiding rules for policy-making; knowledge quantification (i.e., the amount of literature available that identifies context, mechanisms, and outcomes for a given topic); understanding tensions/paradoxes in the evidence base; and, reinforcing or refuting beliefs and decisions taken. Conclusions ‘Traditional’ realist reviews and RRRs have some key differences, which allow policy makers to apply each type of methodology strategically to maximize its utility within a particular local constellation of history, goals, resources, politics and environment. In particular, the RRR methodology is explicitly designed to engage knowledge users and review stakeholders to define the research questions, and to streamline the review process. In addition, results are presented with a focus on context-specific explanations for what works within a particular set of parameters rather than producing explanations that are potentially transferrable across contexts and populations. For policy makers faced with making difficult decisions in short time frames for which there is sufficient (if limited) published/research and practice-based evidence available, RRR provides a practical, outcomes-focused knowledge synthesis method. PMID:24007206

  4. A SPATIALLY REALISTIC MODEL FOR INFORMING FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatially realistic population models (SRPMs) address a fundamental problem commonly confronted by wildlife managers - predicting the effects of landscape-scale habitat management on an animal population. SRPMs typically consist of three submodels: (1) a habitat submodel...

  5. Realistic Industrial Scale Energy Optimization: Part II - Analytic Techniques

    E-print Network

    Kleinschrodt, F. J., III

    1982-01-01

    conservation program which will maximize savings through the most efficient utilization of energy that will meet the preponderance of constraints which are found in process industry. The first part of the paper described a realistic and practical approach...

  6. ``Interval Rational = Algebraic'' Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    the numbers representable in a computer are rational and therefore, form a set of Lebesgue measure 0, only rational numbers ``Interval Rational = Algebraic'' Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result Anatoly V. Lakeyev 1

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic

    E-print Network

    Fedorovich, Evgeni

    Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic Environmental atmospheric environmental forcings. Analysis of several simulated convec- tive boundary layer (CBL) cases toward dynamic adjustment of environmental parameters in LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows

  8. OCCLUSION-FREE IMAGE GENERATION FOR REALISTIC TEXTURE MAPPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Ortin; Fabio Remondino

    ABSTRACT: Photo-realistic 3D models are nowadays,required in many applications. The 3D modelling pipeline can be imageor range-based and often ends up with ,a visualization ,of a ,virtual textured model. One of the ,main ,problems ,encountered ,in texture mapping ,is the disturbance in the images by occlusions, which do not allow the generation of photo-realistic textured 3D models. Occlusions can be

  9. A left realist approach to antifeminist fathers’ rights groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly Dragiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Despite earlier critiques of left realists’ failure to adequately address feminist concerns, recent left realist theorizing\\u000a and empirical research have made valuable contributions to the understanding of woman abuse and other forms of gendered violence.\\u000a Left realism has further potential to contribute to the criminological understanding of woman abuse and its contributing socioeconomic\\u000a and cultural contexts. This article describes left

  10. A realistic spline-based dynamic heart phantom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Paul Segars; David S. Lalush; Benjamin M. W. Tsui

    1999-01-01

    We develop a realistic computerized heart phantom for use in medical imaging research. This phantom is a hybrid of realistic patient-based phantoms and flexible geometry-based phantoms. The surfaces of heart structures are defined using non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), as used in 3D computer graphics. The NURBS primitives define continuous surfaces allowing the phantom to be defined at any resolution. Also,

  11. Development and Evaluation of a SYBR Green-Based Real Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of the Emerging Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Fan, Huan; Qi, Xian; Qi, Yuhua; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    Most recently a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China and has been associated with lots of human infection and fatal cases. Genetic analysis of the viral genome revealed that this reassortant virus might be better adapted to humans than other avian influenza viruses. Molecular diagnostic methods are thus urgently needed in public health laboratories. In this study, a SYBR green-based one-step real time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect the novel H7N9 virus. The primer pairs on the basis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences of H7N9 viruses amplified subtype-specific fragments with Tm values of 80.77±0.06°C for H7 and 81.20±0.17°C for N9 respectively. The standard curves showed a dynamic linear range across 6 log units of RNA copy number (106 to 101 copies/ µl) with a detection limit of 10 copies per reaction for both H7 and N9 assays by using serial ten-fold diluted in-vitro transcribed viral RNA. In addition, no cross-reactivity was observed with seasonal H1N1, H1N1 pdm09, H3N2, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses as well as other human respiratory viruses. When the assay was further evaluated in H7N9 virus infected clinical samples, positive amplification signals were obtained in all of the specimens with the accordance between H7 and N9 assays. Therefore, the established SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay could provide a rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative approach with lower costs for high throughput screening of suspected samples from humans, animals and environments in first line public health laboratories. PMID:24278234

  12. Comparative evaluation of different medication safety measures for the emergency department: physicians’ usage and acceptance of training, poster, checklist and computerized decision support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although usage and acceptance are important factors for a successful implementation of clinical decision support systems for medication, most studies only concentrate on their design and outcome. Our objective was to comparatively investigate a set of traditional medication safety measures such as medication safety training for physicians, paper-based posters and checklists concerning potential medication problems versus the additional benefit of a computer-assisted medication check. We concentrated on usage, acceptance and suitability of such interventions in a busy emergency department (ED) of a 749 bed acute tertiary care hospital. Methods A retrospective, qualitative evaluation study was conducted using a field observation and a questionnaire-based survey. Six physicians were observed while treating 20 patient cases; the questionnaire, based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2), has been answered by nine ED physicians. Results During field observations, we did not observe direct use of any of the implemented interventions for medication safety (paper-based and electronic). Questionnaire results indicated that the electronic medication safety check was the most frequently used intervention, followed by checklist and posters. However, despite their positive attitude, physicians most often stated that they use the interventions in only up to ten percent for subjectively “critical” orders. Main reasons behind the low usage were deficits in ease-of-use and fit to the workflow. The intention to use the interventions was rather high after overcoming these barriers. Conclusions Methodologically, the study contributes to Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) research in an ED setting and confirms TAM2 as a helpful diagnostic tool in identifying barriers for a successful implementation of medication safety interventions. In our case, identified barriers explaining the low utilization of the implemented medication safety interventions - despite their positive reception - include deficits in accessibility, briefing for the physicians about the interventions, ease-of-use and compatibility to the working environment. PMID:23890121

  13. Cost and Resource Utilization Associated with Use of Computed Tomography to Evaluate Chest Pain in the Emergency Department: The ROMICAT Study

    PubMed Central

    Hulten, Edward; Goehler, Alexander; Bittencourt, Marcio; Bamberg, Fabian; Schlett, Christopher L.; Truong, Quynh A.; Nichols, John; Nasir, Khurram; Rogers, Ian S.; Gazelle, Scott G.; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo; Blankstein, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) allows for rapid non-invasive exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, concern exists whether implementation of cCTA in the assessment of patients presenting to the emergency room with acute chest pain will lead to increased downstream testing and costs compared to alternative strategies. Our aim was to compare observed actual costs of usual care (UC) with projected costs of a strategy including early cCTA in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computed Tomography (ROMICAT I) study. Methods and Results We compared cost and hospital length of stay of UC observed among 368 patients enrolled in the ROMICAT I trial with projected costs of management based on cCTA. Costs of UC were determined by an electronic cost accounting system. Notably, UC was not influenced by cCTA results, as patients and caregivers were blinded to the cCTA results. Costs after early implementation cCTA were estimated assuming changes in management based on cCTA findings of presence and severity of CAD. Sensitivity analysis was used to test influence of key variables on both outcomes and costs. We determined that in comparison to UC, cCTA-guided triage whereby patients with no CAD are discharged, could reduce total hospital costs by 23%, p < 0.001. However, when the prevalence of obstructive CAD increases, index hospitalization cost increases such that when the prevalence of ?50% stenosis is greater than 28–33%, the use of cCTA becomes more costly than UC. Conclusion cCTA may be a cost saving tool in acute chest pain populations that have a prevalence of potentially obstructive CAD lower than 30%. However, increased cost would be anticipated in populations with higher prevalence of disease. PMID:24021693

  14. Educational Assessment of Medical Student Rotation in Emergency Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Emerg Med. 2005;ns) 2 week (n=25) Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 4 week (n=20)abdominal aortic the emergency department with unexplained dyspnea. Acad Emerg aneurysm:

  15. Emergency Network O, , , , ,

    E-print Network

    . . emergency network delay-tolerant network (DTN) , emergency network DTN , infrastructure , . DTN Emergency network , , . emergency network , Destination Based Routing (DBR) Path and restorations. In the emergency network environments, delay-tolerant network (DTN) can play an important role

  16. Emergent spin

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael, E-mail: creutz@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

  17. Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamankar, Nitin S.

    Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method is found to be successful in producing a turbulent shear layer. Imposition of larger turbulent integral length scales at the inlet is found to be effective in achieving a quicker recovery of turbulent fluctuations at low Reynolds numbers.

  18. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Pedro Schwaller; Daniel Stolarski; Andreas Weiler

    2015-02-24

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  19. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  20. Emerging zoonoses.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic or species-jumping infectious agents. Because there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Such investigation may be described in terms of a discovery-to-control continuum: from recognition of a new disease in a new setting to complex phases involving the hard science disciplines pertaining to discovery, the epidemiologic sciences pertaining to risk assessment, and activities pertaining to risk management. Today, many activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of a failed investigative infrastructure or financial base. Because zoonotic diseases are distinct, their prevention and control will require unique strategies, based more on fundamental research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require that we rebuild a cadre of career-committed professionals with a holistic appreciation of several medical and biologic sciences. PMID:9716965

  1. A generic framework to simulate realistic lung, liver and renal pathologies in CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-11-01

    Realistic three-dimensional (3D) mathematical models of subtle lesions are essential for many computed tomography (CT) studies focused on performance evaluation and optimization. In this paper, we develop a generic mathematical framework that describes the 3D size, shape, contrast, and contrast-profile characteristics of a lesion, as well as a method to create lesion models based on CT data of real lesions. Further, we implemented a technique to insert the lesion models into CT images in order to create hybrid CT datasets. This framework was used to create a library of realistic lesion models and corresponding hybrid CT images. The goodness of fit of the models was assessed using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the visual appearance of the hybrid images was assessed with an observer study using images of both real and simulated lesions and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average R2 of the lesion models was 0.80, implying that the models provide a good fit to real lesion data. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55, implying that the observers could not readily distinguish between real and simulated lesions. Therefore, we conclude that the lesion-modeling framework presented in this paper can be used to create realistic lesion models and hybrid CT images. These models could be instrumental in performance evaluation and optimization of novel CT systems.

  2. Description and validation of realistic and structured endourology training model

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Federico; Morcillo, Esther; Sanz, Juan Luis; Budia, Alberto; Serrano, Alvaro; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to validate a model of training, which combines the use of non-biological and ex vivo biological bench models, as well as the modelling of urological injuries for endourological treatment in a porcine animal model. Material and Methods: A total of 40 participants took part in this study. The duration of the activity was 16 hours. The model of training was divided into 3 levels: level I, concerning the acquisition of basic theoretical knowledge; level II, involving practice with the bench models and level III, concerning practice in the porcine animal model. First, trainees practiced with animals without using a model of injured (ureteroscopy, management of guide wires and catheters under fluoroscopic control) and later practiced in lithiasic animal model. During the activity, an evaluation of the face and content validity was conducted, as well as constructive validation provided by the trainees versus experts. Evolution of the variables during the course within each group was analysed using the Student’s t test for paired samples, while comparisons between groups, were performed using the Student’s t test for unpaired samples. Results: The assessments of face and content validity were satisfactory. The constructive validation, “within one trainee” shows that were statistical significant differences between the first time the trainees performed the tasks in the animal model and the last time, mainly in the knowledge of procedure and Holmium laser lithotripsy cathegories. At the beginning of level III, there are also statistical significant differences between trainee’s scores and the expert’s scores.Conclusions: This realistic Endourology training model allows the acquisition of knowledge and technical and non-technical skills as evidenced by the face, content and constructive validity. Structured use of bench models (biological and non biological) and animal model simulators increase the endourological basic skills. PMID:25374928

  3. Emergency Procedures In an emergency call

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    glass alarms, evacuation routes, emergency exits, assembly areas, Building Warden, Area Wardens/notification #12;3 Emergency Evacuation Don't Panic At all times during an emergency follow the instructions and Emergency Services personnel. #12;4 Emergency Evacuation Do not use the lifts 6. Remain at the assembly area

  4. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    PubMed Central

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  5. Effective health care for older people resident in care homes: the optimal study protocol for realist review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Care homes in the UK rely on general practice for access to specialist medical and nursing care as well as referral to therapists and secondary care. Service delivery to care homes is highly variable in both quantity and quality. This variability is also evident in the commissioning and organisation of care home-specific services that range from the payment of incentives to general practitioners (GPs) to visit care homes, to the creation of care home specialist teams and outreach services run by geriatricians. No primary studies or systematic reviews have robustly evaluated the impact of these different approaches on organisation and resident-level outcomes. Our aim is to identify factors which may explain the perceived or demonstrated effectiveness of programmes to improve health-related outcomes in older people living in care homes. Methods/Design A realist review approach will be used to develop a theoretical understanding of what works when, why and in what circumstances. Elements of service models of interest include those that focus on assessment and management of residents’ health, those that use strategies to encourage closer working between visiting health care providers and care home staff, and those that address system-wide issues about access to assessment and treatment. These will include studies on continence, dignity, and speech and language assessment as well as interventions to promote person centred dementia care, improve strength and mobility, and nutrition. The impact of these interventions and their different mechanisms will be considered in relation to five key outcomes: residents’ medication use, use of out of hours’ services, hospital admissions (including use of Accident and Emergency) and length of hospital stay, costs and user satisfaction. An iterative three-stage approach will be undertaken that is stakeholder-driven and optimises the knowledge and networks of the research team. Discussion This realist review will explore why and for whom different approaches to providing health care to residents in care homes improves access to health care in the five areas of interest. It will inform commissioning decisions and be the basis for further research. This systematic review protocol is registered on the PROSPERO database reference number: CRD42014009112. PMID:24887325

  6. Speaker Verification in Realistic Noisy Environment in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Toshiaki; Minematsu, Nobuaki; Osanai, Takashi; Makinae, Hisanori; Tanimoto, Masumi

    In forensic voice telephony speaker verification, we may be requested to identify a speaker in a very noisy environment, unlike the conditions in general research. In a noisy environment, we process speech first by clarifying it. However, the previous study of speaker verification from clarified speech did not yield satisfactory results. In this study, we experimented on speaker verification with clarification of speech in a noisy environment, and we examined the relationship between improving acoustic quality and speaker verification results. Moreover, experiments with realistic noise such as a crime prevention alarm and power supply noise was conducted, and speaker verification accuracy in a realistic environment was examined. We confirmed the validity of speaker verification with clarification of speech in a realistic noisy environment.

  7. The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Field Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of 'realistic' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The finding in this paper may be applicable to some lower energy particle transport system design.

  8. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Lalitkumar, P G L; Berger, Cecilia; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    This review will focus on the available methods for emergency contraception (EC), efficacy, side effects and mechanisms of action. Copper intrauterine device (IUD) has been shown to be the most effective method for EC which can be continually used for regular contraception. However, this possibility is seldom used and may be little known. Among the hormonal EC methods 1.5 mg levonorgestrel is the most widely used EC pill while the more recently developed Ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been shown to be the most effective option. This is probably due to a more pronounced prevention of follicular rupture compared with other hormonal EC methods. Knowledge is needed to better advise lactating women and obese women on optimal EC method. Furthermore a possible interaction of UPA with regular hormonal contraception and possibilities for "bridging" from EC to regular contraception needs to be explored. To increase efficacy future studies should focus on EC methods that target the endometrium. PMID:23384749

  9. Emerging anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Stein, Dan J

    2007-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common of the psychiatric disorders and are also associated with significant economic costs and impaired work productivity. The first-line pharmacotherapy of pharmatherapy for a number of anxiety disorders comprises selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Benzodiazepines are still widely used for the treatment of several anxiety disorders. Although these agents are effective, many patients are treatment-refractory and more effective, better tolerated medications are required. This paper discusses the understandings of mechanisms involved in the anxiety disorders and reviews emerging medications. Mechanisms underlying the use of d-cycloserine, second generation antipsychotics and beta-blockers are particularly exciting. PMID:17979598

  10. Emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, DK; Taddeo, D

    2010-01-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is an effective way to prevent an unintended or unplanned pregnancy. EC is available in two forms in Canada: a progestin-only method and a combined hormonal method, also known as the Yuzpe regimen. EC has been proven to be most effective within 72 h and up to 120 h after unprotected sexual intercourse. To date, the progestin-only method is the preferred method of EC recommended to teens because it is known for higher efficacy and fewer side effects, and is, therefore, more widely accepted over the combined method. Teens should also be counselled that the progestin-only method is widely available without a doctor’s prescription across Canada. PMID:21731419

  11. Fluidic Emergency Thruster for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and test evaluation of two prototype fluidic emergency thrusters (FET) for aircraft stabilization are discussed. The fluidic control units were designed to provide, between two diametrically opposed nozzles, a thrust differential proportional to an input voltage signal. The emergency roll control requirements of the X-14 VTOL research aircraft were defined as typical design goals. Two control units, one on each wing tip, are intended to provide a maximum thrust of 224 pounds per unit. The units are designed to operate with 2500 psig, 2000 F gas from a solid propellant gas generator. The emergency system including the gas generator was designed to add less than 11 pounds per wing tip. The operating time under emergency conditions was specified as five seconds. The fluidic emergency thruster is similar in concept to a JATO system but has the added feature of controllable thrust.

  12. Costs of Emergency Care

    MedlinePLUS

    Costs of Emergency Care Fact Sheet Main Points Emergency care represents less than 2 percent of the ... must be adequately funded. Q. What are the costs of emergency care? The cost of providing emergency ...

  13. Emergency Care of Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... emergency departments and in the emergency medical services (EMS) community (e.g., ambulances). Recent studies examining the ... is a member of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Partnership for Children consortium, sponsored by the Emergency ...

  14. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) in a Sample of Continuation High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Grana, Rachel; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reifman, Alan; Sussman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    It is now presumed that youth do not move directly from adolescence to adulthood, but rather pass through a transitional period, “emerging adulthood.” The Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) is a self-report instrument developed to examine the attributes of this period. “At-risk” youth appear to enter emerging adulthood developmental tasks at a slightly earlier age than general population youth. In the present study, a 21-item version of the IDEA was administered to a sample of 1676 “at-risk” continuation (alternative) high school students in Southern California. Principal component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation revealed three factors the authors labeled “Identity Exploration,” “Experimentation/Possibilities,” and “Independence.” Overall, the measure demonstrated high internal consistency. Construct validity analyses indicated that the measure was correlated with demographics, risk behaviors, and psychological measures. The authors conclude that the IDEA-R is a useful instrument for measuring emerging adulthood in at-risk populations. PMID:22786874

  15. Use of Poisson regression and Box–Jenkins models to evaluate the short-term effects of environmental noise levels on daily emergency admissions in Madrid, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Tobías; Julio Díaz; Marc Saez; Juan Carlos Alberdi

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and hospital admissions has usually been analysed without taking into account the influence of a factor closely related to traffic in big cities, that is, environmental noise levels. We analysed the relationship between environmental noise and emergency admissions, for all causes and specific causes in Madrid (Spain), for the study period 1995–1997, using two statistical

  16. Management of coronary risk factors by registered nurses versus usual care in patients with unstable angina pectoris (a chest pain evaluation in the emergency room [CHEER] substudy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G Allison; Michael E Farkouh; Peter A Smars; Roger W Evans; Ray W Squires; Sherine E Gabriel; Stephen L Kopecky; Raymond J Gibbons; Guy S Reeder

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether nurses could manage coronary risk factors in patients with unstable angina more effectively than physicians practicing usual care. Three hundred twenty-six patients were randomized in the emergency room to a 6-month program of risk factor management by a registered nurse versus participation in usual care. The nurse intervention consisted of a 30-minute counseling visit at 6

  17. Evaluation of the prevalence and economic burden of adverse drug reactions presenting to the medical emergency department of a tertiary referral centre: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KJ Patel; Kedia; D Bajpai; SS Mehta; NA Kshirsagar; NJ Gogtay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are now recognized as an important cause of hospital admissions, with a proportion ranging from 0.9–7.9%. They also constitute a significant economic burden. We thus aimed at determining the prevalence and the economic burden of ADRs presenting to Medical Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary referral center in India METHODS: A prospective, observational study of

  18. Effects of Defining Realistic Compositions of the Ocular Melanoma on Proton Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Keshazare, Sh; Masoudi, S F; S Rasouli, F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies in eye plaque brachytherapy have shown a considerable difference between the dosimetric results using water phantom and a model of human eye containing realistic materials. In spite of this fact, there is a lack of simulation studies based on such a model in proton therapy literatures. In the presented work, the effect of utilizing an eye model with ocular media on proton therapy is investigated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo Code. Methods: Two different eye models are proposed to study the effect of defining realistic materials on dose deposition due to utilizing pencil beam scanning (PBS) method for proton therapy of ocular melanoma. The first model is filled with water, and the second one contains the realistic materials of tumor and vitreous. Spread out Bragg peaks (SOBP) are created to cover a typical tumor volume. Moreover, isodose curves are figured in order to evaluate planar variations of absorbed dose in two models. Results: The results show that the maximum delivered dose in ocular media is approximately 12-32% more than in water phantom. Also it is found that using the optimized weighted beams in water phantom leads to disturbance of uniformity of SOBP in ocular media. Conclusion: Similar to the results reported in eye brachytherapy published papers, considering the ocular media in simulation studies leads to a more realistic assessment of sufficiency of the designed proton beam in tissue. This effect is of special importance in creating SOBP, as well as in delivered dose in the tumor boundaries in proton pencil beam scanning method. PMID:25599060

  19. Design and Implement of Police Emergency Response System Based on Integrating GIS with Decision-Making Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuefei Li; Peihong Fu

    2010-01-01

    Through analysis to workflow of Police Emergency Response System, this paper took emergency theory as guideline, built Police Emergency Response and Decision-making Model System and then classified the Decision-making Models System into emergency evaluation model, prior emergency response plan model, emergency forecast model, emergency resources assessment model and emergency response and deployment model. Meanwhile, we put forward the idea of

  20. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Rabe, Thomas; Cheng, Linan

    2013-03-01

    There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI). From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (LNG), known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of UPSI, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, LNG alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2?×?0.75?mg 12 hours apart) showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5?mg LNG pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception (EC) are available on the market today with the most widely spread being LNG in a single dose of 1.5?mg (given as one tablet of 1.5?mg or 2 tablets of 0.75?mg each) for administration up to 3 days (according to WHO up to 5 days) after UPSI. Its limitations are the non-optimal efficacy which is decreasing the later the drug is taken and the fact that it is only approved for up to 72 hours after UPSI. This regimen has no effect on the endometrium, corpus luteum function and implantation, is not abortive and don't harm the fetus if accidentally taken in early pregnancy. It has no impact on the rate of ectopic pregnancies. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for EC, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that EC is considered an off label use for most IUDs (not for the GynFix copper IUD in the European Union) and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Furthermore IUD-insertion is an invasive procedure and it is required trained providers and sterilized facilities. Mifepristone in the dosages of 10 or 25?mg is used with good results as an emergency contraceptive in China for up to 120 hours after UPSI, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. While high doses of mifepristone has an effect on endometrial receptivity and will inhibit ovulation if given in the follicular phase and prevent implantation if given in the early luteal phase, low doses such as 10?mg has no impact on the endometrium. Mifepristone does not increase the rate of ectopic pregnancies. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate (UPA) in the dosage of 30?mg for EC up to 5 days after UPSI, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose LNG pill with an even higher efficacy. It has shown to be more efficacious than LNG and can be used for up to 120 hours after UPSI; the difference in efficacy is highest for 0-24 hours, followed by 0-72 hours following UPSI. No VTE has been reported following UPA-administration or any progesterone receptor modulator. No effect on endometrium, corpus luteum function and implantation has been observed with doses used for EC. Independent of the substance it should be noted that, if there is a choice, the intake of an oral emergency contraceptive pill should happen as soon as possible after the risk situation. A pre-existing pregnancy must be excluded. Possible contraindications and drug interactions must be considered according to the individual special product informations. PMID:23437846

  1. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of shared care: protocol for a realist review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shared care (an enhanced information exchange over and above routine outpatient letters) is commonly used to improve care coordination and communication between a specialist and primary care services for people with long-term conditions. Evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of shared care is mixed. Informed decision-making for targeting shared care requires a greater understanding of how it works, for whom it works, in what contexts and why. This protocol outlines how realist review methods can be used to synthesise evidence on shared care for long-term conditions. A further aim of the review is to explore economic evaluations of shared care. Economic evaluations are difficult to synthesise due to problems in accounting for contextual differences that impact on resource use and opportunity costs. Realist review methods have been suggested as a way to overcome some of these issues, so this review will also assess whether realist review methods are amenable to synthesising economic evidence. Methods/Design Database and web searching will be carried out in order to find relevant evidence to develop and test programme theories about how shared care works. The review will have two phases. Phase 1 will concentrate on the contextual conditions and mechanisms that influence how shared care works, in order to develop programme theories, which partially explain how it works. Phase 2 will focus on testing these programme theories. A Project Reference Group made up of health service professionals and people with actual experience of long-term conditions will be used to ground the study in real-life experience. Review findings will be disseminated through local and sub-national networks for integrated care and long-term conditions. Discussion This realist review will explore why and for whom shared care works, in order to support decision-makers working to improve the effectiveness of care for people outside hospital. The development of realist review methods to take into account cost and cost-effectiveness evidence is particularly innovative and challenging, and if successful will offer a new approach to synthesising economic evidence. This systematic review protocol is registered on the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42012002842). PMID:23402391

  2. How Realistic is Photorealistic? Siwei Lyu and Hany Farid

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    1 How Realistic is Photorealistic? Siwei Lyu and Hany Farid Department of Computer Science to differentiate from photographic images. As a result, the unique stature of photographs as a defini- tive photorealistic and photographic images. Specifically, we show that a statistical model based on first- and higher

  3. Realistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Realistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing Sponsor: National Science and supersonic jet noise prediction for modern-day turbofan aircraft engines using petascale computing. Jet noise.e. chevrons and lobed mixers. The PIs will investigate turbulent mixing by accurately simulating

  4. ECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy -Energy use in transportation,

    E-print Network

    Schumacher, Russ

    . - Energy Transport costs for both freight and people. Hybrid Electric truck, bus and car issues - EnergyECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy - Energy use in transportation, HVAC and electric generation is detailed in units of kW-Hr - Alternative Energy sources for fuels and electric generation are covered

  5. Engendering Anthropocentrism: Lessons from Children's Realistic Animal Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen R.

    In children's realistic stories about animals a number of wholly and unambiguously anthropocentric assumptions are at work. For instance, in a study most of the books (81%) in one sampling of 50 stories involve a pet or the process of domesticating a wild animal. In most cases the primary animal character is a dog or horse. The predominance of…

  6. The Instructional Effectiveness of Integrating Abstract and Realistic Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John H.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    The instructional effectiveness of integrating abstract and realistic visualization was studied using five types of visualization, three levels of general ability and two modes of instruction. The dependent variable was performance on a four-part criterion test representing five different types of instructional objectives, which was administered…

  7. A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production

    E-print Network

    Quinn, Nigel

    A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production T of microalgae biofuels production through an analysis of five production scenarios. These scenarios, or cases microalgae biofuel technologies for both oil and biogas production, provides an initial assessment of the US

  8. Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2000-01-01

    I prove the security of quantum key distribution against individual attacks for realistic signals sources, including weak coherent pulses and down-conversion sources. The proof applies to the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with the standard detection scheme (no strong reference pulse). I obtain a formula for the secure bit rate per time slot of an experimental setup, which can be used to

  9. Title: Realistic Hair Simulation animation and rendering Submission Format & Area

    E-print Network

    Title: Realistic Hair Simulation ­ animation and rendering Submission Format & Area Class SIGGRAPH of the most challenging tasks in character synthesis: hair simulation. This class covers both recent and novel research ideas in hair animation and rendering, and presents time tested industrial practices

  10. A realistic testing of a shipboard wireless sensor network

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A realistic testing of a shipboard wireless sensor network H. Kdouh1,* , C. Brousseau2 , G. Zaharia-mail : hussein.kdouh@insa-rennes.fr Abstract--Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) may be a very useful technology by the topology evolution of the network and the analysis of RSSI levels of links between sensor nodes. Keywords-Wireless

  11. Non-Realist Writing Co-ordinator: Dr Edwina Keown

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    , Ghost Stories Week 7: Study Week Week 8: Aldous Huxley, Brave New World Week 9: George Orwell, 1984 Week) Aldous Huxley, Brave New World Revisited (London: Harper Collins, 1994) Sven Lindqvist, A History will be given to the potential of non-realist fictional forms to imagine other worlds, or other versions

  12. Novel Micropatterned Cardiac Cell Cultures with Realistic Ventricular Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Nima; Bursac, Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies of cardiac structure-function relationships to date have been hindered by the intrinsic complexity and variability of in vivo and ex vivo model systems. Thus, we set out to develop a reproducible cell culture system that can accurately replicate the realistic microstructure of native cardiac tissues. Using cell micropatterning techniques, we aligned cultured cardiomyocytes at micro- and macroscopic spatial scales to follow local directions of cardiac fibers in murine ventricular cross sections, as measured by high-resolution diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. To elucidate the roles of ventricular tissue microstructure in macroscopic impulse conduction, we optically mapped membrane potentials in micropatterned cardiac cultures with realistic tissue boundaries and natural cell orientation, cardiac cultures with realistic tissue boundaries but random cell orientation, and standard isotropic monolayers. At 2 Hz pacing, both microscopic changes in cell orientation and ventricular tissue boundaries independently and synergistically increased the spatial dispersion of conduction velocity, but not the action potential duration. The realistic variations in intramural microstructure created unique spatial signatures in micro- and macroscopic impulse propagation within ventricular cross-section cultures. This novel in vitro model system is expected to help bridge the existing gap between experimental structure-function studies in standard cardiac monolayers and intact heart tissues. PMID:19413993

  13. Four-dimensional realistic modeling of pancreatic organogenesis

    E-print Network

    Harel, David

    Four-dimensional realistic modeling of pancreatic organogenesis Yaki Settya,b , Irun R. Cohenc) Organogenesis, the process by which organs develop from indi- vidual precursor stem cells, requires of organogenesis, by its nature, cuts the 4D developmental process into static, 2D histological images

  14. Realistic 2D Fire in Real-Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odd Erik Gundersen; Samuel Rødal; Geir Storli

    We have reached our goal of implementing a computationally cheap algorithm for real- time rendering of realistic two-dimensional fire. The fire is simulated using computational fluid dynamics, vorticity confinement, and combustion modelling and visualized using black-body radiation. Small rotationally homogenous fires like torches and candles viewed in front are the best candidates when using this approach.

  15. REALISTIC 3D SCENE RECONSTRUCTION FROM UNSCONSTRAINED AND UNCALIBRATED IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    such as architechture, engineering, education and arts. Traditional modelling systems such as Maya, 3D Max or Blender REALISTIC 3D SCENE RECONSTRUCTION FROM UNSCONSTRAINED AND UNCALIBRATED IMAGES TAKEN of reconstructing 3D scenes from a set of unconstrained images. These image sequences can be acquired by a video

  16. Automated Finger Spelling by Highly Realistic 3D Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The…

  17. Realistic, RealTime Rendering of Ocean Waves Microsoft Research

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Realistic, Real­Time Rendering of Ocean Waves Yaohua Hu Microsoft Research Luiz Velho IMPA Xin Tong surface in real time. Our system can render calm ocean waves with sophisticated lighting effects at 100 in recreating the look and feel of the ocean water. Our second idea is a view-dependent representation of wave

  18. Strike Limit Algorithm Optimisation: A Realistic Geof H. Givens \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Givens, Geof H.

    Strike Limit Algorithm Optimisation: A Realistic Example Geof H. Givens \\Lambda February 10, 2000) a number of whales `needed' to be caught for each year up to the present, \\Lambda Geof H. Givens procedure strike limit algorithm (SLA), applying the merging and opti­ misation approach of Givens (1997

  19. VANET Topology Characteristics under Realistic Mobility and Channel Models

    E-print Network

    Özkasap, Öznur

    VANET Topology Characteristics under Realistic Mobility and Channel Models Nabeel Akhtar, Oznur--Developing real-time safety and non-safety applica- tions for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) requires under the performance of routing protocols and the feasibility of an application over VANET. Using various key metrics

  20. Progressing Toward Realistic Mobility Models in VANET Simulations

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    1 Progressing Toward Realistic Mobility Models in VANET Simulations Christoph Sommer Student Member.sommer,dressler}@informatik.uni-erlangen.de Abstract--Much progress can be observed in the domain of Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) research looking in the context of VANETs are typically based on simulation models. This approach has two major prerequisites

  1. VanetMobiSim: generating realistic mobility patterns for VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Härri; Fethi Filali; Christian Bonnet; Marco Fiore

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present and describe VanetMobiSim, a generator of realistic vehicular movement traces for telecommunication networks simulators. VanetMobiSim mobility description is validated by illustrating how the interaction between featured macro- and micro-mobility is able to reproduce typical phenomena of vehicular traffic.

  2. A possible definition of a {\\it Realistic} Physics Theory

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Gisin

    2014-01-02

    A definition of a {\\it Realistic} Physics Theory is proposed based on the idea that, at all time, the set of physical properties possessed (at that time) by a system should unequivocally determine the probabilities of outcomes of all possible measurements.

  3. Developing Skills: Realistic Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria

    To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…

  4. Clearance is not a realistic expectation of psoriasis treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami N. Al-Suwaidan; Steven R. Feldman

    2000-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a disease with many manifestations for which numerous treatments are available. Objective: The purpose of this article is to assess whether complete clearance is a realistic expectation given the currently available treatments for psoriasis. Methods: Clinical trials of the treatment of psoriasis were identified from the medical literature, and the reported rates of clearance were compared. Results:

  5. "Interval Rational = Algebraic" Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    numbers are represented. The set of all rational numbers is countable and has, therefore, Lebesgue measure"Interval Rational = Algebraic" Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result Anatoly V. Lakeyev1 rational functions, then the resulting class of "interval-rational" functions practically coincides

  6. Perception of Body and Hand Animations for Realistic Virtual Characters

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    Perception of Body and Hand Animations for Realistic Virtual Characters Sophie J¨org Dissertation;#12;Abstract Researchers and artists bring astonishing cartoon style characters and fantasy crea- tures to life experiments with short snippets of animation are valuable for measuring straightforward perceptibility

  7. Synthesis Of Realistic Animations Of A Person Speaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Kenneth C.; Kagels, David S.; Watson, Stephen H.; Rom, Hillel S.; Lorre, Jean J.; Wright, John R.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1995-01-01

    Actors computer program implements automated process that synthesizes realistic animations of person speaking. Produces "newscaster" type video sequences. Uses images of person and, therefore, not limited to cartoons and cartoonlike movies. Potential applications also include use of process for automatically producing on-the-fly animations for human/computer interfaces and for reducing bandwidth needed to transmit video telephone signals.

  8. A tool for synthesizing spike trains with realistic interference

    E-print Network

    Smith, Leslie S.

    detection and spike sorting techniques are often difficult to assess because of the lack of ground truth) for assessing spike detection and spike sorting techniques. They can also be used to generate realistic (non Gaussian) background noise. We use signals generated in this way to compare two automated spike sorting

  9. Evolutionary Non PhotoRealistic Animations with Triangular Brushstrokes

    E-print Network

    Ciesielski, Vic

    experimented with open and filled triangles. Both kinds of triangles resulted in animations that our artistEvolutionary Non Photo­Realistic Animations with Triangular Brushstrokes Ashkan Izadi1 , Vic for generating non photorealis- tic animations of a target image. The animations start as a random col- lection

  10. Uncovering gender discrimination cues in a realistic setting

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    Uncovering gender discrimination cues in a realistic setting Département de Psychologie, UniversitéFrédéric Gosselin Which face cues do we use for gender discrimination? Few studies have tried to answer and presented a large number of times. Here, we reassessed the importance of facial cues for gender

  11. Evidence of Multistability in a Realistic Computer Simulation of Hippocampus Subfield CA1

    PubMed Central

    Siekmeier, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The manner in which hippocampus processes neural signals is thought to be central to the memory encoding process. A theoretically-oriented literature has suggested that this is carried out via “attractors” or distinctive spatio-temporal patterns of activity. However, these ideas have not been thoroughly investigated using computational models featuring both realistic single-cell physiology and detailed cell-to-cell connectivity. Here we present a 452 cell simulation based on Traub et al’s pyramidal cell [81] and interneuron [83] models, incorporating patterns of synaptic connectivity based on an extensive review of the neuroanatomic literature. When stimulated with a one second physiologically realistic input, our simulated tissue shows the ability to hold activity on-line for several seconds; furthermore, its spiking activity, as measured by frequency and interspike interval (ISI) distributions, resembles that of in vivo hippocampus. An interesting emergent property of the system is its tendency to transition from stable state to stable state, a behavior consistent with recent experimental findings [73]. Inspection of spike trains and simulated blockade of KAHP channels suggest that this is mediated by spike frequency adaptation. This finding, in conjunction with studies showing that apamin, a KAHP channel blocker, enhances the memory consolidation process in laboratory animals, suggests the formation of stable attractor states is central to the process by which memories are encoded. Ways that this methodology could shed light on the etiology of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, are discussed. PMID:19378385

  12. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

  13. A need for more realistic ice-sheet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    The current generation of prognostic ice-sheet models fails to adequately capture rapid and non-linear responses of the polar ice masses to environmental forcings, such as dramatic increase in ice discharge following weakening and disintegration of buttressing ice shelves and ice tongues. While the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change acknowledged the potential importance of ice-dynamical effects, processes that could render the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets more vulnerable to future warming are not incorporated into forecasts of future sea-level rise, primarily because of limited understanding of the processes involved. The challenge facing the glaciological community is to move beyond the prevailing "shallow ice paradigm" - which necessarily produces sluggish ice masses - and to develop the next generation of models that include non-linear processes in a more realistic manner. To achieve this goal, a concerted community effort will be needed that involves targeted data collection and interpretation for better process understanding, novel modeling approaches to incorporate processes acting over small spatial scales into models simulating the evolution of entire ice sheets, and model evaluation against current behavior as well as paleo-reconstructions. Many of the controlling processes are not well understood. Particular challenges include documenting and analyzing the response of grounded outlet glaciers and ice streams to ice-marginal forcings, and how this response may be modulated by bed topography and ice-dynamical flow adjustments. Fortuitously, ongoing ice shelf collapse in the Antarctic Peninsula as well as collapse of floating fjord glaciers in Greenland, offer the opportunity to study grounding-line instability at various stages of ice-shelf retreat and collapse. Coupled with advances in remote-sensing techniques that allow us to better constrain the geological nature of the bed, and geothermal heat supplied to the basal ice, major advances in understanding physical processes are possible through concerted multi- disciplinary efforts that involve both targeted field campaigns and theoretical developments and data interpretation. The objective of this contribution is to summarize the discussion ongoing in the glaciological community and to present possible directions for future research efforts.

  14. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang-Wun Raymond; Lo, Sue Seen Tsing; Ho, Pak-Chung

    2014-08-01

    This review summarises the development of emergency contraception (EC) methods, and provides an overview on the currently available options of EC which are effective and safe back-up methods in case of non-use or failure of the regular contraception. The copper intrauterine contraceptive device is currently the most effective method. In most countries, a single dose of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg is the first-line hormonal EC given within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. The oral anti-progestogens such as mifepristone and ulipristal acetate are promising alternatives with better efficacies and a wider treatment window of up to 120 h post coitus, probably resulting from more diverse ancillary mechanisms of actions. Education on EC should be part of any contraceptive counselling. Improving access to EC by providing it over the counter or in advance would not promote its abuse nor encourage risky sexual behaviours, but may further facilitate the timely use so as to achieve the best efficacy. PMID:24898437

  15. Distributed virtual environment for emergency medical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Garcia, Brian W.; Godsell-Stytz, Gayl M.

    1997-07-01

    In many professions where individuals must work in a team in a high stress environment to accomplish a time-critical task, individual and team performance can benefit from joint training using distributed virtual environments (DVEs). One professional field that lacks but needs a high-fidelity team training environment is the field of emergency medicine. Currently, emergency department (ED) medical personnel train by using words to create a metal picture of a situation for the physician and staff, who then cooperate to solve the problems portrayed by the word picture. The need in emergency medicine for realistic virtual team training is critical because ED staff typically encounter rarely occurring but life threatening situations only once in their careers and because ED teams currently have no realistic environment in which to practice their team skills. The resulting lack of experience and teamwork makes diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Virtual environment based training has the potential to redress these shortfalls. The objective of our research is to develop a state-of-the-art virtual environment for emergency medicine team training. The virtual emergency room (VER) allows ED physicians and medical staff to realistically prepare for emergency medical situations by performing triage, diagnosis, and treatment on virtual patients within an environment that provides them with the tools they require and the team environment they need to realistically perform these three tasks. There are several issues that must be addressed before this vision is realized. The key issues deal with distribution of computations; the doctor and staff interface to the virtual patient and ED equipment; the accurate simulation of individual patient organs' response to injury, medication, and treatment; and an accurate modeling of the symptoms and appearance of the patient while maintaining a real-time interaction capability. Our ongoing work addresses all of these issues. In this paper we report on our prototype VER system and its distributed system architecture for an emergency department distributed virtual environment for emergency medical staff training. The virtual environment enables emergency department physicians and staff to develop their diagnostic and treatment skills using the virtual tools they need to perform diagnostic and treatment tasks. Virtual human imagery, and real-time virtual human response are used to create the virtual patient and present a scenario. Patient vital signs are available to the emergency department team as they manage the virtual case. The work reported here consists of the system architectures we developed for the distributed components of the virtual emergency room. The architectures we describe consist of the network level architecture as well as the software architecture for each actor within the virtual emergency room. We describe the role of distributed interactive simulation and other enabling technologies within the virtual emergency room project.

  16. Is paper-based documentation in an emergency medical service adequate for retrospective scientific analysis? An evaluation of a physician-run service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Bergrath; Max Skorning; Daniel Rörtgen; Stefan Kurt Beckers; Jörg Christian Brokmann; Christina Mutscher; Rolf Rossaint

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate if paper-based documentation in the authors' emergency medical service (EMS) satisfies scientific requirements.MethodsFrom 1 July 2007 to 28 February 2008, data from all paper-based protocols of a physician-run EMS in Aachen, Germany, were transferred to a SQL database (n=4815). Database queries were conducted after personal data had been anonymised. Documentation ratios of 11 individual parameters were analysed at

  17. Diversified Business Groups in Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAITREESH GHATAK; RAJA KALI

    Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Diversified business groups dominate the organizational landscape of many emerging and transition economies. Are these diversified groups good or bad for these economies? How can we explain their emergence and persistence? Why are they so visible and dominant in developing countries but not in devel- oped ones? How should regulatory authorities view them? In this paper

  18. The impact of different decision behavior models of emergency physicians on the performance of emergency departments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che-Hung Tsai; Shao-Jen Weng; Ching-Ya Huang; Chang-Yu Yang; Jing-Yi Li; Kuang-Ting Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) continually face the problem of overcrowding and poor efficiency. The aim of our study is to construct a simulation model for the emergency department (ED), in order to evaluate the impact of behaviors of the emergency physicians (EPs) on the efficiency of the ED. Conventional behavior is a partly random selection between works to be done, while

  19. Bell's inequalities with realistic noise for polarization-entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan; Feito, Alvaro; Lamas-Linares, Antia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Quantum Information Technology Lab, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-11-15

    Contrary to the usual assumption that the experimental preparation of pure entangled states can be described by mixed states due to white noise, a more realistic description for polarization-entangled states produced by parametric down-conversion is that they are mixed states due to decoherence in a preferred polarization basis. This distinction between white and colored noise is crucial when we look for maximal violations of Bell's inequalities for two-qubit and two-qutrit entangled states. We find that violations of Bell's inequalities with realistic noise for polarization-entangled photons are extremely robust for colored noise, whereas this is not the case for white noise. In addition, we study the difference between white and colored noise for maximal violations of Bell's inequalities for three- and four-qubit entangled states.

  20. Automatic Perceptual Color Map Generation for Realistic Volume Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Parsad, Nigel M.; Tsirline, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography imaging technology and inexpensive high performance computer graphics hardware are making high-resolution, full color (24-bit) volume visualizations commonplace. However, many of the color maps used in volume rendering provide questionable value in knowledge representation and are non-perceptual thus biasing data analysis or even obscuring information. These drawbacks, coupled with our need for realistic anatomical volume rendering for teaching and surgical planning, has motivated us to explore the auto-generation of color maps that combine natural colorization with the perceptual discriminating capacity of grayscale. As evidenced by the examples shown that have been created by the algorithm described, the merging of perceptually accurate and realistically colorized virtual anatomy appears to insightfully interpret and impartially enhance volume rendered patient data. PMID:18430609

  1. Realistic Flipped SU(5) from Orbifold SO(10)

    E-print Network

    Csaba Balazs; Zhaofeng Kang; Tianjun Li; Fei Wang; Jin Min Yang

    2009-11-05

    We propose a realistic flipped SU(5) model derived from a five-dimensional orbifold SO(10) model. The Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained by combining the traditional Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism with the five-dimensional wave function profiles of the SM fermions. Employing tree-level spontaneous R-symmetry breaking in the hidden sector and extra(ordinary) gauge mediation, we obtain realistic supersymmetry breaking soft mass terms with non-vanishing gaugino masses. Including the messenger fields at the intermediate scale and Kaluza-Klein states at the compactification scale, we study gauge coupling unification. We show that the SO(10) unified gauge coupling is very strong and the unification scale can be much higher than the compactification scale. We briefly discuss proton decay as well.

  2. Realistic Flipped SU(5) from Orbifold SO(10)

    E-print Network

    Balazs, Csaba; Li, Tianjun; Wang, Fei; Yang, Jin Min

    2009-01-01

    We propose a realistic flipped SU(5) model derived from a five-dimensional orbifold SO(10) model. The Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained by combining the traditional Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism with the five-dimensional wave function profiles of the SM fermions. Employing tree-level spontaneous R-symmetry breaking in the hidden sector and extra(ordinary) gauge mediation, we obtain realistic supersymmetry breaking soft mass terms with non-vanishing gaugino masses. Including the messenger fields at the intermediate scale and Kaluza-Klein states at the compactification scale, we study gauge coupling unification. We show that the SO(10) unified gauge coupling is very strong and the unification scale can be much higher than the compactification scale. We briefly discuss proton decay as well.

  3. Promoting the Development of Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills: A Randomized Evaluation of a Literacy-Focused Curriculum and Two Professional Development Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few causally interpretable evaluations of the impacts of preschool curricula on the skills of children at-risk for academic difficulties, and even fewer studies have demonstrated statistically significant or educationally meaningful effects. In this cluster-randomized study, we evaluated the impacts of a literacy-focused…

  4. Pediatric ENT emergencies.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Michael J; Dulaurier, Marlie

    2013-08-01

    Otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat) emergencies are a common complaint in the emergency department. These can present as a result of infection, trauma, foreign bodies, or postprocedure complications. The emergency department physician is called on to offer initial if not definitive management of these patients. This article discusses common ear, nose, and throat emergencies presenting to the emergency department. PMID:23915604

  5. Emergency Management Institute- Federal Emergency Management Agency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Emergency Management Institute (EMI) provides a nationwide training program of resident courses and non-resident courses to enhance U.S. emergency management practices. Lists the courses, programs, and activities offered.

  6. Realistic localizer courses for aircraft instrument landing simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The realistic instrument landing simulator (ILS) course structures for use in aircraft simulators are described. Software developed for data conversion and translation of ILS course structure measurements and calcomp plots of the courses provided are described. A method of implementing the ILS course structure data in existing aircraft simulators is outlined. A cockpit used in the lab to review the digitized ILS course structures is displayed.

  7. Efficient Tests for Realistic Faults in Dual-Port SRAMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said Hamdioui; A. J. Van De Goor

    2002-01-01

    This paper begins with an overview of realistic fault models for dual-port memories, divided into single-port faults and faults unique for dual-port memories. The latter faults cannot be detected with conventional single-port memory tests; they require special tests. A precise notation for all faults, such that ambiguities and misunderstandings are prevented, has been emphasized. Next, the paper presents a methodology

  8. Magical realist pathways into and under the psychotherapeutic imaginary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Speedy

    2011-01-01

    My experience of people's life stories from my work as a narrative therapist consistently destabilised distinctions between imagined\\/magical and real experiences. I came to realise that the day-to-day magical realist juxtapositions I came upon were encounters with people's daily lives, as lived, that have remained unacknowledged within the literatures of counselling. In this paper I speculate about the possible reasons

  9. Acute resting myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus: results from the emergency room assessment of sestamibi for evaluation of chest pain (ERASE Chest Pain) trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Kapetanopoulos; Gary V. Heller; Harry P. Selker; Robin Ruthazer; Joni R. Beshansky; James A. Feldman; John L. Griffith; Robert C. Hendel; J. Hector Pope; Ethan J. Spiegler; James E. Udelson

    2004-01-01

    Background  Resting myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) improves the triage of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with\\u000a symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia (ACI). In the ED setting the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is a predictor\\u000a of ACI and hospitalization, but the role of resting MPI in patients with DM is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  A secondary data analysis of

  10. Exposure render: an interactive photo-realistic volume rendering framework.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Thomas; Post, Frits H; Botha, Charl P

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT), coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR). With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license. PMID:22768292

  11. Behaviorly realistic simulations of stock market traders with a soul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sorin

    1999-09-01

    The price fluctuations of the stocks in the financial markets are the result of the individual operations by many individual investors. However for many decades the financial theory did not use directly this “microscopic representation” of the markets. The main difficulties preventing this approach were solved recently with the advent of modern computer technology: - massive detailed data on the individual market operations became available; - “microscopic simulations” of the stock markets in terms of their individual participating agents allow very realistic treatment of the problem. By taking advantage of the modern computer processing and simulation techniques, we are now able to confront real market data with the results of simulating “microscopic” realistic models of the markets. These models have the potential to include and study the effects on the market of any desired feature in the investors behavior: departures from rationality, herding effects, heterogeneous investor-specific trading strategies. We propose to use the comparison of computer simulations of microscopic models with the actual market data in order to validate and enhance the knowledge on the financial behavior of individuals. Moreover we hope to explain, understand (and may be predict and control) macroscopic market dynamical features (e.g., cycles of booms and crashes, investors wealth distribution, market returns probability distribution etc.) based on realistic models using this knowledge.

  12. Exposure Render: An Interactive Photo-Realistic Volume Rendering Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kroes, Thomas; Post, Frits H.; Botha, Charl P.

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT), coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR). With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license. PMID:22768292

  13. I-Love relations for incompressible stars and realistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. K.; Chan, AtMa P. O.; Leung, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science 341, 365 (2013), 10.1126/science.1236462], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability), and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so-obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

  14. Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassil St. Georgiev

    Emerging diseases include outbreaks of previously unknown diseases or known diseases whose incidence in humans has significantly\\u000a increased in the past two decades. Re-emerging diseases are known diseases that have reappeared after a significant decline\\u000a in incidence (http:\\/\\/www3.niaid.nih.gov\\/research\\/topics\\/emerging).

  15. Emergence of antigenic variants of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus serotype O in Ecuador and preliminary evaluation of a field strain as a vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Malirat, Viviana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Espinoza, Ana María; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Smitsaart, Eliana; Salgado, Gustavo; Mattion, Nora; Toledo, Jorge Rodriguez; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2014-05-01

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus serotype O has been circulating regularly throughout most provinces of Ecuador, one of the two South American countries that still remain endemic, although satisfactory vaccination coverage was reported. This study concentrates in the characterization of isolates collected during 2008-2011, focusing particularly on the antigenic and immunogenic relationships of the field viruses with the O1/Campos vaccine strain in use in the region and with an experimental vaccine formulated with a representative strain of the 2010 epidemic. The results established that antigenically divergent variants poorly protected by the vaccine in use emerged and co-circulated in a limited period of time. A monovalent vaccine formulated with the representative 2010 strain elicited high antibody titers and protected against challenge with homologous virus. In addition, cross-reactive antibodies to predominant viruses in the region were established. In overall this study indicates the ability of the virus to diversify under field conditions in which a vaccine strain with poor match is applied, and the potential of the selected 2010 field virus as a vaccine candidate for incorporation into strategic antigen banks and/or for addition to current formulations for systematic vaccination, in order to prevent the emergence of even more divergent isolates in the future. PMID:24625343

  16. Performance and Scalability Evaluation of the Ceph Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL] [ORNL; Nelson, Mark [Inktank Storage, Inc.] [Inktank Storage, Inc.; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is an open-source and emerging parallel distributed file and storage system technology. By design, Ceph assumes running on unreliable and commodity storage and network hardware and provides reliability and fault-tolerance through controlled object placement and data replication. We evaluated the Ceph technology for scientific high-performance computing (HPC) environments. This paper presents our evaluation methodology, experiments, results and observations from mostly parallel I/O performance and scalability perspectives. Our work made two unique contributions. First, our evaluation is performed under a realistic setup for a large-scale capability HPC environment using a commercial high-end storage system. Second, our path of investigation, tuning efforts, and findings made direct contributions to Ceph's development and improved code quality, scalability, and performance. These changes should also benefit both Ceph and HPC communities at large. Throughout the evaluation, we observed that Ceph still is an evolving technology under fast-paced development and showing great promises.

  17. Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan Friday this model Emergency Evacuation and Operations Plan (EEOP) to assist departments from FHL web site (http://depts.washington.edu/fhl/safety.html) Emergency and Safety

  18. [Structure, organization and capacity problems in emergency medical services, emergency admission and intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Dick, W

    1994-01-01

    Emergency medicine is subjected worldwide to financial stringencies and organizational evaluations of cost-effectiveness. The various links in the chain of survival are affected differently. Bystander assistance or bystander CPR is available in only 30% of the emergencies, response intervals--if at all required by legislation--are observed to only a limited degree or are too extended for survival in cardiac arrest. A single emergency telephone number is lacking. Too many different phone numbers for emergency reporting result in confusion and delays. Organizational realities are not fully overcome and impair efficiency. The position of the emergency physician in the EMS System is inadequately defined, the qualification of too many emergency physicians are unsatisfactory. In spite of this, emergency physicians are frequently forced to answer out-of-hospital emergency calls. Conflicts between emergency physicians and EMTs may be overcome by providing both groups with comparable qualifications as well as by providing an explicit definition of emergency competence. A further source of conflict occurs at the juncture of prehospital and inhospital emergency care in the emergency department. Deficiencies on either side play a decisive role. At least in principle there are solutions to the deficiencies in the EMSS and in intensive care medicine. They are among others: Adequate financial compensation of emergency personnel, availability of sufficient numbers of highly qualified personnel, availability of a central receiving area with an adjacent emergency ward, constant information flow to the dispatch center on the number of available emergency beds, maintaining 5% of all beds as emergency beds, establishing intermediate care facilities. Efficiency of emergency physician activities can be demonstrated in polytraumatized patients or in patients with ventricular fibrillation or acute myocardial infarction, in patients with acute myocardial insufficiency and other emergency clinical pictures. Cost effectiveness is clearly in favor of emergency medicine. Future developments will be characterized by the consequences of new health care legislation and by effects of financial stringencies on the emergency medical services. PMID:7801705

  19. Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the strong diffusion limit DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower limit to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> DSD in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the dependence of DSD on geomagnetic condition, spatial location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic conditions. Use of more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a strong dependence on the spatial location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> of DSD besides scattering rates in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> magnetosphere, especially at high spatial locations and under geomagnetically disturbed conditions for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=TEKTRAN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=218928"><span id="translatedtitle">NUTSEDGE <span class="hlt">EMERGENCE</span> AND MULCH COLOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutsedge species are among the most troublesome species in vegetables of the Southeast U.S. The objective of this study was to <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> the effect of mulches on <span class="hlt">emergence</span> of naturalized nutsedge populations. Studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 near Chula, GA, in areas with purple nutsedge (Cyp...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Science+AND+Physics&pg=3&id=EJ777606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emerging</span> Technologies in Physics Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krusberg, Zosia A. C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">emerging</span> technologies in physics education are <span class="hlt">evaluated</span> from the interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive science and physics education research. The technologies--Physlet Physics, the Andes Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), and Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) Tools--are assessed particularly in terms of their potential at promoting…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901810"><span id="translatedtitle">Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and PhantomData Based onPhysiologically <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui,Benjamin M.W.; Gullberg, Grant T.</p> <p>2006-08-02</p> <p>The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, whichprovides a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac andrespiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> andimprove imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiacapplications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the abilityto accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result fromcardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal ofthis work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating aphysiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the leftventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. Thegeometry of the FE mechanical model was based on gated high-resolutionx-ray multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data of a healthy malesubject. The myocardial wall was represented as transversely isotropichyperelastic material, with the fiber angle varying from -90 degrees atthe epicardial surface, through 0 degreesat the mid-wall, to 90 degreesat the endocardial surface. A time varying elastance model was used tosimulate fiber contraction, and physiological intraventricular systolicpressure-time curves were applied to simulate the cardiac motion over theentire cardiac cycle. To demonstrate the ability of the FE mechanicalmodel to accurately simulate the normal cardiac motion as well abnormalmotions indicative of CAD, a normal case and two pathologic cases weresimulated and analyzed. In the first pathologic model, a subendocardialanterior ischemic region was defined. A second model was created with atransmural ischemic region defined in the same location. The FE baseddeformations were incorporated into the 4D NCAT cardiac model through thecontrol points that define the cardiac structures in the phantom whichwere set to move according to the predictions of the mechanical model. Asimulation study was performed using the FE-NCAT combination toinvestigate how the differences in contractile function between thesubendocardial and transmural infarcts manifest themselves in myocardialSPECT images. The normal FE model produced strain distributions that wereconsistent with those reported in the literature and a motion consistentwith that defined in the normal 4D NCAT beating heart model based ontagged MRI data. The addition of a subendocardial ischemic region changedthe average transmural circumferential strain from a contractile value of0.19 to a tensile value of 0.03. The addition of a transmural ischemicregion changed average circumferential strain to a value of 0.16, whichis consistent with data reported in the literature. Model resultsdemonstrated differences in contractile function between subendocardialand transmural infarcts and how these differences in function aredocumented in simulated myocardial SPECT images produced using the 4DNCAT phantom. In comparison to the original NCAT beating heart model, theFE mechanical model produced a more accurate simulation for the cardiacmotion abnormalities. Such a model, when incorporated into the 4D NCATphantom, has great potential for use in cardiac imaging research. Withits enhanced physiologically-based cardiac model, the 4D NCAT phantom canbe used to simulate <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, predictive imaging data of a patientpopulation with varying whole-body anatomy and with varying healthy anddiseased states of the heart that will provide a known truth from whichto <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> and improve existing and <span class="hlt">emerging</span> 4D imaging techniques usedin the diagnosis of cardiac disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4155391"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the <span class="hlt">emergence</span> of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Taiwanese hospital by <span class="hlt">evaluating</span> the presence of integron gene intI1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background In Changhua County, Taiwan, the number of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates has risen since 2002, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) has spread rapidly throughout Taiwan. In this study, to reveal the mechanism involved with the rapid dissemination of MDRAB <span class="hlt">emergence</span>, the utility of the class 1 integron, intI1 integrase gene, as an MDRAB-associated biomarker was examined. A cross-sectional, clinical epidemiological study was performed at Changhua Christian Hospital between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2004. Besides the existence of intI1 gene was examined, the pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was also performed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of the isolates. Findings The overall hospital infection rate was 5–6%, while the infection rate of the intensive care unit (ICU) fluctuated. No positive correlation was observed between MDRAB isolates and the presence of intI1 (r?=?0.168, P?=?0.254). Additionally, no positive correlation was observed between the infection rate in the ICU and the presence of intI1 (r?=?-0.107, P?=?0.468) or between the hospital infection rate and the presence of intI1 (r?=?-0.189, P?=?0.199). However, two predominant clones among the MDRAB isolates were identified by PFGE. Conclusions Although the presence of the intI1 gene does not seem suitable for tracing MDRAB <span class="hlt">emergence</span> in Changhua County, two predominant clones were identified by PFGE, and subsequent studies to identify whether these clones were responsible for original nosocomial infection are needed. PMID:25123361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25882420"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> of a simple retention time predictor based on LogKow as a complementary tool in the identification of <span class="hlt">emerging</span> contaminants in water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Felix</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>There has been great interest in environmental analytical chemistry in developing screening methods based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for <span class="hlt">emerging</span> contaminants. Using HRMS, compound identification relies on the high mass resolving power and mass accuracy attainable by these analyzers. When dealing with wide-scope screening, retention time prediction can be a complementary tool for the identification of compounds, and can also reduce tedious data processing when several peaks appear in the extracted ion chromatograms. There are many in silico, Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship methods available for the prediction of retention time for LC. However, most of these methods use commercial software to predict retention time based on various molecular descriptors. This paper explores the applicability and makes a critical discussion on a far simpler and cheaper approach to predict retention times by using LogKow. The predictor was based on a database of 595 compounds, their respective LogKow values and a chromatographic run time of 18min. Approximately 95% of the compounds were found within 4.0min of their actual retention times, and 70% within 2.0min. A predictor based purely on pesticides was also made, enabling 80% of these compounds to be found within 2.0min of their actual retention times. To demonstrate the utility of the predictors, they were successfully used as an additional tool in the identification of 30 commonly found <span class="hlt">emerging</span> contaminants in water. Furthermore, a comparison was made by using different mass extraction windows to minimize the number of false positives obtained. PMID:25882420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014snam.conf02405M"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing of the GALILEOTM fuel rod code model uncertainties within the AREVA LWR <span class="hlt">realistic</span> thermal-mechanical analysis methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mailhe, P.; Barbier, B.; Garnier, Ch.; Landskron, H.; Sedlacek, R.; Arimescu, I.; Smith, M.; Bellanger, Ph.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The availability of reliable tools and associated methodology able to accurately predict the LWR fuel behavior in all conditions is of great importance for safe and economic fuel usage. For that purpose, AREVA has developed its new global fuel rod performance code GALILEOTM along with its associated <span class="hlt">realistic</span> thermal-mechanical analysis methodology. This <span class="hlt">realistic</span> methodology is based on a Monte Carlo type random sampling of all relevant input variables. After having outlined the AREVA <span class="hlt">realistic</span> methodology, this paper will be focused on the GALILEOTM code benchmarking process on its extended experimental database and the GALILEOTM model uncertainties assessment. The propagation of these model uncertainties through the AREVA <span class="hlt">realistic</span> methodology is also presented. This GALILEOTM model uncertainties processing is of the utmost importance for accurate fuel design margin <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> as illustrated on some application examples. With the submittal of Topical Report for GALILEOTM to the U.S. NRC in 2013, GALILEOTM and its methodology are on the way to be industrially used in a wide range of irradiation conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/chao-dyn/9806022v1"><span id="translatedtitle">ROC Analysis and a <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Model of Heart Rate Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Stefan Thurner; Markus C. Feurstein; Malvin C. Teich</p> <p>1998-06-19</p> <p>We have carried out a pilot study on a standard collection of electrocardiograms from patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, and subjects without cardiac pathology, using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. The scale-dependent wavelet-coefficient standard deviation \\sigma_{wav}(m), a multiresolution-based analysis measure, is found to be superior to two commonly used measures of cardiac dysfunction when the two classes of patients cannot be completely separated. A jittered integrate-and-fire model with a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation of heartbeat sequences for both heart-failure patients and normal subjects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5969339"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> design of monolithic, multiple-junction amorphous solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dalal, V.L.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">realistic</span> design for multiple-junction, tandem solar cells based on amorphous materials requires a careful choice of bandgaps and material thicknesses. In this paper, we discuss the influence of material properties on the design of tandem-junction amorphous solar cells, and show that the material properties force a non-optimal design. A two-junction cell based on a-Si and a-(Si,Ge) is shown to be as efficient as a 3-junction cell. We also discuss the stability considerations for tandem cells, and show that appropriate design can lead to greater stability in tandem cells than in single cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........96T"><span id="translatedtitle">Cathodic disbonding of pipeline coatings under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trautman, Brenda Lee</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Cathodic disbonding is one undesirable aspect of the combination of the corrosion control technology commonly used for the exterior of buried pipelines. This technology consists of the combined use of protective coatings and cathodic protection. While standard cathodic disbonding tests performed in the laboratory provide a relative ranking of coatings, due to the simplicity of the test environments and accelerated nature of the tests, the results may not necessarily be directly related to service performance. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cathodic disbonding behavior of three commonly used pipeline coating materials (i.e., fusion bonded epoxy, coal tar enamel, and tape coatings) under more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> conditions. The research plan allowed the comparison of cathodic disbonding tests results between standard and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> conditions by utilizing laboratory tests with controlled environments and cathodic protection levels. Several areas of focus were the effects of a moderate level of polarization, high level of polarization, and elevated temperatures. Additional factors examined included electrolyte composition (soil extract versus NaCl solutions), wet/dry cycling, and simulated soil conditions (i.e., sand moistened with soil extract). These tests delineated the effects of test parameters on cathodic disbonding and coating performance was related to these parameters. The processes considered to be important to the cathodic disbonding behavior of coatings are discussed as well as the implications of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> test results on laboratory cathodic disbonding test procedures. It was confirmed that greater disbonding occurred at more negative (i.e., cathodic) potentials, with higher alkalinity, and at elevated temperatures. This study also showed that disbonding increased greatly when sand moistened with soil extract solution was utilized in place of bulk electrolyte. The addition of such a barrier to convection may present a viable method to accelerate cathodic disbonding tests and is more representative of conditions in soils along pipelines. Wet/dry cycling showed no measurable effect on the extent of disbonding. Temperature, however, was determined to be a significant factor. The effect of initial electrolyte composition was not certain when comparing between NaCl and different soil extract solutions. Tests under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> conditions generally exhibited larger scatter than standard tests, probably due to the added complexity caused by calcareous deposit formations and concurrent alteration of the electrolyte with the use of soil extract solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22306237"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">realistic</span> renormalizable supersymmetric E{sub 6} model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia and Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Susi?, Vasja [J. Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)</p> <p>2014-06-24</p> <p>A complete <span class="hlt">realistic</span> model based on the supersymmetric version of E{sub 6} is presented. It consists of three copies of matter 27, and a Higgs sector made of 2×(27+27{sup ¯})+351?+351?{sup ¯} representations. An analytic solution to the equations of motion is found which spontaneously breaks the gauge group into the Standard Model. The light fermion mass matrices are written down explicitly as non-linear functions of three Yukawa matrices. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CSS&pg=3&id=EJ750936"><span id="translatedtitle">Aware and (Dis)Liking: Item-Based Analyses Reveal that Valence Acquisition via <span class="hlt">Evaluative</span> Conditioning <span class="hlt">Emerges</span> Only when There Is Contingency Awareness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pleyers, Gordy; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Evaluative</span> conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the liking of an affectively neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) following the pairing of that stimulus with another stimulus of affective value (the unconditioned stimulus, or US). In 3 experiments, the authors assessed contingency awareness, that is, awareness of the CS-US…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.psor.ucl.ac.be/personal/corneille/documents/Aware&(dis)liking.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Aware and (Dis)Liking: Item-Based Analyses Reveal That Valence Acquisition via <span class="hlt">Evaluative</span> Conditioning <span class="hlt">Emerges</span> Only When There Is Contingency Awareness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Gordy Pleyers; Olivier Corneille; Olivier Luminet; Vincent Yzerbyt</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Evaluative</span> conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the liking of an affectively neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) following the pairing of that stimulus with another stimulus of affective value (the unconditioned stimulus, or US). In 3 experiments, the authors assessed contingency awareness, that is, awareness of the CS–US associations, by relying on participants' responses to individual items rather</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=proof+AND+calculus&pg=6&id=ED412782"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Evaluation</span> of Student Preparation in Calculus for Business, Management, and Social Sciences for Probability Theory at Orange Coast College. <span class="hlt">Emergence</span> of Higher Education in America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arismendi-Pardi, E. J.</p> <p></p> <p>This study <span class="hlt">evaluated</span> student preparation for a course in calculus for business, management, and social sciences as a prerequisite for success in probability theory. The study included a review of the literature, development of an assessment instrument and cut-off scores, and review and validation of the study criteria, the assessment instrument,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770008677&hterms=nursing+advocates+for+family+presence+during+resuscitation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528%2528%2528%2528%2528nursing%2Badvocates%2529%2Bfor%2529%2Bfamily%2529%2Bpresence%2529%2Bduring%2529%2Bresuscitation%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">International Conference on Remote <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Medical Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">emergency</span> medical system is characterized. Applications of NASA technology in biomedical telecommunication and bioinstrumentation are explored. The training and effectiveness of paramedics, technicians, nurses, and physicians are <span class="hlt">evaluated</span> as applied to <span class="hlt">emergency</span> situations and the operations of trauma centers. Civilian and military aeromedical evacuation is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucalgary.ca/emergencyplan/system/files/EmergencyInstructions-ChildcareCentre.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Childcare Centre <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Instructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>de Leon, Alex R.</p> <p></p> <p>the area for Campus Security or <span class="hlt">emergency</span> services to arrive Evacuation Procedures Activate the NEARESTChildcare Centre <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Instructions In the event of an <span class="hlt">EMERGENCY</span> dial 403-220-5333 for Campus Security or dial 9-1-1 for Police, Fire or Ambulance Additional <span class="hlt">emergency</span> instructions is found at ucalgary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://joiff.com/catalyst/june04.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EMERGENCY</span> MANAGEMENT & INCIDENT CONTROL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>RGIT Montrose</p> <p></p> <p>eading training & training management provider, RGIT Montrose provides <span class="hlt">emergency</span> response and incident control training and assessment for the energy industries on a worldwide basis. Realising that taking control in a real <span class="hlt">emergency</span> is not an easy task for anyone they have developed purpose built <span class="hlt">emergency</span> management simulators to re-create potential <span class="hlt">emergency</span> scenarios which are used to train managers and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110016542&hterms=red+apple&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bapple"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Landing Planner Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In previous work, we described an <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best <span class="hlt">emergency</span> landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1994753"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> of optometrists' ability to correctly identify and manage patients with ocular disease in the accident and <span class="hlt">emergency</span> department of an eye hospital</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hau, Scott; Ehrlich, Daniel; Binstead, Katy; Verma, Seema</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Aim To assess optometrists' ability to correctly identify and manage patients with different ocular conditions seen in the accident and <span class="hlt">emergency</span> (A&E) department of an eye hospital. Methods Randomly selected patients presenting to the A&E department were initially examined by one of two senior optometrists and a consultant ophthalmologist. A diagnosis and a management plan were made for each patient by the optometrist and by the consultant, who was blinded to the optometrists' plan. Agreement was assessed between optometrist and consultant ophthalmologist for primary and secondary diagnoses, management plan and whether patients could be seen by an optometrist only. Weighted kappa (?) statistics was used to assess the level of agreement in management between the two groups. Results A total of 150 patients were assessed. The agreement in primary diagnosis and management outcome between the two groups were 89.3% (95% CI 83.2% to 93.8%) and 79.3% (95% CI 84.8% to 94.8%), respectively. A high level of agreement in management outcome was found (??=?0.82). No sight?threatening conditions were misdiagnosed by the optometrist. Conclusions There was good agreement in both the diagnosis and management plan between optometrists and the ophthalmologist. This study has shown that optometrists can potentially work safely in an A&E department of a busy eye hospital. PMID:17077113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30351777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emergency</span> department preparedness for the <span class="hlt">evaluation</span> and treatment of victims of biological or chemical terrorist attack 1 1 Selected Topics-Disaster Medicine is coordinated by Irving Jacoby, md of the University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Michael I Greenberg; Sherri M Jurgens; Ed J Gracely</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This study <span class="hlt">evaluated</span> the preparedness of <span class="hlt">Emergency</span> Departments (EDs) in the greater Philadelphia area to <span class="hlt">evaluate</span> and treat victims of a terrorist biological or chemical agent release. All hospitals with EDs in the survey target area were included. A survey instrument consisting of 38 questions was mailed to the physician director of each ED. Fifty-four of 62 directors returned usable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0810.4976v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> interpretation of entangled state: a defense and application to Hardy's experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boon Leong Lan</p> <p>2008-10-28</p> <p>Two criticisms which have prevented the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> interpretation of entangled state from being widely accepted are addressed and shown to be unfounded. A local <span class="hlt">realistic</span> theory, which reproduces all the quantum probabilistic predictions, is constructed for Hardy's experiment based on the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> interpretation of the entangled two-particle Hardy state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41962497"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic-gravity modes and large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, dissipative atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Samuel H. Francis</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The guided acoustic-gravity modes that can propagate in a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> ; dissipative atmosphere are computed for periods between 30 sec and 2 hours. The ; analysis differs from previous treatments by including dissipation (viscosity and ; thermal conductivity) and by using a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> sound speed profile throughout the ; thermosphere. The presence of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> dissipation allows a unique ; determination</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="/scitech/disclaimer">Website Policies/Important Links</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>