Science.gov

Sample records for emergent realist evaluation

  1. Logic models and content analyses for the explication of evaluation theories: the case of emergent realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mark, Melvin M; Henry, Gary T

    2013-06-01

    We comment on a set of papers in this journal issue that have examined three evaluation theories by constructing a logic model for each and conducting a set of comparative content analyses. We consider the set of papers as an instance of research on evaluation. For instance, we question the extent to which linear logic models convey the contingent decision making emphasized by some evaluation theories. We also offer specific comments about the papers' treatment of one theory, so-called emergent realist evaluation. PMID:22459671

  2. Realistic Evaluation Bloodlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, Ray; Tilley, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Describes six inquiries in the social sciences, both old and new, that show how evaluation can be conducted and what it can achieve. Draws six lessons from these studies that should lead to an evaluation culture that is more painstaking and an evidence base that is more cumulative. (SLD)

  3. Perceptual Evaluation of Video-Realistic Speech

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Perceptual Evaluation of Video-Realistic Speech Gadi Geiger, Tony Ezzat and Tomaso Poggio AI Memo animation techniques now available, there is a clear need for systematic perceptual evaluation schemes. We describe here our scheme and its application to a new video-realistic (potentially indistinguishable from

  4. Perceptual Evaluation of Video-Realistic Speech

    E-print Network

    Geiger, Gadi

    2003-02-28

    abstract With many visual speech animation techniques now available, there is a clear need for systematic perceptual evaluation schemes. We describe here our scheme and its application to a new video-realistic ...

  5. Making Evaluations Realistic: The Challenge of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmins, Paul; Miller, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Evaluations of practice have often adopted experimental or quasi-experimental approaches and have focused heavily on outcomes of innovative programmes. This creates problems in replicating studies and effectively creates obstacles to the sharing of good practice. In this paper, ideas from Pawson and Tilley's (1997) approach to Realistic Evaluation

  6. Faculty Development for Educators: A Realist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorinola, Olanrewaju O.; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Davies, David; Peile, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities for educators in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study used a realist approach to evaluate FD and to test the hypothesis that motivation, engagement and perception are key mechanisms of effective FD activities. The authors observed and interviewed 33 course participants at one…

  7. The ABB CE small-break LOCA realistic evaluation model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, K.H.; Lee, N.; Rosen, S.; Menzel, G.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering has developed a realistic evaluation model (REM) to analyze the responses of a pressurized nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) according to the revision of the Emergency Core Cooling System Rule, 10 CFR 50.46, which allows the use of realistic models together with an uncertainty evaluation. The revised rule contains the current criteria related to peak cladding temperature, clad oxidation, etc. The design of the SBLOCA REM followed the guidance of Regulatory Guide 1.157. The SBLOCA REM was assessed against ROSA-IV Large-Scale Test Facility test data. Tests SB-CL-01 and SB-HL-01, which represent a 2.5% horizontal cold-leg break and a 5% hot-leg break in a full-scale NSSS, respectively, were simulated with the SBLOCA REM.

  8. A Framework for Realistic and Systematic Multicast Performance Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Cui, Jun-Hong

    A Framework for Realistic and Systematic Multicast Performance Evaluation Li Lao a , Jun-Hong Cui b, multicast research can greatly benefit from realistic models and a systematic evaluation methodology. First in simulation stud- ies. In this paper, we propose a framework to systematically evaluate multicast performance

  9. A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on understanding how context influences evidence-based practice. The strengths and limitations of the approach are considered, including how to operationalise it and some of the challenges. This approach provided a useful interpretive framework with which to make sense of the multiple factors that were simultaneously at play and being observed through various data sources, and for developing explanatory theory about using standardised care approaches in practice. PMID:20504293

  10. Remembering and Celebrating a Realistic Evaluation Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Michael Quinn Patton pays tribute to Carol Hirschon Weiss, a woman who brought passion to evaluation use. She also brought attention to it, publishing the first article on evaluation in 1967. Weiss' many contributions have come into evaluation currency and overtaken formerly taken-for-granted assumptions. Indeed, her insights…

  11. AN EMERGENT FRAMEWORK FOR REALISTIC PSYCHOSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN NON PLAYER

    E-print Network

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    immersion in the game world [31,40]. One of the more active areas of research in game artificial required to immerse a player in the game [6], promote realism [4], create more dramatically interesting for emergent psychosocial behaviour in non player characters in video games. This framework uses concepts

  12. Development of a realistic source term for emergency planning and preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Ho Seok; Seong-Kyu Park; Sun-Koo Kang; Bag-Soon Chung; Chul-Un Yi

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop a realistic accident sequence-specific realistic source term database for development of emergency planning and preparedness for Younggwang (YGN) units 1 and 2 in Korea. In this study the database includes a time history of plant safety parameters, extent of core damage, radiation dose rate in the radiation monitoring system (RMS), and radioactivity concentration in the containment atmosphere and recirculation sump water from the post-accident sampling system (PASS) during accidents.

  13. Ground state of finite nuclei evaluated from realistic interactions

    E-print Network

    Kh. Gad; H. Müther

    2002-05-08

    Ground state properties of finite nuclei ($^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca) are evaluated from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The calculations are based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Special attention is paid to the role of the energy spectrum for the particle states, in particular for those close to the Fermi energy. Additional binding energy is obtained from the inclusion of the hole-hole scattering term within the framework of the Green function approach. Results for the energy distribution of the single-particle strength and the sensitivity to the nucleon-nucleon interaction are investigated. For that purpose three modern nucleon-nucleon interactions are employed: the Argonne V18, the charge dependent Bonn potential and a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction which is based on chiral perturbation theory and which has recently been fitted by the Idaho group.

  14. Considerations for realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Chexal, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies the various phenomena which govern the course of large and small break LOCAs in LWRs, and affect the key parameters such as Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and timing of the end of blowdown, beginning of reflood, PCT, and complete quench. A review of the best-estimate models and correlations for these phenomena in the current literature has been presented. Finally, a set of models have been recommended which may be incorporated in a present best-estimate code such as TRAC or RELAP5 in order to develop a realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for future LWRs and have also been compared with the requirements of current ECCS evaluation methodology as outlined in Appendix K of 10CFR50. 58 refs.

  15. Realistic quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interaction emerge in the generic static structure

    E-print Network

    Sergei Bashinsky

    2015-05-28

    We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as low-resolution descriptions of the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every Hamiltonian that possesses pointer states. Then for a typical system the Hamiltonian changes unpredictably during evolution. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient symmetry, e.g., local supersymmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabilities follow from the first principles. The Born rule is not universal but there are reasons to expect it in a typical world. The emergent quantum evolution is necessarily Everettian (many-world). However, for a finite underlying structure the Everett branches with the norm below a positive threshold cease to exist. Hence some experiments that could be motivated by taking the Everett view too literally will be fatal for the participants.

  16. Emergency nurse residency program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anitra; Salisbury, Helen; Johannsson, Mark; Barajas, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method descriptive study was to perform a program evaluation on an emergency nurse residency program. The study identified leaders' goals, objectives, and outcomes and the nurse residents' perceptions of the program, including whether they felt prepared to make the transition into their new role. The program evaluation revealed that the nurse residents felt confident, secure, and prepared to function as well-rounded emergency nurses after completing the emergency nurse residency program, in congruence with leaders' objectives. PMID:24060658

  17. Evaluation of EEG localization methods using realistic simulations of interictal spikes

    E-print Network

    Daunizeau, Jean

    Evaluation of EEG localization methods using realistic simulations of interictal spikes C. Grova of a gold standard to evaluate source localization methods, our evaluation was performed in a controlled environment using realistic simulations of EEG interictal spikes, involving several anatomical locations

  18. Realistic assessment of the physician-staffed emergency services in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gries, A; Zink, W; Bernhard, M; Messelken, M; Schlechtriemen, T

    2006-10-01

    In Germany the emergency medical services, which include dispatching emergency physicians to the scene, are considered to be among the best in the world. However, the hospitals admitting these patients still report shortcomings in prehospital care. The quality of an emergency medical service depends on both formal qualification and experience in managing such emergencies. Therefore, we determined how frequently emergency medical service physicians in Germany actually encountered complex and demanding emergency situations outside the hospital and how often they had to carry out emergency interventions. We therefore evaluated data from more than 82,000 ground emergency medical service scene calls registered in the MIND ("minimaler Notarztdatensatz") data base of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany and more than 47,000 helicopter emergency medical service scene calls from the "Luftrettungs-, Informations- und Kommunikationssystem" (LIKS) data base of the German ADAC air rescue service. The results, which were unexpectedly distinct, impressively demonstrate that in part emergency medical service staff only encountered some emergencies very rarely. In particular, patients with life-threatening conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke, head trauma, as well as multiple trauma were only treated once every 0.4-14.5 months and cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intubation were only carried out once every 0.5-1.5 months. Furthermore, a time period of 6 months to more than 6 years may pass before a chest tube has to be placed. There are, of course, considerable differences between ground and helicopter emergency medical services. Particularly in areas where the frequency of such emergency cases is low, the clinical experience required to competently manage a demanding emergency situation cannot be gained or maintained just by working in the emergency medical system. As a result of the general pressure to cut costs and also of changes in hospital politics, however, only highly qualified and experienced emergency medical services may survive in Germany in the long term. In addition to formal qualifications and accompanying practice-related courses, future emergency medical service personnel should be drafted from clinical department staff that are experienced in treating severely ill and severely injured patients. PMID:16791544

  19. Flexlab: A Realistic, Controlled, and Friendly Environment for Evaluating Networked Systems

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Flexlab: A Realistic, Controlled, and Friendly Environment for Evaluating Networked Systems] and ModelNet [22] are valuable tools for understanding, testing and evaluating research prototypes more realistic than those in an emulator, researchers use overlay testbeds such as PlanetLab [15

  20. Towards a More Realistic Evaluation: Testing the Ability to Predict Future Tastes of Matrix Factorization-based

    E-print Network

    Towards a More Realistic Evaluation: Testing the Ability to Predict Future Tastes of Matrix may not be a realistic setting for recommendation. In this paper, we evaluated rating prediction that some evaluation settings used to test recommendation methods are not as realistic as should be expected

  1. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David, Ed.; Hricko, Mary, Ed.; Howell, Scott, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" provides a view of the possibilities and challenges facing online educators and evaluators in the 21st Century. As technology evolves and online measurement and assessment follow, "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" uses established evaluation

  2. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  3. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  4. Protocol—the RAMESES II study: developing guidance and reporting standards for realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wong, Geoff; Jagosh, Justin; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Manzano, Ana; Westhorp, Gill; Pawson, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Realist evaluation is an increasingly popular methodology in health services research. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. Methods To achieve our aims, we will: (1) Establish management and governance infrastructure; (2) Recruit an interdisciplinary Delphi panel of 35 participants with diverse relevant experience of RE; (3) Summarise current literature and expert opinion on best practice in RE; (4) Run an online Delphi panel to generate and refine items for quality and reporting standards; (5) Capture ‘real world’ experiences and challenges of RE—for example, by providing ongoing support to realist evaluations, hosting the RAMESES JISCmail list on realist research, and feeding problems and insights from these into the deliberations of the Delphi panel; (6) Produce quality and reporting standards; (7) Collate examples of the learning and training needs of researchers, students, reviewers and lay members in relation to RE; (8) Develop, deliver and evaluate training materials for RE and deliver training workshops; and (9) Develop and evaluate information and resources for patients and other lay participants in RE (eg, draft template information sheets and model consent forms) and; (10) Disseminate training materials and other resources. Planned outputs: (1) Quality and reporting standards and training materials for RE. (2) Methodological support for RE. (3) Increase in capacity to support and evaluate RE. (4) Accessible, plain-English resources for patients and the public participating in RE. Discussion The realist evaluation is a relatively new approach to evaluation and its overall place in the is not yet fully established. As with all primary research approaches, guidance on quality assurance and uniform reporting is an important step towards improving quality and consistency. PMID:26238395

  5. Realist Evaluation in Wraparound: A New Approach in Social Work Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Mansoor A. F.; Pagkos, Brian; Milch, Heidi A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a realist evaluation paradigm in social work evidence-based practice. Method: Wraparound (at Gateway-Longview Inc., New York) used a reliable outcome measure and an electronic database to systematically collect and analyze data on the interventions, the client demographics and circumstances, and…

  6. A New Realistic Evaluation Analysis Method: Linked Coding of Context, Mechanism, and Outcome Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Suzanne F.; Kolla, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    In attempting to use a realistic evaluation approach to explore the role of Community Parents in early parenting programs in Toronto, a novel technique was developed to analyze the links between contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) directly from experienced practitioner interviews. Rather than coding the interviews into themes in terms of…

  7. An Emergent Framework For Realistic Psychosocial Behaviour In Non Player Characters

    E-print Network

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    not for the simulation of human performance or rationality, but for entertainment and increased immersion in the game that they support the suspension of disbelief required to immerse a player in the game (Byl, 2004), promote realism for emergent psychosocial behaviour in non player characters in video games. This framework uses concepts

  8. The potential contribution of realistic evaluation to small-scale community interventions.

    PubMed

    Lhussier, Monique; Carr, Susan M; Robson, Allison

    2008-09-01

    This paper aims to inform the development and evaluation of small-scale community-based initiatives by describing an evaluation of one such health promotion programme. Realistic evaluation is an under-explored resource for practice development, particularly within the context of informing evidence-based practice. A combination of the context-mechanism-outcome framework and principles of health impact assessment were used in the evaluation of the programme. Telephone interviews and half-day sessions were utilised in order to conduct reviews of the programme's work with both providers and users. This approach engaged the practitioners in the process of evaluation in a way that was novel to them, and introduced the possibility of a stepped approach to outcomes achievement and measurement. The evaluation gave the practitioners the means to understand and effectively formulate which outcomes were most appropriate to their particular intervention, and to design the means to assess these in future. PMID:18834025

  9. Realistic numerical simulations of solar convection: emerging flux, pores, and Stokes spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgobiani, D.; Stein, R.; Nordlund, A.

    2012-12-01

    We report on magneto-convection simulations of magnetic flux emerging through the upper layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Simulations by Georgobiani, Stein and Nordlund start from minimally structured, uniform, untwisted horizontal field advected into the computational domain by supergranule scale inflows at 20 Mm depth. At the opposite extreme, simulations by Cheung (2007, 2008, 2011) start with a coherent flux tube inserted into or forced into the bottom of the computational domain. Several robust results have emerged from the comparison of results from these two very different initial states. First, rising magnetic flux gets deformed into undulating, serpentine shapes by the influence of the convective up- and down-flows. The flux develops fine structure and appears at the surface first as a "pepper and salt" pattern of mixed polarity. Where magnetic flux approaches the surface, granules become darker and elongated in the direction of the field. Subsequently, the underlying large scale magnetic structures make the field collect into unipolar regions. Magneto-convection produces a complex, small-scale magnetic field topology, whatever the initial state. A heirarchy of magnetic loops corresponding to the different scales of convective motions are produced. Vertical vortex tubes form at intergranule lane vertices which can lead to tornado-like magnetic fields in the photosphere. Gradients in field strength and velocity produce asymmetric Stokes spectra. Where emerging Omega loops leave behind nearly vertical legs, long lived pores can spontaneously form. The field in the pores first becomes concentrated and evacuated near the surface and the evacuated flux concentration then extends downward.

  10. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  11. Conditions for production of interdisciplinary teamwork outcomes in oncology teams: protocol for a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary teamwork (ITW) is designed to promote the active participation of several disciplines in delivering comprehensive cancer care to patients. ITW provides mechanisms to support continuous communication among care providers, optimize professionals’ participation in clinical decision-making within and across disciplines, and foster care coordination along the cancer trajectory. However, ITW mechanisms are not activated optimally by all teams, resulting in a gap between desired outcomes of ITW and actual outcomes observed. The aim of the present study is to identify the conditions underlying outcome production by ITW in local oncology teams. Methods This retrospective multiple case study will draw upon realist evaluation principles to explore associations among context, mechanisms and outcomes (CMO). The cases are nine interdisciplinary cancer teams that participated in a previous study evaluating ITW outcomes. Qualitative data sources will be used to construct a picture of CMO associations in each case. For data collection, reflexive focus groups will be held to capture patients’ and professionals’ perspectives on ITW, using the guiding question, ‘What works, for whom, and under what circumstances?’ Intra-case analysis will be used to trace associations between context, ITW mechanisms, and patient outcomes. Inter-case analysis will be used to compare the different cases’ CMO associations for a better understanding of the phenomenon under study. Discussion This multiple case study will use realist evaluation principles to draw lessons about how certain contexts are more or less likely to produce particular outcomes. The results will make it possible to target more specifically the actions required to optimize structures and to activate the best mechanisms to meet the needs of cancer patients. This project could also contribute significantly to the development of improved research methods for conducting realist evaluations of complex healthcare interventions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use CMO associations to improved empirical and theoretical understanding of interdisciplinary teamwork in oncology, and its results could foster more effective implementation in clinical practice. PMID:24938443

  12. The management challenge for household waste in emerging economies like Brazil: realistic source separation and activation of reverse logistics.

    PubMed

    Fehr, M

    2014-09-01

    Business opportunities in the household waste sector in emerging economies still evolve around the activities of bulk collection and tipping with an open material balance. This research, conducted in Brazil, pursued the objective of shifting opportunities from tipping to reverse logistics in order to close the balance. To do this, it illustrated how specific knowledge of sorted waste composition and reverse logistics operations can be used to determine realistic temporal and quantitative landfill diversion targets in an emerging economy context. Experimentation constructed and confirmed the recycling trilogy that consists of source separation, collection infrastructure and reverse logistics. The study on source separation demonstrated the vital difference between raw and sorted waste compositions. Raw waste contained 70% biodegradable and 30% inert matter. Source separation produced 47% biodegradable, 20% inert and 33% mixed material. The study on collection infrastructure developed the necessary receiving facilities. The study on reverse logistics identified private operators capable of collecting and processing all separated inert items. Recycling activities for biodegradable material were scarce and erratic. Only farmers would take the material as animal feed. No composting initiatives existed. The management challenge was identified as stimulating these activities in order to complete the trilogy and divert the 47% source-separated biodegradable discards from the landfills. PMID:24990590

  13. Football reminiscence for men with dementia: lessons from a realistic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tolson, Debbie; Schofield, Irene

    2012-03-01

    Football reminiscence for men with dementia: lessons from a realistic evaluation A major challenge of studies of non pharmacological dementia interventions is the likely modest intervention effect size and difficulties collecting data from individuals with behavioural, psychological and communicative symptoms. The reported Realist Evaluation is built around sets of contextually comparable case studies of Football Focussed Reminiscence for men with dementia. The study aim was to evaluate benefits of football related reminiscence for individuals and family carers. Four case studies were constructed; two community groups, one nursing home groups and individual sessions within their family home. Data was collected as field notes from non-participation observation of reminiscence sessions, notes of conversations with people with dementia, audio recorded interviews with family members, facilitators and dementia link workers. The analysis was framed around identification and extraction of data pertaining to Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations within each data set, and patterns and threads were compared across the cases. An important finding was that anticipation of pleasure in tandem with a sense of continuity appeared to be important mechanisms triggering optimal benefit. The paper explores design considerations, project delivery experiences and the contribution that innovative theory driven research adds to the study of complex interventions including those with behavioural and communicative symptoms of dementia. PMID:21951769

  14. The power of the context map: Designing realistic outcome evaluation strategies and other unanticipated benefits.

    PubMed

    Renger, Ralph; Foltysova, Jirina; Becker, Karin L; Souvannasacd, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Developing a feasible evaluation plan is challenging when multiple activities, often sponsored by multiple agencies, work together toward a common goal. Often, resources are limited and not every agency's interest can be represented in the final evaluation plan. The article illustrates how the Antecedent Target Measurement (ATM) approach to logic modeling was adapted to meet this challenge. The key adaptation is the context map generated in the first step of the ATM approach. The context map makes visually explicit many of the underlying conditions contributing to a problem as possible. The article also shares how a prioritization matrix can assist the evaluator in filtering through the context map to prioritize the outcomes to be included in the final evaluation plan as well as creating realistic outcomes. This transparent prioritization process can be especially helpful in managing evaluation expectations of multiple agencies with competing interests. Additional strategic planning benefits of the context map include pinpointing redundancies caused by overlapping collaborative efforts, identifying gaps in coverage, and assisting the coordination of multiple stakeholders. PMID:26036610

  15. A realist evaluation of an antenatal programme to change drinking behaviour of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Lawrence; Jepson, Ruth; Cheyne, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective to use realist evaluation to describe and explain how and in what circumstances screening and alcohol brief interventions work in routine antenatal care. Design a realist evaluation incorporating systematic reviews and qualitative data. Setting NHS Lothian, which is one of the 14 Scottish health boards. Participants participants were recruited from two maternity units. In phase one, interviews were conducted with four participants responsible for policy implementation. These data were supported by two systematic reviews. In phase two, 17 pregnant women and 15 midwives participated in interviews, with a further six midwifery team leaders involved in a focus group. Findings training and resources provided to midwives as part of the programme acted as facilitating mechanisms that improved their skills and confidence to screen and deliver alcohol brief interventions. The programme elicited positive change in attitudes to drinking in pregnancy and possibly stimulated drinking behaviour change amongst pregnant women. However, the small numbers of pregnant women being identified for alcohol brief interventions meant delivery was infrequent and resulted in the programme not working as anticipated. The findings also revealed contextual issues around midwife–pregnant woman relationship and the challenges of negotiating the timing of screening and alcohol brief interventions delivery. Conclusions Drinking in pregnancy is an emotive issue, therefore delivering alcohol brief interventions at the first antenatal appointment when they are more likely to achieve the most benefits poses challenges. When training midwives to screen and deliver alcohol brief interventions, special attention is needed to improve person-centred communication skills to overcome barriers associated with discussing sensitive prenatal alcohol use and enhance early identification and delivery of alcohol brief interventions at the first antenatal appointment. PMID:26123741

  16. Mechanisms for achieving adolescent-friendly services in Ecuador: a realist evaluation approach

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite evidence showing that adolescent-friendly health services (AFSs) increase young people's access to these services, health systems across the world are failing to integrate this approach. In Latin America, policies aimed at strengthening AFS abound. However, such services are offered only in a limited number of sites, and providers’ attitudes and respect for confidentiality have not been addressed to a sufficient extent. Methods The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms that triggered the transformation of an ‘ordinary’ health care facility into an AFS in Ecuador. For this purpose, a realist evaluation approach was used in order to analyse three well-functioning AFSs. Information was gathered at the national level and from each of the settings including: (i) statistical information and unpublished reports; (ii) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with policy makers, health care providers, users and adolescents participating in youth organisations and (iii) observations at the health care facilities. Thematic analysis was carried out, driven by the realist evaluation approach, namely exploring the connections between mechanisms, contexts and outcomes. Results The results highlighted that the development of the AFSs was mediated by four mechanisms: grounded self-confidence in trying new things, legitimacy, a transformative process and an integral approach to adolescents. Along this process, contextual factors at the national and institutional levels were further explored. Conclusion The Ministry of Health of Ecuador, based on the New Guidelines for Comprehensive Care of Adolescent Health, has started the scaling up of AFSs. Our research points towards the need to recognise and incorporate these mechanisms as part of the implementation strategy from the very beginning of the process. Although contextually limited to Ecuador, many mechanisms and good practices in these AFS may be relevant to the Latin American setting and elsewhere. PMID:22855646

  17. Multi-user system for training and evaluation of environmental emergency management response -- MUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, V.; Andersen, H.B.

    1995-12-31

    The efficiency with which complex, large-scale organizations respond to emergencies and critical situations depends crucially on the coordination of actions and communication among decision makers. However, decision makers have typically few opportunities to train distributed crisis management under artificial, yet realistic conditions; and at the same time, real emergencies occur fortunately so relatively infrequently that few decision makers have a chance of establishing a useful real-life experience of crisis management. There is therefore a need for having available realistic and flexible multi-user training environments in which coordinated response to crises or emergencies may be trained. At the same time, a flexible training environment supporting tactical training of coordinated emergency response can be used as a platform on the basis of which not only emergency response capability can be evaluated but also different procedures and practices and even control systems may be assessed before they are put into real use. In order to identify requirements to, develop specifications of and finally produce a prototype of a flexible training and evaluation environment, a two-year project, MUSTER: Multi-User System for Training and Evaluation of Environmental Emergency Response, was started in 1993 and is now approaching its completion by mid-95.

  18. How do primary health care teams learn to integrate intimate partner violence (IPV) management? A realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of ample literature dealing, on the one hand, with the integration of innovations within health systems and team learning, and, on the other hand, with different aspects of the detection and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) within healthcare facilities, research that explores how health innovations that go beyond biomedical issues—such as IPV management—get integrated into health systems, and that focuses on healthcare teams’ learning processes is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce if not absent. This realist evaluation protocol aims to ascertain: why, how, and under what circumstances primary healthcare teams engage (if at all) in a learning process to integrate IPV management in their practices; and why, how, and under what circumstances team learning processes lead to the development of organizational culture and values regarding IPV management, and the delivery of IPV management services. Methods This study will be conducted in Spain using a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from selected cases (primary healthcare teams) through different methods: individual and group interviews, routinely collected statistical data, documentary review, and observation. Cases will be purposively selected in order to enable testing the initial middle-range theory (MRT). After in-depth exploration of a limited number of cases, additional cases will be chosen for their ability to contribute to refining the emerging MRT to explain how primary healthcare learn to integrate intimate partner violence management. Discussion Evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are scarce, and even fewer focus on why, how, and when the healthcare services integrate IPV management. There is a consensus that healthcare professionals and healthcare teams play a key role in this integration, and that training is important in order to realize changes. However, little is known about team learning of IPV management, both in terms of how to trigger such learning and how team learning is connected with changes in organizational culture and values, and in service delivery. This realist evaluation protocol aims to contribute to this knowledge by conducting this project in a country, Spain, where great endeavours have been made towards the integration of IPV management within the health system. PMID:23522404

  19. The toxicological evaluation of realistic emissions of source aerosols study: statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Coull, Brent A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz; Diaz, Edgar; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2011-08-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study involved withdrawal, aging, and atmospheric transformation of emissions of three coal-fired power plants. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. Data generated had multiple levels of resolution: exposure, scenario, and constituent chemical composition. Here, we outline a multilayered approach to analyze the associations between exposure and health effects beginning with standard ANOVA models that treat exposure as a categorical variable. The model assessed differences in exposure effects across scenarios (by plant). To assess unadjusted associations between pollutant concentrations and health, univariate analyses were conducted using the difference between the response means under exposed and control conditions and a single constituent concentration as the predictor. Then, a novel multivariate analysis of exposure composition and health was used based on Random Forests(™), a recent extension of classification and regression trees that were applied to the outcome differences. For each exposure constituent, this approach yielded a nonparametric measure of the importance of that constituent in predicting differences in response on a given day, controlling for the other measured constituent concentrations in the model. Finally, an R(2) analysis compared the relative importance of exposure scenario, plant, and constituent concentrations on each outcome. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is used to demonstrate how the multiple levels of the analysis complement each other to assess constituents most strongly associated with health effects. PMID:21913820

  20. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA): Introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, John J.; Rohr, Annette C.; Kang, Choong M.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Determining the health impacts of sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents that are likely to differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study focused on two PM sources—coal-fired power plants and mobile sources—and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to emissions from these sources. The set of papers published here document the power plant experiments. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. TERESA involved withdrawal of emissions from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the United States. The emissions were aged and atmospherically transformed in a mobile laboratory simulating downwind power plant plume processing. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in laboratory rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. The approach employed in TERESA was ambitious and innovative. Technical challenges included the development of stack sampling technology that prevented condensation of water vapor from the power plant exhaust during sampling and transfer, while minimizing losses of primary particles; development and optimization of a photochemical chamber to provide an aged aerosol for animal exposures; development and evaluation of a denuder system to remove excess gaseous components; and development of a mobile toxicology laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, design, and methods employed in the study. PMID:21639692

  1. Action learning sets in a nursing and midwifery practice learning context: a realistic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Machin, Alison I; Pearson, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    Action learning sets (ALS) are used widely for organisational and workforce development, including in nursing (Anderson and Thorpe, 2004; Pounder, 2009; Young et al., 2010). In the United Kingdom, a multi-faceted educational Pilot programme for new nurses and midwives was implemented to accelerate their clinical practice and leadership development (NHS Education Scotland, 2010). Action Learning Sets were provided for peer support and personal development. The Realistic Evaluation study reported in this paper explored issues of context, mechanism and outcome (Pawson and Tilley, 1997) influencing the action learning experiences of: programme participants (recently qualified nurses and midwives, from different practice settings); and programme supporters. A range of data were collected via: online questionnaires from 66 participants and 29 supporters; three focus groups, each comprising between eight and 10 programme participants; and one focus group with three action learning facilitators. The qualitative data pertaining to the ALS are presented in this paper. Thematic data analysis of context, mechanism and outcome configurations, generated five themes: creating and sustaining a collective learning environment; challenging constructively; collective support; the role of feedback; and effectiveness of ALS. Study outcomes suggest nursing and midwifery action learning should (a) be facilitated positively to improve participants' experience; (b) be renamed to avoid learning methodology confusion; and (c) be outcome focused to evidence impact on practice. PMID:24480095

  2. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  3. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)-power plant studies: assessment of cellular responses

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, John J.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Long, Mark; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA) project assessed primary and secondary particulate by simulating the chemical reactions that a plume from a source might undergo during atmospheric transport and added other atmospheric constituents that might interact with it. Three coal-fired power plants with different coal and different emission controls were used. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to either filtered air or aged aerosol from the power plant. Four exposure scenarios were studied: primary particles (P); primary + secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); primary + secondary (oxidized) particles + SOA (POS); and primary + secondary (oxidized) particles neutralized + SOA (PONS). Exposure concentrations varied by scenario to a maximum concentration of 257.1 ± 10.0 µg/m3. Twenty-four hours after exposure, pulmonary cellular responses were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), complete blood count (CBC), and histopathology. Exposure to the PONS and POS scenarios produced significant increases in BAL total cells and macrophage numbers at two plants. The PONS and P scenarios were associated with significant increases in BAL neutrophils and the presence of occasional neutrophils and increased macrophages in the airways and alveoli of exposed animals. Univariate analyses and random forest analyses showed that increases in total cell count and macrophage cell count were significantly associated with neutralized sulfate and several correlated measurements. Increases in neutrophils in BAL were associated with zinc. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters or blood vessel wall thickness by histopathology. The association between neutrophils increases and zinc raises the possibility that metals play a role in this response. PMID:21466245

  4. Evaluation of Emerging Diagnostic Tools for Commercial HVAC Systems 

    E-print Network

    Friedman, H.; Piette, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates the capabilities of six emerging diagnostic tools for commercial HVAC systems. We present a brief description of the diagnostic tools, and then focus on evaluating the features of the tools. We include the following...

  5. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  6. Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Jozsef; Raczkevy-Deak, Gabriella; Gyimesine, Katalin P.; Szakmary, Andras; Farkas, Istvan; Vegh, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary), who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions (“attentional myopia”) and promotes a bias toward hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e., before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness. PMID:25374519

  7. Evaluating real-time image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography using physiologically realistic test data

    PubMed Central

    Brigadoi, Sabrina; Powell, Samuel; Cooper, Robert J.; Dempsey, Laura A.; Arridge, Simon; Everdell, Nick; Hebden, Jeremy; Gibson, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    In diffuse optical tomography (DOT), real-time image reconstruction of oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin changes occurring in the brain could give valuable information in clinical care settings. Although non-linear reconstruction techniques could provide more accurate results, their computational burden makes them unsuitable for real-time applications. Linear techniques can be employed under the assumption that the expected change in absorption is small. Several approaches exist, differing primarily in their handling of regularization and the noise statistics. In real experiments, it is impossible to compute the true noise statistics, because of the presence of physiological oscillations in the measured data. This is even more critical in real-time applications, where no off-line filtering and averaging can be performed to reduce the noise level. Therefore, many studies substitute the noise covariance matrix with the identity matrix. In this paper, we examined two questions: does using the noise model with realistic, imperfect data yield an improvement in image quality compared to using the identity matrix; and what is the difference in quality between online and offline reconstructions. Bespoke test data were created using a novel process through which simulated changes in absorption were added to real resting-state DOT data. A realistic multi-layer head model was used as the geometry for the reconstruction. Results validated our assumptions, highlighting the validity of computing the noise statistics from the measured data for online image reconstruction, which was performed at 2 Hz. Our results can be directly extended to a real application where real-time imaging is required. PMID:26713189

  8. Use of a realistic breathing lung phantom to evaluate dose delivery errors

    SciTech Connect

    Court, Laurence E.; Seco, Joao; Lu Xingqi; Ebe, Kazuyu; Mayo, Charles; Ionascu, Dan; Winey, Brian; Giakoumakis, Nikos; Aristophanous, Michalis; Berbeco, Ross; Rottman, Joerg; Bogdanov, Madeleine; Schofield, Deborah; Lingos, Tania

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the effect of respiration-induced motion on delivered dose (the interplay effect) for different treatment techniques under realistic clinical conditions. Methods: A flexible resin tumor model was created using rapid prototyping techniques based on a computed tomography (CT) image of an actual tumor. Twenty micro-MOSFETs were inserted into the tumor model and the tumor model was inserted into an anthropomorphic breathing phantom. Phantom motion was programed using the motion trajectory of an actual patient. A four-dimensional CT image was obtained and several treatment plans were created using different treatment techniques and planning systems: Conformal (Eclipse), step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) (Pinnacle), step-and-shoot IMRT (XiO), dynamic IMRT (Eclipse), complex dynamic IMRT (Eclipse), hybrid IMRT [60% conformal, 40% dynamic IMRT (Eclipse)], volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) [single-arc (Eclipse)], VMAT [double-arc (Eclipse)], and complex VMAT (Eclipse). The complex plans were created by artificially pushing the optimizer to give complex multileaf collimator sequences. Each IMRT field was irradiated five times and each VMAT field was irradiated ten times, with each irradiation starting at a random point in the respiratory cycle. The effect of fractionation was calculated by randomly summing the measured doses. The maximum deviation for each measurement point per fraction and the probability that 95% of the model tumor had dose deviations less than 2% and 5% were calculated as a function of the number of fractions. Tumor control probabilities for each treatment plan were calculated and compared. Results: After five fractions, measured dose deviations were less than 2% for more than 95% of measurement points within the tumor model for all plans, except the complex dynamic IMRT, step-and-shoot IMRT (XiO), complex VMAT, and single-arc VMAT plans. Reducing the dose rate of the complex IMRT plans from 600 to 200 MU/min reduced the dose deviations to less than 2%. Dose deviations were less than 5% after five fractions for all plans, except the complex single-arc VMAT plan. Conclusions: Rapid prototyping techniques can be used to create realistic tumor models. For most treatment techniques, the dose deviations averaged out after several fractions. Treatments with unusually complicated multileaf collimator sequences had larger dose deviations. For IMRT treat-ments, dose deviations can be reduced by reducing the dose rate. For VMAT treatments, using two arcs instead of one is effective for reducing dose deviations.

  9. Gauge checks, consistency of approximation schemes and numerical evaluation of realistic scattering amplitudes

    E-print Network

    Christian Schwinn

    2003-12-17

    We discuss both theoretical tools to verify gauge invariance in numerical calculations of cross sections and the consistency of approximation schemes used in realistic calculations. A finite set of Ward Identities for 4 point scattering amplitudes is determined, that is sufficient to verify the correct implementation of Feynman rules of a spontaneously broken gauge theory in a model independent way. These identities have been implemented in the matrix element generator O'Mega and have been used to verify the implementation of the complete Standard Model in R_\\xi gauge. The consistency of approximation schemes in tree level calculations is discussed in the last part of this work. We determine the gauge invariance classes of spontaneously broken gauge theories, providing a new proof for the formalism of gauge and flavor flips. The schemes for finite width effects that have been implemented in O'Mega are reviewed. As a comparison with existing calculations, we study the consistency of these schemes in the process e^-e^+\\to e^- \\bar \

  10. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Wi, Hun; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  11. Realistic evaluation of hull performance for rowing shells, canoes, and kayaks in unsteady flow.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander; Campbell, Ian; Clelland, David; Doctors, Lawrence J; Cichowicz, Jakub

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of hull dynamics in shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of rowing shells as well as canoes and kayaks. An approach was developed to generate data in a towing tank using a test rig capable of reproducing realistic speed profiles. The impact of unsteady shallow-water effects on wave-making resistance was examined via experimental measurements on a benchmark hull. The data generated were used to explore the validity of a computational approach developed to predict unsteady shallow-water wave resistance. Comparison of measured and predicted results showed that the computational approach correctly predicted complex unsteady wave-resistance phenomena at low oscillation frequency and speed, but that total resistance was substantially under-predicted at moderate oscillation frequency and speed. It was postulated that this discrepancy arose from unsteady viscous effects. This was investigated via hot-film measurements for a full-scale single scull in unsteady flow in both towing-tank and field-trial conditions. Results suggested a strong link between acceleration and turbulence and demonstrated that the measured real-world viscous-flow behaviour could be successfully reproduced in the tank. Thus a suitable tank-test approach could provide a reliable guide to hull performance characterization in unsteady flow. PMID:21756127

  12. Using the Co-Production of Knowledge for Developing Realistic Natural Disaster Scenarios for Small-to-Medium Scale Emergency Management Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T.; Wilson, T. M.; Davies, T. R.; Orchiston, C.; Thompson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster scenarios for Emergency Management (EM) exercises are a widely-used and effective tool for communicating hazard information to policy makers, EM personnel, lifelines operators and communities in general. It is crucial that the scenarios are as realistic as possible. Major disasters however, contain a series of cascading consequences, both environmental and social, which are difficult to model. Consequently, only recently have large-scale exercises included such processes; incorporating these in small- and medium-scale scenarios has yet to be attempted. This study details work undertaken in a recent medium-scale earthquake exercise in New Zealand to introduce such cascading processes into the disaster scenario. Given limited time, data, and funding, we show that the co-production of knowledge between natural disaster scientists, EM personnel, and governance and lifelines organisations can yield detailed, realistic scenarios. Using the co-production process, scenario development was able to identify where the pre-exercise state of knowledge was insufficient. This enabled a focussed research response driven by end-user needs. This found that in general, seismic hazard (ground shaking) and its likely impacts were well known and understood by all parties. However, subsequent landsliding and associated effects were poorly known and understood and their potential impacts unconsidered. Scenario development therefore focussed primarily on understanding these processes and their potential effects. This resulted in cascading hazards being included in a medium-scale NZ exercise for the first time. Further, all participants were able to focus on the potential impacts on their specific sectors, increasing the level of knowledge of cascading processes across all parties. Using group based discussions throughout the design process allowed a detailed scenario to be created, fostered stronger inter-disciplinary relationships, and identified areas for further research. Consequently, further detailed research has begun specifically into the impacts from secondary effects in an effort to further increase resilience to future events.

  13. Towards a Holistic Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Plans in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

  14. Towards a holistic framework for the evaluation of emergency plans in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

  15. Creating realistic, scenario-based synthetic data for test and evaluation of information analytics software

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Varley, Caroline F.

    2008-04-10

    The Threat Stream Generator (TSG) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing synthetic datasets to test and evaluate visual analytics tools for the past four years. Our activities have ranged from supporting the evaluation of major U.S. Government analytical frameworks to creating four datasets for the IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) contest over the past two years. We have developed a reasonable method and supporting toolset for creating believable synthetic data sets for different uses. A key differentiator for our datasets is that they contain data concerning one or more invented threats, based on a scenario. Embedding a known threat into the data provides ground truth for analytic tools to work against in evaluating their performance, as well as new opportunities for evaluation researchers to explore techniques given ground truth exists. We describe the process of creating the scenarios and threats and the process of transforming them into data elements, and then we describe how this data is embedded in other data to form a TSG dataset.

  16. A Realistic Evaluation and Comparison of Indoor Location Technologies: Experiences and Lessons Learned

    E-print Network

    Lenders, Vincent

    -purpose and Application-based Systems]: Real-time and embedded systems General Terms Experimentation Keywords indoor transmitters [26], lights [23], and magnetic signal mod- ulators [32, 2] to enable accurate indoor position that this is partly due to the highly ad-hoc evaluation process of indoor location systems. Each system is usually

  17. Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography.

  18. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)—Power plant studies: assessment of breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Coull, Brent; Long, Mark S.; Rohr, Annette C.; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Our approach to study multi-pollutant aerosols isolates a single emissions source, evaluates the toxicity of primary and secondary particles derived from this source, and simulates chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere after emission. Three U.S. coal-fired power plants utilizing different coals and with different emission controls were evaluated. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from ?-pinene and/or ammonia was added in some experiments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Scenarios studied at each plant included the following: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + SOA (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS); additional control scenarios were also studied. Continuous respiratory data were obtained during exposures using whole body plethysmography chambers. Of the 12 respiratory outcomes assessed, each had statistically significant changes at some plant and with some of the 4 scenarios. The most robust outcomes were found with exposure to the PO scenario (increased respiratory frequency with decreases in inspiratory and expiratory time); and the PONS scenario (decreased peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50%). PONS findings were most strongly associated with ammonium, neutralized sulfate, and elemental carbon (EC) in univariate analyses, but only with EC in multivariate analyses. Control scenario O (oxidized without primary particles) had similar changes to PO. Adjusted R2 analyses showed that scenario was a better predictor of respiratory responses than individual components, suggesting that the complex atmospheric mixture was responsible for respiratory effects. PMID:21639693

  19. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  20. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system.

    PubMed

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

  1. Towards a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: i) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; ii) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; iii) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; iv) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; v) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and vi) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems.

  2. Evaluating the Performance of BSBL Methodology for EEG Source Localization On a Realistic Head Model

    E-print Network

    Saha, Sajib; Nesterets, Ya I; Tahtali, M; de Hoog, Frank; Gureyev, T E

    2015-01-01

    Source localization in EEG represents a high dimensional inverse problem, which is severely ill-posed by nature. Fortunately, sparsity constraints have come into rescue as it helps solving the ill-posed problems when the signal is sparse. When the signal has a structure such as block structure, consideration of block sparsity produces better results. Knowing sparse Bayesian learning is an important member in the family of sparse recovery, and a superior choice when the projection matrix is highly coherent (which is typical the case for EEG), in this work we evaluate the performance of block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) method for EEG source localization. It is already accepted by the EEG community that a group of dipoles rather than a single dipole are activated during brain activities; thus, block structure is a reasonable choice for EEG. In this work we use two definitions of blocks: Brodmann areas and automated anatomical labelling (AAL), and analyze the reconstruction performance of BSBL methodology fo...

  3. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    PubMed Central

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C.; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

  4. The New Mexico School Nurse and Emergency Medical Services Emergency Preparedness Course: Program Description and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgie, Robert; Sapien, Robert E.; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    Illness and injuries are common among students and school staff. Therefore, school nurses must be prepared. In this study, a 16-hour scenario-based emergency preparedness course for school nurses was evaluated for its effectiveness. Effectiveness was measured by (a) traditional methods (written exams and confidence surveys) and (b) skills and…

  5. Realistic Subscale Evaluations of the Mechanical Properties of Advanced Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Konkel, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of experimental powder metallurgy disk alloys were evaluated for their processing characteristics and high temperature mechanical properties. Powder of each alloy was hot compacted, extruded, and isothermally forged into subscale disks. Disks were subsolvus and supersolvus heat treated, then quenched using procedures designed to reproduce the cooling paths expected in large-scale disks. Mechanical tests were then performed at 538, 704, and 815 C. Several alloys had superior tensile and creep properties at 704 C and higher temperatures, but were difficult to process and prone to quench cracking, chiefly due to their high gamma prime solvus temperature. Several other alloys had more favorable processing characteristics due to their lower gamma prime solvus temperature and balanced time-dependent properties at 704 C. Results indicate an experimental low solvus, high refractory alloy can build upon the best attributes of all these alloys, giving exceptional tensile and creep properties at high temperatures with good processing characteristics due to a low gamma prime solvus.

  6. Development and evaluation of realistic microbioassays in freely suspended droplets on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vinayak; Velev, Orlin D.

    2007-01-01

    A novel technique for biomolecular detection in microliter droplets floating on the surface of high density oil is presented. Each droplet was captured and manipulated dielectrophoretically and was used as a site for a microscopic bioassay based on agglutination of antibody-conjugated particles. The results were read out by the pattern of unagglomerated gold nanoparticles collected on the droplet surface. Two formats of bioassays, namely gold only agglutination and gold and latex agglutination, were investigated experimentally by varying analyte concentration, particle size and concentration, number of antigen binding sites per particle, time for incubation, and rate of particle collection on the droplet surface. The microbioassays performance was also evaluated with ricin antibodies and compared to the ricin assays in field use. It is estimated that the droplet based assays require 100× smaller sample volume and are ten times more sensitive, though they require longer times to complete. The experiments were interpreted by modeling the kinetics of particle agglutination and mass transfer processes inside the droplets. The incubation time and antigen concentration values calculated by the model correlate well with the experimental results. The results could allow for development of efficient immunoassays on a chip requiring even smaller sample volumes. PMID:19693356

  7. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System(ERDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Lambert, Winifred C.; Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    The emergency response dose assessment system (ERDAS) is a protype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) region. ERDAS provides emergency response guidance to operations at KSC/CCAS in the case of an accidental hazardous material release or an aborted vehicle launch. This report describes the evaluation of ERDAS including: evaluation of sea breeze predictions, comparison of launch plume location and concentration predictions, case study of a toxic release, evaluation of model sensitivity to varying input parameters, evaluation of the user interface, assessment of ERDA's operational capabilities, and a comparison of ERDAS models to the ocean breeze dry gultch diffusion model.

  8. Evaluating phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of ornamental plants as phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail emergence, and compared their performance with predictions based upon calendar date, cumulative growing degree-days (GDD) and the WeedCast program. From 1997 to 2001, we monitored giant foxtail emergenc...

  9. Notes on the Implementation of Non-Parametric Statistics within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA Evaluation Model (ASTRUM)

    SciTech Connect

    Frepoli, Cesare; Oriani, Luca

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, non-parametric or order statistics methods have been widely used to assess the impact of the uncertainties within Best-Estimate LOCA evaluation models. The bounding of the uncertainties is achieved with a direct Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertainty attributes, with the minimum trial number selected to 'stabilize' the estimation of the critical output values (peak cladding temperature (PCT), local maximum oxidation (LMO), and core-wide oxidation (CWO A non-parametric order statistics uncertainty analysis was recently implemented within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA evaluation model, also referred to as 'Automated Statistical Treatment of Uncertainty Method' (ASTRUM). The implementation or interpretation of order statistics in safety analysis is not fully consistent within the industry. This has led to an extensive public debate among regulators and researchers which can be found in the open literature. The USNRC-approved Westinghouse method follows a rigorous implementation of the order statistics theory, which leads to the execution of 124 simulations within a Large Break LOCA analysis. This is a solid approach which guarantees that a bounding value (at 95% probability) of the 95{sup th} percentile for each of the three 10 CFR 50.46 ECCS design acceptance criteria (PCT, LMO and CWO) is obtained. The objective of this paper is to provide additional insights on the ASTRUM statistical approach, with a more in-depth analysis of pros and cons of the order statistics and of the Westinghouse approach in the implementation of this statistical methodology. (authors)

  10. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-01

    TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the scenarios utilizing secondary particles (oxidized emissions) ranged from 70-256 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and some of the atmospheres contained high acidity levels (up to 49 {micro}g/m{sup 3} equivalent of sulfuric acid). However, caution must be used in generalizing these results to other power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations, as the emissions may vary based on these factors.

  11. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

  12. Diversion to the mental health system: emergency psychiatric evaluations.

    PubMed

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S; Tamburello, Anthony C

    2006-01-01

    In Maryland, any citizen may petition to have individuals brought against their will for an examination by a physician. In this retrospective chart review, we evaluated the characteristics of 300 persons referred to the Johns Hopkins Hospital on emergency petitions. Sixty-one percent of petitions described individuals who made verbal or physical threats of self-harm. Forty-seven percent of the petitions described individuals who could have been arrested based on dangerousness to others or property, but were instead diverted to the emergency room for psychiatric evaluation. Although not promoted as a jail diversion program, this process has the potential to direct mentally ill citizens appropriately from the criminal justice system into the mental health system. Greater involvement of mental health professionals at all stages, including police training and participation in crisis response teams in the community, may improve this process. PMID:17032950

  13. [Attempted suicide. Evaluation of a case in an emergency department].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann-Serret, Alina; Carballo-Alvarez, Motserrat; Alcaraz-Bravo, Judit

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is conscious behavior leading to self-destruction. The intention to die is always present and the consequent death will be caused by the suicide victim. The main causes of suicide are mood disorders and particularly depression, although certain personality features (low self-esteem, hopelessness, introversion, neuroticism, etc.) and stress are considered to be predisposing factors. Suicidal behavior is therefore a routine part of emergency psychiatry. Consequently, evaluation of the parasuicidal patient is fundamental in emergency departments due to the potential seriousness of the phenomenon and the increase in the frequency of this type of behavior. Furthermore, evaluation is essential to provide a more optimal therapeutic approach and appropriate referral and to improve treatment compliance. Nursing interventions require specific care plans that allow patients to express themselves openly and to be met with an uncritical and empathetic response in order to improve their self-confidence and ability to cope with problems and reduce anxiety. PMID:17961471

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

  15. Information technology model for evaluating emergency medicine teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbach, James; Ryan, James

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes work in progress to develop an Information Technology (IT) model and supporting information system for the evaluation of clinical teaching in the Emergency Medicine (EM) Department of North Shore University Hospital. In the academic hospital setting student physicians, i.e. residents, and faculty function daily in their dual roles as teachers and students respectively, and as health care providers. Databases exist that are used to evaluate both groups in either academic or clinical performance, but rarely has this information been integrated to analyze the relationship between academic performance and the ability to care for patients. The goal of the IT model is to improve the quality of teaching of EM physicians by enabling the development of integrable metrics for faculty and resident evaluation. The IT model will include (1) methods for tracking residents in order to develop experimental databases; (2) methods to integrate lecture evaluation, clinical performance, resident evaluation, and quality assurance databases; and (3) a patient flow system to monitor patient rooms and the waiting area in the Emergency Medicine Department, to record and display status of medical orders, and to collect data for analyses.

  16. More than a checklist: a realist evaluation of supervision of mid-level health workers in rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mid-level health workers (MLHWs) form the front-line of service delivery in many low- and middle-income countries. Supervision is a critical institutional intervention linking their work to the health system, and it consists of activities intended to support health workers’ motivation and enable them to perform. However its impact depends not only on the frequency of these activities but also how they are carried out and received. This study aims to deepen understanding of the mechanisms through which supervision activities support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of MLHWs, in rural Guatemala. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to examine the operation of supervision of five health posts using a realist evaluation approach. A program theory was formulated describing local understanding of how supervision activities are intended to work. Data was collected through interviews and document review to test the theory. Analysis focused on comparison of activities, outcomes, mechanisms and the influence of context across cases, leading to revision of the program theory. Results The supervisor’s orientation was identified as the main mechanism contributing to variation observed in activities and their outcomes. Managerial control was the dominant orientation, reflecting the influence of standardized performance criteria and institutional culture. Humanized support was present in one case where the auxiliary nurse was motivated by the sense that the full scope of her work was valued. This orientation reflected the supervisor’s integration of her professional identity as a nurse. Conclusions The nature of the support health workers received was shaped by supervisors’ orientation, and in this study, nursing principles were central to humanized support. Efforts to strengthen the support that supervision provides to MLHWs should promote professional ethos as a means of developing shared performance goals and orient supervisors to a more holistic view of the health worker and their work. PMID:24602196

  17. Integration of robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration, and decision making: a realist process evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery offers many potential benefits for patients. While an increasing number of healthcare providers are purchasing surgical robots, there are reports that the technology is failing to be introduced into routine practice. Additionally, in robotic surgery, the surgeon is physically separated from the patient and the rest of the team, with the potential to negatively impact teamwork in the operating theatre. The aim of this study is to ascertain: how and under what circumstances robotic surgery is effectively introduced into routine practice; and how and under what circumstances robotic surgery impacts teamwork, communication and decision making, and subsequent patient outcomes. Methods and design We will undertake a process evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and robotic surgery for the curative treatment of rectal cancer. Realist evaluation provides an overall framework for the study. The study will be in three phases. In Phase I, grey literature will be reviewed to identify stakeholders’ theories concerning how robotic surgery becomes embedded into surgical practice and its impacts. These theories will be refined and added to through interviews conducted across English hospitals that are using robotic surgery for rectal cancer resection with staff at different levels of the organisation, along with a review of documentation associated with the introduction of robotic surgery. In Phase II, a multi-site case study will be conducted across four English hospitals to test and refine the candidate theories. Data will be collected using multiple methods: the structured observation tool OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery); video recordings of operations; ethnographic observation; and interviews. In Phase III, interviews will be conducted at the four case sites with staff representing a range of surgical disciplines, to assess the extent to which the results of Phase II are generalisable and to refine the resulting theories to reflect the experience of a broader range of surgical disciplines. The study will provide (i) guidance to healthcare organisations on factors likely to facilitate successful implementation and integration of robotic surgery, and (ii) guidance on how to ensure effective communication and teamwork when undertaking robotic surgery. PMID:24885669

  18. Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery. PMID:24903401

  19. Differential Evaluations of Alcohol-related Consequences Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Ray, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) to reduce drinking in college students often provide feedback about negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by students to motivate them to drink less. Yet, there is evidence which suggests that not everyone perceives consequences as negative and raises questions regarding the utility of consequence-specific feedback for some individuals. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research to examine salience of consequences among both college and non-college emerging adults, differences in ratings by sex, age, and frequency of experiencing consequences, and the relationship between salience measured in emerging adulthood and drinking patterns in young adulthood. Data were from an accelerated cohort study of males and females (N = 1308), who were either age 18, 21, or 24 years at the time of consequence evaluation and followed up 7 years later. Most experienced consequences were rated as at least a little bothersome. Regression analyses indicated that females, older participants, and those who experienced a consequence more often evaluated consequences as more bothersome but there were no differences by college status. Mean ratings of bother did not predict quitting drinking or alcohol problems 7 years later, whereas the number of consequences experienced did. Overall, the results suggest that most consequences are rated similarly by emerging adults regardless of college attendance but that feedback on consequences may be more salient for females and older emerging adults. PFIs may need to differ in the types of feedback they provide depending on demographic characteristics and baseline level of alcohol problems. PMID:23412945

  20. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2004-12-02

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Significant progress was made on the Project during this reporting period, with field work being initiated at Plant 0. Initial testing of the stack sampling system and reaction apparatus revealed that primary particle concentrations were lower than expected in the emissions entering the mobile chemical laboratory. Initial animal exposures to primary emissions were carried out (Scenario 1) to ensure successful implementation of all study methodologies and toxicological assessments. Results indicated no significant toxicological effects in response to primary emissions exposures. Exposures were then carried out to diluted, oxidized, neutralized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (Scenario 5), both during the day and also at night when primary particle concentrations in the sampled stack emissions tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

  1. Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Young; Alan M Snyder

    2007-11-01

    During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the fundamentals of this emerging technology, applciations for emergency response and specific results of the technology evaluation conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  2. Performance evaluation of two emerging media processors: VIRAM and imagine

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Duell, Jason; Narayanan, Manikandan; Chatterji, Sourav

    2003-01-01

    This work presents two emerging media microprocessors, VIRAM and Imagine, and compares the implementation strategies and performance results of these unique architectures. VIRAM is a complete system on a chip which uses PIM technology to combine vector processing with embedded DRAM. Imagine is a programmable streaming architecture with a specialized memory hierarchy designed for computationally intensive data-parallel codes. First, we present a simple and effective approach for understanding and optimizing vector/stream applications. Performance results are then presented from a number of multimedia benchmarks and a computationally intensive scientific kernel. We explore the complex interact ions between programming paradigms, the architectural support at the ISA lever and the underlying microarchitecture of these two systems. Our long term goal is to evaluate leading media microprocessors as possible building blocks for future high performance systems.

  3. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital, France. Results will be published in scientific journals, and communicated to respondents and relevant institutions. PMID:25631314

  4. What works in ‘real life’ to facilitate home deaths and fewer hospital admissions for those at end of life?: results from a realist evaluation of new palliative care services in two English counties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated end of life care services in two English counties including: coordination centres, telephone advice line, ‘Discharge in Reach’ nurses, a specialist community personal care team and community nurse educators. Elsewhere, we published findings detailing high family carer satisfaction and fewer hospital admissions, Accident and Emergency attendances and hospital deaths for service users compared to controls. The aim of this paper is to discuss what contributed to those outcomes. Methods Using realist evaluation, data collection included documentation (e.g. referral databases), 15 observations of services and interviews with 43 family carers and 105 professionals. Data were analysed using framework analysis, applying realist evaluation concepts. Findings were discussed at successive team meetings and further data was collected until team consensus was reached. Results Services ‘worked’ primarily for those with cancer with ‘fast track’ funding who were close to death. Factors contributing to success included services staffed with experienced palliative care professionals with dedicated (and sufficient) time for difficult conversations with family carers, patients and/or clinical colleagues about death and the practicalities of caring for the dying. Using their formal and informal knowledge of the local healthcare system, they accessed community resources to support homecare and delivered excellent services. This engendered confidence and reassurance for staff, family carers and patients, possibly contributing to less hospital admissions and A&E attendances and more home deaths. Conclusions With demand for 24-hour end of life care growing and care provision fragmented across health and social care boundaries, services like these that cut across organisational sectors may become more important. They offer an overview to help navigate those desiring a home death through the system. PMID:25075202

  5. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2004-02-29

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Modifications to the original study design, which will improve the atmospheric aging component of the project and ensure that emissions are as realistic as possible, have resulted in project delays, and, at the time of report preparation, fieldwork at the Upper Midwest plant had not begun. However, such activities are imminent. This report therefore does not present data for activities covered by the Agreement, but does present results for the laboratory methods development work. This work is critical for the future success of the project. In particular, the atmospheric reaction simulation system is of paramount importance to the TERESA study design, since the basis for the toxicity assessment lies in the generation of realistic exposure atmospheres. The formation, composition, and toxicity of particles will be related to different atmospheric conditions and plume dilution scenarios through variations in reaction conditions. Because of the critical role played by this component in ensuring the overall success of the project, more time was required to develop and optimize the system, and the one-chamber simulation system outlined in the original Scope of Work for the Agreement was modified to comprise a more realistic dual chamber system. We are confident that the additional time required to optimize these methodologies will result in a significant improvement in the study. We fully expect that results for tasks covered under the Agreement, and a complete discussion of their relevance and value, will be included in the next semiannual progress report.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current generations of GPUs lack a sufficient balance of computational resources to replace the general-purpose microprocessor found in most traditional supercomputer architectures. ARSC has also worked with the Cell Broadband Engine in a small Playstation3 cluster, as well as a 24-processor system based on IBM's QS22 blades. The QS22 system, called Quasar, features the PowerXCell 8i processor found in the RoadRunner system, along with an InfiniBand network and high performance storage. Quasar overcomes the limitations of the small memory and relatively slow network of the PS3 systems. The presentation will include system-level benchmarks on Quasar, as well as evaluation of the WRF test cases. Another technology evaluation focused on Sun's UltraSPARC T2+ processor, which ARSC evaluated in a two-way system. Each T2+ provides eight processor cores, each of which provides eight threads, for a total of 128 threads in a single system. WRF scalability was good up to the number of cores, but multiple threads per core did not scale as well. Throughout the discussion, practical findings from ARSC will be summarized. While multicore general-purpose microprocessors are anticipated to remain important for large computers running earth and space science applications, the role of other potentially disruptive technologies is less certain. Limitations of current and future technologies will be discussed. class="ab'>

  7. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating the comparison with respect to a representative range of efficiencies in dishwasher units, a realistic comparison was made. A statistical approach was devised to process the available output by combining a Z-score test with the Cox method for confidence intervals. Despite the common use of LCA software with Monte Carlo analysis, this approach to compare distributions has not been discovered in LCA-related literature and offers a straightforward method for extending analysis under conditions of positive skew approximated by a lognormal distribution, which is common in LCA parameters. The two case studies provide product developer and consumer guidance, respectively. They furthermore may be used to inform policy in both direct and nuanced manners. The encouragement of product reuse is facilitated for individuals and organizations providing food-service facilities. Caution in efforts to increase power generation capacity with renewable energy not coupled with reduction of demand is implied.

  8. Improving emergency department flow through Rapid Medical Evaluation unit

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Lucas; Josephson, Timothy; Bates, Kathy; Kuipers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    The Toronto Western Hospital is an academic hospital in Toronto, Canada, with an annual Emergency Department (ED) volume of 64,000 patients. Despite increases in patient volumes of almost six percent per annum over the last decade, there have been no commensurate increases in resources, infrastructure, and staffing. This has led to substantial increase in patient wait times, most specifically for those patients with lower acuity presentations. Despite requiring only minimal care, these patients contribute disproportionately to ED congestion, which can adversely impact resource utilization and quality of care for all patients. We undertook a retrospective evaluation of a quality improvement initiative aimed at improving wait times experienced by patients with lower acuity presentations. A rapid improvement event was organized by frontline workers to rapidly overhaul processes of care, leading to the creation of the Rapid Medical Evaluation (RME) unit – a new pathway of care for patients with lower acuity presentations. The RME unit was designed by re-purposing existing resources and re-assigning one physician and one nurse towards the specific care of these patients. We evaluated the performance of the RME unit through measurement of physician initial assessment (PIA) times and total length of stay (LOS) times for multiple groups of patients assigned to various ED care pathways, during three periods lasting three months each. Weekly measurements of mean and 90th percentile of PIA and LOS times showed special cause variation in all targeted patient groups. Of note, the patients seen in the RME unit saw their median PIA and LOS times decrease from 98min to 70min and from 165min to 130min, respectively, from baseline. Despite ever-growing numbers of patient visits, wait times for all patients with lower acuity presentations remained low, and wait times of patients with higher acuity presentations assigned to other ED care pathways were not adversely affected. By specifically re-purposing a fraction of existing staff, resources, and infrastructure for patients with lower acuity presentations, we were able to streamline their care and decrease wait times in the ED. These results were achieved through the incremental improvements afforded by rapidly cycling through PDSA cycles, with strong frontline staff involvement and continuously eliciting feedback for improvement. We believe the model to be replicable in other academic medical centres.

  9. Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeunier, M.-H.; Travere, J.-M.

    2010-10-15

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.

  10. The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-02-01

    We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24? × ?48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of 99mTc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion correction methods for improved SPECT/CT imaging.

  11. 1992 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has encouraged and financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies suitable for use at hazardous waste sites for five year...

  12. Project Emerge, Dayton, Ohio. 1972-73 Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton City School District, OH.

    Project Emerge, funded under Title VIII of the 1965 Elementary Secondary Education Act, is located in the Model Cities Area, a black-inhabited west side section of Dayton, Ohio. The target school student population is 2,300 of which 20 percent come from families with low incomes. Project Emerge's major objectives are to reduce the dropout rate in…

  13. Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases 

    E-print Network

    Meredith, Anna Louise

    2012-06-30

    New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

  14. A Realistic Dataset for Performance Evaluation of Document Layout Analysis A. Antonacopoulos, D. Bridson, C. Papadopoulos and S. Pletschacher

    E-print Network

    . Bridson, C. Papadopoulos and S. Pletschacher Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (PRImA) Research Lab to evaluate layout analysis methods and examine their performance in detail. This paper presents a new dataset] and the Medical Article Records Groundtruth (MARG) dataset [4] contain only bilevel images and similarly simple

  15. Establishing Fair and Realistic Entry and Exit Criteria Using the General Evaluation Matrix (GEM), a Special Education Decision Making Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kenneth G.

    The paper describes the development and use of a General Evaluation Matrix (GEM), a profile technique by which major handicaps are graphically presented along with school grades and achievements in basic skills. The approach lends itself to establishing entry level criteria for special education suited to the needs of specific communities.…

  16. Retrospective evaluation of urological admissions to emergency service of a training and research hospital

    PubMed Central

    Topakta?, Ramazan; Alt?n, Selçuk; Ayd?n, Cemil; Akkoç, Ali; Y?lmaz, Yakup

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many patients consult emergency services with urological complaints. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatments of urological emergency cases in a training and research hospital. Material and methods: We retrospectively evaluated urological emergency patients referred to the emergency unit between July 2012 and July 2013 according to age, gender, affected organ, radiological imaging techniques and treatment. Results: Among 141.844 emergency cases, 3.113 (2.19%) were urological emergencies and 53.2% of the patients were male (mean age: 49.1), and 46.8% of them were female (median age: 42.8). The most frequent illness was genitourinary infection constituting 41.2% of the cases followed by renal colic (36.9%). Among the urological emergencies 483 (15.5%) patients were hospitalized and 152 surgical operations were performed. The mostly performed procedure was the placement of a suprapubic catheter in 34 patients constituting (22.3%) of the cases. Totally eight patients were referred to another experienced health center due to different reasons. Conclusion: Most of the urological emergency patients do not require emergency surgical interventions however, timely identification and management of urological emergencies with in-depth clinical evaluation are important to prevent late complications. Therefore the doctors working in emergency services must be heedful of urological emergencies. PMID:26328181

  17. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petri?, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  18. Evaluating the Emergence of Reverse Intraverbals in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Alicia C.; Vladescu, Jason C.; Kisamore, April N.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Verbal behavior plays a fundamental role in the development of complex social and communication skills. Many children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder exhibit profound deficiencies in intraverbal repertoires and the development of social relationships. Recent studies that investigated the effects of intraverbal training on the emergence of…

  19. Project Emerge, Dayton, Ohio. 1973-74 Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, James

    Project Emerge was initiated in reaction to a high dropout rate at Roosevelt High School, which was attributed to low self-concept, low motivation, underachievement and the internalization of failure, irregular attendance, health problems, and disruptive classroom behavior. The enrollment of Roosevelt High School is 1395 students, of whom…

  20. An evaluation into the efficiency and effectiveness of machine learning algorithms in realistic traffic pattern prediction using field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Lu, Chao; Moulema, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely knowledge is critical in intelligent transportation system (ITS) as it leads to improved traffic flow management. The knowledge of the past can be useful for the future as traffic patterns normally follow a predictable pattern with respect to time of day, and day of week. In this paper, we systematically evaluated the prediction accuracy and speed of several supervised machine learning algorithms towards congestion identification based on six weeks real-world traffic data from August 1st, 2012 to September 12th, 2012 in the Maryland (MD)/Washington DC, and Virginia (VA) area. Our dataset consists of six months traffic data pattern from July 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012, of which 6 weeks was used as a representative sample for the purposes of this study on our reference roadway - I-270. Our experimental data shows that with respect to classification, classification tree (Ctree) could provide the best prediction accuracy with an accuracy rate of 100% and prediction speed of 0.34 seconds. It is pertinent to note that variations exist respecting prediction accuracy and prediction speed; hence, a tradeoff is often necessary respecting the priority of the applications in question. It is also imperative to note from the outset that, algorithm design and calibration are important factors in determining their effectiveness.

  1. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  2. Evaluation of Video Transmission in Emergency Response Ad Hoc C. Bouras1,2

    E-print Network

    big catastrophes (Hurricane Katrina USA 2005, Tsunami Japan, 2011, Earthquake Japan 2011) to smallerEvaluation of Video Transmission in Emergency Response Ad Hoc Networks C. Bouras1,2 , G}@ceid.upatras.gr Keywords: MANETs, Multi-interfaces and Multi-channels, Video Transmission, Emergency Response. Abstract

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Emergence of Novel Mand Forms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emma; Hanley, Gregory P; Ingvarsson, Einar T; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Strategies that produce generalized responding are valuable, especially with regard to language acquisition, because relatively little training may result in large behavior changes. Conditions that result in generalized manding were analyzed in the current study. We demonstrated in reversal designs that undesirable or single-word responses were the predominant mand forms of 3 preschool children. Multiple baseline designs with 2 participants and a reversal design with 1 participant were then used to demonstrate the extent to which differential reinforcement of single-word mands (e.g., “cars”) or framed mands (e.g., “I want the cars, please”) would result in the emergence of other single-word and framed mands for different items (e.g., mands for music, puppets, or puzzles). Results showed that prompting and differential reinforcement of one or two mand frames resulted in the emergence of other framed mands for all participants. PMID:17471798

  4. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2005-03-31

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2004 through February 28, 2005. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, all fieldwork at Plant 0 was completed. Stack sampling was conducted in October to determine if there were significant differences between the in-stack PM concentrations and the diluted concentrations used for the animal exposures. Results indicated no significant differences and therefore confidence that the revised stack sampling methodology described in the previous semiannual report is appropriate for use in the Project. Animal exposures to three atmospheric scenarios were carried out. From October 4-7, we conducted exposures to oxidized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Later in October, exposures to the most complex scenario (oxidized, neutralized emissions plus SOA) were repeated to ensure comparability with the results of the June/July exposures where a different stack sampling setup was employed. In November, exposures to oxidized emissions were performed. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biological endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. No significant differences between exposed animals and sham animals (exposed to filtered air) were observed for any of the endpoints; histopathological results are pending and will be reported in the next semiannual report. The scenarios evaluated during this reporting period were slightly modified from those originally proposed. We substituted a new scenario, secondary aerosol + SOA, to investigate the effects of a strongly acidic aerosol with a biogenic component. Since we did not observe any biological response to this scenario, the neutralized secondary aerosol scenario (i.e., oxidized emissions + ammonia) was deemed unnecessary. Moreover, in light of the lack of response observed in the Stage I assessment, it was decided that a Stage II assessment (evaluation of cardiac function in a compromised rat model) was unlikely to provide useful information. However, this model will be employed at Plant 1 and/or 2. During this reporting period, significant progress was made in planning for fieldwork at Plant 1. Stack sampling was carried out at the plant in mid-December to determine the concentration of primary particles. It was found that PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations were approximately three times higher than those observed at Plant 0. In mid-February, installation and setup for the mobile laboratories began. Animal exposures are scheduled to begin at this plant on March 21, 2005. During the next reporting period, we will initiate fieldwork at Plant 1. At either or both Plants 1 and 2, a detailed Stage II assessment will be performed, even if no significant findings are observed in Stage I. The next semiannual report is expected to include a detailed description of the fieldwork at Plant 1, including toxicological findings and interpretation.

  5. 1994 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE), Emerging Technology Partnership (ETP) has initiated actions since 1987 that support the Clinton Administration's policy to foster and accelerate the research and development of inn...

  6. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  7. TECHNICAL EVALUATION REPORT EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS STUDY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K. R.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to review technical specifications for emergency diesel generators in the context of new information developed in the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and the application of current NRC regulatory concepts and knowledge. Aging and reliability relationships related to the standard technical specifications are reviewed and supported by data and published information to ensure that conservative and beneficial specifications are identified. Where technical specifications could adversely influence aging and reliability, the technical issues and reasonable alternatives are identified for consideration. This report documents and spans the technical progress from the published and approved regulatory documents to the current knowledge basis. This ensures that the technical bases for the technical specifications discussed are documented and relatively complete subject information is contained in one document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has participated in the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program directed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Engineering. The NPAR study of emergency diesel generator aging was performed in two phases. In Phase I, plant operating experience, ~ata, expert opinion and statistical methods were used to produce a new data base related to aging, reliability, and operational readiness of nuclear service diesel generators. Phase II was chiefly concerned with aging mitigation measures.

  8. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide. PMID:21501447

  9. Emergency department evaluation and management of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Egan, Daniel J; Bisanzo, Mark C; Hutson, H Range

    2009-02-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) affects 1000-1300 women in the United States each year. We present three cases of PPCM seen in our Emergency Department (ED) that cover the entire spectrum of disease from mild heart failure to sudden cardiac death. Without previous heart disease, these women develop cardiomyopathy with impairment of left ventricular function in the last month of pregnancy, or during the first 5 months postpartum. The etiology of PPCM is not clear, although various mechanisms have been proposed, including infection, autoimmune response, prolonged tocolysis during labor, and maladaptive responses to the hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. The initial presentation of these patients is frequently to the ED. The differential diagnosis and key characteristics of PPCM are discussed. ED management should focus on three elements: reduction in pre-load, reduction in afterload, and increase in inotropy. Key differences between the antepartum and postpartum states are highlighted. PMID:17976813

  10. How shall we examine and learn about public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector? Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Chau, Patsy Y K; Yam, Carrie H K; Cheung, Annie W L; Fung, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization advocates the goal of universal coverage of health systems to ensure that everyone can avail the services they need and are protected from the associated financial risks. Governments are increasingly engaging and interacting with the private sector in initiatives collectively referred to as public-private partnerships (PPPs) to enhance the capacity of health systems to meet this objective. Understanding the values that motivate partners and demonstrating commitment for building relationships were found to be key lessons in building effective PPPs; however there, remain many research gaps. This study focusses on the practice of PPPs at the inter-organisational (meso) level and interpersonal (micro) level in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The influence of the structural components of different PPPs on stakeholder interpretation and actions, as well as the eventual outcomes of the PPPs, is examined, in terms of a realist evaluation, which applies a context-mechanism-outcome configuration as the research methodology. Seven key factors initiating commitment in a partnership, critical for sustainable PPPs, were identified as follows: (1) building of trust; (2) clearly defined objectives and roles; (3) time commitment; (4) transparency and candid information, particularly in relation to risk and benefit; (5) contract flexibility; (6) technical assistance or financial incentive behind procedural arrangements; and (7) the awareness and acceptability of structural changes related to responsibility and decisions (power and authority). PMID:26605970

  11. Modeling language change: An evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand English

    E-print Network

    McKane, Alan

    Modeling language change: An evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand.00 doi:10.1017/S095439450999010X #12;In this paper, we use mathematical modeling to evaluate Trudgill. Trudgill's theory is closely related to usage-based models of language, in which frequency plays a role

  12. In VINI Veritas: Realistic and Controlled Network Experimentation

    E-print Network

    Rexford, Jennifer

    Lab, running the "Internet In a Slice". Our evaluation of PL-VINI shows that it provides a realistic and con. Testing these new ideas under realistic network conditions is a critical step for evaluating their meritsIn VINI Veritas: Realistic and Controlled Network Experimentation Andy Bavier , Nick Feamster

  13. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic

    E-print Network

    Fedorovich, Evgeni

    to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, various physical mechanisms that determine CBL flow structureLarge Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic Environmental in which simulations are run. This study investigates LES initialization options using realistic

  15. Preliminary Program Evaluation of Emergency Department HIV Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Sitlinger, Andrea P.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Wayne, D. Beth; Hart, Kimberly W.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.; Lyons, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Controversy surrounds the linkage of prevention counseling with emergency department (ED)–based HIV testing. Further, the effectiveness and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED setting is unknown. We investigate these issues by conducting a preliminarily exploration of several related aspects of our ED's HIV prevention counseling and testing program. Methods Our urban, academic ED provides formal client-centered prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing. Five descriptive, exploratory observations were conducted, involving surveys and analysis of electronic medical records and programmatic data focused on (1) patient perception and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED, (2) patient perceptions of the need to link prevention counseling with testing, and (3) potential effectiveness of providing prevention counseling in conjunction with ED-based HIV testing. Results Of 110 ED patients surveyed after prevention counseling and testing, 98% believed privacy was adequate, and 97% reported that their questions were answered. Patients stated that counseling would lead to improved health (80%), behavioral changes (72%), follow-up testing (77%), and discussion with partners (74%). However, 89% would accept testing without counseling, 32% were willing to seek counseling elsewhere, and 26% preferred not to receive the counseling. Correct responses to a 16-question knowledge quiz increased by 1.6 after counseling (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 12.0). The program completed counseling for 97% of patients tested; however, 6% of patients had difficulty recalling the encounter and 13% denied received testing. Among patients undergoing repeated testing, there was no consistent change in self-reported risk behaviors. Conclusion Participants in the ED prevention counseling and testing program considered counseling acceptable and useful, though not required. Given adequate resources, prevention counseling can be provided in the ED, but it is unlikely that all patients benefit. PMID:21684390

  16. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) or pneumococcus is estimated to cause 821,000 child deaths each year. It has over 90 serotypes, of which 7 to 13 serotypes are included in current formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines that are efficacious in young children. To further reduce the burden from SP pneumonia, a vaccine is required that could protect children from a greater diversity of serotypes. Two different types of vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia are currently at varying stages of development: a multivalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covering additional SP serotypes; and a conserved common pneumococcal protein antigen (PPA) vaccine offering protection for all serotypes. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging SP vaccines relevant to several criteria of interest: answerability; efficacy and effectiveness; cost of development, production and implementation; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential for disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results The experts expressed very high level of optimism (over 80%) that low-cost polysaccharide conjugate SP vaccines would satisfy each of the 9 relevant CHNRI criteria. The median potential effectiveness of conjugate SP vaccines in reduction of overall childhood pneumonia mortality was predicted to be about 25% (interquartile range 20-38%, min. 15%, max 45%). For low cost, cross-protective common protein vaccines for SP the experts expressed concerns over answerability (72%) and the level of development costs (50%), while the scores for all other criteria were over 80%. The median potential effectiveness of common protein vaccines in reduction of overall childhood pneumonia mortality was predicted to be about 30% (interquartile range 26-40%, min. 20%, max 45%). Conclusions Improved SP vaccines are a very promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child mortality world-wide. PMID:21501444

  17. Unrealistic Realistic Real Dislikeable

    E-print Network

    Ghazanfar, Asif

    fascicularis) with video footage and static images of real monkey faces along with realistic and unrealistic that swept across southeastern Australia in February, killing more than 170 people, can be traced back

  18. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: realist evaluation of the Leadership Development Programme for district manager decision-making in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is widespread agreement that strong district manager decision-making improves health systems, understanding about how the design and implementation of capacity-strengthening interventions work is limited. The Ghana Health Service has adopted the Leadership Development Programme (LDP) as one intervention to support the development of management and leadership within district teams. This paper seeks to address how and why the LDP ‘works’ when it is introduced into a district health system in Ghana, and whether or not it supports systems thinking in district teams. Methods We undertook a realist evaluation to investigate the outcomes, contexts, and mechanisms of the intervention. Building on two working hypotheses developed from our earlier work, we developed an explanatory case study of one rural district in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data collection included participant observation, document review, and semi-structured interviews with district managers prior to, during, and after the intervention. Working backwards from an in-depth analysis of the context and observed short- and medium-term outcomes, we drew a causal loop diagram to explain interactions between contexts, outcomes, and mechanisms. Results The LDP was a valuable experience for district managers and teams were able to attain short-term outcomes because the novel approach supported teamwork, initiative-building, and improved prioritisation. However, the LDP was not institutionalised in district teams and did not lead to increased systems thinking. This was related to the context of high uncertainty within the district, and hierarchical authority of the system, which triggered the LDP’s underlying goal of organisational control. Conclusions Consideration of organisational context is important when trying to sustain complex interventions, as it seems to influence the gap between short- and medium-term outcomes. More explicit focus on systems thinking principles that enable district managers to better cope with their contexts may strengthen the institutionalisation of the LDP in the future. PMID:24935521

  19. Investigating the organisational impacts of quality improvement: a protocol for a realist evaluation of improvement approaches drawing on the Resource Based View of the Firm

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Christopher R; Rycroft Malone, Jo; Robert, Glenn; Willson, Alan; Hopkins, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is understood about the role of quality improvement in enabling health organisations to survive and thrive in the contemporary context of financial and economic challenges. We will draw on the theoretical foundations of the ‘Resource Based View of the Firm’ (RBV) to develop insights into why health organisations engage in improvement work, how impacts are conceptualised, and ‘what works’ in delivering these impacts. Specifically, RBV theorises that the mix and use of resources across different organisations may explain differences in performance. Whether improvement work influences these resources is unclear. Methods and analysis Case study research will be conducted across health organisations participating in four approaches to improvement, including: a national improvement programme; a multiorganisational partnership around implementation; an organisational strategy for quality improvement; and a coproduction project designed to enhance the experience of a clinical service from the perspective of patients. Data will comprise in-depth interviews with key informants, observation of key events and documents; analysed within and then across cases. Adopting a realist perspective, the core tenets of RBV will be evaluated as a programme theory, focusing on the interplay between organisational conditions and behavioural or resource responses that are reported through engagement in improvement. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by Bangor University Ethics Committee. The investigation will not judge the relative merits of different approaches to healthcare quality improvement. Rather, we will develop unique insights into the organisational consequences, and dependencies of quality improvement, providing an opportunity to add to the explanatory potential of RBV in this and other contexts. In addition to scientific and lay reports of the study findings, research outputs will include a framework for constructing the economic impacts of quality improvement and practical guidance for health service managers that maximises the impacts of investment in quality improvement. PMID:25082421

  20. The emerging government requirement for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of government guidelines for the provision of cost-effectiveness data, economic evidence has been elevated to a status similar to that of evidence of efficacy and safety, which is required before licensing of pharmaceutical products. Whilst the precise nature of government requirements is likely to vary from place to place, they pose a number of practical problems for pharmaceutical companies, in the funding of studies and in the need to modify the clinical trials programme to facilitate economic data collection. Economic evaluation requirements have been viewed by various parties as a basis for pricing and reimbursement, as a form of cost containment and as a way of securing more value for money in the healthcare system. It is unlikely that economic evidence could ever form the sole basis for setting price, since both industry and government often seek to introduce other factors into the price negotiations. Requirements for economic evidence may also be an inefficient form of cost containment, compared with other methods such as budgetary caps. These offer some potential as a way of securing more value for money, but they should be applied equally across all health technologies. In the future there needs to be much more clarity of purpose in government guidelines, and methodological standards for economic analysis need to be refined. PMID:10155586

  1. EVALUATING AND TESTING EMERGENCY TESTING MONITORING DEVICES IN EXTREME COLD TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: F8P11070
    Title: Evaluating and Testing Emergency Testing Monitoring Devices in Extreme Cold Temperatures
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Tyler S. O’Dell
    Institution: Lake Superior State University
    EPA GRANT Represent...

  2. Overview of the National Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.

    An overall evaluation of the Basic and Pilot Grants Programs, two closely related programs authorized under the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA), and an in-depth study designed to identify specific program approaches associated with project success were conducted. Data were collected over a period of three school years: 1973-74, 1974-75, and…

  3. Realistic collective nuclear Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, M.; Zuker, A.P.

    1996-10-01

    The residual part of the realistic forces{emdash}obtained after extracting the monopole terms responsible for bulk properties{emdash}is strongly dominated by pairing and quadrupole interactions, with important {sigma}{tau}{center_dot}{sigma}{tau}, octupole, and hexadecapole contributions. Their forms retain the simplicity of the traditional pairing plus multipole models, while eliminating their flaws through a normalization mechanism dictated by a universal {ital A}{sup {minus}1/3} scaling. Coupling strengths and effective charges are calculated and shown to agree with empirical values. Comparisons between different realistic interactions confirm the claim that they are very similar. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Simulation of realistic retinoscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Baker, K.; Lewis, J. W.; Swartz, T.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, M.

    2007-03-01

    Realistic simulation of ophthalmic measurements on normal and diseased eyes is presented. We use clinical data of ametropic and keratoconus patients to construct anatomically accurate three-dimensional eye models and simulate the measurement of a streak retinoscope with all the optical elements. The results show the clinical observations including the anomalous motion in high myopia and the scissors reflex in keratoconus. The demonstrated technique can be applied to other ophthalmic instruments and to other and more extensively abnormal eye conditions. It provides promising features for medical training and for evaluating and developing ocular instruments.

  5. Evaluation and treatment of acute back pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Della-Giustina, David

    2015-05-01

    Back pain is a common presenting complaint to the emergency department. The key to proper evaluation is a history and physical examination focused on determining if any red flags for serious disease are present. If no red flags are present, the patient most likely has nonspecific back pain and their symptoms will resolve in 4 to 6 weeks. No diagnostic testing is required. For patients with red flags, a focused history and examination in conjunction with diagnostic laboratory tests and imaging determine whether the patient has an emergent condition such as herniated disc, epidural compression, or spinal infection. PMID:25892724

  6. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 ?g/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the ?rst report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25901158

  7. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 ?g/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the ?rst report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25901158

  8. Development and use of consolidated criteria for evaluation of emergency preparedness plans for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, K.; Kier, P.H.; Baldwin, T.E.

    1995-07-01

    Emergency preparedness at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is promoted by development and quality control of response plans. To promote quality control efforts, DOE has developed a review document that consolidates requirements and guidance pertaining to emergency response planning from various DOE and regulatory sources. The Criteria for Evaluation of Operational Emergency Plans (herein referred to as the Criteria document) has been constructed and arranged to maximize ease of use in reviewing DOE response plans. Although developed as a review instrument, the document also serves as a de facto guide for plan development, and could potentially be useful outside the scope of its original intended DOE clientele. As regulatory and DOE requirements are revised and added in the future, the document will be updated to stay current.

  9. Evaluation of a simulation-based workshop on clinical performance for emergency physicians and nurses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi Ho; Chan, Tung Ning; Yuen, Man Cheuk; Tung, Wai Kit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education has been growing rapidly and becomes one of the most popular teaching methods for improving patient safety and patient care. The Simulation Subcommittee of the Hong Kong College of Emergency Medicine organized an educational program emphasizing the team training, clinical decision-making and communication skills. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of the participants toward a new training program and the change in the knowledge on clinical performance in emergency physicians and nurses after attending the educational program. METHODS: A course evaluation form was filled in by the participants at the end of the workshop. An assessment of 20 multiple-choice questions with 5 options was administered to the participants before and after the 2-day simulation-based training workshop. RESULTS: A total of 72 doctors and nurses working in the Accident and Emergency Department were enrolled. The average pretest and posttest scores were 12 and 14.3 respectively. The percentage improvement in the mean score of the pretest and posttest was 11.5%. The Chi-square test showed significant improvement in the pretest and posttest score grading (P=0.00). Paired t-test revealed significant difference between the mean scores of the pretest and posttest (P=0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Participants had positive attitude toward this new training program. Significant improvement of the knowledge on clinical performance in healthcare professionals in the Accident and Emergency Department was observed after the participation in this simulation-based educational program. PMID:25802561

  10. The Evaluation Exchange: Emerging Strategies in Evaluating Child and Family Services, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Leslie, Ed.; Bohan-Baker, Marielle, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two 2001 issues of a newsletter of the Harvard Family Research Project, designed to share new ideas and experiences in evaluating systems reform and comprehensive child and family services. The first issue focuses on strategic communications and efforts of nonprofit agencies to evaluate strategic communication…

  11. [Preparedness - decisions in the face of uncertainty. Evaluation of nurses' response readiness in hospital emergency exercises].

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Ramona; Michalzik, Elisabeth; Lenz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Events in which the health and life of a large number of people are at stake impose particular challenges to all who are involved in healthcare. An effective response requires prompt decision-making under time pressure, in a context characterised by uncertainty and low routine. The hypothesis is that healthcare staffs' preparedness-related competency increases response quality. An evaluation tool was developed to assess response-relevant competencies of emergency nurses. Competencies relevant to the German healthcare system were systematically defined and operationalised into observable items. Multiple phases of qualitative field studies were employed to develop a conceptual guide to planning and conducting the evaluation. The usability of the evaluation tool was piloted and iteratively optimised. The resulting evaluation approach has the potential to substantiate education and training in the context of curriculum development. PMID:24315332

  12. Development of a Simulation Scenario and Evaluation Checklist for Patients With Asthma in Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Jae; Jeong, Hyeon-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Ye-Jean; Lee, Myung-Nam

    2015-12-01

    Care for patients with asthma requires prompt and effective decision-making abilities. Many nursing students report a lack of preparedness and competence with respect to their ability to perform nursing duties. Simulation-based learning has been developed as a potential solution to this problem. Moreover, the simulation scenario with an evaluation checklist offers a reliable evaluation strategy for the education and training of clinical decision-making skills among nursing students. The simulation scenario and evaluation checklist developed in this study offer a means to improve patient safety during asthma care in the emergency care unit, as well as to improve nursing students' problem-solving competencies and communication with patients with asthma. PMID:26509408

  13. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to identify, measure, and value the likely effectiveness and the costs and consequences of the new technology, handling of uncertainty), and whether the study results adequately address the main study question or objective. Data will be summarized overall and stratified by publication status. Discussion This study is timely to inform early economic evaluation practice, given the international trend in early health technology assessment initiatives. PMID:25055987

  14. Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Public Announcement, Dartmouth Emergency Medical Services NNE Collegiate Drill Day

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Public Announcement, Dartmouth Emergency OF EXERCISE Dear Community Member, Emergency responders are participating in a training exercise on the Dartmouth Campus on April 13th , 2013. The exercise is designed to validate and improve your community

  15. Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zantal-Wiener, Kathy; Horwood, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs. This framework involves a logic model that incorporates Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of…

  16. Evaluation of emergency drug releases from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Quarantine Stations.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Shahrokh; Grinnell, Margaret; Sandoval, Michelle; Cohen, Nicole J; Crocker, Kimberly; Allen, Christopher; Dougherty, Cindy; Jolly, Julian; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Quarantine Stations distribute select lifesaving drug products that are not commercially available or are in limited supply in the United States for emergency treatment of certain health conditions. Following a retrospective analysis of shipment records, the authors estimated an average of 6.66 hours saved per shipment when drug products were distributed from quarantine stations compared to a hypothetical centralized site from CDC headquarters in Atlanta, GA. This evaluation supports the continued use of a decentralized model which leverages CDC's regional presence and maximizes efficiency in the distribution of lifesaving drugs. PMID:25779896

  17. How Does Emergency Department Crowding Affect Medical Student Test Scores and Clerkship Evaluations?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Grant; Arya, Rajiv; Ritz, Z. Trevor; He, Albert S.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; McCoy, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effect of emergency department (ED) crowding has been recognized as a concern for more than 20 years; its effect on productivity, medical errors, and patient satisfaction has been studied extensively. Little research has reviewed the effect of ED crowding on medical education. Prior studies that have considered this effect have shown no correlation between ED crowding and resident perception of quality of medical education. Objective To determine whether ED crowding, as measured by the National ED Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS) score, has a quantifiable effect on medical student objective and subjective experiences during emergency medicine (EM) clerkship rotations. Methods We collected end-of-rotation examinations and medical student evaluations for 21 EM rotation blocks between July 2010 and May 2012, with a total of 211 students. NEDOCS scores were calculated for each corresponding period. Weighted regression analyses examined the correlation between components of the medical student evaluation, student test scores, and the NEDOCS score for each period. Results When all 21 rotations are included in the analysis, NEDOCS scores showed a negative correlation with medical student tests scores (regression coefficient= ?0.16, p=0.04) and three elements of the rotation evaluation (attending teaching, communication, and systems-based practice; p<0.05). We excluded an outlying NEDOCS score from the analysis and obtained similar results. When the data were controlled for effect of month of the year, only student test score remained significantly correlated with NEDOCS score (p=0.011). No part of the medical student rotation evaluation attained significant correlation with the NEDOCS score (p?0.34 in all cases). Conclusion ED overcrowding does demonstrate a small but negative association with medical student performance on end-of-rotation examinations. Additional studies are recommended to further evaluate this effect. PMID:26594289

  18. Evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technology based on dynamic fuzzy GRA method for chemical contingency spills.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Hao, Linlin; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2015-12-15

    A robust scheme to address emergency pollution accident is becoming more and more important with the rise of the frequency and intensity of the emergency pollution accidents. Therefore, it is crucial to select an appropriate technology in an emergency response to chemical spills. In this study, an evaluation framework based on dynamic fuzzy GRA method has been developed to make forward optimum scheme for the selection of emergency treatment technology. Dynamic analysis and linguistic terms are used to evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of emergency treatment procedures by addressing the vagueness and ambiguity in decision making. The method was then applied in a case study to evaluate emergency arsenic treatment technology and demonstrate its applicability and feasibility in emergency arsenic pollution under two scenarios associated with different arsenic levels. Therefore, not only the results can be used for selecting emergency treatment technology, but also help decision-makers identify desired decisions for contaminant mitigation with a quick response and cost-effective manner. PMID:26143193

  19. Three-year emergency medicine training program in The Netherlands: first evaluation from the residents’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Netherlands’ 3-year training in Emergency Medicine (EM) was formally approved and introduced in November 2008. To identify areas for improvement, we conducted the first evaluation of this curriculum from the residents’ perspective. Methods A questionnaire was composed on ten aspects of the curriculum. It contained multiple-choice, open and opinion questions; answers to the latter were classified using the Likert scale. The questionnaires were mailed to all enrolled residents. Results We mailed questionnaires to all 189 enrolled residents, and 105 responded (55.6%). Although they were satisfied with their training overall, 96.2% thought it was currently too short: 18.3% desired extension to 4 years, 76.0% to 5 and 1.9% to 6 years. Nevertheless, residents expected that they would function effectively as emergency physicians (EPs) after finishing their 3-year training program. Bedside teaching was assessed positively by 35.2%. All rotations were assessed positively, with the general practice rotation seen as contributing the least to the program. According to 43.7%, supervising EPs were available for consultation; 40.7% thought that, in a clinical capacity, the EP was sufficiently present during residents’ shifts. When EPs were present, 82.5% found them to be easily accessible, and 66.6% viewed them as role models. In the Emergency Medicine Departments (EDs) with a higher number of EPs employed, residents tended to perceive better supervision and were more likely to see their EPs as role models. While residents were stimulated to do research, actual support and assistance needed to be improved. Conclusion Although overall, the current training program was evaluated positively, the residents identified four areas for improvement: (1) in training hospitals, trained EPs should be present more continuously for clinical supervision; (2) bedside teaching should be improved, (3) scientific research should be facilitated more and (4) the training program should be extended. PMID:23890388

  20. TOPAZ0 4.0 - A new version of a computer program for evaluation of de-convoluted and realistic observables at LEP 1 and LEP 2

    E-print Network

    G. Montagna; O. Nicrosini; G. Passarino; F. Piccinini

    1998-04-02

    The program TOPAZ0 was developed for computing a variety of physical observables which are related to the e+e- annihilation into fermion pairs and to the large angle Bhabha scattering around the Z resonance. Among them, the Z parameters or pseudo-observables, the de-convoluted cross sections and those dressed with QED radiation, and finally the forward-backward asymmetries. The calculations are performed both for a completely inclusive experimental set-up and for a realistic one, i.e. a set-up with cuts on the acollinearity angle, on the energy of the outgoing fermions or on their invariant mass and angular acceptance. The new version, 4.0, includes several innovative features. First of all, the most important new capabilities since previous versions are recently computed electroweak and QCD correction factors that are relevant at the Z resonance in the light of the present experimental accuracy. Among them, the effect of the next-to-leading O(alpha^2 m_t^2) corrections and those radiative corrections to the hadronic decay of the Z which provide complete corrections of O(alpha alpha_s) to Gamma(Z --> q\\bar{q}) with q=u,d,s,c and b. Secondly, the program has been upgraded to cover two-fermion final states at LEP 2 energies, where some of the assumptions made for earlier versions are no longer valid. In particular, to this aim all the electroweak radiative corrections that are negligible at the Z peak, but relevant far from it, have been added for s-channel processes, e.g. purely weak boxes, next-to-leading O(alpha^2) and leading O(alpha^3) QED corrections.

  1. TOPAZ0 4.0 — A new version of a computer program for evaluation of deconvoluted and realistic observables at LEP 1 and LEP 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, Guido; Nicrosini, Oreste; Piccinini, Fulvio; Passerino, Giampiero

    1999-03-01

    The program TOPAZ0 was developed for computing a variety of physical observables which are related to the e +e - annihilation into fermion pairs and to the large angle Bhabha scattering around the Z resonance. Among them the Z parameters or pseudo-observables, the deconvoluted cross sections and those dressed with QED radiation, and finally the forward—backward asymmetries. The calculations are performed both for a completely inclusive experimental setup and for a realistic one, i.e. a setup with cuts on the acollinearity angle, on the energy of the outgoing fermions or on their invariant mass and angular acceptance. The new version, 4.0, includes several innovative features. First of all, the most important new capabilities since previous versions are electroweak, QCD and QED correction factors that are relevant at the Z resonance in the light of the present experimental accuracy. Among them, the effect of the next-to-leading O(? 2m 2l) corrections, the radiative corrections to the hadronic decay of the Z, providing complete corrections of O(?? s) to ?( Z ? qq¯) with q = u, d, s, c, and b, and leading O(? 3) QED corrections. Secondly, the program has been upgraded to cover two-fermion final states at LEP 2 energies, where some of the assumptions made for earlier versions are no longer valid. In particular, to this aim all the electroweak radiative corrections relevant far from the Z peak have been added for s-channel processes, e.g. purely weak boxes, next-to-leading O(? 2) and leading O(? 3) QED corrections.

  2. Realistic Performance Analysis of WSN Protocols Through Trace Based Simulation

    E-print Network

    Han, Qi "Chee"

    Realistic Performance Analysis of WSN Protocols Through Trace Based Simulation Alan Marchiori, Lin It is a difficult endeavor to realistically evaluate the perfor- mance of wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols. Generic network simulators are often used, but they tend to rely on synthetic models. Because WSN

  3. Realistic Workload Scheduling Policies for Taming the Memory Bandwidth

    E-print Network

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitris

    . Therefore, we present and evaluate two realistic scheduling policies which treat memory bandwidth as a firstRealistic Workload Scheduling Policies for Taming the Memory Bandwidth Bottleneck of SMPs Christos the well-known UNIX multilevel priority queue mechanism, with limited extensions for support

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted, multilevel continuous quality improvement program in primary health care: developing a realist theory of change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation in effectiveness of continuous quality improvement (CQI) interventions between services is commonly reported, but with little explanation of how contextual and other factors may interact to produce this variation. Therefore, there is scant information available on which policy makers can draw to inform effective implementation in different settings. In this paper, we explore how patterns of change in delivery of services may have been achieved in a diverse range of health centers participating in a wide-scale program to achieve improvements in quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Methods We elicited key informants’ interpretations of factors explaining patterns of change in delivery of guideline-scheduled services over three or more years of a wide-scale CQI project, and inductively analyzed these interpretations to propose fine-grained realist hypotheses about what works for whom and in what circumstances. Data were derived from annual clinical audits from 36 health centers operating in diverse settings, quarterly project monitoring reports, and workshops with 12 key informants who had key roles in project implementation. We abstracted potential context-mechanism-outcome configurations from the data, and based on these, identified potential program-strengthening strategies. Results Several context-specific, mechanism-based explanations for effectiveness of this CQI project were identified. These were collective valuing of clinical data for improvement purposes; collective efficacy; and organizational change towards a population health orientation. Health centers with strong central management of CQI, and those in which CQI efforts were more dependent on local health center initiative and were adapted to resonate with local priorities were both favorable contexts for collective valuing of clinical data. Where health centers had prior positive experiences of collaboration, effects appeared to be achieved at least partly through the mechanism of collective efficacy. Strong community linkages, staff ability to identify with patients, and staff having the skills and support to take broad ranging action, were favorable contexts for the mechanism of increased population health orientation. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support strategies for program strengthening described in the literature, and extends the understanding of mechanisms through which strategies may be effective in achieving particular outcomes in different contexts. PMID:24098940

  5. Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

  6. Study designs and evaluation models for emergency department public health research.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Kerry B; Ranney, Megan L; Vaca, Federico E; D'Onofrio, Gail; Rothman, Richard E; Rhodes, Karin V; Becker, Bruce; Haukoos, Jason S

    2009-11-01

    Abstract Public health research requires sound design and thoughtful consideration of potential biases that may influence the validity of results. It also requires careful implementation of protocols and procedures that are likely to translate from the research environment to actual clinical practice. This article is the product of a breakout session from the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference entitled "Public Health in the ED: Screening, Surveillance, and Intervention" and serves to describe in detail aspects of performing emergency department (ED)-based public health research, while serving as a resource for current and future researchers. In doing so, the authors describe methodologic features of study design, participant selection and retention, and measurements and analyses pertinent to public health research. In addition, a number of recommendations related to research methods and future investigations related to public health work in the ED are provided. Public health investigators are poised to make substantial contributions to this important area of research, but this will only be accomplished by employing sound research methodology in the context of rigorous program evaluation. PMID:20053232

  7. Study Designs and Evaluation Models for Emergency Department Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Kerry B.; Ranney, Megan L.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Rothman, Richard E.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Becker, Bruce; Haukoos, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Public health research requires sound design and thoughtful consideration of potential biases that may influence the validity of results. It also requires careful implementation of protocols and procedures that are likely to translate from the research environment to actual clinical practice. This article is the product of a breakout session from the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference entitled “Public Health in the ED: Screening, Surveillance, and Intervention” and serves to describe in detail aspects of performing emergency department (ED)-based public health research, while serving as a resource for current and future researchers. In doing so, the authors describe methodologic features of study design, participant selection and retention, and measurements and analyses pertinent to public health research. In addition, a number of recommendations related to research methods and future investigations related to public health work in the ED are provided. Public health investigators are poised to make substantial contributions to this important area of research, but this will only be accomplished by employing sound research methodology in the context of rigorous program evaluation. PMID:20053232

  8. Automatic external defibrillation: evaluations of its role in the home and in emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Cummins, R O; Eisenberg, M S; Bergner, L; Hallstrom, A; Hearne, T; Murray, J A

    1984-09-01

    Many recent efforts to improve emergency medical services (EMS) and increase survival rates are simply efforts to get defibrillation to patients as rapidly as possible. In the 1960s physicians traveled in mobile coronary care units to bring the defibrillator to cardiac arrest patients. Later, paramedics, rather than physicians, were used. During the late 1970s the concept of early out-of-hospital defibrillation expanded as emergency medical technicians (EMTs) learned to defibrillate. Researchers in several settings confirmed the effectiveness of early defibrillation by EMTs. The automatic detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) creates new opportunities for the early defibrillation concept. This includes both automatic implantable defibrillators and automatic external defibrillators (AED). The King County, Washington, EMS is conducting two projects to evaluate AEDs. One is a randomized, controlled crossover study in which EMTs use either an AED or a standard manual defibrillator. Outcome measurements include time to countershock, conversion rates, and survival rates. In the second project family members of patients who have survived out-of-hospital VF randomly receive an AED and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction, or CPR instruction alone. This study was designed to determine whether family members can be trained adequately to use the device effectively. Psychological tests measure the effect of learning about, living with, and using such technology. These studies may help define the role of AEDs in the future management of out-of-hospital VF. PMID:6476545

  9. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  10. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications

    PubMed Central

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author’s group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications. PMID:26147728

  11. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Tonolo, Fabio Giulio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author's group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications. PMID:26147728

  12. Tracking Pertussis and Evaluating Control Measures through Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program, United States.

    PubMed

    Skoff, Tami H; Baumbach, Joan; Cieslak, Paul R

    2015-09-01

    Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates. Data collected through EPS have been instrumental in understanding the rapidly evolving epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of pertussis and have contributed essential information regarding pertussis vaccines. EPS also serves as a platform for conducting critical and timely evaluations of pertussis prevention and control strategies, including targeting of vaccinations and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26291475

  13. Tracking Pertussis and Evaluating Control Measures through Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program, United States

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Joan; Cieslak, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates. Data collected through EPS have been instrumental in understanding the rapidly evolving epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of pertussis and have contributed essential information regarding pertussis vaccines. EPS also serves as a platform for conducting critical and timely evaluations of pertussis prevention and control strategies, including targeting of vaccinations and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26291475

  14. Headache in Pregnancy: An Approach to Emergency Department Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Jessica C.; Campbell, Ronna L.; Sadosty, Annie T.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes benign primary causes as well as ominous secondary causes. The diagnosis and management of headache in the pregnant patient presents several challenges. There are important unique considerations regarding the differential diagnosis, imaging options, and medical management. Physiologic changes induced by pregnancy increase the risk of cerebral venous thrombosis, dissection, and pituitary apoplexy. Preeclampsia, a serious condition unique to pregnancy, must also be considered. A high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide toxicity should be maintained. Primary headaches should be a diagnosis of exclusion. When advanced imaging is indicated, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used, if available, to reduce radiation exposure. Contrast agents should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Medical therapy should be selected with careful consideration of adverse fetal effects. Herein, we present a review of the literature and discuss an approach to the evaluation and management of headache in pregnancy PMID:25834672

  15. Emergency Department Evaluation and Management of Children With Simple Febrile Seizures.

    PubMed

    Carapetian, Stephanie; Hageman, Joseph; Lyons, Evelyn; Leonard, Daniel; Janies, Kathryn; Kelley, Kent; Fuchs, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Workup of simple febrile seizures (SFS) has changed as the American Academy of Pediatrics made revisions to practice guidelines. In 2011, revisions were made regarding need for lumbar puncture (LP) as part of the SFS workup. This study surveyed more than 100 emergency departments regarding workup of children with SFS and performed a medical record review of workup that was performed. The survey shows that laboratory workup is done routinely and LP is done infrequently. The majority documents a complete exam. The medical record review demonstrates documentation of the examination, frequent laboratory and infrequent LP evaluation. Consistent with the American Academy of Pediatrics' revisions, survey and record reviews demonstrate that LP testing is infrequent. Contrary to the guideline, laboratory studies are routinely performed. This study suggests there is an opportunity to improve management of SFS by directing efforts toward finding the source of the fever and away from laboratory workup. PMID:25667312

  16. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over?the?counter medication clobutinol

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva?B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life?threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE?mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection?associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non?specific summation effects. Accidental re?exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non?proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

  17. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over-the-counter medication clobutinol.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva-B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-03-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life-threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection-associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non-specific summation effects. Accidental re-exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non-proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

  18. Microfluidic technology as an emerging clinical tool to evaluate thrombosis and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Branchford, Brian R; Ng, Christopher J; Neeves, Keith B; Di Paola, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of platelet function and coagulation under flow conditions can augment traditional static assays used to evaluate patients with suspected hemostatic or thrombotic disorders. Among the available flow-based assays, microfluidic devices require the smallest blood volume and provide multiple output options. These assays are based on the presence of wall shear stress that mimics in vivo interactions between blood components and vessel walls. Microfluidic devices can generate essential information regarding homeostatic regulation of platelet activation and subsequent engagement of the coagulation cascade leading to fibrin deposition and clot formation. Emerging data suggest that microfluidic assays may also reveal consistent patterns of hemostatic or thrombotic pathology, and could aid in assessing and monitoring patient-specific effects of coagulation-modifying therapies. PMID:26014643

  19. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  20. [Training before departure of volunteers during nutritional emergencies. From inception to evaluation].

    PubMed

    Grellety-Bosviel, Y; Beauquesne, I

    1996-01-01

    Predeparture training is rarely undertaken within emergency nongovernmental organizations. Although field-training is considered as the only real school, the technical requirements are increasingly more constraining. To cope with this problem, the technical officers of Action contre la faim planned a predeparture training project based on self-instruction of any volunteer leaving for a nutritional emergency mission. The project began in 1994. Six self-instruction sessions were produced to enable volunteers to learn. To improve the quality of work, this framework encouraged creativity, constant research and motivation. The training supervisor accompanied the volunteers and put them in simulated situations where various tools were made available to them. A series of measures have been used to improve this basic training: 1) a training contract meant to make the volunteer responsible for his training; 2) better programming to ensure adequate relay from one volunteer to the next; 3) an apprentice report covering the first 15 days of the volunteer's integration into the field, thereby providing important feed-back to the supervisor; 4) an evaluation of the monthly report and an interview-grid used to follow the volunteer in the short and medium-term; 5) and an evaluation form completed by the volunteer which enables the updating of sessions and simulated situations. This initiative has made us aware of the importance of following the volunteers at all stages: this can increase the volunteer's efficiency and their fidelity to the non-governmental organization. Currently, the main objective is to gain the support of qualified technical coordinators who will be the most important factor in continuous training. PMID:8764453

  1. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  2. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  3. An Independent Human Factors Analysis and Evaluation of the Emergency Medical Protocol Checklist for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Ortiz, Rosie; Segal, Michele; Smart, Kieran; Hughes, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Emergency medical capabilities aboard the ISS include a Crew Medical Officer (CMO) (not necessarily a physician), and back-up, resuscitation equipment, and a medical checklist. It is essential that CMOs have reliable, usable and informative medical protocols that can be carried out independently in flight. The study evaluates the existing ISS Medical Checklist layout against a checklist updated to reflect a human factors approach to structure and organization. Method: The ISS Medical checklist was divided into non-emergency and emergency sections, and re-organized based on alphabetical and a body systems approach. A desk-top evaluation examined the ability of subjects to navigate to specific medical problems identified as representative of likely non-emergency events. A second evaluation aims to focus on the emergency section of the Medical Checklist, based on the preliminary findings of the first. The final evaluation will use Astronaut CMOs as subjects comparing the original checklist against the updated layout in the task of caring for a "downed crewmember" using a Human Patient Simulator [Medical Education Technologies, Inc.]. Results: Initial results have demonstrated a clear improvement of the re-organized sections to determine the solution to the medical problems. There was no distinct advantage for either alternative, although subjects stated having a preference for the body systems approach. In the second evaluation, subjects will be asked to identify emergency medical conditions, with measures including correct diagnosis, time to completion and solution strategy. The third evaluation will compare the original and fully updated checklists in clinical situations. Conclusions: Initial findings indicate that the ISS Medical Checklist will benefit from a reorganization. The present structure of the checklist has evolved over recent years without systematic testing of crewmember ability to diagnose medical problems. The improvements are expected to enable ISS Crewmembers to more speedily and accurately respond to medical situations on the ISS.

  4. Mechanisms that Trigger a Good Health-Care Response to Intimate Partner Violence in Spain. Combining Realist Evaluation and Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Marchal, Bruno; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Otero-García, Laura; García-Quinto, Marta; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, especially those working in primary health-care services, can play a key role in preventing and responding to intimate partner violence. However, there are huge variations in the way health care professionals and primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence. In this study we tested a previously developed programme theory on 15 primary health care center teams located in four different Spanish regions: Murcia, C Valenciana, Castilla-León and Cantabria. The aim was to identify the key combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that trigger a good primary health care center team response to intimate partner violence. Methods A multiple case-study design was used. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from each of the 15 centers (cases). In order to handle the large amount of information without losing familiarity with each case, qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken. Conditions (context and mechanisms) and outcomes, were identified and assessed for each of the 15 cases, and solution formulae were calculated using qualitative comparative analysis software. Results The emerging programme theory highlighted the importance of the combination of each team’s self-efficacy, perceived preparation and women-centredness in generating a good team response to intimate partner violence. The use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care were the most relevant contextual/intervention conditions to trigger a good response. However in order to achieve this, they must be combined with other conditions, such as an enabling team climate, having a champion social worker and having staff with training in intimate partner violence. Conclusions Interventions to improve primary health care teams’ response to intimate partner violence should focus on strengthening team’s self-efficacy, perceived preparation and the implementation of a woman-centred approach. The use of the protocol combined with a large working experience in primary health care, and other factors such as training, a good team climate, and having a champion social worker on the team, also played a key role. Measures to sustain such interventions and promote these contextual factors should be encouraged. PMID:26270816

  5. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  6. Prehospital Evaluation of Effusion, Pneumothorax, & Standstill (PEEPS): Point-of-care Ultrasound in Emergency Medical Services

    E-print Network

    Bhat, Sundeep R.; Johnson, David A.; Pierog, Jessica E.; Zaia, Brita E.; Williams, Sarah R.; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford, California Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medicalschool Undergraduate Master’s Prior ultrasound experience † Formal education Informal training None EMT, emergency medical

  7. Expert Support Systems in an Emergency Management Environment: An Evaluative Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Denis H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a methodology for selection of an expert support system (ESS) in an emergency management training environment. A decision matrix construct for selection of an ESS for casualty disposition training at Emergency Preparedness Canada is presented, and four system options of simulation models that deal with emergency management are described.…

  8. Medical Operations Console Procedure Evaluation: BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Troop; Pettys, Marianne; Hurst, Victor, IV; Smaka, Todd; Paul, Bonnie; Rosenquist, Kevin; Gast, Karin; Gillis, David; McCulley, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Mission Operations are managed by multiple flight control disciplines located at the lead Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). ISS Medical Operations are supported by the complementary roles of Flight Surgeons (Surgeon) and Biomedical Engineer (BME) flight controllers. The Surgeon, a board certified physician, oversees all medical concerns of the crew and the BME provides operational and engineering support for Medical Operations Crew Health Care System. ISS Medical Operations is currently addressing the coordinated response to a crew call down for an emergent medical event, in particular when the BME is the only Medical Operations representative in MCC. In this case, the console procedure BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency will be used. The procedure instructs the BME to contact a Surgeon as soon as possible, coordinate with other flight disciplines to establish a Private Medical Conference (PMC) for the crew and Surgeon, gather information from the crew if time permits, and provide Surgeon with pertinent console resources. It is paramount that this procedure is clearly written and easily navigated to assist the BME to respond consistently and efficiently. A total of five BME flight controllers participated in the study. Each BME participant sat in a simulated MCC environment at a console configured with resources specific to the BME MCC console and was presented with two scripted emergency call downs from an ISS crew member. Each participant used the procedure while interacting with analog MCC disciplines to respond to the crew call down. Audio and video recordings of the simulations were analyzed and each BME participant's actions were compared to the procedure. Structured debriefs were conducted at the conclusion of both simulations. The procedure was evaluated for its ability to elicit consistent responses from each BME participant. Trials were examined for deviations in procedure task completion and/or navigation, in particular the execution of the Surgeon call sequence. Debrief comments were used to analyze unclear procedural steps and to discern any discrepancies between the procedure and generally accepted BME actions. The sequence followed by BME participants differed considerably from the sequence intended by the procedure. Common deviations included the call sequence used to contact Surgeon, the content of BME and crew interaction and the gathering of pertinent console resources. Differing perceptions of task priority and imprecise language seem to have caused multiple deviations from the procedure s intended sequence. The study generated 40 recommendations for the procedure, of which 34 are being implemented. These recommendations address improving the clarity of the instructions, identifying training considerations, expediting Surgeon contact, improving cues for anticipated flight control team communication and identifying missing console tools.

  9. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan). Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22 PMID:23360677

  10. Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

  11. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT AND CLEAN-UP OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides an overview of the Phase III Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. It also contains the key conclusions of the Pilot Study and recommendations for further act...

  12. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

  13. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, the US EPA MED laboratory has been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). ...

  14. Electrocardiographic and Respiratory Responses to Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in a Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Long, Mark; Kang, Choong Min; Coull, Brent A.; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ambient particulate matter (PM) derived from coal-fired power plants may have important cardiovascular effects, but existing toxicological studies are inadequate for understanding these effects. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study aims to evaluate the toxicity of primary and secondary PM derived from coal-fired power plants. As part of this effort, we evaluated in susceptible animals the effect of stack emissions on cardiac electrophysiology and respiratory function under exposure conditions intended to simulate an aged plume with unneutralized acidity and secondary organic aerosols (POS exposure scenario). Methods Rats with acute myocardial infarction were exposed to either stack emissions (n=15) or filtered air (n=14) for 5 hours at a single power plant. Respiration and electrocardiograms were continuously monitored via telemetry and heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), premature ventricular beat (PVB) frequency, electrocardiographic intervals, and respiratory intervals and volumes were evaluated. Similar experiments at another power plant were attempted but were unsuccessful. Results POS exposure (fine particle mass = 219.1 ?g/m3; total sulfate = 172.5 ?g/m3; acidic sulfate = 132.5 ?g/m3; organic carbon = 50.9 ?g/m3) was associated with increased PVB frequency and decreased respiratory expiratory time and end-inspiratory pause, but not with changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals. Results from a second power plant were uninterpretable. Conclusions Short-term exposure to primary and unneutralized secondary particulate matter formed from aged emissions from a coal-fired power plant, as simulated by the POS scenario, may be associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias in susceptible animals. PMID:21401387

  15. Emergency department imaging protocol for suspected acute renal colic: re-evaluating our service

    PubMed Central

    Patatas, K; Panditaratne, N; Wah, T M; Weston, M J; Irving, H C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of our study is to determine the positive rate for urolithiasis in male and female patients, and evaluate whether there has been any change at our institution in the use and outcome of unenhanced multidetector CT (CT KUB) performed in the emergency department (ER) for patients presenting with suspected acute renal colic. Methods A retrospective review of all 1357 consecutive cases between August 2007 and August 2009 admitted to the ER and investigated with CT KUB. Results The positive rate for urolithiasis was 47.5% and the rate of other significant findings was 10%. Female patients had a significantly lower positive rate than male patients (26.8% vs 61.6%, p<0.001). Urological intervention was required in 37% and these patients had a larger average stone size. In young female patients with a significantly sized ureteric calculus (>4 mm), the presence of hydronephrosis vs no hydronephrosis was 83% vs 17%, respectively. Among them, only three patients required ureteroscopy for stone removal. Conclusion Contrary to other studies there has been no “indication creep” in the use of CT KUB at our institution. However, the young female patient presenting with suspected urolithiasis presents a particular diagnostic problem, and the significant percentage of negative examinations in females implies that an improvement in current practice is needed. The indiscriminate use of CT KUB in all female patients with flank pain should be avoided, and it is suggested that they should be initially evaluated with ultrasound to detect the presence of hydronephrosis. PMID:22496069

  16. Evaluation of an Emergency Department Educational Campaign for Recognition of Suicidal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Glenn W; Litts, David; Walsh, Patrick; Schneider, Sandra; Richardson, Thomas; Grant, William; Triner, Wayne; Robak, Nancy; Moscati, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the impact of a simple emergency department (ED)–based educational intervention designed to assist ED providers in detecting occult suicidal behavior in patients who present with complaints that are not related to behavioral health. Methods Staff from 5 ED sites participated in the study. Four ED staff members were exposed to a poster and clinical guide for the recognition and management of suicidal patients. Staff members in 1 ED were not exposed to training material and served as a comparator group. Results At baseline, only 36% of providers reported that they had sufficient training in how to assess level of suicide risk in patients. Greater than two thirds of providers agreed that additional training would be helpful in assessing the level of patient suicide risk. More than half of respondents who were exposed to the intervention (51.6%) endorsed increased knowledge of suicide risk during the study period, while 41% indicated that the intervention resulted in improved skills in managing suicidal patients. Conclusion This brief, free intervention appeared to have a beneficial impact on providers' perceptions of how well suicidality was recognized and managed in the ED. PMID:22461920

  17. Trauma emergency unit: long-term evaluation of a quality assurance programme

    PubMed Central

    Gagneux, E.; Lombrail, P.; Vichard, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term evaluation of a quality assurance programme (after an assessment in 1993). DESIGN: Review of medical records. SETTING: Emergency area of an orthopaedic, trauma, and plastic surgery unit in a French teaching hospital (Besancon). SUBJECTS: 1187 consecutive ambulatory patients' records, from July 1995. MAIN MEASURES: Occurrence of near adverse events (at risk events causing situations which could lead to the occurrence of an adverse event). RESULTS: 71 near adverse events were identified (5.9% of the ambulatory visits). There was a significant decrease in the rate of near adverse events between 1993 (9.9% (2056 ambulatory visits, 204 near adverse events)), and 1995 (5.9% (1187 ambulatory visits, 71 near adverse events)), and significant change in the proportion of each category of adverse event (decrease in departures from prevention protocols). CONCLUSIONS: Despite their limitations, the effectiveness and efficiency of quality assurance programmes seem to be real and valuable. Maintaining quality improvement requires conditions which include some of the basic principles of total quality management (leadership, participatory management, openness, continuous feed back). The organisation of this unit as a specialised trauma centre was also a determining factor in the feasibility of a quality assurance programme (specialisation and small size, high activity volume, management of the complete care process). Quality assurance is an important initial step towards quality improvement, that should precede consideration of a total quality management programme. PMID:10178144

  18. The Potential and Challenges of Critical Realist Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article revisits the critical realist ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I…

  19. Towards realistic benchmarks for virtual infrastructure resource Qin Yin, Timothy Roscoe

    E-print Network

    Roscoe, Timothy

    evaluation results depends on the accuracy and realism of the benchmarks used, and realistic benchmarksTowards realistic benchmarks for virtual infrastructure resource allocators Qin Yin, Timothy Roscoe, we suggest how to generate realistic benchmarks for virtual infras- tructure, and present our

  20. Towards Realistic Models of Wireless Workload Stefan Karpinski, Elizabeth M. Belding, Kevin C. Almeroth

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    - hensive, multi-level models of realistic wireless workloads. I. INTRODUCTION The evaluation of wirelessTowards Realistic Models of Wireless Workload Stefan Karpinski, Elizabeth M. Belding, Kevin C hampering researchers' ability to make more reliable forecasts is the inability to generate realistic

  1. Evaluating Crisis Intervention Services for Youth within an Emergency Department: A View from within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Kennedy, Allison; Cloutier, Paula; Gray, Clare

    2010-01-01

    An innovative crisis intervention programme was created at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Canada in order to provide emergency assessments for youth presenting with mental health crises. The current investigation presents an overview of the programme and examines the emergency staff's perception and satisfaction with it.…

  2. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation and treatment of low back pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Borczuk, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal complaint that results in a visit to the emergency department, and it is 1 of the top 5 most common complaints in emergency medicine. Estimates of annual healthcare expenditures for low back pain in the United States exceed $90 billion annually, not even taking lost productivity and business costs into account. This review explores an evidence-based rationale for the evaluation of the patient with low back pain, and it provides guidance on risk stratification pertaining to laboratory assessment and radiologic imaging in the emergency department. Published guidelines from the American College of Physicians and American Pain Society are reviewed, with emphasis on best evidence for pharmacologic treatments, self-care interventions, and more invasive procedures and surgery in management of low back pain. Utilizing effective and proven strategies will avoid medical errors, provide better care for patients, and help manage healthcare resources and costs. PMID:24044786

  3. Systems approach to detect and evaluate contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of chemicals of emerging concern threatens near shore health in the Great Lakes, particularly in regions already suffering from degradation of water and environmental quality due to past and present anthropogenic activities. Critical issues remain in delisting Areas ...

  4. Evaluation and Treatment of Sickle Cell Pain in the Emergency Department: Paths to a Better Future

    PubMed Central

    Zempsky, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Pain is the hallmark of sickle cell disease in children and adolescents. Many children seek relief from their pain in the emergency department. These visits have historically been characterized by undertreatment, bias and distrust. Through compassionate care, aggressive pain management, and the development of clinical pathways or care guidelines, better analgesia and a better experience can be assured for the child with sickle cell disease in need of emergency care. PMID:21499553

  5. Evaluating western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) emergence and root damage in a seed mix refuge.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A F; Ginzel, M D; Krupke, C H

    2010-02-01

    Resistance management is essential for maintaining the efficacy and long-term durability of transgenic corn engineered to control western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte). Theoretically, a refuge can be provided by growing susceptible (refuge) plants in either a separate section of the field adjacent to resistant (transgenic) plants, or as a seed mixture. We examined the effects of varying the structure of a 10 and 20% refuge between currently approved structured refuges (block or strip plantings), as well as deploying the refuge within a seed mix, on adult emergence timing and magnitude, root damage and yield. Our 2-yr field study used naturally occurring western corn rootworm populations and included seven treatments: 10 and 20% block refuge, 10 and 20% strip refuge, 10 and 20% seed mix refuge, and 100% refuge. Beetles emerging from refuge corn emerged more synchronously with those emerging from transgenic (Bacillus thuringiensis [Berliner] Bt-RW) corn in seed mix refuges when compared with block refuges. The proportion of beetles emerging from refuge plants was significantly greater in a block and strip refuge structure than in a seed mix refuge. More beetles emerged from Bt-RW corn plants when they were grown as part of a seed mix. We discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks of a seed mix refuge structure in light of these findings. PMID:20214380

  6. GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of

    E-print Network

    247 GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of Sudden Oak Death of epidemiological models to realistic landscapes in a GIS can allow for a rigorous validation of model performance applied in a GIS to real-world wildland landscapes. In this paper, we present and evaluate a GIS

  7. Evaluation of an Asynchronous Physician Voice Mail Sign-out for Emergency Department Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Leora I.; Parwani, Vivek; Shah, Nidhi R.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Meredith, Thom; Jenq, Grace Y.; Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Communication failures contribute to errors in the transfer of patients from the emergency department (ED) to inpatient medicine units. Oral (synchronous) communication has numerous benefits but is costly and time-consuming. Taped (asynchronous) communication may be more reliable and efficient, but lacks interaction. We evaluated a new asynchronous physician-physician sign-out compared to the traditional synchronous sign-out. Methods A voicemail-based, semi-structured sign-out for routine ED admissions to internal medicine was implemented in October, 2007 at an urban, academic medical center. Outcomes were obtained by pre- and post-intervention surveys of ED and IM housestaff, physician assistants and hospitalist attendings; and by examination of access logs and administrative data. Outcome measures included utilization; physician perceptions of ease, accuracy, content, interaction and errors; and rate of transfers to intensive care from the floor within 24 hours of ED admission. Results were analyzed both quantitatively, and qualitatively using standard qualitative analytic techniques. Results During September-October, 2008 (one year post-intervention), voicemails were recorded regarding 90.5% of medicine admissions; 69.7% of these were accessed at least once by admitting physicians. The median length of each sign-out was 2.6 minutes (IQR 1.9 to 3.5). We received 117/197 responses (59%) to the pre-intervention survey and 113/206 responses (55%) to the post-intervention survey. A total of 73/101 (72%) respondents reported dictated sign-out was easier than oral sign-out and 43/101 (43%) reported it was more accurate. However, 70/101 (69%) reported interaction among participants was worse. There was no change in the rate of ICU transfer within 24 hours of admission from the ED in April-June, 2007 (65/6,147; 1.1%) versus April-June 2008 (70/6,263; 1.1%); difference of 0%, 95% CI, ?0.4% to 0.3%. The proportion of internists reporting at least one perceived adverse event relating to transfer from the ED decreased a non-significant 10% after the intervention (95% CI, ?27% to 6%), from 44% pre-intervention (32/72) to 34% post-intervention (23/67). Conclusion Voicemail sign-out for ED-internal medicine communication was easier than oral sign-out without any change in early ICU transfers or the perception of major adverse events. However, interaction among participants was reduced. Voicemail sign-out may be an efficient means of improving sign-out communication for stable ED admissions. PMID:19282064

  8. Thallium myocardial scanning in the emergency department evaluation of chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, S.E.

    1989-05-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint of patients seen in the emergency department. The causes are legion, and range from the non-life threatening to the potentially catastrophic. Thallium heart scanning was done prospectively in 20 patients with a ''classic'' history for myocardial infarction (eight patients) or atypical chest pain and/or associated symptoms plus an abnormal ECG (12 patients) to discern a subset of patients from whom thallium scintography may be indicated in the emergency department. Although further investigation is needed, our preliminary study suggests that myocardial scanning with thallium can be a safe, fairly rapid, and useful objective parameter in the emergency department detection of suspected myocardial infarction, and in differential diagnosis of chest pain when other data such as the history, physical examination, ECG, or enzymes are inconclusive.

  9. Evaluation of Maternal-Fetal Outcomes After Emergency Vaginal Cerclage Performed With Shirodkar-McDonald Combined Modified Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ciancimino, Leonarda; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Imbesi, Giovanna; Chiofalo, Benito; Mancuso, Alfredo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Background Several techniques of emergency vaginal cerclage have been proposed in case of unexpected and abrupt cervical incompetence (CI), in order to prolong the pregnancy as much as possible and to reduce the adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency cervical cerclage, performed with the combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique. Methods We selected 12 cases of emergency vaginal cerclage, performed between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2013. The age of the patients was between 20 and 38 years (mean 29.0 ± standard deviation (SD) 5.69), parity between 0 and 2 (mean 0.7 ± SD 0.65), and gestational age at the time of admission ranged between 17 and 26 weeks (mean 21.0 ± SD 3.44). In all these cases, we used a combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique to perform the procedure. Results The neonatal survival rate was 83.3%. The cesarean section rate was 16.7%. The average pregnancy prolongation was 89.9 days, higher than that reported for other studies in the literature. Conclusions We can assume that the emergency vaginal cerclage performed with the combined modified Shirodkar-McDonald technique is the best option of surgical therapy for the treatment of unexpected and abrupt CI. PMID:25780480

  10. A Virtual Emergency Telemedicine Serious Game in Medical Training: A Quantitative, Professional Feedback-Informed Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Riana; Marangos, Charis; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Dafli, Eleni; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2015-01-01

    Background Serious games involving virtual patients in medical education can provide a controlled setting within which players can learn in an engaging way, while avoiding the risks associated with real patients. Moreover, serious games align with medical students’ preferred learning styles. The Virtual Emergency TeleMedicine (VETM) game is a simulation-based game that was developed in collaboration with the mEducator Best Practice network in response to calls to integrate serious games in medical education and training. The VETM game makes use of data from an electrocardiogram to train practicing doctors, nurses, or medical students for problem-solving in real-life clinical scenarios through a telemedicine system and virtual patients. The study responds to two gaps: the limited number of games in emergency cardiology and the lack of evaluations by professionals. Objective The objective of this study is a quantitative, professional feedback-informed evaluation of one scenario of VETM, involving cardiovascular complications. The study has the following research question: “What are professionals’ perceptions of the potential of the Virtual Emergency Telemedicine game for training people involved in the assessment and management of emergency cases?” Methods The evaluation of the VETM game was conducted with 90 professional ambulance crew nursing personnel specializing in the assessment and management of emergency cases. After collaboratively trying out one VETM scenario, participants individually completed an evaluation of the game (36 questions on a 5-point Likert scale) and provided written and verbal comments. The instrument assessed six dimensions of the game: (1) user interface, (2) difficulty level, (3) feedback, (4) educational value, (5) user engagement, and (6) terminology. Data sources of the study were 90 questionnaires, including written comments from 51 participants, 24 interviews with 55 participants, and 379 log files of their interaction with the game. Results Overall, the results were positive in all dimensions of the game that were assessed as means ranged from 3.2 to 3.99 out of 5, with user engagement receiving the highest score (mean 3.99, SD 0.87). Users’ perceived difficulty level received the lowest score (mean 3.20, SD 0.65), a finding which agrees with the analysis of log files that showed a rather low success rate (20.6%). Even though professionals saw the educational value and usefulness of the tool for pre-hospital emergency training (mean 3.83, SD 1.05), they identified confusing features and provided input for improving them. Conclusions Overall, the results of the professional feedback-informed evaluation of the game provide a strong indication of its potential as an educational tool for emergency training. Professionals’ input will serve to improve the game. Further research will aim to validate VETM, in a randomized pre-test, post-test control group study to examine possible learning gains in participants’ problem-solving skills in treating a patient’s symptoms in an emergency situation. PMID:26084866

  11. Comparative evaluation of different modes of a national accident and emergency department-based injury surveillance system: Jamaican experience.

    PubMed

    Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Holder, Yvette; Gordon, Georgiana

    2002-12-01

    The objective was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two injury surveillance systems in operation in the Accident and Emergency departments of public hospitals in Jamaica. The evaluation was conducted at 12 hospitals across Jamaica offering varying levels of service delivery. It was designed in three phases: (1) a retrospective review of surveillance system data; (2) prospective process evaluation; (3) system environment evaluation. These data were analysed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the manual Accident & Emergency Statistical Report (A&ESR) versus the computer-based Patient administration system/Jamaica injury surveillance system (PAS/JISS), and to determine an injury registration rate. Results showed a variation from 8% to 27% in injury registration rates at the hospitals reviewed. The sensitivity of the computer-based PAS ranged from 29.7% to 97.1% while the sensitivity of the manual system ranged from 22.1% to 100%. The computer-based system generally detected a greater percentage of injuries. Problems were identified with missing data fields in the computer-based system, while problems of recording and transcription were identified in the manually-based system. Recommendations were made to improve data quality in both data collection systems. Although shortcomings were identified with the A&ESR, the system is performing the function for which it was designed, that of tracking A&E workload. The PAS/JISS is more user-friendly and a truer reflection of the injury situation. PMID:12613102

  12. Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

  13. Vibration Signaling in Mobile Devices for Emergency Alerting: A Study with Deaf Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Judith; Tucker, Paula E.; Williams, Norman; Sauro, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, a nationwide Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) is being planned to alert cellular mobile device subscribers to emergencies occurring near the location of the mobile device. The plan specifies a unique audio attention signal as well as a unique vibration attention signal (for mobile devices set to vibrate) to identify…

  14. An Assessment of an Oral Examination Format for Evaluating Clinical Competence in Emergency Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In July 1989 the American Board of Emergency Medicine conducted a field test of the oral recertification examination process. Sixteen examiners and 25 examinees participated in the field test. The examination included 3 chart-stimulated recall and 3 simulated-patient encounter cases. (MLW)

  15. Evaluation of Emerging Alternative Chemicals for Control of Pathogens and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emerging chemicals were tested in 2 field trials in combination with metham sodium as replacements for methyl bromide. These included 2-bromoethanol, dimethyl disulfide, furfural, propylene oxide, and sodium azide. Populations of weed and pathogens were measured after chemical application....

  16. Investigating Attitudes towards an Emerging Standard of English: Evaluations of Newscasters' Accents in Trinidad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuber, Dagmar; Leung, Glenda-Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the emergence of new standards of English in the postcolonial world by means of a language attitude study conducted in the Caribbean island of Trinidad that involved rating the accents of newscasters. Accents represented in the clips played to respondents comprised various local as well as non-local ones. The…

  17. EVALUATION OF NEW AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research program was completed to identify new and emerging waste management technologies in the metal finishing industry. A limited field sampling and analytical program was pursued to define performance at full scale operating facilities for the following technologies: (1) bu...

  18. [Evaluation of a Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opening hotel].

    PubMed

    Erdo?an, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2013-04-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infection caused by Legionella species especially colonized in the water systems. Hotels are common locations in which waterwork-associated sporadic or epidemic legionellosis can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate a small Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opened 600-bed hotel in Alanya, a touristic county in Mediterranean part of Turkey. A 66 years old male patient who stayed in this hotel opened on May 15th, 2009, was admitted to our hospital on May 21st, 2009 with the complaints of high fever, headache and diarrhea lasting for three days. Since chest X-ray revealed non-homogenous density increase in left middle and inferior zone, the patient was diagnosed as atypical pneumoniae and LD was confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen test (Card test, BinaxNOW®Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Alere Co, USA) result. Following the identification of the index case, the records of our hospital were reviewed and revealed another case being treated with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia who was also the guest of the same hotel. This patient was then diagnosed as LD by positive urinary antigen test. Since new cases were identified during the following days (May 22, 25 and 26) the Antalya County Health Department and hotel management were informed about a cluster of LD. In addition subsequent investigation for environmental surveillance and water sampling were conducted. The LD diagnosis and environmental inspections were performed according to the procedure described in the guideline from "Turkish Ministry of Health Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Control Programme". Five definitive cases and one presumptive case of LD were identified during the outbreak period (May 20-26, 2009). All of the cases were successfully treated (intravenous ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin or clarithromycin), however one patient died due to sudden death during sleep after being discharged. Since sputum samples could not be obtained from the cases, the diagnosis were not confirmed by culture but by urinary antigen test. Besides high antibody titer in single serum sample was accepted as a diagnostic marker. Additionally 26 cases who accommodated in the same hotel and presented with high fever without pneumonia were treated in the outpatient clinics of our hospital. Urinary antigen test was performed in 11 of those patients to confirm the prediagnosis of pontiac fever, however all were found negative. Likewise convalescent phase sera for the confirmation of the diagnosis by seroconversion could not be obtained since they all were foreign tourists. Investigation of water sources of the hotel revealed that the municipal drinking water network had not been connected yet and the hotel supplied water from groundwater sources. The analysis of multiple samples from multiple sites of hotel's water system indicated that the water temperature was between 35-45°C and the iron level was beyond the acceptable limits (245 µg/L) recommended for drinking water in the regulation guides. These properties were considered as the factors that enhanced the growth and survival of Legionella species. Water samples were cultivated on BCYE-_ (Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract a-Ketoglutarate) and GVPC (Glycine-Vancomycin-Polymyxin-Cycloheximide) agar plates and 11 out of a total 13 samples yielded Legionella spp. growth. All isolates were identified as L.pneumophila serogroup 1 by specific antisera. Legionella decontamination of hotel's water system was managed by implementation of hyperchlorination method as well as superheating (> 60°C) of water. The hotel was not closed during the outbreak and cultures of water samples obtained for one year later did not yield any Legionella spp. growth. This outbreak emphasized that hotel residents are at risk for acquiring LD in the presence of a colonized water system, even in a newly constructed building. In conclusion, effective control and decontamination programmes for the prevention of Legionella colonization should be applied even in

  19. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  20. Realistic modeling of neurons and networks: towards brain simulation

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Garrido, Jesus; Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Prestori, Francesca

    Summary Realistic modeling is a new advanced methodology for investigating brain functions. Realistic modeling is based on a detailed biophysical description of neurons and synapses, which can be integrated into microcircuits. The latter can, in turn, be further integrated to form large-scale brain networks and eventually to reconstruct complex brain systems. Here we provide a review of the realistic simulation strategy and use the cerebellar network as an example. This network has been carefully investigated at molecular and cellular level and has been the object of intense theoretical investigation. The cerebellum is thought to lie at the core of the forward controller operations of the brain and to implement timing and sensory prediction functions. The cerebellum is well described and provides a challenging field in which one of the most advanced realistic microcircuit models has been generated. We illustrate how these models can be elaborated and embedded into robotic control systems to gain insight into how the cellular properties of cerebellar neurons emerge in integrated behaviors. Realistic network modeling opens up new perspectives for the investigation of brain pathologies and for the neurorobotic field. PMID:24139652

  1. Emergency Department Evaluation And Management Of Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Matthew; Greene, Christopher James; Hess, Jamie; Sachs, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding results from a variety of conditions that may vary in severity from merely bothersome to imminently life-threatening. While stabilization is standard for nearly all causes of bleeding, identifying whether the bleed is from variceal or nonvariceal sources is critical. Testing and treatments such as nasogastric lavage, antibiotics, somatostatin analogues, proton pump inhibitors, and emergent endoscopy may benefit some patients, depending upon the bleeding source and other clinical factors; however, some therapies that are routinely used have very little evidence demonstrating effectiveness. This issue reviews the most recent evidence regarding appropriate testing, risk stratification, and indications for gastroenterology consult in the emergency department in order to treat these patients appropriately. PMID:26291048

  2. Electromagnetic Scattering from Realistic Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shung- Wu; Jin, Jian-Ming

    1997-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop computational tools for calculating radar signature of realistic targets. A hybrid technique that combines the shooting-and-bouncing-ray (SBR) method and the finite-element method (FEM) for the radiation characterization of microstrip patch antennas in a complex geometry was developed. In addition, a hybridization procedure to combine moment method (MoM) solution and the SBR method to treat the scattering of waveguide slot arrays on an aircraft was developed. A list of journal articles and conference papers is included.

  3. Realistic computational modeling for hybrid biopolymer microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jungyul; Ryu, Suk-Kyu; Baek, Jeongeun; Park, Sewan; Kim, Hyeon Cheol; Chun, Kukjin; Park, Sukho

    2006-01-01

    Three dimensional cultures in a microfabricated environment provide in vivo-like conditions to cells, and have used in a variety of applications in basic and clinical studies. Also, the analysis of the contractility of cardiomyocytes is important for understanding the mechanism of heart failure as well as the molecular alterations in diseased heart cells. This paper presents a realistic computational model, which considers the three dimensional fluid-structural interactions (FSI), to quantify the contractile force of cardiomyocytes on hybrid biopolymer microcantilevers. Prior to this study, only static modeling of the microscale cellular force has been reported. This study modeled the dynamics of cardiomyocytes on microcantilevers in a medium using the FSI. This realistic model was compared with static FEM analysis and the experimental results. Using harmonic response analysis in FSI modeling, the motion of a hybrid biopolymer microcantilever in the medium was identified as a second-order system and the influence of the dynamics of cardiomyocytes could be evaluated quantitatively. PMID:17946496

  4. Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nunziata, C.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.; Panza, G. F.

    2008-07-08

    The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

  5. Climates of the past, lessons for the future: emerging results from the CMIP5 model evaluation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. P.; Bartlein, P. J.; Izumi, K.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    Past climates provide an out-of-sample test of the climate models used for future climate projections. We evaluate palaeosimulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years before present) and Mid-Holocene (6000 years before present) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), focusing on features that are also present in simulations of the response to raised CO2. Several features of the simulations are common to both past and future simulations, including the ratio of land-sea temperature contrast, high-latitude amplification of temperature changes, winter amplification of temperature responses to year-round forcing, precipitation scaling with temperature, and differential precipitation/temperature scaling over land and ocean. The mechanisms giving rise to these phenomena are similar in past and future climates. Comparison with palaeoclimatic reconstructions show these features are simulated realistically in the past, and presumably therefore in the future simulations. There are also parallels in the regional response to changes in forcing in the past and future simulations, including changes in monsoon strength and in mid-continental climates. Comparison with palaeo-reconstructions shows the models capture the sign of such changes correctly but predict the magnitude poorly, and thus future projections are also likely to underestimate the strength of regional responses. LGM climates have been used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity, on the assumption that the model that best reproduces reconstructed LGM climates is likely to have the most realistic climate sensitivity. However, global biases in simulated LGM temperature are only weakly related to climate sensitivity. Furthermore, ocean temperature biases are globally low and land temperatures globally high compared with reconstructions. The current generation of climate models includes improvements in resolution, complexity and parameterizations and produce better simulations of modern climate but evaluations show there has been no improvement in the simulation of past climates. Since past forcing and climate changes are of comparable magnitude to those expected in the 21st century, this emphasizes the need to focus on further improving the simulation of regional climate changes.

  6. Realistic Human Walking Paths David C. Brogan

    E-print Network

    Brogan, David

    Realistic Human Walking Paths David C. Brogan Department of Computer Science University of Virginia are influenced by kinematic and dynami- cal constraints. A realistic model of human walking paths is an important natural human behavior than previous models. 1. Introduction Realistic walking animations are required

  7. Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

  8. Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

  9. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  10. Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin B.; O'Connell, Jessica L.; Di Tommaso, Stefania; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to quantify large-scale plant productivity in coastal marshes to understand marsh resilience to sea level rise, to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits, and to monitor impacts from land use, eutrophication and contamination. Remote monitoring of aboveground biomass of emergent wetland vegetation will help address this need. Differences in sensor spatial resolution, bandwidth, temporal frequency and cost constrain the accuracy of biomass maps produced for management applications. In addition the use of vegetation indices to map biomass may not be effective in wetlands due to confounding effects of water inundation on spectral reflectance. To address these challenges, we used partial least squares regression to select optimal spectral features in situ and with satellite reflectance data to develop predictive models of aboveground biomass for common emergent freshwater marsh species, Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus acutus, at two restored marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. We used field spectrometer data to test model errors associated with hyperspectral narrowbands and multispectral broadbands, the influence of water inundation on prediction accuracy, and the ability to develop species specific models. We used Hyperion data, Digital Globe World View-2 (WV-2) data, and Landsat 7 data to scale up the best statistical models of biomass. Field spectrometer-based models of the full dataset showed that narrowband reflectance data predicted biomass somewhat, though not significantly better than broadband reflectance data [R2 = 0.46 and percent normalized RMSE (%RMSE) = 16% for narrowband models]. However hyperspectral first derivative reflectance spectra best predicted biomass for plots where water levels were less than 15 cm (R2 = 0.69, %RMSE = 12.6%). In species-specific models, error rates differed by species (Typha spp.: %RMSE = 18.5%; S. acutus: %RMSE = 24.9%), likely due to the more vertical structure and deeper water habitat of S. acutus. The Landsat 7 dataset (7 images) predicted biomass slightly better than the WV-2 dataset (6 images) (R2 = 0.56, %RMSE = 20.9%, compared to R2 = 0.45, RMSE = 21.5%). The Hyperion dataset (one image) was least successful in predicting biomass (R2 = 0.27, %RMSE = 33.5%). Shortwave infrared bands on 30 m-resolution Hyperion and Landsat 7 sensors aided biomass estimation; however managers need to weigh tradeoffs between cost, additional spectral information, and high spatial resolution that will identify variability in small, fragmented marshes common to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and elsewhere in the Western U.S.

  11. Evaluation of Social Media Use by Emergency Medicine Residents and Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David; Bond, Michael C.; Kegg, Jason; Pillow, Tyson; Hopson, Laura; Cooney, Robert; Garg, Manish; Khadpe, Jay; Runyon, Michael; Patterson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians and residency programs are increasing their use of social media (SM) websites for educational and promotional uses, yet little is known about the use of these sites by residents and faculty. The objective of the study is to assess patterns of SM use for personal and professional purposes among emergency medicine (EM) residents and faculty. Methods In this multi-site study, an 18-question survey was sent by e-mail to the residents and faculty in 14 EM programs and to the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) listserv via the online tool SurveyMonkey™. We compiled descriptive statistics, including assessment with the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. StatsDirect software (v 2.8.0, StatsDirect, Cheshire, UK) was used for all analyses. Results We received 1,314 responses: 63% of respondents were male, 40% were <30 years of age, 39% were between the ages 31 and 40, and 21% were older than 40. The study group consisted of 772 residents and 542 faculty members (15% were program directors, 21% were assistant or associate PDs, 45% were core faculty, and 19% held other faculty positions. Forty-four percent of respondents completed residency more than 10 years ago. Residents used SM markedly more than faculty for social interactions with family and friends (83% vs 65% [p<0.0001]), entertainment (61% vs 47% [p<0.0001]), and videos (42% vs 23% [p=0.0006]). Residents used Facebook™ and YouTube™ more often than faculty (86% vs 67% [p<0.001]; 53% vs 46% [p=0.01]), whereas residents used Twitter™ (19% vs 26% [p=0.005]) and LinkedIn™ (15% vs 32% [p<0.0001]) less than faculty. Overall, residents used SM sites more than faculty, notably in daily use (30% vs 24% [p<0.001]). For professional use, residents were most interested in its use for open positions/hiring (30% vs 18% [p<0.0001]) and videos (33% vs 26% [p=0.005]) and less interested than faculty with award postings (22% vs 33% [p<0.0001]) or publications (30% vs 38% [p=0.0007]). Conclusion EM residents and faculty have different patterns and interests in the personal and professional uses of social media. Awareness of these utilization patterns could benefit future educational endeavors. PMID:26587096

  12. Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Carles; Oller, Joaquim; Paradells, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 ?s, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.

  13. Imaging acute complications in cancer patients: what should be evaluated in the emergency setting?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increased incidence world-wide of cancer and increased survival has also resulted in physicians seeing more complications in patients with cancer. In many cases, complications are the first manifestations of the disease. They may be insidious and develop over a period of months, or acute and manifest within minutes to days. Imaging examinations play an essential role in evaluating cancer and its complications. Plain radiography and ultrasonography (US) are generally performed initially in an urgent situation due to their wide availability, low cost, and minimal or no radiation exposure. However, depending on a patient’s symptoms, evaluation with cross-sectional imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often necessary. In this review article, we discuss some of the most important acute noninfectious oncological complications for which imaging methods play an essential role in diagnosis. PMID:25609051

  14. The consumer quality index (CQ-index) in an accident and emergency department: development and first evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of patients’ views are essential to provide a patient-centred health service and to evaluating quality of care. As no standardized and validated system for measuring patients’ experiences in accident and emergency departments existed, we have developed the Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department (CQI A&E). Methods Qualitative research has been undertaken to determine the content validity of the CQI A&E. In order to assess psychometric characteristics an 84-item questionnaire was sent to 653 patients who had attended a large A&E in the Netherlands. Also, fifty importance questions were added to determine relevance of the questions and for future calculations of improvement scores. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to detect the domains of the questionnaire. Results Survey data of 304 (47%) patients were used for the analysis. The first exploratory factor analysis resulted in three domains based on 13 items: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Environment and impression of the A&E’ and ‘Respect for and explanation to the patient’. The first two had an acceptable internal consistency. The second analysis, included 24 items grouped into 5 domains: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Information and explanation’, ‘Environment of the A&E’,’Leaving the A&E’ and ‘General information and rapidity of care’. All factors were internal consistent. According to the patients, the three most important aspects in healthcare performance in the A&E were: trust in the competence of the healthcare professionals, hygiene in the A&E and patients’ health care expectations. In general, the highest improvement scores concerned patient information. Conclusions The Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department measures patients’ experiences of A&E healthcare performance. Preliminary psychometric characteristics are sufficient to justify further research into reliability and validity. PMID:22929061

  15. Realistic models of biological motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derényi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamás

    The origin of biological motion can be traced back to the function of molecular motor proteins. Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin transport organelles within our cells moving along a polymeric filament, the microtubule. The motion of the myosin molecules along the actin filaments is responsible for the contraction of our muscles. Recent experiments have been able to reveal some important features of the motion of individual motor proteins, and a new statistical physical description - often referred to as “thermal ratchets” - has been developed for the description of motion of these molecules. In this approach, the motors are considered as Brownian particles moving along one-dimensional periodic structures due to the effect of nonequilibrium fluctuations. Assuming specific types of interaction between the particles the models can be made more realistic. We have been able to give analytic solutions for our model of kinesin with elastically coupled Brownian heads and for the motion of the myosin filament where the motors are connected through a rigid backbone. Our theoretical predictions are in a very good agreement with the various experimental results. In addition, we have considered the effects arising as a result of interaction among a large number of molecular motors, leading to a number of novel cooperative transport phenomena.

  16. Ready for Discharge? A Survey of Discharge Transition-of-Care Education and Evaluation in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gallahue, Fiona E.; Betz, Amy E.; Druck, Jeffrey; Jones, Jonathan S.; Burns, Boyd; Hern, Gene

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess current education and practices of emergency medicine (EM) residents as perceived by EM program directors to determine if there are deficits in resident discharge handoff training. This survey study was guided by the Kern model for medical curriculum development. A six-member Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) Transitions of Care task force of EM physicians performed these steps and constructed a survey. The survey was distributed to program residency directors via the CORD listserve and/or direct contact. There were 119 responses to the survey, which were collected using an online survey tool. Over 71% of the 167 American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited EM residency programs were represented. Of those responding, 42.9% of programs reported formal training regarding discharges during initial orientation and 5.9% reported structured curriculum outside of orientation. A majority (73.9%) of programs reported that EM residents were not routinely evaluated on their discharge proficiency. Despite the ACGME requirements requiring formal handoff curriculum and evaluation, many programs do not provide formal curriculum on the discharge transition of care or evaluate EM residents on their discharge proficiency. PMID:26594283

  17. Ready for Discharge? A Survey of Discharge Transition-of-Care Education and Evaluation in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallahue, Fiona E; Betz, Amy E; Druck, Jeffrey; Jones, Jonathan S; Burns, Boyd; Hern, Gene

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess current education and practices of emergency medicine (EM) residents as perceived by EM program directors to determine if there are deficits in resident discharge handoff training. This survey study was guided by the Kern model for medical curriculum development. A six-member Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) Transitions of Care task force of EM physicians performed these steps and constructed a survey. The survey was distributed to program residency directors via the CORD listserve and/or direct contact. There were 119 responses to the survey, which were collected using an online survey tool. Over 71% of the 167 American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited EM residency programs were represented. Of those responding, 42.9% of programs reported formal training regarding discharges during initial orientation and 5.9% reported structured curriculum outside of orientation. A majority (73.9%) of programs reported that EM residents were not routinely evaluated on their discharge proficiency. Despite the ACGME requirements requiring formal handoff curriculum and evaluation, many programs do not provide formal curriculum on the discharge transition of care or evaluate EM residents on their discharge proficiency. PMID:26594283

  18. Evaluation of performance quality of an advanced scope physiotherapy role in a hospital emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J; Vine, K; Grimmer, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiotherapists working in advanced and extended scope roles internationally make a difference to workflow, performance targets, and patient satisfaction in areas traditionally served by medicine and nursing. Aim To assess the impact of an advanced scope of practice physiotherapist (ASoP-PT) service in a large Australian hospital emergency department (ED) by measuring national service and triage category indicators, patient and staff satisfaction. Methods Consecutive patients consulting the ASoP-PT were recruited over 53 weeks following service inception. Descriptions of ASoP-PT activities and patients were collected. Performance was assessed against national ED indicators for length of stay and wait. Patient and staff perspectives were assessed independently by semi-structured interviews. The physiotherapist was formally trained to extended scope of practice including competency in medicines, prescription and application. The legislation prevented him from applying these skills, therefore he worked in an ASoP-PT role in ED. Results The ASoP-PT treated on average, 72 patients per month in ten shifts per fortnight, consulting patients aged from 1 to 88 years. Patients largely presented with musculoskeletal problems in triage Categories 4 and 5. There were shorter length of wait and length of stay, when the ASoP-PT was on shift. However overall compliance with national performance targets was similar with and without the ASoP-PT. Staff and patient satisfaction was high, particularly valuing the ASoP-PT’s expertise in musculoskeletal injuries. Conclusion The ASoP-PT performed at least as well as other ED health care providers in meeting national triage targets. Had the legislation permitted his independent prescription of medicines, the ASoP-PT could have worked in an extended scope role, and his performance in meeting targets may have been better. PMID:26229515

  19. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. Methods A descriptive, comparative (6?months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Results Over the 12?-month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS–EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6?min from 35 to 29?min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). Conclusions The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. PMID:24136123

  20. The design and implementation of urban earthquake disaster loss evaluation and emergency response decision support systems based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-li; Peng, Shuang-yun; Cao, Yan-bo

    2008-10-01

    Based on the necessity analysis of GIS applications in earthquake disaster prevention, this paper has deeply discussed the spatial integration scheme of urban earthquake disaster loss evaluation models and visualization technologies by using the network development methods such as COM/DCOM, ActiveX and ASP, as well as the spatial database development methods such as OO4O and ArcSDE based on ArcGIS software packages. Meanwhile, according to Software Engineering principles, a solution of Urban Earthquake Emergency Response Decision Support Systems based on GIS technologies have also been proposed, which include the systems logical structures, the technical routes,the system realization methods and function structures etc. Finally, the testing systems user interfaces have also been offered in the paper.

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-04-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  2. Performing BGP Experiments on a Semi-Realistic Internet Testbed Environment

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    of experimental infrastruc- ture and rigorous methodologies to evaluate these security mechanisms. The DETERPerforming BGP Experiments on a Semi-Realistic Internet Testbed Environment Ke Zhang, Soon-Tee Teoh goal is to cre- ate a semi-realistic testbed to conduct BGP experiments, measure and visualize

  3. Simulation of 3D Ultrasound with a Realistic Electro-mechanical Model of the Heart

    E-print Network

    Simulation of 3D Ultrasound with a Realistic Electro-mechanical Model of the Heart Q. Duan1 , P a realistic electro-mechanical model of a beating heart into simulated real-time three-dimensional (RT3D tracking method was evaluated on the simulated data to measure displacements on the myocardial surfaces

  4. 810 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 28, NO. 4, AUGUST 2012 Robotic Router Formation in Realistic

    E-print Network

    in Realistic Communication Environments Yuan Yan and Yasamin Mostofi, Member, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, we Terms--Networked robots, realistic communication chan- nels, robotic router formation. I. INTRODUCTION Edi- tor N. Y. Chong and Editor D. Fox upon evaluation of the reviewers' comments. This work

  5. Marine Corps Recruit Training Attrition: The Effect of Realistic Job Preview and Stress-Coping Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, William H.; Zalinski, James

    Two films were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in reducing attrition among Marine Corps recruits. The films were a realistic job preview of military training and a stress-coping film. Platoons of Marine recruits were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: viewing the realistic job preview film, viewing the stress-coping film,…

  6. COMPARISON OF PHONEME AND VISEME BASED ACOUSTIC UNITS FOR SPEECH DRIVEN REALISTIC LIP ANIMATION

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Cigdem Eroglu

    COMPARISON OF PHONEME AND VISEME BASED ACOUSTIC UNITS FOR SPEECH DRIVEN REALISTIC LIP ANIMATION@ku.edu.tr ABSTRACT Natural looking lip animation, synchronized with incoming speech, is essential for realistic character animation. In this work, we evaluate the performance of phone and viseme based acoustic units

  7. Emerging role of cardiovascular CT and MRI in the evaluation of stroke.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ricardo J; Parikh, Pragnesh P; Mergo, Patricia J; Gerber, Thomas C; Mankad, Rekha; Freeman, William D; Shapiro, Brian P

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this article are to explore the potential for use of CT angiography and MRI and to highlight data suggestive of their usefulness in specific cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSION. The evaluation of stroke requires comprehensive assessment of potential stroke mechanisms, including cardiac sources. Despite an exhaustive search for secondary causes, the precise cause of many strokes remains unknown (cryptogenic). It is well recognized, however, that some of these potential causes occur as a result of embolism from the heart or great vessels. Thus, echocardiography, in particular transesophageal echocardiography, is instrumental in a careful assessment of cardiac causes in selected individuals. Unfortunately, transesophageal echocardiography is invasive, and some patients may have relative or absolute contraindications. Cardiovascular CT angiography and MRI have growing potential compared with conventional cardiovascular echography. PMID:25615749

  8. Triple Rule Out versus CT Angiogram Plus Stress Test for Evaluation of Chest Pain in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Kelly N.; Shah, Payal; Qu, Lihua; Kurz, Michael C.; Clark, Carol L.; Swor, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Undifferentiated chest pain in the emergency department (ED) is a diagnostic challenge. One approach includes a dedicated chest computed tomography (CT) for pulmonary embolism or dissection followed by a cardiac stress test (TRAD). An alternative strategy is a coronary CT angiogram with concurrent chest CT (Triple Rule Out, TRO). The objective of this study was to describe the ED patient course and short-term safety for these evaluation methods. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of adult patients presenting to a large, community ED for acute chest pain who had non-diagnostic electrocardiograms (ECGs) and normal biomarkers. We collected demographics, ED length of stay, hospital costs, and estimated radiation exposures. We evaluated 30-day return visits for major adverse cardiac events. Results A total of 829 patients underwent TRAD, and 642 patients had TRO. Patients undergoing TRO tended to be younger (mean 52.3 vs 56.5 years) and were more likely to be male (42.4% vs. 30.4%). TRO patients tended to have a shorter ED length of stay (mean 14.45 vs. 21.86 hours), to incur less cost (median $449.83 vs. $1147.70), and to be exposed to less radiation (median 7.18 vs. 16.6mSv). No patient in either group had a related 30-day revisit. Conclusion Use of TRO is feasible for assessment of chest pain in the ED. Both TRAD and TRO safely evaluated patients. Prospective studies investigating this diagnostic strategy are needed to further assess this approach to ED chest pain evaluation. PMID:26587090

  9. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  10. Computer Simulation in Mass Emergency and Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness as a Tool for Demonstrating Strategic Competency in Emergency Department Medical Responders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the capability of computer simulation as a tool for assessing the strategic competency of emergency department nurses as they responded to authentically computer simulated biohazard-exposed patient case studies. Thirty registered nurses from a large, urban hospital completed a series of computer-simulated case studies of…

  11. The Emerging Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Metabolic Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, S; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Markussis, V; Kolovou, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart. Thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, and growth hormone excess or deficiency may contribute to usually reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Glucogen storage diseases can be presented with myopathy, liver, and heart failure. Lysosomal storage diseases can provoke cardiac hypertrophy, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, leads to tissue iron overload in different organs, including the heart. Cardiac amyloidosis is the result of amyloid deposition in the heart, formed from breakdown of normal or abnormal proteins that leads to increased heart stiffness, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Finally, nutritional disturbances and metabolic diseases, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction. CMR, through its capability to reliably assess anatomy, function, inflammation, rest-stress myocardial perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, aortic distensibility, iron and/or fat deposition can serve as an excellent tool for early diagnosis of heart involvement, risk stratification, treatment evaluation, and long term follow-up of patients with metabolic cardiomyopathies. PMID:26197853

  12. Realistic Control of Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Sean P.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2014-01-01

    The control of complex networks is of paramount importance in areas as diverse as ecosystem management, emergency response, and cell reprogramming. A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. Here, we show that it is possible to exploit the same principle to control network behavior. Our approach accounts for the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real systems, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible due to constraints that limit the allowed interventions. Applications show that this framework permits reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure—which we illustrate through the mitigation of cascading failures in a power-grid network and the identification of potential drug targets in a signaling network of human cancer. PMID:23803966

  13. Evaluation of Publicly Financed and Privately Delivered Model of Emergency Referral Services for Maternal and Child Health Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Lakshmi, P. V. M.; Mokashi, Tushar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Reddy, K. Rahul; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency referral services (ERS) are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. Methods Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS) standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. Results On an average, an ambulance transported 3–4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7) per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35) per km travelled. Conclusion Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system. PMID:25360798

  14. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the results of the 2014 consensus conference as well as related original research with the goal of bringing high-quality equitable care to male and female emergency patients. PMID:25420469

  15. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  16. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  17. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

  18. Evaluation of emergency department performance – a systematic review on recommended performance and quality-in-care measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of emergency department (ED) performance remains a difficult task due to the lack of consensus on performance measures that reflects high quality, efficiency, and sustainability. Aim To describe, map, and critically evaluate which performance measures that the published literature regard as being most relevant in assessing overall ED performance. Methods Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review of review articles reporting accentuated ED performance measures was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Study eligibility criteria includes: 1) the main purpose was to discuss, analyse, or promote performance measures best reflecting ED performance, 2) the article was a review article, and 3) the article reported macro-level performance measures, thus reflecting an overall departmental performance level. Results A number of articles addresses this study’s objective (n?=?14 of 46 unique hits). Time intervals and patient-related measures were dominant in the identified performance measures in review articles from US, UK, Sweden and Canada. Length of stay (LOS), time between patient arrival to initial clinical assessment, and time between patient arrivals to admission were highlighted by the majority of articles. Concurrently, “patients left without being seen” (LWBS), unplanned re-attendance within a maximum of 72 hours, mortality/morbidity, and number of unintended incidents were the most highlighted performance measures that related directly to the patient. Performance measures related to employees were only stated in two of the 14 included articles. Conclusions A total of 55 ED performance measures were identified. ED time intervals were the most recommended performance measures followed by patient centeredness and safety performance measures. ED employee related performance measures were rarely mentioned in the investigated literature. The study’s results allow for advancement towards improved performance measurement and standardised assessment across EDs. PMID:23938117

  19. Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Robinson, Richard D.; Garrett, John S.; Bunch, Kellie; Huggins, Charles A.; Watson, Katherine; Daniels, Joni; Banks, Brett; D'Etienne, James P.; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED) crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery. PMID:26167302

  20. Comparative evaluation of differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy as a technique to discriminate emerging skin pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozikowski, Raymond T.; Smith, Sarah E.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Castleman, William L.; Sorg, Brian S.; Hahn, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely investigated as a technique for identifying pathological tissue; however, unrelated subject-to-subject variations in spectra complicate data analysis and interpretation. We describe and evaluate a new biosensing technique, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), based on deep ultraviolet (UV) photochemical perturbation in combination with difference spectroscopy. This technique combines sequential fluorescence probing (pre- and post-perturbation) with sub-ablative UV perturbation and difference spectroscopy to provide a new spectral dimension, facilitating two improvements over fluorescence spectroscopy. First, the differential technique eliminates significant variations in absolute fluorescence response within subject populations. Second, UV perturbations alter the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly coupling the DLIPS response to the biological structure. Improved biosensing with DLIPS is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of chemically induced skin lesion development. Component loading analysis of the data indicates that the DLIPS technique couples to structural proteins in the ECM. Analysis of variance shows that DLIPS has a significant response to emerging pathology as opposed to other population differences. An optimal likelihood ratio classifier for the DLIPS dataset shows that this technique holds promise for improved diagnosis of epithelial pathology. Results further indicate that DLIPS may improve diagnosis of tissue by augmenting fluorescence spectra (i.e. orthogonal sensing).

  1. Parallel Quality Assessment of Emergency Departments by European Foundation for Quality Management Model and Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    IMANI NASAB, Mohammad Hasan; MOHAGHEGH, Bahram; KHALESI, Nader; JAAFARIPOOYAN, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is a widely used quality management system (QMS) worldwide, including Iran. Current study aims to verify the quality assessment results of Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation (INPHE) based on those of EFQM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a sample of emergency departments (EDs) affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. The standard questionnaire of EFQM (V-2010) was used to gather appropriate data. The results were compared with those of INPHE. MS Excel was used to classify and display the findings. Results: The average assessment score of the EDs based on the INPHE and EFQM model were largely different (i.e. 86.4% and 31%, respectively). In addition, the variation range among five EDs’ scores according to each model was also considerable (22% for EFQM against 7% of INPHE), especially in the EDs with and without prior record of applying QMSs. Conclusion: The INPHE’s assessment results were not confirmed by EFQM model. Moreover, the higher variation range among EDs’ scores using EFQM model could allude to its more differentiation power in assessing the performance comparing with INPHE. Therefore, a need for improvement in the latter drawing on other QMSs’ (such as EFQM) strengths, given the results emanated from its comparison with EFQM seems indispensable. PMID:23967429

  2. Blend Shape Interpolation and FACS for Realistic Avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Saba, Tanzila

    2015-03-01

    The quest of developing realistic facial animation is ever-growing. The emergence of sophisticated algorithms, new graphical user interfaces, laser scans and advanced 3D tools imparted further impetus towards the rapid advancement of complex virtual human facial model. Face-to-face communication being the most natural way of human interaction, the facial animation systems became more attractive in the information technology era for sundry applications. The production of computer-animated movies using synthetic actors are still challenging issues. Proposed facial expression carries the signature of happiness, sadness, angry or cheerful, etc. The mood of a particular person in the midst of a large group can immediately be identified via very subtle changes in facial expressions. Facial expressions being very complex as well as important nonverbal communication channel are tricky to synthesize realistically using computer graphics. Computer synthesis of practical facial expressions must deal with the geometric representation of the human face and the control of the facial animation. We developed a new approach by integrating blend shape interpolation (BSI) and facial action coding system (FACS) to create a realistic and expressive computer facial animation design. The BSI is used to generate the natural face while the FACS is employed to reflect the exact facial muscle movements for four basic natural emotional expressions such as angry, happy, sad and fear with high fidelity. The results in perceiving the realistic facial expression for virtual human emotions based on facial skin color and texture may contribute towards the development of virtual reality and game environment of computer aided graphics animation systems.

  3. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of three immunization strategies in controlling disease outbreaks in realistic social networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijing; Zu, Zhenghu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Wendou; Xu, Qing; Liu, Jinjie

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies-acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination-were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures). However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice. PMID:24787718

  4. Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Tung

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

  5. Realistic animation of human figures using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Taha, Z; Brown, R; Wright, D

    1996-12-01

    We describe a new approach to the animation of human figures which can produce realistic animation and based on artificial neural networks (ANN). A fully connected ANN is trained with inputs and outputs of key frames obtained from image analysis and key postures and parameters of standing, walking and running. A behaviour index is introduced as an input to the ANN. Each index is unique to each behaviour. Other inputs include speed, cycle history and subsystem index. The subsystem index refers to the different subsystem of the human figure e.g. the right leg is a subsystem referred to by an index. The outputs are the joints displacements. The ANN is trained using the back propagation method. The ANN was able to generate realistic animations of walking and running and could merge three different behaviours, standing, walking and running. The proposed method should enable design evaluations, human factors analysis, task simulation and motion understanding easier for non-animation experts. PMID:8953559

  6. Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  7. Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  8. Evaluation of Risk for Late Language Emergence after In Utero Antiretroviral Drug Exposure in HIV-exposed Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zeldow, Bret; Siberry, George K.; Purswani, Murli; Malee, Kathleen; Hoffman, Howard J.; Frederick, Toni; Buchanan, Ashley; Sirois, Patricia A.; Allison, Susannah M.; Williams, Paige L

    2013-01-01

    Background Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. Methods We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HEU children enrolled in a US-based prospective cohort study. LLE was defined as a caregiver-reported score ? 10th percentile in any of 4 domains of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for one-year-olds and as ?1 standard deviation below age-specific norms for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for two-year-olds. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of in utero cARV exposure with LLE, adjusting for infant, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results 1,129 language assessments were conducted among 792 one- and two-year-olds (50% male, 62% black, and 37% Hispanic). Overall, 86% had in utero exposure to cARV and 83% to protease inhibitors. LLE was identified in 26% of one-year-olds and 23% of two-year-olds, with higher rates among boys. In adjusted models, LLE was not associated with maternal cARV or ARV drug classes in either age group. Among cARV-exposed one-year-olds, increased odds of LLE was observed for those exposed to atazanavir (aOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.10-3.04), particularly after the first trimester (aOR=3.56, p=0.001), compared to atazanavir-unexposed infants. No associations of individual ARV drugs with LLE were observed among two-year-olds. Conclusions In utero cARV exposure showed little association with LLE, except for a higher risk of language delay observed in one-year-old infants with atazanavir exposure. PMID:24067563

  9. Evaluating the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Emergency Department by Real-Time Video Recording System

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongye; Li, Hong; Wang, Huiqi; Zhuang, Yugang; Chen, Yuanzhuo; Gao, Chengjin; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality between manual CPR and miniaturized chest compressor (MCC) CPR. To improve CPR quality through evaluating the quality of our clinical work of resuscitation by real-time video recording system. Methods The study was a retrospective observational study of adult patients who experienced CPR at the emergency department of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital from March 2013 to August 2014. All the performance of CPR were checked back by the record of “digital real-time video recording system”. Average chest compression rate, actual chest compression rate, the percentage of hands-off period, time lag from patient arrival to chest compression, time lag from patient arrival to manual ventilation, time lag from patient arrival to first IV establish were compared. Causes of chest compression hands-off time were also studied. Results 112 cases of resuscitation attempts were obtained. Average chest compression rate was over 100 compression per minute (cpm) in the majority of cases. However, indicators such as percentage of hands-off periods, time lag from patient arrival to the first manual ventilation and time lag from patient arrival to the first IV establish seemed to be worse in the manual CPR group compared to MCC CPR group. The saving of operators change time seemed to counteract the time spent on MCC equipment. Indicators such as percentage of hands-off periods, time lag between patient arrival to the first chest compression, time lag between patient arrival to the first manual ventilation and time lag from patient arrival to the first IV establish may influence the survival. Conclusion Our CPR quality remained to be improved. MCC may have a potentially positive role in CPR. PMID:26431420

  10. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Design Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October–November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February–April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April–May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October–November 2013). Setting 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. Participants 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Results Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were ‘loaned’ in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. Conclusions CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured and funded NHS emergency supply service from community pharmacies, with ongoing optimisation of repeat prescribing. PMID:26163029

  11. Research on ultra-realistic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, Kazumasa

    2009-05-01

    A future communication method enabled by information communications technology- ultra-realistic communication - is now being investigated in Japan and research and development of the various technologies required for its realization is being conducted, such as ultra-high definition TV, 3DTV, super surround sound reproduction and multi-sensory communication including touch and smell. An organization called the Ultra-Realistic Communications Forum (URCF) was also established for the effective promotion of R&D and the standardization of relating technologies. This document explains the activities of the URCF by industry, academia and government, and introduces researches on ultra-realistic communications in the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT).

  12. Spectral tunability of realistic plasmonic nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Portela, Alejandro; Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi; Yano, Takaaki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Hara, Masahiko; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2014-09-01

    Single nanoantenna spectroscopy was carried out on realistic dipole nanoantennas with various arm lengths and gap sizes fabricated by electron-beam lithography. A significant difference in resonance wavelength between realistic and ideal nanoantennas was found by comparing their spectral response. Consequently, the spectral tunability (96?nm) of the structures was significantly lower than that of simulated ideal nanoantennas. These observations, attributed to the nanofabrication process, are related to imperfections in the geometry, added metal adhesion layer, and shape modifications, which are analyzed in this work. Our results provide important information for the design of dipole nanoantennas clarifying the role of the structural modifications on the resonance spectra, as supported by calculations.

  13. Image analysis for realistic electromagnetic imaging systems

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Zoya

    the image qual- ity and processing requirements: high data dimensionality; low signal-to-noise ratio;· manifold learning and classification, applied to epilepsy detection, multispectral IR and THz imagingImage analysis for realistic electromagnetic imaging systems by Mabel Delice R´amirez V´elez B

  14. Making a Literature Methods Course "Realistic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William J.

    Recognizing that it can be a challenge to make an undergraduate literature methods course realistic, a methods instructor at a Michigan university has developed three major and several minor activities that have proven effective in preparing pre-student teachers for the "real world" of teaching and, at the same time, have been challenging and…

  15. Realistic Effective Interactions and Nuclear Structure Calculations

    E-print Network

    Itaco, Nunzio

    Realistic Effective Interactions and Nuclear Structure Calculations A. Covello, 1 L. Coraggio, 1 A is an effective interaction derived from the NN potential? ii) to which extent can nuclear structure calculations effective interactions to provide a description of nuclear structure properties at least as accurate

  16. Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Gary

    Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis CHET S. HAASE and GARY W. MEYER University of Oregon This article discusses and applies the Kuhelka Munk theory of pigment mixing to computer]xing arc discussed and are shown to be insufficient for pigmented materials. The Kubclka Munk theory

  17. Immersion Through Believability: Using Realistic Character

    E-print Network

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    Immersion Through Believability: Using Realistic Character Behaviours to Enhance Gameplay Introduction · Immersion can be of great importance to the success of a video game · It can be a clear indication of the player's: ­Interest ­Focus ­Attention · As a result, immersion is a desirable goal

  18. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  19. Towards More Realistic ANTS Tobias Langner

    E-print Network

    Towards More Realistic ANTS Yuval Emek Tobias Langner§ David Stolz § Jara Uitto§ Roger Wattenhofer of the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem, where n mobile agents, controlled by asynchronous to solve the ANTS problem depends crucially on the computational capabilities of the agents as well

  20. Towards More Realistic ANTS Tobias Langner

    E-print Network

    Towards More Realistic ANTS Tobias Langner ETH Zurich ­ Distributed Computing Group ­ www.disco.ethz.ch #12;#12;#12; D + D2 /n #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search

  1. Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When Redwood City, California-based Electronic Arts (EA) decided to make SSX, its latest snowboarding video game, it faced challenges in creating realistic-looking mountains. The solution was NASA's ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map, made available by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which EA used to create 28 real-life mountains from 9 different ranges for its award-winning game.

  2. The emergence of emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    Using chemical intuition often allows one to predict what might transpire on throwing a batch of chemicals into a beaker, but sometimes the unexpected can occur. Bruce C. Gibb discusses how you define an 'emergent phenomenon', recognizing that it's not a simple exercise and can actually be different for each of us.

  3. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  4. Understanding Sources of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: An Evaluation of Land Use with Occurrence of Aquatic Contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, hormones, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in surface waters, nationally and internationally, raises questions of their source, fate, and potential ecological and human health effects. A number of CECs have been shown to disrupt the nor...

  5. Standardized Patients Provide Realistic and Worthwhile Experiences for Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Standardized patients are more prominently used to both teach and evaluate students' clinical skills and abilities. Objective: To investigate whether athletic training students perceived an encounter with a standardized patient (SP) as realistic and worthwhile and to determine their perceived comfort in future lower extremity evaluations

  6. Large-System Transformation in Health Care: A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Lewis, Steven; Saul, Jessie E; Carroll, Simon; Bitz, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Context An evidence base that addresses issues of complexity and context is urgently needed for large-system transformation (LST) and health care reform. Fundamental conceptual and methodological challenges also must be addressed. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health in Canada requested a six-month synthesis project to guide four major policy development and strategy initiatives focused on patient- and family-centered care, primary health care renewal, quality improvement, and surgical wait lists. The aims of the review were to analyze examples of successful and less successful transformation initiatives, to synthesize knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, to clarify the role of government, and to outline options for evaluation. Methods We used realist review, whose working assumption is that a particular intervention triggers particular mechanisms of change. Mechanisms may be more or less effective in producing their intended outcomes, depending on their interaction with various contextual factors. We explain the variations in outcome as the interplay between context and mechanisms. We nested this analytic approach in a macro framing of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Findings Our rapid realist review identified five “simple rules” of LST that were likely to enhance the success of the target initiatives: (1) blend designated leadership with distributed leadership; (2) establish feedback loops; (3) attend to history; (4) engage physicians; and (5) include patients and families. These principles play out differently in different contexts affecting human behavior (and thereby contributing to change) through a wide range of different mechanisms. Conclusions Realist review methodology can be applied in combination with a complex system lens on published literature to produce a knowledge synthesis that informs a prospective change effort in large-system transformation. A collaborative process engaging both research producers and research users contributes to local applications of universal principles and mid-range theories, as well as to a more robust knowledge base for applied research. We conclude with suggestions for the future development of synthesis and evaluation methods. PMID:22985277

  7. An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children. Currently there are several vaccine and immunoprophylaxis candidates against RSV in the developmental phase targeting active and passive immunization. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against RSV relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results In the case of candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV, the experts expressed very low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability and low cost of development; moderate levels of optimism regarding the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and acceptance to end users for the interventions; and high levels of optimism regarding impact on equity and acceptance to health workers. While considering the candidate vaccines targeting pregnant women, the panel expressed low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability, answerability and low development cost; moderate levels of optimism for likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and impact on equity; high levels of optimism regarding acceptance to end users and health workers. The group also evaluated immunoprophylaxis against RSV using monoclonal antibodies and expressed no optimism towards low product cost; very low levels of optimism regarding deliverability, affordability, sustainability, low implementation cost and impact on equity; moderate levels of optimism against the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, acceptance to end-users and health workers; and high levels of optimism regarding low development cost. They felt that either of these vaccines would have a high impact on reducing burden of childhood ALRI due to RSV and reduce the overall childhood ALRI burden by a maximum of about 10%. Conclusion Although monoclonal antibodies have proven to be effective in providing protection to high-risk infants, their introduction in resource poor settings might be limited by high cost associated with them. Candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV hold greatest promise. Introduction of a low cost vaccine against RSV would reduce the inequitable distribution of burden due to childhood ALRI and will most likely have a high impact on morbidity and mortality due to severe ALRI. PMID:21501449

  8. A critical evaluation of whether recombination in virus-resistant transgenic plants will lead to the emergence of novel viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, Mark; Jacquemond, Mireille; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    In the evaluation of the potential impacts of first-generation genetically modified (GM) crops, one of the most complex issues has been whether the expression of viral sequences would lead to the emergence of novel viruses, which could occur through recombination between transgene mRNA and that of an infecting non-target virus. Here, we examine this issue, focusing on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), which is a particularly pertinent choice, as it is both a major plant pathogen and also the virus with which this question has been studied in the most detail. Using recent results on recombination in CMV, we employ a novel framework giving particular prominence to the formulation of the risk hypothesis and to hypothesis testing via examination of the potential pathway to harm. This allows us to conclude with greater certainty that the likelihood of this potential harm, the emergence of novel viruses, is low. PMID:25982848

  9. Presupernova neutrinos: realistic emissivities from stellar evolution

    E-print Network

    Kelly M. Patton; Cecilia Lunardini

    2015-11-09

    We present a new calculation of neutrino emissivities and energy spectra from a presupernova, a massive star going through the advanced stages of nuclear burning in the months before becoming a supernova. The contributions from beta decay and electron capture, pair annihilation, plasmon decay, and the photoneutrino process are modeled in detail, using updated tabulated nuclear rates. We also use realistic conditions of temperature, density, electron fraction and nuclear isotopic composition of the star from the state of the art stellar evolution code MESA. It is found that beta processes contribute substantially to the neutrino flux above realistic detection thresholds of few MeV, at selected positions and times in the evolution of the star.

  10. Presupernova neutrinos: realistic emissivities from stellar evolution

    E-print Network

    Patton, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new calculation of neutrino emissivities and energy spectra from a presupernova, a massive star going through the advanced stages of nuclear burning in the months before becoming a supernova. The contributions from beta decay and electron capture, pair annihilation, plasmon decay, and the photoneutrino process are modeled in detail, using updated tabulated nuclear rates. We also use realistic conditions of temperature, density, electron fraction and nuclear isotopic composition of the star from the state of the art stellar evolution code MESA. It is found that beta processes contribute substantially to the neutrino flux above realistic detection thresholds of few MeV, at selected positions and times in the evolution of the star.

  11. Kaonic hydrogen atoms with realistic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Poonsawat, W.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Suebka, P.

    2010-06-15

    Kaonic hydrogen is studied with various realistic potentials in an accurate numerical approach based on Sturmian functions. It is found that the mass difference between the K{sup -}p and K-bar{sup 0}n channels has a considerable effect on theoretical results of the energy shift and decay width of kaonic hydrogen. On average, the theoretical result in the isospin symmetry limit is smaller by a factor of about 20% than the full result where the mass difference between the K{sup -}p and K-bar{sup 0}n channels is properly treated. The theoretical results based on realistic local potentials, which reproduce well scattering data, are inconsistent with the recent measurement of the energy shift and decay width of the 1s kaonic hydrogen state by the DEAR Collaboration.

  12. Triton binding energy with realistic precision

    E-print Network

    R. Navarro Perez; E. Garrido; J. E. Amaro; E. Ruiz Arriola

    2014-07-29

    We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain $E_t=-7.638(15) \\, {\\rm MeV}$. Setting the numerical precision as $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm num} \\lesssim 1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ we obtain the statistical error $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm stat}= 15(1) \\, {\\rm keV}$ which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S-waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm exp}= 0.1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ and provides a bottleneck in the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

  13. Triton binding energy with realistic precision

    E-print Network

    Perez, R Navarro; Amaro, J E; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain $E_t=-7.638(15) \\, {\\rm MeV}$. Setting the numerical precision as $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm num} \\lesssim 1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ we obtain the statistical error $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm stat}= 15(1) \\, {\\rm keV}$ which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S-waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm exp}= 0.1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ and provides a bottleneck in the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

  14. Depicting the logic of three evaluation theories.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mark; Alkin, Marvin C; Wallace, Tanner Lebaron

    2013-06-01

    Here, we describe the development of logic models depicting three theories of evaluation practice: Practical Participatory (Cousins & Whitmore, 1998), Values-engaged (Greene, 2005a, 2005b), and Emergent Realist (Mark et al., 1998). We begin with a discussion of evaluation theory and the particular theories that were chosen for our analysis. We then outline the steps involved in constructing the models. The theoretical prescriptions and claims represented here follow a logic model template developed at the University Wisconsin-Extension (Taylor-Powell & Henert, 2008), which also closely aligns with Mark's (2008) framework for research on evaluation. PMID:22465702

  15. A realistic renormalizable supersymmetric E6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, Borut; Susi?, Vasja

    2014-06-01

    A complete realistic model based on the supersymmetric version of E6 is presented. It consists of three copies of matter 27, and a Higgs sector made of 2×(27+27¯)+351'+351'¯ representations. An analytic solution to the equations of motion is found which spontaneously breaks the gauge group into the Standard Model. The light fermion mass matrices are written down explicitly as non-linear functions of three Yukawa matrices. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  16. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  17. Walking gauge dynamics and realistic technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Sundrum, R. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley 94720 )

    1992-02-05

    A realistic technicolor model, effective below 150 TeV is outlined. The new feature of the model is that the third generation quarks are unified with the technifermions into multiplets of a walking gauge force down to a scale of [similar to]10 TeV. Because they directly feel the walking force these quarks can have mass enhancements even greater than those of conventional walking schemes. Electroweak radiative corrections are estimable and within experimental limits.

  18. A realistic renormalizable supersymmetric E? model

    SciTech Connect

    Bajc, Borut; Susi?, Vasja

    2014-01-01

    A complete realistic model based on the supersymmetric version of E? is presented. It consists of three copies of matter 27, and a Higgs sector made of 2×(27+27?)+351´+351´? representations. An analytic solution to the equations of motion is found which spontaneously breaks the gauge group into the Standard Model. The light fermion mass matrices are written down explicitly as non-linear functions of three Yukawa matrices. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  19. Realistic Nuclear Hamiltonian: Ab exitu approach

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, A

    2006-01-13

    Fully-microscopic No-core Shell Model (NCSM) calculations of all stable s and p shell nuclei are used to determine realistic NN interaction JISP16 describing not only the two-nucleon data but the binding energies and spectra of nuclei with A {le} 16 as well. The JISP16 interaction, providing rapid convergence of the NCSM calculations, is obtained in an ab exitu approach by phase-equivalent transformations of the JISP6 NN interaction.

  20. A fully adaptive multiresolution algorithm for atrial arrhythmia simulation on anatomically realistic unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Cristoforetti, Alessandro; Mase, Michela; Ravelli, Flavia

    2013-09-01

    Biophysically detailed and anatomically realistic atrial models are emerging as a valuable tool in the study of atrial arrhythmias, nevertheless clinical use of these models would be favored by a reduction of computational times. This paper introduces a novel adaptive mesh algorithm, based on multiresolution representation (MR), for the efficient integration of cardiac ordinary differential equation (ODE)-partial differential equation (PDE) systems on unstructured triangle meshes. The algorithm applies a dynamically adapted node-centered finite volume method (FVM) scheme for integration of diffusion. The method accuracy and efficiency were evaluated by simulating propagation scenarios of increasing complexity levels (pacing, stable spirals, atrial fibrillation) on tomography-derived three-dimensional monolayer atrial models, based on a monodomain reaction-diffusion formulation coupled with the Courtemanche atrial ionic model. All simulated propagation patterns were accurately reproduced with substantially reduced computational times (10%-30% of the full-resolution simulation time). The proposed algorithm, combining the MR computational efficiency with the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, may favor the development of patient-specific multiscale models of atrial arrhythmias and their application in the clinical setting. PMID:23674407

  1. An evaluation of the professional, social and demographic profile and quality of life of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; Baitello, André Luciano; Lopes, Renato Delascio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil and to evaluate their quality of life. METHODS: Both a semi-structured questionnaire with 57 questions and the SF-36 questionnaire were sent to research departments within SAMU in the Brazilian state capitals, the Federal District and inland towns in Brazil. RESULTS: Of a total of 902 physicians, including 644 (71.4%) males, 533 (59.1%) were between 30 and 45 years of age and 562 (62.4%) worked in a state capital. Regarding education level, 45.1% had graduated less than five years before and only 43% were specialists recognized by the Brazilian Medical Association. Regarding training, 95% did not report any specific training for their work at SAMU. The main weaknesses identified were psychiatric care and surgical emergencies in 57.2 and 42.9% of cases, respectively; traumatic pediatric emergencies, 48.9%; and medical emergencies, 42.9%. As for procedure-related skills, the physicians reported difficulties in pediatric advanced support (62.4%), airway surgical access (45.6%), pericardiocentesis (64.4%) and thoracentesis (29.9%). Difficulties in using an artificial ventilator (43.3%) and in transcutaneous pacing (42.2%) were also reported. Higher percentages of young physicians, aged 25-30 years (26.7 vs 19.0%; p<0.01), worked exclusively in prehospital care (18.0 vs 7.7%; p<0.001), with workloads >48 h per week (12.8 vs 8.6%; p<0.001), and were non-specialists with the shortest length of service (<1 year) at SAMU (30.1 vs 18.2%; p<0.001) who were hired without having to pass public service exams* (i.e., for a temporary job) (61.8 vs 46.2%; p<0.001). Regarding quality of life, the pain domain yielded the worst result among physicians at SAMU. CONCLUSIONS: The doctors in this sample were young and within a few years of graduation, and they had no specific training in prehospital emergencies. Deficiencies were mostly found in pediatrics and psychiatry, with specific deficiencies in the handling of essential equipment and in the skills necessary to adequately attend to prehospital emergencies. A disrespectful labor scenario was also found; the evaluation of quality of life showed a notable presence of pain on the SF-36 among physicians at SAMU and especially among doctors who had worked for a longer length of time at SAMU. PMID:25318091

  2. Higher Education Institutional and Program Evaluations in Taiwan and the Emerging Roles of Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Wei, Yen-Shun; Wang, Li-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Post-secondary education institutions in Taiwan are divided into two tracks, general higher education (HE) and technological and vocational education (TVE). The evaluation of all universities/colleges is mandated by the University Act. Higher education institutions receive mandated institutional evaluation every six years and program evaluation

  3. Prehospital Evaluation of Effusion, Pneumothorax, and Standstill (PEEPS): Point-of-care Ultrasound in Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sundeep R.; Johnson, David A.; Pierog, Jessica E.; Zaia, Brita E.; Williams, Sarah R.; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, there are limited studies regarding use of prehospital ultrasound (US) by emergency medical service (EMS) providers. Field diagnosis of life-threatening conditions using US could be of great utility. This study assesses the ability of EMS providers and students to accurately interpret heart and lung US images. Methods We tested certified emergency medical technicians (EMT-B) and paramedics (EMT-P) as well as EMT-B and EMT-P students enrolled in prehospital training programs within two California counties. Participants completed a pre-test of sonographic imaging of normal findings and three pathologic findings: pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, and cardiac standstill. A focused one-hour lecture on emergency US imaging followed. Post-tests were given to all EMS providers immediately following the lecture and to a subgroup one week later. Results We enrolled 57 prehospital providers (19 EMT-B students, 16 EMT-P students, 18 certified EMT-B, and 4 certified EMT-P). The mean pre-test score was 65.2%±12.7% with mean immediate post-test score of 91.1%±7.9% (95% CI [22%–30%], p<0.001). Scores significantly improved for all three pathologic findings. Nineteen subjects took the one-week post-test. Their mean score remained significantly higher: pre-test 65.8%±10.7%; immediate post-test 90.5%±7.0% (95% CI [19%–31%], p<0.001), one-week post-test 93.1%±8.3% (95% CI [21%–34%], p<0.001). Conclusion Using a small sample of EMS providers and students, this study shows the potential feasibility for educating prehospital providers to accurately identify images of pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, and cardiac standstill after a focused lecture. PMID:26265961

  4. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Since 2000, piping plover nesting habitat within the Gavins Point Reach, Garrison Reach, Lake Oahe, and Lake Sakakawea has fledged the majority of piping plovers produced along the Missouri River system. Habitats within Lewis and Clark Lake have also recently become important plover production areas. Mechanical construction of emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) within some of these reaches within the Missouri River began in 2004. Through 2009, 11 sandbar complexes had been constructed (10 in Gavins Point Reach, 1 in Lewis and Clarke Lake) totaling about 543 ac of piping plover and interior least tern nesting habitat. ESH Construction has resulted in a net gain of tern and plover nesting habitat. Both terns and plovers successfully nest and fledge young on constructed sandbars, and constructed habitats were preferred over natural habitats. Natural processes may limit the viability of constructed sandbars as nesting habitat. Continued research is needed to identify if changes in constructed sandbar engineering and management increase the length of time constructed habitats effectively function as nesting habitat. However, the transfer of information from researchers to planners through technical research reports may not be timely enough to effectively foster the feedback mechanisms of an adaptive management strategy.

  5. How Realistic is Photorealistic? Olivia B. Holmes

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    is protected under the First Amendment with regards to child pornography. What has emerged from this debate is that the laws surrounding child pornography hinge on whether the material in question is photographic or CG

  6. Photodisintegration of the triton with realistic potentials

    E-print Network

    W. Schadow; W. Sandhas

    1997-12-08

    The process $\\gamma + t \\to n + d$ is treated by means of three-body integral equations employing in their kernel the W-Matrix representation of the subsystem amplitudes. As compared to the plane wave (Born) approximation the full solution of the integral equations, which takes into account the final state interaction, shows at low energies a 24% enhancement. The calculations are based on the semirealistic Malfliet-Tjon and the realistic Paris and Bonn B potentials. For comparison with earlier calculations we also present results for the Yamaguchi potential. In the low-energy region a remarkable potential dependence is observed, which vanishes at higher energies.

  7. Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

  8. Adiabatic hyperspherical analysis of realistic nuclear potentials

    E-print Network

    K. M. Daily; Alejandro Kievsky; Chris H. Greene

    2015-03-20

    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin $T=3/2$ contribution in our analysis.

  9. Adiabatic Hyperspherical Analysis of Realistic Nuclear Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Kievsky, Alejandro; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-12-01

    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin T = 3/2 contribution in our analysis.

  10. What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

    2014-12-01

    This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer -side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF's functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF's consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs' effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public healthThis article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve health seeking behaviour. However, the existing evidence explores only its effectiveness and not the determinants of its effectiveness. It is also essential to understand the causal pathways of DSF's effectiveness, i.e. what are the factors affecting its effectiveness. This Realist Review attempts to explore the causal pathways of effectiveness of many prominent DSF initiatives in the world. The study findings have policy implications and will be widely referred to in future. PMID:25553311

  11. What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Saji S.; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer –side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF’s functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF’s consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs’ effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public health This article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve health seeking behaviour. However, the existing evidence explores only its effectiveness and not the determinants of its effectiveness. It is also essential to understand the causal pathways of DSF’s effectiveness, i.e. what are the factors affecting its effectiveness. This Realist Review attempts to explore the causal pathways of effectiveness of many prominent DSF initiatives in the world. The study findings have policy implications and will be widely referred to in future. PMID:25553311

  12. Evaluation of student abilities to respond to a "real-world" question about an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Phalen, David N

    2009-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in educating the public about emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. This article investigates the ability of third-year veterinary students (N=31), from a veterinary school in the USA, to respond to an actual client's question about an emerging disease. In an open-book, take-home examination, students were asked to respond to a nurse's concern that she could bring home influenza from work and infect her macaw. While 75% of the students answered the question correctly, only 51% demonstrated that they understood that this question came from the ongoing publicity about the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Additional information that would have decreased the client's concern and provided the client with a better understanding of this disease outbreak was lacking in many of the answers. The results of this study suggest that greater emphasis should be applied to exercises requiring veterinary students to research, carefully study, and formulate answers to applied topics that are novel to them. PMID:19625671

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. E.; Dietrich, D. L.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Urban, D. L.; Ruff, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    An accidental fire inside a spacecraft is an unlikely, but very real emergency situation that can easily have dire consequences. While much has been learned over the past 25+ years of dedicated research on flame behavior in microgravity, a quantitative understanding of the initiation, spread, detection and extinguishment of a realistic fire aboard a spacecraft is lacking. Virtually all combustion experiments in microgravity have been small-scale, by necessity (hardware limitations in ground-based facilities and safety concerns in space-based facilities). Large-scale, realistic fire experiments are unlikely for the foreseeable future (unlike in terrestrial situations). Therefore, NASA will have to rely on scale modeling, extrapolation of small-scale experiments and detailed numerical modeling to provide the data necessary for vehicle and safety system design. This paper presents the results of parallel efforts to better model the initiation, spread, detection and extinguishment of fires aboard spacecraft. The first is a detailed numerical model using the freely available Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). FDS is a CFD code that numerically solves a large eddy simulation form of the Navier-Stokes equations. FDS provides a detailed treatment of the smoke and energy transport from a fire. The simulations provide a wealth of information, but are computationally intensive and not suitable for parametric studies where the detailed treatment of the mass and energy transport are unnecessary. The second path extends a model previously documented at ICES meetings that attempted to predict maximum survivable fires aboard space-craft. This one-dimensional model implies the heat and mass transfer as well as toxic species production from a fire. These simplifications result in a code that is faster and more suitable for parametric studies (having already been used to help in the hatch design of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, MPCV).

  14. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  15. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain

    2015-09-01

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models.

  16. The implementation and evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.J.; Tremback, C.J.; Lyons, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    NASA and the Air Force at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) are attempting to upgrade and improve their capabilities for emergency response dispersion modeling and mesoscale meteorological forecasting. Their goal is to improve short range forecasts (up to 24 hours) for phenomena such as thunderstorms and sea breezes and to more accurately predict toxic diffusion concentrations in case of hazardous spills. To assist NASA and the Air Force in achieving this goal, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has been evaluating the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS). ERDAS is a prototype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the KSC/CCAS region. ERDAS includes two major software systems which is run and accessed through a graphical user interface. The first software system is the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a three-dimensional, multiple nested grid prognostic mesoscale model. The second software system is the Hybrid Particle and Concentration Transport (HYPACT) model, a pollutant trajectory and concentration model. ERDAS also runs the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM). This paper describes the system, the model evaluation, the process of transitioning ERDAS from a research project to an operational system, and also presents the results of the launch case studies.

  17. Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics

    E-print Network

    Drange, Helge

    to account for additional sources of uncertainty such as more complex biological-chemical-physical interactions, biases arising from poorly resolved or neglected physical processes, and climate change. INDEX, USA. 11 Institute for Global Change Research, Yokohama, Japan. 12 Climate and Environmental Physics

  18. Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation Frank Adelstein

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation Frank Adelstein ATC@cs.uno.edu Abstract The need for computer forensics educa- tion continues to grow, as digital evidence is present in computer forensics is hands-on, realistic laboratory assignments. Creating detailed, realistic lab

  19. An evaluation of a natural language processing tool for identifying and encoding allergy information in emergency department clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Goss, Foster R; Plasek, Joseph M; Lau, Jason J; Seger, Diane L; Chang, Frank Y; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits due to allergic reactions are common. Allergy information is often recorded in free-text provider notes; however, this domain has not yet been widely studied by the natural language processing (NLP) community. We developed an allergy module built on the MTERMS NLP system to identify and encode food, drug, and environmental allergies and allergic reactions. The module included updates to our lexicon using standard terminologies, and novel disambiguation algorithms. We developed an annotation schema and annotated 400 ED notes that served as a gold standard for comparison to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an F-measure of 87.6% for the detection of allergen names and no known allergies, 90% for identifying true reactions in each allergy statement where true allergens were also identified, and 69% for linking reactions to their allergen. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility using NLP to extract and encode allergy information from clinical notes. PMID:25954363

  20. Evaluation of a biologically-based filtration water reclamation plant for removing emerging contaminants: a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Sala, Lluís; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solar radiation and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 18 emerging contaminants has been studied in a biological filtration pilot plant based on Daphnia sp. The pilot plant consisted of a homogenization tank and two lines, A and B, each with four 1 m(3) tanks. One of these lines was directly exposed to sunlight whereas the other line was covered. Our results suggest that biodegradation and photodegradation are the most important removal pathways, whereas sorption makes a minor contribution. The removal efficiency ranged from no detectable removal to more than 90%. The kinetics of the degradation process was fit to a first order kinetic, with half-lives from 0.6 to 42 days, depending on the particular compound. However, a scaling effect comes into play as the pilot plant was found to be more efficient than a similar full-scale polishing pond. PMID:22153292

  1. Evaluation of the Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) Scale in Chinese Patients in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui-lin; Chan, Cangel Pui-yee; Leung, Yuk-ki; Li, Yun-mei; Graham, Colin A.; Rainer, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the Recognition Of Stroke In the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale in risk-stratifying Chinese patients with suspected stroke in Hong Kong. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic emergency department (ED) over a 7-month period. Patients over 18 years of age with suspected stroke were recruited between June 2011 and December 2011. ROSIER scale assessment was performed in the ED triage area. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the impacts of diagnostic variables, including ROSIER scale, past history and ED characteristics. Findings 715 suspected stroke patients were recruited for assessment, of whom 371 (52%) had acute cerebrovascular disease (302 ischaemic strokes, 24 transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), 45 intracerebral haemorrhages), and 344 (48%) had other illnesses i.e. stroke mimics. Common stroke mimics were spinal neuropathy, dementia, labyrinthitis and sepsis. The suggested cut-off score of>0 for the ROSIER scale for stroke diagnosis gave a sensitivity of 87% (95%CI 83–90), a specificity of 41% (95%CI 36–47), a positive predictive value of 62% (95%CI 57–66), and a negative predictive value of 75% (95%CI 68–81), and the AUC was 0.723. The overall accuracy at cut off>0 was 65% i.e. (323+141)/715. Interpretation The ROSIER scale was not as effective at differentiating acute stroke from stroke mimics in Chinese patients in Hong Kong as it was in the original studies, primarily due to a much lower specificity. If the ROSIER scale is to be clinically useful in Chinese suspected stroke patients, it requires further refinement. PMID:25343496

  2. Southern Schools: An Evaluation of the Effects of the Emergency School Assistance Program and of School Desegregation. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L., Ed.

    This evaluation sampled 150 pairs of schools (50 pairs of high schools and 100 pairs of elementary schools) eligible for ESAP funds, randomly designating one school from each pair as a control school to receive no ESAP funds and using a flip of the coin to so designate. The first volume of the report comprises four chapters and seven appendices.…

  3. Emergent Data-Driven Approaches to School Improvement: The Journey of Three Schools through Self-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiorgi, Yiasemina; Nicolaidou, Maria; Yiasemis, Christos; Georghiades, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a school self-evaluation project implemented in three Cyprus primary schools. The project adopted three theoretical assumptions, namely, an orientation towards school improvement, a participatory school-level approach allowing support from a critical friend and a focus on effective teaching. In line with a…

  4. The Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Evaluate for Intestinal Foreign Bodies in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Sara; Doniger, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    We present the use of point-of-care ultrasound to evaluate two patients with examinations concerning for appendicitis who were found to have multiple magnets ingested and subsequent bowel perforations. These cases illustrate the consequences of magnet ingestion as well as the application of point-of-care ultrasound for the identification of intestinal foreign bodies in children. PMID:26427951

  5. Emergency Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call the ... visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you in the event of a ...

  6. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... progesterone called progestins. This is the most common method. Having an IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. Plan ...

  7. Application of a Realistic Mobility Model to Call Admissions in DS-CDMA Cellular Systems

    E-print Network

    map. The model can work on real maps to simulate the mobility patterns in real life. We have evaluated is the crucial point of a mobility model. Each subscriber must choose his direction individually, as in real lifeApplication of a Realistic Mobility Model to Call Admissions in DS-CDMA Cellular Systems Tuna

  8. How a New Realistic Mobility Model Can Effect the Relative Performance of a Mobile Networking

    E-print Network

    patterns in real life. We have evaluated the proposed model against the well- known way point mobility of a mobility model. Each subscriber chooses his direction individually, as in real life. However, in real life1 How a New Realistic Mobility Model Can Effect the Relative Performance of a Mobile Networking

  9. Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization

    E-print Network

    Cho, Sung-Bae

    Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

  10. Respiratory flow in a realistic tracheostenosis model.

    PubMed

    Sera, Toshihiro; Satoh, Sunao; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Tanishita, Kazuo

    2003-08-01

    The possible mechanism of wheeze generation in tracheostenosis was identified by measuring inspiratory and expiratory flow in a "morphological and distensible" realistic tracheostenosis model. The shape of the model was based on CT (Computed Tomography) images of a patient that had tracheostenosis. A trachea consists of tracheal cartilage rings and smooth muscle. Spatial variation of wall distensibility was achieved in the model by varying the wall thickness based on the elastic modulus measured in pig airways. The spatial variation influenced the flow in the airway and the turbulence production rate decreased faster at smooth muscles. Using the model, we investigated the mechanism of wheeze generation by focusing on the turbulence intensity. The turbulence intensity in expiratory flow was about twice that in inspiratory flow, and larger vortices existed in post-stenosis in expiratory flow, and thus might contribute to wheeze generation. PMID:12968570

  11. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  12. Realistic synthetic observations from radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepferl, Christine; Robitaille, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    When modeling young stars and star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data such as finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to study these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed a Python package that allows post-processing the output of the 3-d Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer code HYPERION (Robitaille 2011 A&A 536, A79, see poster 2S001). With this package, realistic synthetic observations can be generated, modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary PSFs, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise and reddening. Pipelines can be written to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory. In this poster we describe the package and present examples of such synthetic observations.

  13. Probabilistic infrasound propagation using realistic atmospheric perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, P. S. M.; Evers, L. G.; Näsholm, S. P.; Gibbons, S. J.

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates probabilistic infrasound propagation modeling using realistic perturbations. The ensembles of perturbed analyses, provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), include error variances of both model and assimilated observations. Ensemble spread profiles indicate a yearly mean effective sound speed variation of up to 8 ms-1 in the stratosphere, exceeding occasionally 25 ms-1 for a single ensemble set. It is shown that errors in point estimates of effective sound speed are dominated by variations in wind strength and direction. One year of large mining explosions in the Aitik mine, northern Sweden, observed at infrasound array IS37 in northern Norway are simulated using 3-D ray tracing. Probabilistic propagation modeling using the ensembles demonstrates that small-scale fluctuations are not always necessary to improve the match between predictions and observations.

  14. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF A REALISTIC MAGNETOCONVECTIVE SUNSPOT SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.; Rempel, M.; Duvall, T. L. Jr. E-mail: aaronb@cora.nwra.com E-mail: Thomas.L.Duvall@nasa.gov

    2012-01-01

    We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

  15. Helioseismology of a Realistic Magnetoconvective Sunspot Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.; Rempel, M.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

  16. Life cycle assessment of two emerging sewage sludge-to-energy systems: evaluating energy and greenhouse gas emissions implications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yucheng; Paw?owski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    A "cradle-to-grave" life cycle assessment was conducted to examine the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprints of two emerging sludge-to-energy systems. One system employs a combination of anaerobic digestion (AD) and fast pyrolysis for bioenergy conversion, while the other excludes AD. Each system was divided into five process phases: plant construction, sludge pretreatment, sludge-to-bioenergy conversion, bioenergy utilizations and biochar management. Both systems achieved energy and GHG emission benefits, and the AD-involving system performed better than the AD-excluding system (5.30 vs. 0.63 GJ/t sludge in net energy gain and 0.63 vs. 0.47 t CO(2)eq/t sludge in emission credit for base case). Detailed contribution and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify how and to what degree the different life-cycle phases are responsible for the energy and emission impacts. The energy and emission performances were significantly affected by variations in bioenergy production, energy requirement for sludge drying and end use of bioenergy. PMID:23131626

  17. Evaluation of Coordination of Emergency Response Team through the Social Network Analysis. Case Study: Oil and Gas Refinery

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Bastani, Susan; Esaghi, Mahbobeh; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Saee, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the cohesions status of the coordination within response teams in the emergency response team (ERT) in a refinery. Methods For this study, cohesion indicators of social network analysis (SNA; density, degree centrality, reciprocity, and transitivity) were utilized to examine the coordination of the response teams as a whole network. The ERT of this research, which was a case study, included seven teams consisting of 152 members. The required data were collected through structured interviews and were analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 Social Network Analysis Program. Results The results reported a relatively low number of triple connections, poor coordination with key members, and a high level of mutual relations in the network with low density, all implying that there were low cohesions of coordination in the ERT. Conclusion The results showed that SNA provided a quantitative and logical approach for the examination of the coordination status among response teams and it also provided a main opportunity for managers and planners to have a clear understanding of the presented status. The research concluded that fundamental efforts were needed to improve the presented situations. PMID:25830067

  18. Preliminary evaluation of diagnostic tests for avian influenza using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Method in an emergency surveillance.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Nishiguchi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Saito, Takehiko; Mase, Masaji; Okamatsu, Masatoshi

    2007-06-01

    In June 2005, an outbreak of avian influenza (AI) caused by a low pathogenic H5N2 virus was identified in Japan. A serological surveillance was conducted because the infected chickens did not show any clinical signs. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method was used to evaluate the performances of serological HI and AGP tests because there was not enough time when the surveillance was initiated to conduct a test evaluation. The sensitivity of the AGP test (0.67) was lower than that of the HI test (0.99), while the specificities were high for both tests (0.96 for AGP and 0.90 for HI). Based on the low sensitivity of the AGP test, the HI test was used for primary screening in later stages of the epidemic. PMID:17611370

  19. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  20. Two Realistic Beagle Models for Dose Assessment.

    PubMed

    Stabin, Michael G; Kost, Susan D; Segars, William P; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2015-09-01

    Previously, the authors developed a series of eight realistic digital mouse and rat whole body phantoms based on NURBS technology to facilitate internal and external dose calculations in various species of rodents. In this paper, two body phantoms of adult beagles are described based on voxel images converted to NURBS models. Specific absorbed fractions for activity in 24 organs are presented in these models. CT images were acquired of an adult male and female beagle. The images were segmented, and the organs and structures were modeled using NURBS surfaces and polygon meshes. Each model was voxelized at a resolution of 0.75 × 0.75 × 2 mm. The voxel versions were implemented in GEANT4 radiation transport codes to calculate specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) using internal photon and electron sources. Photon and electron SAFs were then calculated for relevant organs in both models. The SAFs for photons and electrons were compatible with results observed by others. Absorbed fractions for electrons for organ self-irradiation were significantly less than 1.0 at energies above 0.5 MeV, as expected for many of these small-sized organs, and measurable cross irradiation was observed for many organ pairs for high-energy electrons (as would be emitted by nuclides like 32P, 90Y, or 188Re). The SAFs were used with standardized decay data to develop dose factors (DFs) for radiation dose calculations using the RADAR Method. These two new realistic models of male and female beagle dogs will be useful in radiation dosimetry calculations for external or internal simulated sources. PMID:26222214

  1. Emergence of Joint Attention through Bootstrap Learning based on the Mechanisms of Visual Attention and Learning with Self-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yukie; Hosoda, Koh; Morita, Akio; Asada, Minoru

    This study argues how human infants acquire the ability of joint attention through interactions with their caregivers from a viewpoint of cognitive developmental robotics. In this paper, a mechanism by which a robot acquires sensorimotor coordination for joint attention through bootstrap learning is described. Bootstrap learning is a process by which a learner acquires higher capabilities through interactions with its environment based on embedded lower capabilities even if the learner does not receive any external evaluation nor the environment is controlled. The proposed mechanism for bootstrap learning of joint attention consists of the robot's embedded mechanisms: visual attention and learning with self-evaluation. The former is to find and attend to a salient object in the field of the robot's view, and the latter is to evaluate the success of visual attention, not joint attention, and then to learn the sensorimotor coordination. Since the object which the robot looks at based on visual attention does not always correspond to the object which the caregiver is looking at in an environment including multiple objects, the robot may have incorrect learning situations for joint attention as well as correct ones. However, the robot is expected to statistically lose the learning data of the incorrect ones as outliers because of its weaker correlation between the sensor input and the motor output than that of the correct ones, and consequently to acquire appropriate sensorimotor coordination for joint attention even if the caregiver does not provide any task evaluation to the robot. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the proposed mechanism could explain the developmental mechanism of infants' joint attention because the learning process of the robot's joint attention can be regarded as equivalent to the developmental process of infants' one.

  2. The Implementation and Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Tremback, Craig J.; Lyons, Walter A.

    1996-01-01

    The Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) is a system which combines the mesoscale meteorological prediction model RAMS with the diffusion models REEDM and HYPACT. Operators use a graphical user interface to run the models for emergency response and toxic hazard planning at CCAS/KCS. The Applied Meteorology Unit has been evaluating the ERDAS meteorological and diffusion models and obtained the following results: (1) RAMS adequately predicts the occurrence of the daily sea breeze during non-cloudy conditions for several cases. (2) RAMS shows a tendency to predict the sea breeze to occur slightly earlier and to move it further inland than observed. The sea breeze predictions could most likely be improved by better parameterizing the soil moisture and/or sea surface temperatures. (3) The HYPACT/REEDM/RAMS models accurately predict launch plume locations when RAMS winds are accurate and when the correct plume layer is modeled. (4) HYPACT does not adequately handle plume buoyancy for heated plumes since all plumes are presently treated as passive tracers. Enhancements should be incorporated into the ERDAS as it moves toward being a fully operational system and as computer workstations continue to increase in power and decrease in cost. These enhancements include the following: activate RAMS moisture physics; use finer RAMS grid resolution; add RAMS input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, radar, and/or satellite data); automate data quality control; implement four-dimensional data assimilation; modify HYPACT plume rise and deposition physics; and add cumulative dosage calculations in HYPACT.

  3. Evaluating the co-production of a near real time Earthquake Aftershock forecasting tool for humanitarian risk assessment and emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; NicBhloscaidh, Mairead; Jimenez, Abigail; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Concern Worldwide and the University of Ulster Geophysics Research Group are engaged in a project to co-produce a suite of software and mapping tools to assess aftershock hazard in near real-time during the emergency response phase of earthquake disaster, and inform humanitarian emergency planning and response activities. This paper uses a social learning approach to evaluate this co-production process. Following Wenger (1999) we differentiate between the earthquake science and humanitarian communities of practice (CoP) along three dimensions: enterprise (the purpose of CoPs and the problems participants are working to address), repertoire (knowledge, skills, language), and identity (values and boundaries). We examine the effectiveness of learning between CoP, focusing on boundary work and objects, and various organisational structures and aspects of the wider political economy of learning that enable and hinder the co-production process. We conclude by identifying a number of ways to more effectively integrate earthquake science into humanitarian decision-making, policy development and programme design.

  4. Physical-chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of 'emerging' and 'novel' brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Liagkouridis, Ioannis; Cousins, Anna Palm; Cousins, Ian T

    2015-08-15

    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical-chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical-chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called 'novel' and 'emerging' brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical-chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (Pov), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on Pov and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy. PMID:25933174

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Implementing the Emergency Medical Services Traumatic Brain Injury Guidelines in Arizona: The Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) Study Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Spaite, Daniel W.; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Stolz, Uwe; Sherrill, Duane; Chikani, Vatsal; Barnhart, Bruce; Sotelo, Michael; Gaither, Joshua B.; Viscusi, Chad; Adelson, P. David; Denninghoff, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exacts a great toll on society. Fortunately, there is growing evidence that the management of TBI in the early minutes after injury may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. In response, evidence-based prehospital and in-hospital TBI treatment guidelines have been established by authoritative bodies. However, no large studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of implementing these guidelines in the prehospital setting. This article describes the background, design, implementation, emergency medical services (EMS) treatment protocols, and statistical analysis of a prospective, controlled (before/after), statewide study designed to evaluate the effect of implementing the EMS TBI guidelines—the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) study (NIH/NINDS R01NS071049, “EPIC”; and 3R01NS071049-S1, “EPIC4Kids”). The specific aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that statewide implementation of the international adult and pediatric EMS TBI guidelines will significantly reduce mortality and improve nonmortality outcomes in patients with moderate or severe TBI. Furthermore, it will specifically evaluate the effect of guideline implementation on outcomes in the subgroup of patients who are intubated in the field. Over the course of the entire study (~9 years), it is estimated that approximately 25,000 patients will be enrolled. PMID:25112451

  6. The emerging role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided core biopsy for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, M; Koduru, P; Lanke, G; Bruno, M; Maitra, A; Giovannini, M

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment but only 20% are eligible for resection at the time of diagnosis. Early detection of cancer is of paramount importance in the management. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred modality for obtaining tissue diagnosis of pancreatic masses. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA may be limited by several factors like availability of onsite cytopathology, adequacy of tissue core for histology, location of the mass, presence of underlying chronic pancreatitis, and experience of the endoscopist. Modern oncology is focusing on personalizing treatment based on tissue analysis of genetic aberrations and molecular biomarkers which are now available. Core tissue also aids in the diagnosis of disease entities like lymphoma, metastatic tumors, neuroendocrine tumors and autoimmune pancreatitis whose diagnosis rely on preserved tissue architecture and immunohistochemistry. Making accurate diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses is critical to avoid unnecessary resections in patients with benign lesions like focal lesions of chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis which mimic cancer. To overcome the limitations of FNA and to obtain adequate core tissue, a Tru-Cut biopsy needle was developed which met with variable success due to stiffness, cumbersome operation and technical failure using it in the duodenum/pancreatic head. More recently fine needle biopsy needles, with reverse bevel technology have become available in different sizes (19, 22, 25-gauge). The aim of this article was to review the emerging role of core biopsy needles in acquiring tissue in solid pancreatic masses and discuss its potential role in personalized medicine. PMID:25675155

  7. Bosonic structure of F-term supersymmetric cosmic strings in a realistic GUT context

    E-print Network

    E. Allys

    2015-12-08

    We study the realistic structure of F-term Nambu-Goto cosmic strings forming in a general supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory implementation, assuming standard hybrid inflation. Examining the symmetry breaking of the unification gauge group down to the Standard Model, we discuss the minimal field content necessary to describe abelian cosmic strings appearing at the end of inflation. Distinguishing two classes, single and many field strings, we give in each case a complete ansatz for the minimal structure of these objects, and perturbatively evaluate the modification of their energy per unit length in comparison with standard toy models, hence providing tools for future more realistic treatments in a cosmological context.

  8. Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation a. In the event of an emergency situation it may be necessary to evacuate the building. Causes for evacuation may be fire, hazardous chemical evacuation alarm systems that include wall-mounted pull stations. Smoke and heat activated alarms are present

  9. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  10. Measurable realistic image-based 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Ding, W.; Almagbile, A.

    2011-12-01

    Maps with 3D visual models are becoming a remarkable feature of 3D map services. High-resolution image data is obtained for the construction of 3D visualized models.The3D map not only provides the capabilities of 3D measurements and knowledge mining, but also provides the virtual experienceof places of interest, such as demonstrated in the Google Earth. Applications of 3D maps are expanding into the areas of architecture, property management, and urban environment monitoring. However, the reconstruction of high quality 3D models is time consuming, and requires robust hardware and powerful software to handle the enormous amount of data. This is especially for automatic implementation of 3D models and the representation of complicated surfacesthat still need improvements with in the visualisation techniques. The shortcoming of 3D model-based maps is the limitation of detailed coverage since a user can only view and measure objects that are already modelled in the virtual environment. This paper proposes and demonstrates a 3D map concept that is realistic and image-based, that enables geometric measurements and geo-location services. Additionally, image-based 3D maps provide more detailed information of the real world than 3D model-based maps. The image-based 3D maps use geo-referenced stereo images or panoramic images. The geometric relationships between objects in the images can be resolved from the geometric model of stereo images. The panoramic function makes 3D maps more interactive with users but also creates an interesting immersive circumstance. Actually, unmeasurable image-based 3D maps already exist, such as Google street view, but only provide virtual experiences in terms of photos. The topographic and terrain attributes, such as shapes and heights though are omitted. This paper also discusses the potential for using a low cost land Mobile Mapping System (MMS) to implement realistic image 3D mapping, and evaluates the positioning accuracy that a measureable realistic image-based (MRI) system can produce. The major contribution here is the implementation of measurable images on 3D maps to obtain various measurements from real scenes.

  11. Predictive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Noting that there has been extensive discussion of the relation of evaluation to: (1) research; (2) explanations (a.k.a. theory-driven, logic model, or realistic evaluation); and (3) recommendations, the author introduces: (4) prediction. He advocates that unlike the first three concepts, prediction is necessarily part of most kinds of evaluation,…

  12. Pediatric Respiratory Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Richards, Amber M

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory emergencies are 1 of the most common reasons parents seek evaluation for the their children in the emergency department (ED) each year, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in pediatric patients. Whereas many respiratory illnesses are mild and self-limiting, others are life threatening and require prompt diagnosis and management. Therefore, it is imperative that emergency clinicians be able to promptly recognize and manage these illnesses. This article reviews ED diagnosis and management of foreign body aspiration, asthma exacerbation, epiglottitis, bronchiolitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and pertussis. PMID:26614243

  13. Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1996-09-01

    Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

  14. Realistic solution to the tunneling time problem

    E-print Network

    Wang Guowen

    2007-06-24

    There remains the old question of how long a quantum particle takes to tunnel through a potential barrier higher than its incident kinetic energy. In this article a solution of the question is proposed on the basis of a realistic explanation of quantum mechanics. The explanation implies that the tunneling particle has a certain chance to borrow enough energy from self-interference to high-jump over the barrier. The root-mean-square velocity and the effective tunneling time of an electron tunneling through a rectangular barrier are numerically calculated. No superluminal effect (Hartman effect) is found for the tunneling electron. Heisenberg's energy-time uncertainty relation for the tunneling effect is verified by calculating an introduced coefficient representing uncertainty. The present author argues that phase time, dwell time and B\\"{u}tticker-Landauer time are not appropriate expressions for the actual transit time in a tunneling process. A quantum high-jumping model is presented to resolve the paradox that kinetic energy of the tunneling particle is negative and its momentum is imaginary.

  15. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  16. Differentiability of correlations in realistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Alejandro; de Faria, Edson; Pujals, Enrique; Tresser, Charles

    2015-09-01

    We prove a version of Bell's theorem in which the locality assumption is weakened. We start by assuming theoretical quantum mechanics and weak forms of relativistic causality and of realism (essentially the fact that observable values are well defined independently of whether or not they are measured). Under these hypotheses, we show that only one of the correlation functions that can be formulated in the framework of the usual Bell theorem is unknown. We prove that this unknown function must be differentiable at certain angular configuration points that include the origin. We also prove that, if this correlation is assumed to be twice differentiable at the origin, then we arrive at a version of Bell's theorem. On the one hand, we are showing that any realistic theory of quantum mechanics which incorporates the kinematic aspects of relativity must lead to this type of rough correlation function that is once but not twice differentiable. On the other hand, this study brings us a single degree of differentiability away from a relativistic von Neumann no hidden variables theorem.

  17. Realistic Monte Carlo Simulation of PEN Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Charles; PEN Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The PEN collaboration undertook to measure the ?+ -->e+?e(?) branching ratio with a relative uncertainty of 5 ×10-4 or less at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This observable is highly susceptible to small non V - A contributions, i.e, non-Standard Model physics. The detector system included a beam counter, mini TPC for beam tracking, an active degrader and stopping target, MWPCs and a plastic scintillator hodoscope for particle tracking and identification, and a spherical CsI EM calorimeter. GEANT 4 Monte Carlo simulation is integral to the analysis as it is used to generate fully realistic events for all pion and muon decay channels. The simulated events are constructed so as to match the pion beam profiles, divergence, and momentum distribution. Ensuring the placement of individual detector components at the sub-millimeter level and proper construction of active target waveforms and associated noise, enables us to more fully understand temporal and geometrical acceptances as well as energy, time, and positional resolutions and calibrations in the detector system. This ultimately leads to reliable discrimination of background events, thereby improving cut based or multivariate branching ratio extraction. Work supported by NSF Grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  18. Four-dimensional realistic modeling of pancreatic organogenesis

    E-print Network

    Harel, David

    Four-dimensional realistic modeling of pancreatic organogenesis Yaki Settya,b , Irun R. Cohenc this approach to modeling pancreatic organogenesis. Four-Dimensional Modeling Organogenesis, the development

  19. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives. PMID:23184108

  20. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress. PMID:26374468

  1. Evaluation of the Use and Reasons for Not Using a Helmet by Motorcyclists Admitted to the Emergency Ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Faryabi, Javad; Rajabi, Mahboobeh; Alirezaee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motorcycle crashes are the cause of severe morbidity and mortality especially because of head injuries. It seems that wearing a helmet has an effective role in protection against head injuries. Nevertheless, motorcyclists usually have no tendency to wear a helmet when driving in cities and have several reasons for this behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the use and reasons for not using a helmet by motorcyclists admitted to an emergency ward of a trauma hospital due to accident in Kerman, Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out by recoding the opinions of motorcyclists who had been transferred to the emergency ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital (Kerman/Iran). Since no data was available on the frequency of the use of helmets, a pilot study was carried out and a sample size of 377 was determined for the main study. Then a researcher-made questionnaire was used to investigate the motorcyclists’ reasons for not using a helmet. Results: Only 21.5% of the motorcyclists had been wearing helmets at the time of the accident. The most frequent reasons for not using a helmet were the heavy weight of the helmet (77%), feeling of heat (71.4%), pain in the neck (69.4%), feeling of suffocation (67.7%), limitation of head and neck movements (59.6%) and all together, physical discomfort was the main cause of not wearing a helmet during motorcycle rides. Conclusions: In general, it appears that it is possible to increase the use of helmets by eliminating its physical problems, and increasing the knowledge of community members in relation to the advantages of helmet use, which will result in a significant decrease in traumas resulting from motorcycle accidents. PMID:25599066

  2. Evaluation of Meropenem Regimens Suppressing Emergence of Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii with Human Simulated Exposure in an In Vitro Intravenous-Infusion Hollow-Fiber Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xian-Jia; Yang, Yang; Gong, Wei-Tao; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Ying-Qun

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be suppressed by optimizing the administration of meropenem. However, whether the same is true for Acinetobacter baumannii is not fully understood. We assessed the bactericidal activity of meropenem and its potency to suppress the emergence of resistance in A. baumannii with human simulated exposure in an in vitro intravenous-infusion hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). Two clinical strains of carbapenem-susceptible multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (CS-MDRAB), CSRA24 and CSRA91, were used, and their MICs and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) were determined. Six meropenem dosage regimens (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g given every 8 h [q8h] with a 0.5-h or 3-h infusion for seven consecutive days) were simulated and then evaluated in the HFIM. Both the total population and resistant subpopulations of the two strains were quantified. Drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. All dosage regimens, except for the lowest dosage (0.5 g for both the 0.5-h and 3-h infusions), showed 3-log CFU/ml bacterial killing. Dosage regimens of 2.0 g with 0.5-h and 3-h infusions exhibited an obvious bactericidal effect and suppressed resistance. Selective amplification of subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to meropenem was suppressed with a percentage of the dosage interval in which meropenem concentrations exceeded the MPC (T>MPC) of ?20% or with a ratio of T>MPC to the percentage of the dosage interval in which drug concentrations are within the mutant selection window of ?0.25. Our in vitro data support the use of a high dosage of meropenem (2.0 g q8h) for the treatment of severe infection caused by CS-MDRAB. PMID:25182633

  3. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  4. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.

    PubMed

    Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-22

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  5. How realistic are solar model atmospheres?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, T. M. D.; Asplund, M.; Collet, R.; Thaler, I.; Trampedach, R.; Leenaarts, J.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Recently, new solar model atmospheres have been developed to replace classical 1D local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) hydrostatic models and used to for example derive the solar chemical composition. Aims: We aim to test various models against key observational constraints. In particular, a 3D model used to derive the solar abundances, a 3D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) model (with an imposed 10 mT vertical magnetic field), 1D NLTE and LTE models from the PHOENIX project, the 1D MARCS model, and the 1D semi-empirical model of Holweger & Müller. Methods: We confronted the models with observational diagnostics of the temperature profile: continuum centre-to-limb variations (CLVs), absolute continuum fluxes, and the wings of hydrogen lines. We also tested the 3D models for the intensity distribution of the granulation and spectral line shapes. Results: The predictions from the 3D model are in excellent agreement with the continuum CLV observations, performing even better than the Holweger & Müller model (constructed largely to fulfil such observations). The predictions of the 1D theoretical models are worse, given their steeper temperature gradients. For the continuum fluxes, predictions for most models agree well with the observations. No model fits all hydrogen lines perfectly, but again the 3D model comes ahead. The 3D model also reproduces the observed continuum intensity fluctuations and spectral line shapes very well. Conclusions: The excellent agreement of the 3D model with the observables reinforces the view that its temperature structure is realistic. It outperforms the MHD simulation in all diagnostics, implying that recent claims for revised abundances based on MHD modelling are premature. Several weaknesses in the 1D hydrostatic models (theoretical and semi-empirical) are exposed. The differences between the PHOENIX LTE and NLTE models are small. We conclude that the 3D hydrodynamical model is superior to any of the tested 1D models, which gives further confidence in the solar abundance analyses based on it.

  6. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2005-10-01

    Teen birth rates in the United States have declined during the last decade but remain much higher than rates in other developed countries. Reduction of unintended pregnancy during adolescence and the associated negative consequences of early pregnancy and early childbearing remain public health concerns. Emergency contraception has the potential to significantly reduce teen-pregnancy rates. This policy statement provides pediatricians with a review of emergency contraception, including a definition of emergency contraception, formulations and potential adverse effects, efficacy and mechanisms of action, typical use, and safety issues, including contraindications. This review includes teens' and young adults' reported knowledge and attitudes about hormonal emergency contraception and issues of access and availability. The American Academy of Pediatrics, as well as other professional organizations, supports over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception. In previous publications, the American Academy of Pediatrics has addressed the issues of adolescent pregnancy and other methods of contraception. PMID:16147972

  7. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bayrakal, S

    1972-06-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry.The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.)In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  8. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Poppi, Nilson Tavares; Guimarães, Hélio Penna

    2008-09-01

    Emergencies and hypertensive crises are clinical situations which may represent more than 25% of all medical emergency care. Considering such high prevalence, physicians should be prepared to correctly identify these crises and differentiate between urgent and emergent hypertension. Approximately 3% of all visits to emergency rooms are due to significant elevation of blood pressure. Across the spectrum of blood systemic arterial pressure, hypertensive emergency is the most critical clinical situation, thus requiring special attention and care. Such patients present with high blood pressure and signs of acute specific target organ damage (such as acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pulmonary edema, eclampsia, and stroke). Key elements of diagnosis and specific treatment for the different presentations of hypertensive emergency will be reviewed in this article. The MedLine and PubMed databases were searched for pertinent abstracts, using the key words "hypertensive crises" and "hypertensive emergencies". Additional references were obtained from review articles. Available English language clinical trials, retrospective studies and review articles were identified, reviewed and summarized in a simple and practical way. The hypertensive crisis is a clinical situation characterized by acute elevation of blood pressure followed by clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms may be mild (headache, dizziness, tinnitus) or severe (dyspnea, chest pain, coma or death). If the patient presents with mild symptoms, but without acute specific target organ damage, diagnosis is hypertensive urgency. However, if severe signs and symptoms and acute specific target organ damage are present, then the patient is experiencing a hypertensive emergency. Some patients arrive at the emergency rooms with high blood pressure, but without any other sign or symptom. In these cases, they usually are not taking their medications correctly. Therefore, this is not a hypertensive crisis, but rather non-controlled chronic hypertension. This type of distinction is important for those working in emergency rooms and intensive care unit. Correct diagnosis must be made to assure the most appropriate treatment. PMID:25307099

  9. Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication

    E-print Network

    Frew, Eric W.

    Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication Environments Eric W. Frew-theoretic framework for active sensing by unmanned aircraft systems in realistic communication environments. The position dependency of wireless networked communication is modeled using the standard empirical radio model

  10. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... levonorgestrel (some brand names: My Way, Next Choice, Plan B One-Step). This is most effective if it ... of pregnancy more effectively than pills that contain levonorgestrel. It is important to remember that emergency contraceptive ...

  11. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  12. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management. PMID:26099604

  13. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Zheleznyak, M.J.; Onishi, Y.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

  14. Emergent Spacetime

    E-print Network

    Robert de Mello Koch; Jeff Murugan

    2009-12-16

    We give an introductory account of the AdS/CFT correspondence in the 1/2-BPS sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.Six of the dimensions of the string theory are emergent in the Yang-Mills theory. In this article we suggest how these dimensions and local physics in these dimensions emerge. The discussion is aimed at non-experts.

  15. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Two oral postcoital contraceptive agents are currently available. The first is a 2 x 2 pill; the second is a 5 x 5. Both release a higher dose of hormones than conventional contraceptive pills. Success rates range between 96% and 99%. They must be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. Side effects include nausea and vomiting. Contraindications are the same as for the common oral contraceptives. The contraceptive mode of action can be any of the following: 1) by making the lining of the uterus unreceptive; 2) by slowing the movement of the egg in the fallopian tube; or 3) by affecting the release of the egg. Emergency contraceptive pills have no effect once implantation takes place. The IUD can be used as an emergency postcoital contraceptive method if placed within 10 days of coitus. They are usually placed within 5-7 days because of laws regarding when birth control becomes abortion. One failure has been reported in Great Britain (December, 1993). Side effects are the same as with regular use. RU486/PG may be used in the future as an emergency contraceptive agent. Research is in progress on success rates and side effects. This agent could potentially be used at any time. Currently, emergency contraception can only be obtained by prescription. Limited hours and interrogating staff are obstacles in such emergencies. British women's groups are asking that emergency oral contraceptive pills be made available over the counter with advice from the pharmacist. PMID:12318714

  16. Relativistic description of finite nuclei based on realistic NN interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dalen, E. N. E. van; Muether, H.

    2011-08-15

    A set of relativistic mean-field models is constructed, which includes the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations accounting for the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons as well as the pion. Density-dependent coupling functions are determined to reproduce the components of the nucleon self-energy at the Fermi surface, obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-HF (DBHF) approach by using a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is investigated to which extent the various mean-field models can reproduce the DBHF results for the momentum dependence of the self-energies and the total energy of infinite matter. Also, the mean-field models are used to evaluate the bulk properties of spherical closed-shell nuclei. We find that the HF model, which allows for the exchange of {sigma}, {omega}, {rho}, and {delta} mesons and pions, yields the best reproduction of the DBHF results in infinite matter and also provides a good description of the properties of finite nuclei without any adjustment of parameters.

  17. Establishing realistic availability goals using statistical benchmarking techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Niebo, R.J.; Curley, G.M.; Richwine, R.R.; Jenkins, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Since the start of the electric utility industry, the question most asked by utility operating engineers is: ``Are the generating units operating as effectively as possible?`` Optimizing the mission of each electric generating unit has always been essential in a regulated and now a highly competitive marketplace. Before one can determine whether or not a unit`s performance is effective, one must establish measurable goals. One of the best means of establishing realistic goals is to benchmark against a comparable group of units having similar design characteristics and operating parameters. Traditional goal-setting has always begun by using unit type, fuel type, and capacity in establishing the comparison unit group. It is well known, however, that many other design characteristics and operating parameters influence performance. This often leads to subjective adjustment of the performance goals obtained from traditional comparison groups. Using statistical techniques, the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and Southern Electric International (SEI) have developed a new benchmarking methodology. It simultaneously tests measurable influences and evaluates the impact of each. This new method often results in different criteria being used to define the final peer unit comparison group. A brief description of this new benchmarking methodology and its application are discussed in this report.

  18. Use of an agent-based simulation model to evaluate a mobile-based system for supporting emergency evacuation decision making.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Tian-Shu; Yao, Qin; Zhang, Mao; Li, Jing-Song

    2014-12-01

    Recently, mass casualty incidents (MCIs) have been occurring frequently and have gained international attention. There is an urgent need for scientifically proven and effective emergency responses to MCIs, particularly as the severity of incidents is continuously increasing. The emergency response to MCIs is a multi-dimensional and multi-participant dynamic process that changes in real-time. The evacuation decisions that assign casualties to different hospitals in a region are very important and impact both the results of emergency treatment and the efficiency of medical resource utilization. Previously, decisions related to casualty evacuation were made by an incident commander with emergency experience and in accordance with macro emergency guidelines. There are few decision-supporting tools available to reduce the difficulty and psychological pressure associated with the evacuation decisions an incident commander must make. In this study, we have designed a mobile-based system to collect medical and temporal data produced during an emergency response to an MCI. Using this information, our system's decision-making model can provide personal evacuation suggestions that improve the overall outcome of an emergency response. The effectiveness of our system in reducing overall mortality has been validated by an agent-based simulation model established to simulate an emergency response to an MCI. PMID:25354665

  19. Development and Evaluation of Educational Materials for Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department Personnel on the Care of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonigle, John J.; Migyanka, Joann M.; Glor-Scheib, Susan J.; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J.; Hegde, Gajanan G.; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there…

  20. Emerging phleboviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  1. A time-responsive tool for informing policy making: rapid realist review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A realist synthesis attempts to provide policy makers with a transferable theory that suggests a certain program is more or less likely to work in certain respects, for particular subjects, in specific kinds of situations. Yet realist reviews can require considerable and sustained investment over time, which does not always suit the time-sensitive demands of many policy decisions. ‘Rapid Realist Review’ methodology (RRR) has been developed as a tool for applying a realist approach to a knowledge synthesis process in order to produce a product that is useful to policy makers in responding to time-sensitive and/or emerging issues, while preserving the core elements of realist methodology. Methods Using examples from completed RRRs, we describe key features of the RRR methodology, the resources required, and the strengths and limitations of the process. All aspects of an RRR are guided by both a local reference group, and a group of content experts. Involvement of knowledge users and external experts ensures both the usability of the review products, as well as their links to current practice. Results RRRs have proven useful in providing evidence for and making explicit what is known on a given topic, as well as articulating where knowledge gaps may exist. From the RRRs completed to date, findings broadly adhere to four (often overlapping) classifications: guiding rules for policy-making; knowledge quantification (i.e., the amount of literature available that identifies context, mechanisms, and outcomes for a given topic); understanding tensions/paradoxes in the evidence base; and, reinforcing or refuting beliefs and decisions taken. Conclusions ‘Traditional’ realist reviews and RRRs have some key differences, which allow policy makers to apply each type of methodology strategically to maximize its utility within a particular local constellation of history, goals, resources, politics and environment. In particular, the RRR methodology is explicitly designed to engage knowledge users and review stakeholders to define the research questions, and to streamline the review process. In addition, results are presented with a focus on context-specific explanations for what works within a particular set of parameters rather than producing explanations that are potentially transferrable across contexts and populations. For policy makers faced with making difficult decisions in short time frames for which there is sufficient (if limited) published/research and practice-based evidence available, RRR provides a practical, outcomes-focused knowledge synthesis method. PMID:24007206

  2. Simulating realistic genomic data with rare variants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaji; Wu, Yinghua; Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that rare and generally deleterious genetic variants might have a strong impact on disease risks of not only Mendelian disease, but also many common diseases. However, identifying such rare variants remains challenging, and novel statistical methods and bioinformatic software must be developed. Hence, we have to extensively evaluate various methods under reasonable genetic models. Although there are abundant genomic data, they are not most helpful for the evaluation of the methods because the disease mechanism is unknown. Thus, it is imperative that we simulate genomic data that mimic the real data containing rare variants and that enable us to impose a known disease penetrance model. Although resampling simulation methods have shown their advantages in computational efficiency and in preserving important properties such as linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allele frequency, they still have limitations as we demonstrated. We propose an algorithm that combines a regression-based imputation with resampling to simulate genetic data with both rare and common variants. Logistic regression model was employed to fit the relationship between a rare variant and its nearby common variants in the 1000 Genomes Project data and then applied to the real data to fill in one rare variant at a time using the fitted logistic model based on common variants. Individuals then were simulated using the real data with imputed rare variants. We compared our method with existing simulators and demonstrated that our method performed well in retaining the real sample properties, such as LD and minor allele frequency, qualitatively. PMID:23161487

  3. Support for Realist Foreign Policy: Reality Attunement or Ignorance?

    E-print Network

    Snider, Danielle

    2012-05-31

    test of critical and celebratory knowledge about past US foreign interventions; I measured endorsement of blind and constructive orientations of American patriotism, and I examined the relationship of these predictors with support for realist foreign...

  4. Evaluation of an evidence based quality improvement innovation for patients with musculoskeletal low back pain in an accident and emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    Potier, Tara; Tims, Emily; Kilbride, Cherry; Rantell, Khadija

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a five stage pilot study which initially consisted of a review of 75 case notes of people attending an emergency department (ED) in an inner London Teaching Hospital with musculoskeletal (MSK) low back pain (LBP). This review highlighted inconsistencies in how they were assessed and managed across and within different staff groups. We found patient documentation was often incomplete and that a biomedical model approach to the management of these patients was common. As a result, four further stages in the project were conducted. Our primary aim was to evaluate the impact of implementing a locally developed quality improvement intervention for the assessment and treatment of MSK LBP in this ED. Secondary aims were to explore the user experience of the new pathway, measured by the patient experience questionnaire (PEQ), and any associated health economic costs of changes in practice. The quality improvement intervention consisted of an evidence based low back pain pathway (EBLBPP), a staff educational program, and a patient education booklet. We undertook a retrospective baseline audit of 100 clinical records of patients was undertaken prior to the instigation of the quality improvement intervention, and four months post implementation. The pre-defined variables of interest were: documentation of the case history, examination, classification of back pain (and if correct), prescribed management and if the documentation was compliant with medico-legal standards. All patients in the study were sent a PEQ to complete and return in a self-addressed envelope. Estimated health costs associated with each patient episode of care were calculated including re-attendance episodes for any people presenting with MSK LBP within a four week period. There was a significant improvement in all areas evaluated post implementation in all groups (simple, referred and simple, referred and serious spinal pathology combined). In particular; screening for red flags (22%) and biopsychosocial factors (29%), as well as noting the prevalence of previous symptoms (44%), observation of the painful area (57%), and analysis classification (59%) at a at 95% confidence interval (CI). In terms of management, an increase in adherence to the analgesic ladder, patients receiving reassurance and appropriate referral back to their GP's increased 45%, 23% and 44% at 95% CI respectively. Unfortunately, there was insufficient data to draw any meaningful conclusions from the patient experience data due to a low response rate. In conclusion, the introduction of the EBLBPP, patient education leaflet and teaching training for staff involved in the treatment of MSK LBP patients has improved the quality and consistency of the documented assessment and subsequent management of MSK LBP patients.

  5. [Emergency contraception].

    PubMed

    Aubény, Elisabeth

    2008-01-15

    Emergency contraception is indicated when no birth control is used or in case of contraception failure. To day, two methods of emergency contraception are available. The hormonal method consists in taking a tablet of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg (NorLevo), as soon as possible following the contraceptive failure since its efficiency decreases rapidly as time goes by. No contraindication is associated with this contraceptive; however, it cannot be used as a regular contraception method since it is not 100% efficient (from 95.5 to 89% according to the authors). Apparently, this contraceptive acts by delaying ovulation. Mechanical contraceptives, such as intra-uterine devices, are extremely efficient (99.5%) and can be used up to 5 days after the estimated ovulation date. However, surveys conducted by the Inserm have revealed that in France, women are not aware of or lack of knowledge about emergency contraception and have many misconceptions. Moreover, many of them do not use emergency contraception since they do not feel concerned by the risk of pregnancy following contraception failure. PMID:18326361

  6. [Outpatient emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient. PMID:24979919

  7. Emergent neutrality.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert D

    2006-10-01

    Community ecology is in a current state of creative ferment, stimulated by the development of neutral models of community organization. Here, I reflect on recent papers by Scheffer and van Nes, and by Gravel et al., which illuminate how neutrality can emerge from ecological and evolutionary processes, thus suggesting ways to unify neutral and niche perspectives. PMID:16901580

  8. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  9. ["Emergency measures"].

    PubMed

    Louis, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime. PMID:22693924

  10. Visualizing context through theory deconstruction: a content analysis of three bodies of evaluation theory literature.

    PubMed

    Vo, Anne T

    2013-06-01

    While the evaluation field collectively agrees that contextual factors bear on evaluation practice and related scholarly endeavors, the discipline does not yet have an explicit framework for understanding evaluation context. To address this gap in the knowledge base, this paper explores the ways in which evaluation context has been addressed in the practical-participatory, values-engaged, and emergent realist evaluation literatures. Five primary dimensions that constitute evaluation context were identified for this purpose: (1) stakeholder; (2) program; (3) organization; (4) historical/political; and (5) evaluator. Journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers rooted in the selected evaluation approaches were compared along these dimensions in order to explore points of convergence and divergence in the theories. Study results suggest that the selected prescriptive theories most clearly explicate stakeholder and evaluator contexts. Programmatic, organizational, and historical/political contexts, on the other hand, require further clarification. PMID:22469338

  11. Comparing evaluation activities across multiple theories of practice.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    This article compares and contrasts the evaluation activities described in Practical Participatory Evaluation (Cousins & Whitmore, 1998), Values-engaged Evaluation (Greene, 2005), and Emergent Realist Evaluation (Mark, Henry, & Julnes, 1998). Using the logic models developed to depict each of the three evaluation theories (Hansen, Alkin, & Wallace, 2013) as a starting point, both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques are employed to discuss the similarities and differences across the practice prescriptions. The approaches are then described according to Miller's (2010) standards for empirical examinations of evaluation theory. Specifically, I offer speculation about their operational specificity and feasibility in practice. I argue that none of the models is completely specific, or wholly unique, and they all present challenges of adaptation into the field. However, the models each offer varying degrees of guidance and unique elements through their prescriptions. PMID:22445575

  12. A Non-Perturbative Gauge-Invariant QCD: Ideal vs. Realistic QCD

    E-print Network

    H. M. Fried; T. Grandou; Y. -M. Sheu

    2011-06-06

    A basic distinction, long overlooked, between the conventional, "idealistic" formulation of QCD, and a more "realistic" formulation is brought into focus by a rigorous, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of exact Fradkin representations for the Green's functional $\\mathbf{G}_{c}(x,y|A)$ and the vacuum functional $\\mathbf{L}[A]$. The quanta of all (Abelian) quantized fields may be expected to obey standard quantum-mechanical measurement properties, perfect position dependence at the cost of unknown momenta, and vice-versa, but this is impossible for quarks since they always appear asymptotically in bound states, and their transverse position or momenta can never, in principle, be exactly measured. Violation of this principle produces an absurdity in the exact evaluation of each and every QCD amplitude. We here suggest a phenomenological change in the basic QCD Lagrangian, such that a limitation of transverse precision is automatically contained in the now "realistic" theory, with the function essential to quark binding into hadrons appearing in the new Lagrangian. All absurdities in estimates of all "realistic" QCD amplitudes are then removed, and one obtains the possibility of hadron formation by appropriate quark binding potentials, and nucleon scattering and binding by effective, Yukawa-type potentials; the first of these potentials are constructed, in detail, in the following paper.

  13. The visualizable, the representable and the inconceivable: realist and non-realist mathematical models in physics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2016-01-13

    The project of this article is twofold. First, it aims to offer a new perspective on, and a new argument concerning, realist and non-realist mathematical models, and differences and affinities between them, using physics as a paradigmatic field of mathematical modelling in science. Most of the article is devoted to this topic. Second, the article aims to explore the implications of this argument for mathematical modelling in other fields, in particular in cognitive psychology and economics. PMID:26621990

  14. Description and validation of realistic and structured endourology training model

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Federico; Morcillo, Esther; Sanz, Juan Luis; Budia, Alberto; Serrano, Alvaro; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to validate a model of training, which combines the use of non-biological and ex vivo biological bench models, as well as the modelling of urological injuries for endourological treatment in a porcine animal model. Material and Methods: A total of 40 participants took part in this study. The duration of the activity was 16 hours. The model of training was divided into 3 levels: level I, concerning the acquisition of basic theoretical knowledge; level II, involving practice with the bench models and level III, concerning practice in the porcine animal model. First, trainees practiced with animals without using a model of injured (ureteroscopy, management of guide wires and catheters under fluoroscopic control) and later practiced in lithiasic animal model. During the activity, an evaluation of the face and content validity was conducted, as well as constructive validation provided by the trainees versus experts. Evolution of the variables during the course within each group was analysed using the Student’s t test for paired samples, while comparisons between groups, were performed using the Student’s t test for unpaired samples. Results: The assessments of face and content validity were satisfactory. The constructive validation, “within one trainee” shows that were statistical significant differences between the first time the trainees performed the tasks in the animal model and the last time, mainly in the knowledge of procedure and Holmium laser lithotripsy cathegories. At the beginning of level III, there are also statistical significant differences between trainee’s scores and the expert’s scores.Conclusions: This realistic Endourology training model allows the acquisition of knowledge and technical and non-technical skills as evidenced by the face, content and constructive validity. Structured use of bench models (biological and non biological) and animal model simulators increase the endourological basic skills. PMID:25374928

  15. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26562229

  16. Emergent spin

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

  17. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  18. Emerging Jets

    E-print Network

    Pedro Schwaller; Daniel Stolarski; Andreas Weiler

    2015-05-11

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  19. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    PubMed Central

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  20. Rapid evaluation by lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava (LCI) integrated ultrasound for differentiating heart failure from pulmonary disease as the cause of acute dyspnea in the emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis and management can be lifesaving for patients with acute dyspnea. However, making a differential diagnosis and selecting early treatment for patients with acute dyspnea in the emergency setting is a clinical challenge that requires complex decision-making in order to achieve hemodynamic balance, improve functional capacity, and decrease mortality. In the present study, we examined the screening potential of rapid evaluation by lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava (LCI) integrated ultrasound for differentiating acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) from primary pulmonary disease in patients with acute dyspnea in the emergency setting. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, 90 consecutive patients (45 women, 78.1?±?9.9?years) admitted to the emergency room of our hospital for acute dyspnea were enrolled. Within 30?minutes of admission, all patients underwent conventional physical examination, rapid ultrasound (lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava [LCI] integrated ultrasound) examination with a hand-held device, routine laboratory tests, measurement of brain natriuretic peptide, and chest X-ray in the emergency room. Results The final diagnosis was acute dyspnea due to AHFS in 53 patients, acute dyspnea due to pulmonary disease despite a history of heart failure in 18 patients, and acute dyspnea due to pulmonary disease in 19 patients. Lung ultrasound alone showed a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 96.2, 54.0, 90.9, and 75.0%, respectively, for differentiating AHFS from pulmonary disease. On the other hand, LCI integrated ultrasound had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 94.3, 91.9, 91.9, and 94.3%, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that rapid evaluation by LCI integrated ultrasound is extremely accurate for differentiating acute dyspnea due to AHFS from that caused by primary pulmonary disease in the emergency setting. PMID:23210515

  1. I-Love relation for incompressible stars and realistic stars

    E-print Network

    T. K. Chan; Atma P. O. Chan; P. T. Leung

    2014-11-26

    In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science {\\bf 341}, 365 (2013)], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability) and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

  2. Neuromuscular Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bucelli, Robert; Harms, Matthew B

    2015-12-01

    Although most neuromuscular disorders are recognized and treated in the outpatient clinic, a subset can present with rapidly advancing or severe weakness and constitute true emergencies by threatening respiratory and bulbar function. This review focuses on the recognition, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular diseases most likely to present in the inpatient setting: infectious motor neuronopathies, inflammatory polyradiculopathies, and disorders of neuromuscular transmission. In each, the prompt recognition, diagnosis, and institution of specific therapies or supportive care can prevent mortality and mitigate morbidity. PMID:26595869

  3. Evaluation of Waiting Times and Sonographic Findings in Patients with First Trimester Vaginal Bleeding at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Can Emergency Department Ultrasound Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    French, S; Henry, T; Williams, EW

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnant female patients with vaginal bleeding in the first trimester are seen commonly in the Emergency Department (ED) at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Kingston, Jamaica. The protocol for the management of these patients requires that they have a sonographic evaluation performed for the purpose of localizing the pregnancy where possible, to assist with determining the risk for an ectopic pregnancy. The ultrasound examinations are performed in the radiology department. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate how long patients wait for a pelvic ultrasound. We also sought to establish how many patients had ultrasound findings that would have allowed safe discharge home. Methods: The records of 150 patients seen in the six-month period from January 1 to July 30, 2008 were examined. Data were extracted pertaining to age, time to see an emergency room doctor, time taken for ultrasound examination to be obtained from the radiology department and the ultrasound findings. Result: Fifty-four per cent presented to the Emergency Department with a complaint of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain, 29% with bleeding only, 16% with abdominal pain only and one with syncope. One hundred and sixteen of the patients enrolled had an ultrasound performed at UHWI. The average waiting time for an ultrasound was 3.8 ± 2.5 hours. The majority (66/116) of the patients had an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) demonstrated on ultrasound. Twenty-nine had no IUP, free fluid or adnexal mass. These 95 patients would likely have been discharged home. Ten patients had an adnexal mass with or without free fluid, and ten had free fluid only on ultrasound. One patient was found to have a definite ectopic pregnancy. These 21 patients would have been referred for evaluation by the obstetrician on call for further management. Conclusion: The majority of patients had sonographic findings that would have allowed safe and timely discharge from the Emergency Department had ultrasound been available at the point of care. PMID:25314282

  4. The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Field Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of 'realistic' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The finding in this paper may be applicable to some lower energy particle transport system design.

  5. Renormalized interactions with a realistic single-particle basis

    SciTech Connect

    Signoracci, Angelo; Brown, B. Alex; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten

    2011-02-15

    Neutron-rich isotopes in the sdpf space with Z{<=}14 require modifications to derived effective interactions to agree with experimental data away from stability. A quantitative justification is given for these modifications because of the weakly bound nature of model space orbits via a procedure using realistic radial wave functions and realistic NN interactions. The long tail of the radial wave function for loosely bound single-particle orbits causes a reduction in the size of matrix elements involving those orbits, most notably for pairing matrix elements, resulting in a more condensed level spacing in shell-model calculations. Example calculations are shown for {sup 36}Si and {sup 38}Si.

  6. Homogeneous nucleation of methane hydrates: unrealistic under realistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Knott, Brandon C; Molinero, Valeria; Doherty, Michael F; Peters, Baron

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrates are ice-like inclusion compounds with importance to the oil and natural gas industry, global climate change, and gas transportation and storage. The molecular mechanism by which these compounds form under conditions relevant to industry and nature remains mysterious. To understand the mechanism of methane hydrate nucleation from supersaturated aqueous solutions, we performed simulations at controlled and realistic supersaturation. We found that critical nuclei are extremely large and that homogeneous nucleation rates are extremely low. Our findings suggest that nucleation of methane hydrates under these realistic conditions cannot occur by a homogeneous mechanism. PMID:23148735

  7. Human Performance in a Realistic Instrument-Control Task during Short-Term Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Fabian; Kalicinski, Michael; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the detrimental effects of microgravity on human sensorimotor skills. While that work dealt with simple, laboratory-type skills, we now evaluate the effects of microgravity on a complex, realistic instrument-control skill. Twelve participants controlled a simulated power plant during the short-term microgravity intervals of parabolic flight as well as during level flight. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from the power plant. We quantified control efficiency as the participants’ net earnings (revenue minus expenses), motor performance as hand kinematics and dynamics, and stress as cortisol level, self-assessed mood and self-assessed workload. We found that compared to normal gravity, control efficiency substantially decreased in microgravity, hand velocity slowed down, and cortisol level and perceived physical strain increased, but other stress and motor scores didn’t change. Furthermore, control efficiency was not correlated with motor and stress scores. From this we conclude that realistic instrument control was degraded in short-term microgravity. This degradation can’t be explained by the motor and/or stress indicators under study, and microgravity affected motor performance differently in our complex, realistic skill than in the simple, laboratory-type skills of earlier studies. PMID:26083473

  8. Human Performance in a Realistic Instrument-Control Task during Short-Term Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Fabian; Kalicinski, Michael; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the detrimental effects of microgravity on human sensorimotor skills. While that work dealt with simple, laboratory-type skills, we now evaluate the effects of microgravity on a complex, realistic instrument-control skill. Twelve participants controlled a simulated power plant during the short-term microgravity intervals of parabolic flight as well as during level flight. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from the power plant. We quantified control efficiency as the participants' net earnings (revenue minus expenses), motor performance as hand kinematics and dynamics, and stress as cortisol level, self-assessed mood and self-assessed workload. We found that compared to normal gravity, control efficiency substantially decreased in microgravity, hand velocity slowed down, and cortisol level and perceived physical strain increased, but other stress and motor scores didn't change. Furthermore, control efficiency was not correlated with motor and stress scores. From this we conclude that realistic instrument control was degraded in short-term microgravity. This degradation can't be explained by the motor and/or stress indicators under study, and microgravity affected motor performance differently in our complex, realistic skill than in the simple, laboratory-type skills of earlier studies. PMID:26083473

  9. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  10. 76 FR 71991 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, Emergency Management Institute Course Evaluation Form AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of...

  11. Particles and gaseous emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellet heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from six residential wood pellet heating systems are determined at a realistic six day operation sequence. The study aims to investigate the total emissions from a realistic operation of the heating systems including start-up and stop phases. Five combined solar and pellet heating systems and one reference boiler without solar system with an integrated DHW preparation was tested in a laboratory at realistic operation conditions. The investigated emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, the emissions are presented as accumulated total emissions from the whole six days period and the emissions from start-up and stop phases are also presented separately to evaluate the influence of the emissions from these phases on the total emissions. Emission factors of the measured systems from the six day period are between 192 and 547 mg MJ-1 for the CO emissions, between 61 and 95 mg MJ-1 for the NO, between 6 and 45 mg MJ-1 for the TOC, between 31 and 116 mg MJ-1 for the particulate matter and between 2.1 × 1013 and 4 × 1013 for the number of particles. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases are significantly high for the CO (63-95 %) and the TOC (48-93 %). NO and particles emissions are shown to dominate during stationary operation. However, 30-40 % of the particle emissions arise from the start and stop periods. It is also shown that the average emissions of CO, TOC and particles under the realistic annual conditions were higher than the limit values of two eco labels.

  12. In Situ Field-Based Metabolomics for Evaluating the Impacts of Exposure to Chemicals of Emerging Concern Relative to Other Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant attention is being devoted to the potential impacts on ecosystems from exposure to chemicals of emerging concern (CECs; including pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, etc.). Many of these are persistent, distributed globally, and have been shown to cause adverse i...

  13. Evaluation of a coagulation/flocculation-lamellar clarifier and filtration-UV-chlorination reactor for removing emerging contaminants at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2013-03-15

    The presence and elimination of 25 emerging contaminants in two full-scale Spanish wastewater treatment plants was studied. The tertiary treatment systems consisted of coagulation, flocculation lamellar settlement and filtration (pulsed-bed sand filters) units, and disinfection was carried out by medium pressure UV light lamps and chlorination. Diclofenac and carbamazepine were found to be the emerging contaminants with the highest concentrations in secondary effluents. Photodegradable emerging contaminants (e.g. ketoprofen, triclosan and diclofenac) were removed by filtration-UV light radiation-chlorination whereas most hydrophobic compounds (e.g. galaxolide and tonalide) were eliminated by coagulation-flocculation followed by lamellar clarification, a unit in which a seasonal trend was observed. Overall mass removal efficiency was about 60%. 1-(8-Chlorocarbazolyl) acetic acid, an intermediate product of the photodegradation of diclofenac, was detected after filtration-UV-chlorination, but not after coagulation-flocculation and lamellar clarification. This study demonstrated potential for general applicability of two established tertiary treatment systems to eliminate emerging contaminants. PMID:23353882

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-5 - Basis for site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...barriers of the site. In such evaluations for the postclosure guidelines...extent necessary to obtain realistic source terms for comparative site evaluations based on the sensitivity of the natural barriers to such realistic engineered barriers....

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-5 - Basis for site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...barriers of the site. In such evaluations for the postclosure guidelines...extent necessary to obtain realistic source terms for comparative site evaluations based on the sensitivity of the natural barriers to such realistic engineered barriers....

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-5 - Basis for site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...barriers of the site. In such evaluations for the postclosure guidelines...extent necessary to obtain realistic source terms for comparative site evaluations based on the sensitivity of the natural barriers to such realistic engineered barriers....

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-5 - Basis for site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...barriers of the site. In such evaluations for the postclosure guidelines...extent necessary to obtain realistic source terms for comparative site evaluations based on the sensitivity of the natural barriers to such realistic engineered barriers....

  18. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

  19. Fluidic Emergency Thruster for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and test evaluation of two prototype fluidic emergency thrusters (FET) for aircraft stabilization are discussed. The fluidic control units were designed to provide, between two diametrically opposed nozzles, a thrust differential proportional to an input voltage signal. The emergency roll control requirements of the X-14 VTOL research aircraft were defined as typical design goals. Two control units, one on each wing tip, are intended to provide a maximum thrust of 224 pounds per unit. The units are designed to operate with 2500 psig, 2000 F gas from a solid propellant gas generator. The emergency system including the gas generator was designed to add less than 11 pounds per wing tip. The operating time under emergency conditions was specified as five seconds. The fluidic emergency thruster is similar in concept to a JATO system but has the added feature of controllable thrust.

  20. Firefly-Inspired Sensor Network Synchronicity with Realistic Radio Effects

    E-print Network

    Firefly-Inspired Sensor Network Synchronicity with Realistic Radio Effects Geoffrey Werner of individual nodes' firing phases. In this paper we present the Reachback Firefly Algorithm (RFA on a mathematical model that de- scribes how fireflies and neurons spontaneously synchronize. Previous work has

  1. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    PubMed

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. PMID:26159687

  2. Realistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing

    E-print Network

    and supersonic jet noise prediction for modern-day turbofan aircraft engines using petascale computing. Jet noiseRealistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing Sponsor: National Science is an important issue due to increased air traffic, penalties for noisier aircraft, future stringent noise

  3. Oscar: Small-World Overlay For Realistic Key Distributions

    E-print Network

    Aberer, Karl

    in practice. We show that one of the seminal P2P systems which support skewed keys - Mercury [7], performs simulations that our technique performs well and significantly surpasses Mercury for such realistic workloads distributions. Some examples are CAN [8], Mercury [7], P-Grid [1], skip graphs [5, 11] and their derivatives [4

  4. Users Get Routed: Traffic Correlation on Tor by Realistic Adversaries

    E-print Network

    Users Get Routed: Traffic Correlation on Tor by Realistic Adversaries Aaron Johnson1 Chris Wacek2 1}@cs.georgetown.edu ABSTRACT We present the first analysis of the popular Tor anonymity network that indicates the security of typical users against reasonably realis- tic adversaries in the Tor network or in the underlying Internet

  5. A More Realistic Thinning Scheme for Call Admission Control in

    E-print Network

    Pan, Yi

    A More Realistic Thinning Scheme for Call Admission Control in Multimedia Wireless Networks Xian control scheme named thinning scheme, which smoothly throttles the admission rates of calls according, is investigated under more general conditions. Using the theory of multidimensional Markov birth-death process

  6. Highly realistic, immersive training for navy corpsmen: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; McWhorter, Stephanie K

    2014-12-01

    Highly realistic, immersive training has been developed for Navy corpsmen based on the success of the Infantry Immersion Trainer. This new training is built around scenarios that are designed to depict real-life, operational situations. Each scenario used in the training includes sights, sounds, smells, and distractions to simulate realistic and challenging combat situations. The primary objective of this study was to assess corpsmen participants' satisfaction with highly realistic training. The study sample consisted of 434 male Navy service members attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Corpsmen participants completed surveys after receiving the training. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with the training overall and with several specific elements of the training. The element of the training that the corpsmen rated the highest was the use of live actors. The vast majority of the participants reported that the training had increased their overall confidence about being successful corpsmen and had strengthened their confidence in their ability to provide care under pressure. Additional research should extend highly realistic training to other military medical provider populations. PMID:25469964

  7. Two-Capacitor Problem: A More Realistic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the two-capacitor problem by considering the self-inductance of the circuit used and by determining how well the usual series RC circuit approximates the two-capacitor problem when realistic values of L, C, and R are chosen. (GA)

  8. Testing Joint Inversion Code with Geologically Realistic Models

    E-print Network

    Farquharson, Colin G.

    Testing Joint Inversion Code with Geologically Realistic Models Angela Carter-McAuslan, Peter Lelièvre, Gary Blades, Colin Farquharson GAC-MAC Joint Annual Meeting May 27th, 2012 #12;Outline · Background ­ Joint Inversion ­ Unstructured Meshes ­ Voisey's Bay Deposit · 2D Testing ­ Models ­ Forward

  9. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist

  10. Developing Skills: Realistic Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria

    To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…

  11. ECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy -Energy use in transportation,

    E-print Network

    Connors, Daniel A.

    . - Energy Transport costs for both freight and people. Hybrid Electric truck, bus and car issues - EnergyECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy - Energy use in transportation, HVAC and electric generation is detailed in units of kW-Hr - Alternative Energy sources for fuels and electric generation are covered

  12. UAV Based Distributed ATR under Realistic Simulated Environmental Effects

    E-print Network

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    UAV Based Distributed ATR under Realistic Simulated Environmental Effects Xiaohan Chen, Shanshan has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor

  13. Understanding Worms' Impact on the Internet Infrastructure through Realistic Simulation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    Understanding Worms' Impact on the Internet Infrastructure through Realistic Simulation Bob Bradley@utm.edu,lanwang@memphis.edu) Internet worms pose a significant threat to the stability of the Internet infrastructure. First, the huge, the random scanning used by most worms may cause routers to become unstable. For example, since a large

  14. Realistic and effective interactions in the study of nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    V. Soma

    2006-10-31

    The equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter is addressed starting both from a realistic interaction derived from nucleon-nucleon scattering processes and from a low-momentum effective potential. The approach is based on finite temperature Green's functions. The internal energy per particle is estimated from the summation of diagrams and through the Galitskii-Koltun's sum rule.

  15. Title: Realistic Hair Simulation animation and rendering Submission Format & Area

    E-print Network

    Title: Realistic Hair Simulation ­ animation and rendering Submission Format & Area Class SIGGRAPH of the most challenging tasks in character synthesis: hair simulation. This class covers both recent and novel research ideas in hair animation and rendering, and presents time tested industrial practices

  16. Realistic Modeling of Multi-Scale MHD Dynamics of the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, I.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A.; Yoon, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Realistic 3D radiative MHD simulations open new perspectives for understanding the turbulent dynamics of the solar surface, its coupling to the atmosphere, and the physical mechanisms of generation and transport of non-thermal energy. Traditionally, plasma eruptions and wave phenomena in the solar atmosphere are modeled by prescribing artificial driving mechanisms using magnetic or gas pressure forces that might arise from magnetic field emergence or reconnection instabilities. In contrast, our 'ab initio' simulations provide a realistic description of solar dynamics naturally driven by solar energy flow. By simulating the upper convection zone and the solar atmosphere, we can investigate in detail the physical processes of turbulent magnetoconvection, generation and amplification of magnetic fields, excitation of MHD waves, and plasma eruptions. We present recent simulation results of the multi-scale dynamics of quiet-Sun regions, and energetic effects in the atmosphere and compare with observations. For the comparisons we calculate synthetic spectro-polarimetric data to model observational data of SDO, Hinode, and New Solar Telescope.

  17. Framework for single input single output nanonetwork-based realistic molecular communication.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Atty, Saied M; Gharsseldien, Zakaria M; Lizos, Konstantinos A

    2015-12-01

    Mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (MAMNET) is a new paradigm for the realisation of future nanonetworks. In MAMNET, transmission of nanoscale information from nanomachine to infostation is based on collision and adhesion. In this study, the authors develop a realistic framework for encompassing the electronic structure of the neurotransmitter in the process of transmitting nanoscale information at a single input single output nanonetwork. Nanonetwork performance is evaluated in terms of average packet delay, throughput and incurred traffic rate. Numerical results demonstrate the influence of the neurotransmitter's electronic structure over the performance of nanonetworks. PMID:26647808

  18. On Grid Performance Evaluation using Synthetic Workloads

    E-print Network

    -depth knowledge of the behavior of grids, and realistic performance evaluation and comparison of existing and new not use realistic workloads [10] or use non-validated measurement data as input for the evaluation processOn Grid Performance Evaluation using Synthetic Workloads Alexandru Iosup1 , Dick H.J. Epema1

  19. Private Database Synthesis for Outsourced System Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Miklau, Gerome

    scientists, for instance, when a researcher wants to evaluate new database technology on realistic data. In fact, we argue that benchmarks are frequently misused in experimental evaluation because realisticPrivate Database Synthesis for Outsourced System Evaluation Vani Gupta1 , Gerome Miklau1

  20. Arresting HIV: Fostering Partnerships between Sex Workers and Police to Reduce HIV Risk and Promote Professionalization within Policing Institutions: A Realist Review.

    PubMed

    Tenni, Brigitte; Carpenter, Jenae; Thomson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors' familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV prevention, individual and public health as well as HIV prevention and the promotion of human rights are the number one priority. Further research into this relationship is needed to provide evidence for effective HIV programming with police. PMID:26488904

  1. Arresting HIV: Fostering Partnerships between Sex Workers and Police to Reduce HIV Risk and Promote Professionalization within Policing Institutions: A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Tenni, Brigitte; Carpenter, Jenae; Thomson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors’ familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV prevention, individual and public health as well as HIV prevention and the promotion of human rights are the number one priority. Further research into this relationship is needed to provide evidence for effective HIV programming with police. PMID:26488904

  2. Emergency Management Guide EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Dahlquist, Kam D.

    Emergency Management Guide provides guidance to the LMU community to prevent, plan for and respond to eventsEmergency Management Guide #12;EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 that become emergency incidents. Emer- gency incidents are defined as events that may impact the life safety

  3. Evaluating the Predictive Impact of an Emergent Literacy Model on Dyslexia in Italian Children: A Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pezzica, Sara; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    The strong differences in manifestation, prevalence, and incidence in dyslexia across languages invite studies in specific writing systems. In particular, the question of the role played by emergent literacy in opaque and transparent writing systems remains a fraught one. This research project tested, through a 4-year prospective cohort study, an emergent literacy model for the analysis of the characteristics of future dyslexic children and normally reading peers in Italian, a transparent writing system. A cohort of 450 children was followed from the last year of kindergarten to the third grade in their reading acquisition process. Dyslexic children were individuated (Grade 3), and their performances in kindergarten in textual competence, phonological awareness, and conceptual knowledge of the writing system were compared with a matched group of normally reading peers. Results showed the predictive relevance of the conceptual knowledge of the writing system. The study's implications are discussed. PMID:24608754

  4. 48 CFR 5215.605 - Evaluation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...justified. (3) Cost realism evaluation. (i) Cost realism evaluation involves a summary level review...the overall costs proposed are realistic for the work to be performed. Cost realism evaluation differs from the detailed...

  5. 48 CFR 5215.605 - Evaluation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...justified. (3) Cost realism evaluation. (i) Cost realism evaluation involves a summary level review...the overall costs proposed are realistic for the work to be performed. Cost realism evaluation differs from the detailed...

  6. 48 CFR 5215.605 - Evaluation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...justified. (3) Cost realism evaluation. (i) Cost realism evaluation involves a summary level review...the overall costs proposed are realistic for the work to be performed. Cost realism evaluation differs from the detailed...

  7. 48 CFR 5215.605 - Evaluation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...justified. (3) Cost realism evaluation. (i) Cost realism evaluation involves a summary level review...the overall costs proposed are realistic for the work to be performed. Cost realism evaluation differs from the detailed...

  8. 48 CFR 5215.605 - Evaluation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...justified. (3) Cost realism evaluation. (i) Cost realism evaluation involves a summary level review...the overall costs proposed are realistic for the work to be performed. Cost realism evaluation differs from the detailed...

  9. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  10. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

    1996-07-01

    Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

  11. Performance and Scalability Evaluation of the Ceph Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi; Nelson, Mark; Oral, H Sarp; Settlemyer, Bradley W; Atchley, Scott; Caldwell, Blake A; Hill, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is an open-source and emerging parallel distributed file and storage system technology. By design, Ceph assumes running on unreliable and commodity storage and network hardware and provides reliability and fault-tolerance through controlled object placement and data replication. We evaluated the Ceph technology for scientific high-performance computing (HPC) environments. This paper presents our evaluation methodology, experiments, results and observations from mostly parallel I/O performance and scalability perspectives. Our work made two unique contributions. First, our evaluation is performed under a realistic setup for a large-scale capability HPC environment using a commercial high-end storage system. Second, our path of investigation, tuning efforts, and findings made direct contributions to Ceph's development and improved code quality, scalability, and performance. These changes should also benefit both Ceph and HPC communities at large. Throughout the evaluation, we observed that Ceph still is an evolving technology under fast-paced development and showing great promises.

  12. Virtual reality for emergency training

    SciTech Connect

    Altinkemer, K.

    1995-12-31

    Virtual reality is a sequence of scenes generated by a computer as a response to the five different senses. These senses are sight, sound, taste, touch, smell. Other senses that can be used in virtual reality include balance, pheromonal, and immunological senses. Many application areas include: leisure and entertainment, medicine, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, and training. Virtual reality is especially important when it is used for emergency training and management of natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, tornados and other situations which are hard to emulate. Classical training methods for these extraordinary environments lack the realistic surroundings that virtual reality can provide. In order for virtual reality to be a successful training tool the design needs to include certain aspects; such as how real virtual reality should be and how much fixed cost is entailed in setting up the virtual reality trainer. There are also pricing questions regarding the price per training session on virtual reality trainer, and the appropriate training time length(s).

  13. Realistic fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.

  14. Automatic Perceptual Color Map Generation for Realistic Volume Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Parsad, Nigel M.; Tsirline, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography imaging technology and inexpensive high performance computer graphics hardware are making high-resolution, full color (24-bit) volume visualizations commonplace. However, many of the color maps used in volume rendering provide questionable value in knowledge representation and are non-perceptual thus biasing data analysis or even obscuring information. These drawbacks, coupled with our need for realistic anatomical volume rendering for teaching and surgical planning, has motivated us to explore the auto-generation of color maps that combine natural colorization with the perceptual discriminating capacity of grayscale. As evidenced by the examples shown that have been created by the algorithm described, the merging of perceptually accurate and realistically colorized virtual anatomy appears to insightfully interpret and impartially enhance volume rendered patient data. PMID:18430609

  15. The challenge of realistic testing of multiphase flowmeters

    SciTech Connect

    Sten-Halvorsen, V.

    1995-12-31

    Multiphase flowmeters is new technology for the oil industry, and needs to be tested under realistic conditions to prove their performance. The complex nature of multiphase flow, means that test conditions in a laboratory may not necessarily represent the real flow conditions at a field installation. As a consequence, severe field testing is also required to gain experience with the meters and qualify them for field applications.

  16. Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayermirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, A.L.; Salmassi, F.; Dollar, F.; Liu, Y.; Gullikson, E.M.

    2006-04-05

    Aperiodic multilayers have been designed for various applications, using numeric algorithms and analytical solutions, for many years with varying levels of success. This work developed a more realistic model for simulating aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers to be used in these algorithms by including the formation of MoSi{sub 2}. Using a genetic computer code we were able to optimize a 45{sup o} multilayer for a large bandpass reflection multilayer that gave good agreement with the model.

  17. Simulation of human ischemic stroke in realistic 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Thierry; Duarte, Max; Descombes, Stéphane; Dronne, Marie-Aimée; Massot, Marc; Louvet, Violaine

    2013-06-01

    In silico research in medicine is thought to reduce the need for expensive clinical trials under the condition of reliable mathematical models and accurate and efficient numerical methods. In the present work, we tackle the numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion equations modeling human ischemic stroke. This problem induces peculiar difficulties like potentially large stiffness which stems from the broad spectrum of temporal scales in the nonlinear chemical source term as well as from the presence of steep spatial gradients in the reaction fronts, spatially very localized. Furthermore, simulations on realistic 3D geometries are mandatory in order to describe correctly this type of phenomenon. The main goal of this article is to obtain, for the first time, 3D simulations on realistic geometries and to show that the simulation results are consistent with those obtain in experimental studies or observed on MRI images in stroke patients. For this purpose, we introduce a new resolution strategy based mainly on time operator splitting that takes into account complex geometry coupled with a well-conceived parallelization strategy for shared memory architectures. We consider then a high order implicit time integration for the reaction and an explicit one for the diffusion term in order to build a time operator splitting scheme that exploits efficiently the special features of each problem. Thus, we aim at solving complete and realistic models including all time and space scales with conventional computing resources, that is on a reasonably powerful workstation. Consequently and as expected, 2D and also fully 3D numerical simulations of ischemic strokes for a realistic brain geometry, are conducted for the first time and shown to reproduce the dynamics observed on MRI images in stroke patients. Beyond this major step, in order to improve accuracy and computational efficiency of the simulations, we indicate how the present numerical strategy can be coupled with spatial adaptive multiresolution schemes. Preliminary results in the framework of simple geometries allow to assess the proposed strategy for further developments.

  18. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  19. MRXCAT: Realistic numerical phantoms for cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer simulations are important for validating novel image acquisition and reconstruction strategies. In cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), numerical simulations need to combine anatomical information and the effects of cardiac and/or respiratory motion. To this end, a framework for realistic CMR simulations is proposed and its use for image reconstruction from undersampled data is demonstrated. Methods The extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) anatomical phantom framework with various motion options was used as a basis for the numerical phantoms. Different tissue, dynamic contrast and signal models, multiple receiver coils and noise are simulated. Arbitrary trajectories and undersampled acquisition can be selected. The utility of the framework is demonstrated for accelerated cine and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging using k-t PCA and k-t SPARSE. Results MRXCAT phantoms allow for realistic simulation of CMR including optional cardiac and respiratory motion. Example reconstructions from simulated undersampled k-t parallel imaging demonstrate the feasibility of simulated acquisition and reconstruction using the presented framework. Myocardial blood flow assessment from simulated myocardial perfusion images highlights the suitability of MRXCAT for quantitative post-processing simulation. Conclusion The proposed MRXCAT phantom framework enables versatile and realistic simulations of CMR including breathhold and free-breathing acquisitions. PMID:25204441

  20. Audience Methods Collaboration (Evaluation)

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Audience Methods Collaboration (Evaluation) Impact on Audience (Evaluation) Impact on Research 1 involved gain from participating and how will you evaluate this? Consider integration with your research Be realistic and choose one or two specific audience groups or stakeholders to work with Consider staff time

  1. Anatomy, technology, art, and culture: toward a realistic perspective of the brain.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Feindel, William; Goodrich, James T; Dagi, T Forcht; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Preul, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    In the 15th century, brain illustration began to change from a schematic system that involved scant objective rendering of the brain, to accurate depictions based on anatomical dissections that demanded significant artistic talent. Notable examples of this innovation are the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (1498-1504), Andreas Vesalius' association with the bottega of Titian to produce the drawings of Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica (1543), and Christopher Wren's illustrations for Thomas Willis' Cerebri Anatome (1664). These works appeared during the Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment, when advances in brain imaging, or really brain rendering, reflected not only the abilities and dedications of the artists, but also the influences of important cultural and scientific factors. Anatomy and human dissection became popular social phenomena as well as scholarly pursuits, linked with the world of the fine arts. The working philosophy of these artists involved active participation in both anatomical study and illustration, and the belief that their discoveries of the natural world could best be communicated by rendering them in objective form (that is, with realistic perspective). From their studies emerged the beginning of contemporary brain imaging. In this article, the authors examine how the brain began to be imaged in realism within a cultural and scientific milieu that witnessed the emergence of anatomical dissection, the geometry of linear perspective, and the closer confluence of art and science. PMID:19722816

  2. A Non-Perturbative Gauge-Invariant QCD: Ideal vs. Realistic QCD

    E-print Network

    Fried, H M; Sheu, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    A basic distinction, long overlooked, between the conventional, "idealistic" formulation of QCD, and a more "realistic" formulation is brought into focus by a rigorous, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of exact Fradkin representations for the Green's functional $\\mathbf{G}_{c}(x,y|A)$ and the vacuum functional $\\mathbf{L}[A]$. The quanta of all (Abelian) quantized fields may be expected to obey standard quantum-mechanical measurement properties, perfect position dependence at the cost of unknown momenta, and vice-versa, but this is impossible for quarks since they always appear asymptotically in bound states, and their transverse position or momenta can never, in principle, be exactly measured. Violation of this principle produces an absurdity in the exact evaluation of each and every QCD amplitude. We here suggest a phenomenological change in the basic QCD Lagrangian, such that a limitation of transverse precision is automatical...

  3. 48 CFR 1352.215-75 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...lowered rating for the experience evaluation factor. (b) Cost/Price Evaluation. (1) The proposed prices...evaluated but not scored. The cost evaluation will determine whether the proposed costs are realistic, complete, and...

  4. 48 CFR 1352.215-75 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...lowered rating for the experience evaluation factor. (b) Cost/Price Evaluation. (1) The proposed prices...evaluated but not scored. The cost evaluation will determine whether the proposed costs are realistic, complete, and...

  5. 48 CFR 1352.215-75 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...lowered rating for the experience evaluation factor. (b) Cost/Price Evaluation. (1) The proposed prices...evaluated but not scored. The cost evaluation will determine whether the proposed costs are realistic, complete, and...

  6. 48 CFR 1352.215-75 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...lowered rating for the experience evaluation factor. (b) Cost/Price Evaluation. (1) The proposed prices...evaluated but not scored. The cost evaluation will determine whether the proposed costs are realistic, complete, and...

  7. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances in ... supporting such research. NIAID Category A-C Priority Pathogens and Additional Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens List of ...

  8. Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and PhantomData Based onPhysiologically Realistic Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models

    SciTech Connect

    Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui,Benjamin M.W.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-08-02

    The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, whichprovides a realistic model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac andrespiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to evaluate andimprove imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiacapplications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the abilityto accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result fromcardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal ofthis work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating aphysiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the leftventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. Thegeometry of the FE mechanical model was based on gated high-resolutionx-ray multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data of a healthy malesubject. The myocardial wall was represented as transversely isotropichyperelastic material, with the fiber angle varying from -90 degrees atthe epicardial surface, through 0 degreesat the mid-wall, to 90 degreesat the endocardial surface. A time varying elastance model was used tosimulate fiber contraction, and physiological intraventricular systolicpressure-time curves were applied to simulate the cardiac motion over theentire cardiac cycle. To demonstrate the ability of the FE mechanicalmodel to accurately simulate the normal cardiac motion as well abnormalmotions indicative of CAD, a normal case and two pathologic cases weresimulated and analyzed. In the first pathologic model, a subendocardialanterior ischemic region was defined. A second model was created with atransmural ischemic region defined in the same location. The FE baseddeformations were incorporated into the 4D NCAT cardiac model through thecontrol points that define the cardiac structures in the phantom whichwere set to move according to the predictions of the mechanical model. Asimulation study was performed using the FE-NCAT combination toinvestigate how the differences in contractile function between thesubendocardial and transmural infarcts manifest themselves in myocardialSPECT images. The normal FE model produced strain distributions that wereconsistent with those reported in the literature and a motion consistentwith that defined in the normal 4D NCAT beating heart model based ontagged MRI data. The addition of a subendocardial ischemic region changedthe average transmural circumferential strain from a contractile value of0.19 to a tensile value of 0.03. The addition of a transmural ischemicregion changed average circumferential strain to a value of 0.16, whichis consistent with data reported in the literature. Model resultsdemonstrated differences in contractile function between subendocardialand transmural infarcts and how these differences in function aredocumented in simulated myocardial SPECT images produced using the 4DNCAT phantom. In comparison to the original NCAT beating heart model, theFE mechanical model produced a more accurate simulation for the cardiacmotion abnormalities. Such a model, when incorporated into the 4D NCATphantom, has great potential for use in cardiac imaging research. Withits enhanced physiologically-based cardiac model, the 4D NCAT phantom canbe used to simulate realistic, predictive imaging data of a patientpopulation with varying whole-body anatomy and with varying healthy anddiseased states of the heart that will provide a known truth from whichto evaluate and improve existing and emerging 4D imaging techniques usedin the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

  9. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption. The energy management schemes are compared based on the following criteria: the hydrogen consumption, the state of charges of the batteries and supercapacitors and the overall system efficiency. Moreover the stress on each energy source, which impacts their life cycle, are measured using a new approach based on the wavelet transform of their instantaneous power. A simulation model and an experimental test bench are developed to validate all analysis and performances. The main results obtained are as follows: the state machine control scheme provided a slightly better efficiency and stresses on the batteries and supercapacitors. The classical PI control and the proposed scheme had the lowest fuel consumption and more use of the battery energy. As expected, the lowest fuel cell stress and lowest use of the battery energy was achieved with the frequency decoupling and fuzzy logic scheme, but at the expense of more fuel consumption and lower overall efficiency. The DC bus or supercapacitor voltage was maintained nearly constant for all the schemes. Also, the proposed strategy performed slightly better than the ECMS in terms of efficiency and fuel consumption, with an increase in fuel economy by 3 %. The energy management scheme suitable for a MEA emergency system should be a multischeme EMS such that each scheme is chosen based on a specific criterion to prioritize. As an example, depending on the operating life of each energy source, the energy management strategy can be chosen to either minimise the stress on the fuel cell system, the battery system or supercapacitor system, hence maximizing the life cycle of the hybrid power system. Also if the target is to reduce the fuel consumption, the proposed or the classical PI strategies are better alternatives.

  10. Realistic simulated lung nodule dataset for testing CAD detection and sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, Robert D.; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2010-03-01

    The development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods for the processing of CT lung scans continues to become increasingly popular due to the potential of these algorithms to reduce image reading time, errors caused by user fatigue, and user subjectivity when screening for the presence of malignant lesions. This study seeks to address the critical need for a realistic simulated lung nodule CT image dataset based on real tumor morphologies that can be used for the quantitative evaluation and comparison of these CAD algorithms. The manual contouring of 17 different lung metastases was performed and reconstruction of the full 3-D surface of each tumor was achieved through the utilization of an analytical equation comprised of a spherical harmonics series. 2-D nodule slice representations were then computed based on these analytical equations to produce realistic simulated nodules that can be inserted into CT datasets with well-circumscribed, vascularized, or juxtapleural borders and also be scaled to represent nodule growth. The 3-D shape and intensity profile of each simulated nodule created from the spherical harmonics reconstruction was compared to the real patient CT lung metastasis from which its contour points were derived through the calculation of a 3-D correlation coefficient, producing an average value of 0.8897 (+/-0.0609). This database of realistic simulated nodules can fulfill the need for a reproducible and reliable gold standard for CAD algorithms with regards to nodule detection and sizing, especially given its virtually unlimited capacity for expansion to other nodule shape variants, organ systems, and imaging modalities.

  11. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  12. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  13. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  14. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  15. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  16. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  17. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  18. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  19. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 121.397 Section 121...121.397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  20. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 125.271 Section 125...125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate...emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate holder shall...

  1. Emerging Technologies in Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krusberg, Zosia A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Three emerging technologies in physics education are evaluated from the interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive science and physics education research. The technologies--Physlet Physics, the Andes Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), and Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) Tools--are assessed particularly in terms of their potential at promoting…

  2. Emerging Technologies or Different Paradigms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that, in considering the significance of emerging computer and information technologies, evaluators and potential users must consider not only the technologies' technical merits but also the contexts for their use, the economies of the technologies, their market perception, and their appearance within a methodological paradigm. (CB)

  3. NUTSEDGE EMERGENCE AND MULCH COLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutsedge species are among the most troublesome species in vegetables of the Southeast U.S. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulches on emergence of naturalized nutsedge populations. Studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 near Chula, GA, in areas with purple nutsedge (Cyp...

  4. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  5. Chemistry Department Emergency Action &

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ting

    ;2 Introduction An Emergency Action & Evacuation Plan (herein referred to as an EAP) covers designated actions and notify employees of an emergency Evacuation procedures and emergency escape routes A procedure

  6. Analytical theory of extraordinary optical transmission through realistic metallic screens.

    PubMed

    Delgado, V; Marqués, R; Jelinek, L

    2010-03-29

    An analytical theory of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through realistic metallic screens perforated by a periodic array of subwavelength holes is presented. The theory is based on our previous work on EOT through perfect conducting screens and on the surface impedance concept. The proposed theory is valid for the complete frequency range where EOT has been reported, including microwaves and optics. A reasonably good agreement with electromagnetic simulations is shown in all this frequency range. We feel that the proposed theory may help to clarify the physics underlying EOT and serve as a first step to more accurate analysis. PMID:20389673

  7. Towards a Realistic Equation of State of Strongly Interacting Matter

    E-print Network

    L. Burakovsky; L. P. Horwitz; W. C. Schieve

    1995-08-24

    We consider a relativistic strongly interacting Bose gas. The interaction is manifested in the off-shellness of the equilibrium distribution. The equation of state that we obtain for such a gas has the properties of a realistic equation of state of strongly interacting matter, i.e., at low temperature it agrees with the one suggested by Shuryak for hadronic matter, while at high temperature it represents the equation of state of an ideal ultrarelativistic Stefan-Boltzmann gas, implying a phase transition to an effectively weakly interacting phase.

  8. Black holes in realistic branes: black string-like objects?

    E-print Network

    D. Bazeia; J. M. Hoff da SIlva; Roldao da Rocha

    2013-03-09

    A realistic model describing a black string-like object in an expanding Universe is analyzed in the context of the McVittie's solution of the Einstein field equations. The bulk metric near the brane is provided analogously to previous solutions for black strings. In particular, we show that at least when the Hubble parameter on the brane is positive, a black string-like object seems to play a fundamental role in the braneworld scenario, generalizing the standard black strings in the context of a dynamical brane.

  9. Synchronization to a bouncing ball with a realistic motion trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lingyu; Huang, Yingyu; Zhou, Liang; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Daily music experience involves synchronizing movements in time with a perceived periodic beat. It has been established for over a century that beat synchronization is less stable for the visual than for the auditory modality. This auditory advantage of beat synchronization gives rise to the hypotheses that the neural and evolutionary mechanisms underlying beat synchronization are modality-specific. Here, however, we found that synchronization to a periodically bouncing ball with a realistic motion trajectory was not less stable than synchronization to an auditory metronome. This finding challenges the auditory advantage of beat synchronization, and has important implications for the understanding of the biological substrates of beat synchronization. PMID:26148810

  10. Cathodic disbonding of pipeline coatings under realistic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautman, Brenda Lee

    1998-09-01

    Cathodic disbonding is one undesirable aspect of the combination of the corrosion control technology commonly used for the exterior of buried pipelines. This technology consists of the combined use of protective coatings and cathodic protection. While standard cathodic disbonding tests performed in the laboratory provide a relative ranking of coatings, due to the simplicity of the test environments and accelerated nature of the tests, the results may not necessarily be directly related to service performance. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cathodic disbonding behavior of three commonly used pipeline coating materials (i.e., fusion bonded epoxy, coal tar enamel, and tape coatings) under more realistic conditions. The research plan allowed the comparison of cathodic disbonding tests results between standard and realistic conditions by utilizing laboratory tests with controlled environments and cathodic protection levels. Several areas of focus were the effects of a moderate level of polarization, high level of polarization, and elevated temperatures. Additional factors examined included electrolyte composition (soil extract versus NaCl solutions), wet/dry cycling, and simulated soil conditions (i.e., sand moistened with soil extract). These tests delineated the effects of test parameters on cathodic disbonding and coating performance was related to these parameters. The processes considered to be important to the cathodic disbonding behavior of coatings are discussed as well as the implications of the realistic test results on laboratory cathodic disbonding test procedures. It was confirmed that greater disbonding occurred at more negative (i.e., cathodic) potentials, with higher alkalinity, and at elevated temperatures. This study also showed that disbonding increased greatly when sand moistened with soil extract solution was utilized in place of bulk electrolyte. The addition of such a barrier to convection may present a viable method to accelerate cathodic disbonding tests and is more representative of conditions in soils along pipelines. Wet/dry cycling showed no measurable effect on the extent of disbonding. Temperature, however, was determined to be a significant factor. The effect of initial electrolyte composition was not certain when comparing between NaCl and different soil extract solutions. Tests under realistic conditions generally exhibited larger scatter than standard tests, probably due to the added complexity caused by calcareous deposit formations and concurrent alteration of the electrolyte with the use of soil extract solutions.

  11. ROC Analysis and a Realistic Model of Heart Rate Variability

    E-print Network

    Stefan Thurner; Markus C. Feurstein; Malvin C. Teich

    1998-06-19

    We have carried out a pilot study on a standard collection of electrocardiograms from patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, and subjects without cardiac pathology, using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. The scale-dependent wavelet-coefficient standard deviation \\sigma_{wav}(m), a multiresolution-based analysis measure, is found to be superior to two commonly used measures of cardiac dysfunction when the two classes of patients cannot be completely separated. A jittered integrate-and-fire model with a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic simulation of heartbeat sequences for both heart-failure patients and normal subjects.

  12. Turbulence studies in Tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.Q.

    1998-10-14

    Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT [1] and the linearized shooting code BAL[2] to study turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant, resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters.

  13. Efficient temperature-dependent Green's functions methods for realistic systems: compact grids for orthogonal polynomial transforms

    E-print Network

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    The temperature-dependent Matsubara Green's function that is used to describe temperature-dependent behavior is expressed on a numerical grid. While such a grid usually has a couple of hundred points for low-energy model systems, for realistic systems in large basis sets the size of an accurate grid can be tens of thousands of points, constituting a severe computational and memory bottleneck. In this paper, we determine efficient imaginary time grids for the temperature-dependent Matsubara Green's function formalism that can be used for calculations on realistic systems. We show that due to the use of orthogonal polynomial transform, we can restrict the imaginary time grid to few hundred points and reach micro-Hartree accuracy in the electronic energy evaluation. Moreover, we show that only a limited number of orthogonal polynomial expansion coefficients are necessary to preserve accuracy when working with a dual representation of Green's function or self-energy and transforming between the imaginary time and...

  14. Interactive Web-based Floodplain Simulation System for Realistic Experiments of Flooding and Flood Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage and visualize large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The floodplain simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive flood simulation environment to create real world flooding scenarios. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create and modify predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate flood mitigation techniques. The web-based simulation system provides an environment to children and adults learn about the flooding, flood damage, and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of the users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various flooding and land use scenarios.

  15. Realistic texture extraction for 3D face models robust to self-occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengchao; Monari, Eduardo; Schuchert, Tobias; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    In the context of face modeling, probably the most well-known approach to represent 3D faces is the 3D Morphable Model (3DMM). When 3DMM is fitted to a 2D image, the shape as well as the texture and illumination parameters are simultaneously estimated. However, if real facial texture is needed, texture extraction from the 2D image is necessary. This paper addresses the possible problems in texture extraction of a single image caused by self-occlusion. Unlike common approaches that leverage the symmetric property of the face by mirroring the visible facial part, which is sensitive to inhomogeneous illumination, this work first generates a virtual texture map for the skin area iteratively by averaging the color of neighbored vertices. Although this step creates unrealistic, overly smoothed texture, illumination stays constant between the real and virtual texture. In the second pass, the mirrored texture is gradually blended with the real or generated texture according to the visibility. This scheme ensures a gentle handling of illumination and yet yields realistic texture. Because the blending area only relates to non-informative area, main facial features still have unique appearance in different face halves. Evaluation results reveal realistic rendering in novel poses robust to challenging illumination conditions and small registration errors.

  16. Towards explaining the health impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions - A realist review. Part 1: Pathways.

    PubMed

    Willand, Nicola; Ridley, Ian; Maller, Cecily

    2015-05-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a realist review that tries to explain the impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions (REEIs) on householder health. According to recent systematic reviews residential energy efficiency interventions may benefit health. It is argued that home energy improvement are complex interventions and that a better understanding of the latent mechanisms and contextual issues that may shape the outcome of interventions is needed for effective intervention design. This realist review synthesises the results of 28 energy efficiency improvement programmes. This first part provides a review of the explanatory factors of the three key pathways, namely warmth in the home, affordability of fuel and psycho-social factors, and the pitfall of inadequate indoor air quality. The review revealed that REEIs improved winter warmth and lowered relative humidity with benefits for cardiovascular and respiratory health. In addition, residential energy efficiency improvements consolidated the meaning of the home as a safe haven, strengthened the householder's perceived autonomy and enhanced social status. Although satisfaction with the home proved to be an important explanation for positive mental health outcomes, financial considerations seemed to have played a secondary role. Evidence for negative impacts was rare but the risk should not be dismissed. Comprehensive refurbishments were not necessarily more effective than thermal retrofits or upgrades. A common protocol for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of interventions would facilitate the synthesis of future studies. Householder and contextual influences are addressed in Part 2. PMID:25687402

  17. Vertical Velocities in Cumulus Convection: Implications for Climate and Prospects for Realistic Simulation at Cloud Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Leo

    2014-05-01

    Cumulus mass fluxes are essential controls on the interactions between cumulus convection and large-scale flows. Cumulus parameterizations have generally been built around them, and these parameterizations are basic components of climate models. Several important questions in climate science depend also on cumulus vertical velocities. Interactions between aerosols and convection comprise a prominent example, and scale-aware cumulus parameterizations that require explicit information about cumulus areas are another. Basic progress on these problems requires realistic characterization of cumulus vertical velocities from observations and models. Recent deployments of dual-Doppler radars are providing unprecedented observations, which can be compared against cloud-resolving models (CRMs). The CRMs can subsequently be analyzed to develop and evaluate parameterizations of vertical velocities in climate models. Vertical velocities from several cloud models will be compared against observations in this presentation. CRM vertical velocities will be found to depend strongly on model resolution and treatment of sub-grid turbulence and microphysics. Although many current state-of-science CRMs do not simulate vertical velocities well, recent experiments with these models suggest that with appropriate treatments of sub-grid turbulence and microphysics robustly realistic modeling of cumulus vertical velocities is possible.

  18. Taking the pressure off in the Emergency Department: evaluation of the prophylactic application of a low shear, soft silicon sacral dressing on high risk medical patients.

    PubMed

    Cubit, Katrina; McNally, Bernadette; Lopez, Violeta

    2013-10-01

    Pressure injuries are key clinical indicators of care standard. In Australia, pressure injuries increase length of hospital stay by 4.31 and cost $285 million annually. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of sacral dressing in reducing the prevalence of pressure injuries in older, high-risk patients. A non randomised one-sample experimental design was used in this study comprising of four phases. Of the 51 patients recruited to the study, one patient developed a sacral pressure injury compared to six patients identified in a known group with similar demographics who were not approached to participate in the study. The results indicated that patients in the known group were 5.4 times more likely to develop a pressure injury than the intervention group. Findings suggest that applying a protective sacral dressing with a low shear backing as part of a simple standardised prevention injury prevention regime commencing in the Emergency Department was beneficial in the prevention of pressure injury in older 'at high risk' medical patients. PMID:22672730

  19. An evaluation of optometrists' ability to correctly identify and manage patients with ocular disease in the accident and emergency department of an eye hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Scott; Ehrlich, Daniel; Binstead, Katy; Verma, Seema

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess optometrists' ability to correctly identify and manage patients with different ocular conditions seen in the accident and emergency (A&E) department of an eye hospital. Methods Randomly selected patients presenting to the A&E department were initially examined by one of two senior optometrists and a consultant ophthalmologist. A diagnosis and a management plan were made for each patient by the optometrist and by the consultant, who was blinded to the optometrists' plan. Agreement was assessed between optometrist and consultant ophthalmologist for primary and secondary diagnoses, management plan and whether patients could be seen by an optometrist only. Weighted kappa (?) statistics was used to assess the level of agreement in management between the two groups. Results A total of 150 patients were assessed. The agreement in primary diagnosis and management outcome between the two groups were 89.3% (95% CI 83.2% to 93.8%) and 79.3% (95% CI 84.8% to 94.8%), respectively. A high level of agreement in management outcome was found (??=?0.82). No sight?threatening conditions were misdiagnosed by the optometrist. Conclusions There was good agreement in both the diagnosis and management plan between optometrists and the ophthalmologist. This study has shown that optometrists can potentially work safely in an A&E department of a busy eye hospital. PMID:17077113

  20. Vision-realistic Rendering: Simulation of the Scanned Foveal Image with Elimination of Artifacts due to

    E-print Network

    Barsky, Brian A.

    Vision-realistic Rendering: Simulation of the Scanned Foveal Image with Elimination of Artifacts://www.cs.berkeley.edu/barsky Abstract. We introduce the concept of vision-realistic rendering ­ the com- puter generation of synthetic, and finally compositing to form a vision-realistic rendered image. Although processing in image space allows

  1. Realistic Implementation of Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-print Network

    Ho-Ung Yee; Yi Yin

    2014-04-29

    Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) is a gapless collective excitation of chiral charges along the direction of magnetic field in the Quark-Gluon Plasma that arises from the triangle anomaly of QCD. We perform reliable study of the CMW in the realistic simulation of heavy ion collisions, and find that the CMW contributions to the charge dependent elliptic flow of pions, $\\Delta v_2 = v_2(\\pi^-)-v_2(\\pi^+)$, linearly depending on the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm\\equiv (N_+-N_-)/(N_++N_-)$ with a positive slope $r$, is comparable to the recent experimental results from RHIC. We identify "Freezeout Hole Effect", which is a direct consequence of the propagation of CMW during the realistic evolution of fireball, as the dominant physics effect responsible for a sizable contribution from the CMW to the slope parameter $r$, and emphasize that a proper treatment of the freeze out condition is crucial in any reliable computation of the CMW contribution to the slope parameter $r$. We also implement chiral phase transition effect in our study, which illustrates the sensitivity of the results to chiral phase transition temperature, and suggest that the CMW can be an important probe of QCD chiral phase transition. Our results on the impact parameter dependence compare well with the RHIC experiments. We also give predictions for the LHC energy.

  2. Radiation-Spray Coupling for Realistic Flow Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Asrag, Hossam; Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    Three Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for a lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor are performed and compared. In addition to the cold flow simulation, the effect of radiation coupling with the multi-physics reactive flow is analyzed. The flame let progress variable approach is used as a subgrid combustion model combined with a stochastic subgrid model for spray atomization and an optically thin radiation model. For accurate chemistry modeling, a detailed Jet-A surrogate mechanism is utilized. To achieve realistic inflow, a simple recycling technique is performed at the inflow section upstream of the swirler. Good comparison is shown with the experimental data mean and root mean square profiles. The effect of combustion is found to change the shape and size of the central recirculation zone. Radiation is found to change the spray dynamics and atomization by changing the heat release distribution and the local temperature values impacting the evaporation process. The simulation with radiation modeling shows wider range of droplet size distribution by altering the evaporation rate. The current study proves the importance of radiation modeling for accurate prediction in realistic spray combustion configurations, even for low pressure systems.

  3. The Dimits Shift in More Realistic Gyrokinetic Plasma Turbulence Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Mikkelsen and W. Dorland

    2008-07-23

    In simulations of turbulent plasma transport due to long wavelength, (k?pi ? 1), electrostatic drift-type instabilities we find that a nonlinear upshift of the effective threshold persists. This `Dimits shift' represents the difference between the linear threshold, at the onset of instability, and the nonlinear threshold, where transport increases suddenly as the driving temperature gradient is increased. As the drive increases, the magnitudes of turbulent eddies and zonal ows grow until the zonal flows become nonlinearly unstable to 'tertiary' modes and their sheared ows no longer grow fast enough to strongly limit eddy size. The tertiary mode threshold sets the effective nonlinear threshold for the heat transport, and the Dimits shift arises when this occurs at a zonal flow magnitude greater than that needed to limit transport near the linear threshold. Nextgeneration tokamaks will likely benefit from the higher effective threshold for turbulent transport, and transport models should incorporate suitable corrections to linear thresholds. These gyrokinetic simulations are more realistic than previous reports of a Dimits shift because they include nonadiabatic electron dynamics, strong collisional damping of zonal flows, and finite electron and ion collisionality together with realistic shaped magnetic geometry. Reversing previously reported results based on idealized adiabatic electrons, we find that increasing collisionality reduces the heat flux because collisionality reduces the nonadiabatic electron drive.

  4. Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on colour holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, H. I.

    2013-02-01

    A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.

  5. Neuronize: a tool for building realistic neuronal cell morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Juan P.; Mata, Susana; Bayona, Sofia; Pastor, Luis; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a tool, Neuronize, for building realistic three-dimensional models of neuronal cells from the morphological information extracted through computer-aided tracing applications. Neuronize consists of a set of methods designed to build 3D neural meshes that approximate the cell membrane at different resolution levels, allowing a balance to be reached between the complexity and the quality of the final model. The main contribution of the present study is the proposal of a novel approach to build a realistic and accurate 3D shape of the soma from the incomplete information stored in the digitally traced neuron, which usually consists of a 2D cell body contour. This technique is based on the deformation of an initial shape driven by the position and thickness of the first order dendrites. The addition of a set of spines along the dendrites completes the model, building a final 3D neuronal cell suitable for its visualization in a wide range of 3D environments. PMID:23761740

  6. Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this project a transient, fully three-dimensional computer simulation code was developed to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The simulation code is capable of simulating flame spread on a solid and nonpremixed or premixed gaseous combustion in nonturbulent flow with simple combustion models. Simple combustion models were used to preserve computational efficiency since this is meant to be an engineering code. Also, the use of sophisticated turbulence models was not pursued (a simple Smagorinsky type model can be implemented if deemed appropriate) because if flow velocities are large enough for turbulence to develop in a reduced gravity combustion scenario it is unlikely that g-jitter disturbances (in NASA's reduced gravity facilities) will play an important role in the flame dynamics. Acceleration disturbances of realistic orientation, magnitude, and time dependence can be easily included in the simulation. The simulation algorithm was based on techniques used in an existing large eddy simulation code which has successfully simulated fire dynamics in complex domains. A series of simulations with measured and predicted acceleration disturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) are presented. The results of this series of simulations suggested a passive isolation system and appropriate scheduling of crew activity would provide a sufficiently "quiet" acceleration environment for spherical diffusion flames.

  7. Spectroscopy of light nuclei with realistic NN interaction JISP

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, A. M.; Vary, J. P.; Mazur, A. I.; Weber, T. A.

    2008-07-15

    Recent results of our systematic ab initio studies of the spectroscopy of s- and p-shell nuclei in fully microscopic large-scale (up to a few hundred million basis functions) no-core shell-model calculations are presented. A new high-quality realistic nonlocal NN interaction JISP is used. This interaction is obtained in the J-matrix inverse-scattering approach (JISP stands for the J-matrix inverse-scattering potential) and is of the form of a small-rank matrix in the oscillator basis in each of the NN partial waves, providing a very fast convergence in shell-model studies. The current purely two-body JISP model of the nucleon-nucleon interaction JISP16 provides not only an excellent description of two-nucleon data (deuteron properties and np scattering) with {chi}{sup 2}/datum = 1.05 but also a better description of a wide range of observables (binding energies, spectra, rms radii, quadrupole moments, electromagnetic-transition probabilities, etc.) in all s-and p-shell nuclei than the best modern interaction models combining realistic nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions.

  8. International Conference on Remote Emergency Medical Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An emergency medical system is characterized. Applications of NASA technology in biomedical telecommunication and bioinstrumentation are explored. The training and effectiveness of paramedics, technicians, nurses, and physicians are evaluated as applied to emergency situations and the operations of trauma centers. Civilian and military aeromedical evacuation is discussed.

  9. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue...

  10. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue...

  11. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue...

  12. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue...

  13. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue...

  14. Transient Analysis for Evaluating the Potential Boiling in the High Elevation Emergency Cooling Units of PWR Following a Hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Subsequent Water Hammer Due to Pump Restart

    SciTech Connect

    Husaini, S. Mahmood; Qashu, Riyad K.

    2004-07-01

    The Generic Letter GL-96-06 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required the utilities to evaluate the potential for voiding in their Containment Emergency Cooling Units (ECUs) due to a hypothetical Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accompanied by the Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP). When the offsite power is restored, the Component Cooling Water (CCW) pumps restart causing water hammer to occur due to cavity closure. Recently EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) performed a research study that recommended a methodology to mitigate the water hammer due to cavity closure. The EPRI methodology allows for the cushioning effects of hot steam and released air, which is not considered in the conventional water column separation analysis. The EPRI study was limited in scope to the evaluation of water hammer only and did not provide any guidance for evaluating the occurrence of boiling and the extent of voiding in the ECU piping. This paper presents a complete methodology based on first principles to evaluate the onset of boiling. Also, presented is a methodology for evaluating the extent of voiding and the water hammer resulting from cavity closure by using an existing generalized computer program that is based on the Method of Characteristics. The EPRI methodology is then used to mitigate the predicted water hammer. Thus it overcomes the inherent complications and difficulties involved in performing hand calculations for water hammer. The heat transfer analysis provides an alternative to the use of very cumbersome modeling in using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) based computer programs. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of an hPXR reporter gene assay for the detection of aquatic emerging pollutants: screening of chemicals and application to water samples.

    PubMed

    Creusot, Nicolas; Kinani, Saïd; Balaguer, Patrick; Tapie, Nathalie; LeMenach, Karyn; Maillot-Maréchal, Emmanuelle; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Budzinski, Hélène; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim

    2010-01-01

    Many environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. Among these receptors, the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is well described as a xenobiotic sensor to various classes of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and steroids. To assess the potential use of PXR as a sensor for aquatic emerging pollutants, we employed an in vitro reporter gene assay (HG5LN-hPXR cells) to screen a panel of environmental chemicals and to assess PXR-active chemicals in (waste) water samples. Of the 57 compounds tested, 37 were active in the bioassay and 10 were identified as new PXR agonists: triazin pesticides (promethryn, terbuthryn, terbutylazine), pharmaceuticals (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, clonazepam, medazepam) and non co-planar polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs; PCB101, 138, 180). Furthermore, we detected potent PXR activity in two types of water samples: passive polar organic compounds integrative sampler (POCIS) extracts from a river moderately impacted by agricultural and urban inputs and three effluents from sewage treatment works (STW). Fractionation of POCIS samples showed the highest PXR activity in the less polar fraction, while in the effluents, PXR activity was mainly associated with the dissolved water phase. Chemical analyses quantified several PXR-active substances (i.e., alkylphenols, hormones, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PCBs, bisphenol A) in POCIS fractions and effluent extracts. However, mass-balance calculations showed that the analyzed compounds explained only 0.03% and 1.4% of biological activity measured in POCIS and STW samples, respectively. In effluents, bisphenol A and 4-tert-octylphenol were identified as main contributors of instrumentally derived PXR activities. Finally, the PXR bioassay provided complementary information as compared to estrogenic, androgenic, and dioxin-like activity measured in these samples. This study shows the usefulness of HG5LN-hPXR cells to detect PXR-active compounds in water samples, and further investigation will be necessary to identify the detected active compounds. PMID:20024649

  16. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Sebbane, Florent

    2015-09-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ?opgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ? 37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. PMID:26150539

  17. The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

  18. Emergency Treatment of Ocular Trauma.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Klaus J; Gümbel, Hermann O C

    2015-08-01

    Injuries to the eye and its adnexa are common in head and neck trauma centers. An ophthalmologist experienced in ocular traumatology is not always available. Therefore, every emergency physician should be familiar with the basic evaluation, triage, and management of ocular trauma. Above all, the identification of a need for immediate treatment should be implemented in the algorithm of an emergency room, especially in a head and neck trauma center, to reduce the risk of a devastating loss of vision. This article formulates the different types of ocular trauma and their required first-line therapy. PMID:26372708

  19. Evaluating School Dental Health Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinson, Laurna

    1982-01-01

    Traditionally, methods for evaluating school dental health education projects have focused on student behavior change as the outcome of such programs. A more realistic evaluation plan is presented which examines skill acquisition among students. (JN)

  20. Microscopic Study of $\\alpha+N$ Bremsstrahlung from Effective and Realistic Multi-nucleon Interactions

    E-print Network

    Dohet-Eraly, Jérémy; Navrátil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Based on an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, a microscopic cluster model of the nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung, including implicitly a part of the effects of meson-exchange currents via an extension of the Siegert theorem is applied to the $\\alpha+p$ and $\\alpha+n$ systems. The contributions of the $E1$ and $E2$ transitions to the bremsstrahlung cross sections are evaluated and their relative importance for the mirror systems $\\alpha+p$ and $\\alpha+n$ is compared. Another approach based on realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions and the No-Core Shell Model/Resonating-Group Method is also investigated. Some preliminary results for the $\\alpha+p$ bremsstrahlung are displayed.