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1

Perceptual Evaluation of Video-Realistic Speech  

E-print Network

abstract With many visual speech animation techniques now available, there is a clear need for systematic perceptual evaluation schemes. We describe here our scheme and its application to a new video-realistic ...

Geiger, Gadi

2003-02-28

2

Realistic electric vehicle battery evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The STM-5-140 Nickel Cadmium electric vehicle battery was tested under actual operating conditions using the UMASS Lowell battery evaluation laboratory. The battery evaluation system uses battery current data taken from an EV using its on board data acquisition system. The car is driven on a typical commute while battery current as well as other data are taken at one second intervals. In the battery evaluation lab, individual batteries are subjected to the same operating conditions as those in the car. This procedure uses fewer batteries and allows the same commute to be repeated exactly. Three test procedures using 0, 20, and 40 degree centigrade controlled environment temperatures were implemented. Measured data consisted of voltage, current, and temperature. Test cycle, capacity and round trip efficiency data are presented.

Lynch, W.A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-12-01

3

A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care  

PubMed Central

Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on understanding how context influences evidence-based practice. The strengths and limitations of the approach are considered, including how to operationalise it and some of the challenges. This approach provided a useful interpretive framework with which to make sense of the multiple factors that were simultaneously at play and being observed through various data sources, and for developing explanatory theory about using standardised care approaches in practice. PMID:20504293

2010-01-01

4

The construction of context-mechanisms-outcomes in realistic evaluation.  

PubMed

Aim To discuss the construction of context-mechanisms-outcomes (CMOs) developed as part of a realistic evaluation study of two aggression management training programmes. Background Realistic evaluation draws on theories and methods derived from the social sciences. It provides a distinctive account of the nature of programmes and how they work. Realistic evaluation is a form of evaluation that is driven by theory, and was based by Pawson and Tilley ( 1997 ) on the philosophy of critical realism. Critical realism is an important perspective in modern philosophy and social science, but it is largely absent in the field of healthcare research. Review methods This paper provides a critical discussion on the construction of CMOs as part of a realistic evaluation study. Data sources This paper draws on the personal experiences of the author in using realistic evaluation to evaluate training in aggression management. Discussion Realistic evaluation stresses four key linked concepts for explaining and understanding programmes: 'mechanism', 'context', 'outcome pattern' and 'context-mechanisms-outcomes (CMO) pattern configuration'. A CMO configuration is a proposition stating what it is about an initiative that works, for whom and in what circumstances. In this way, the effectiveness of the programme is understood, with an explanation of why the outcomes developed as they did and how the programme was able to react to underlying mechanisms and in what contexts. Therefore, a realistic evaluation researcher is not just inspecting outcomes to see if an initiative (implementation) works, but is analysing the outcomes to discover if the conjectured mechanism or context theories are confirmed. This analysis provides not only evidence of effectiveness, but also an explanation that helps to develop and improve the content and the targeting of future programmes. Conclusion The development of CMOs requires a great deal of skill on the part of the researcher and requires a flexibility of approach when collecting and analysing the data and in understanding the topic being investigated. Implications for research/practice Applications of realistic evaluation have focused largely on evaluating initiatives in the field of social policy and, more recently, social work practice. To date, however, there have been few published realistic evaluation studies within nursing; therefore this study is novel in its use of the methodology. PMID:25587864

Linsley, Paul; Howard, David; Owen, Sara

2015-01-14

5

Considerations for realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for LWRs  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the various phenomena which govern the course of large and small break LOCAs in LWRs, and affect the key parameters such as Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and timing of the end of blowdown, beginning of reflood, PCT, and complete quench. A review of the best-estimate models and correlations for these phenomena in the current literature has been presented. Finally, a set of models have been recommended which may be incorporated in a present best-estimate code such as TRAC or RELAP5 in order to develop a realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for future LWRs and have also been compared with the requirements of current ECCS evaluation methodology as outlined in Appendix K of 10CFR50. 58 refs.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Chexal, V.K.

1985-01-01

6

Comprehensive Evaluation of Maritime Emergency Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detailed analysis of maritime emergency plans, maritime emergency evaluation index system is established. The index system is characterized by the complicated hierarchy structure and multiple index attributes, the improved fuzzy synthesize evaluation method is used to evaluate the maritime emergency plans comprehensively. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation are combined, and the reliability and accuracy of the evaluation results

Zhang Hao; Xiao Ying Jie; Yubin; Yang Xiao Jun

2010-01-01

7

Sonar authentication performance evaluation under realistically simulated undersea channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undersea communication channels are filled with acoustic emissions of various kinds. From sonar to the signals used in acoustic communications, man-made noise, and biological signals generated by marine life, the ocean is a complex conduit for diverse emissions. In this work we propose an algorithm in which an acoustic emission such as a sonar signal is transparently and securely embedded with signatures known as a digital watermark. Extracting the watermark helps to distinguish, for example, a friendly sonar from other acoustic emissions that may exist as part of the natural undersea environment, or from pings that may have originated from hostile forces or echoes fabricated by an adversary. We have adopted spread spectrum as an embedding technique. Spread spectrum allows for matching the watermark to propagation, multipath, and noise profiles of the channel. The sonar is first characterized by its spectrogram and divided up into non-overlapping blocks in time. Each block is individually embedded with a single bit drawn from the watermark payload. The seeds used to generate the spreading codes are the keys used by authorized receivers to recover the watermark. The detector is a maximum likelihood detector using test statistics obtained by integrating a correlation detector output over the entire sonar pulse width. Performance of the detector is controlled by signal-to-watermark ratio, specific frequency bands selected for watermarking, watermark payload, and processing gain. For validation, we use Sonar Simulation Toolset (SST). SST is a software tool that is custom-made for the simulation of undersea channels using realistic propagation properties in oceans. Probabilities of detection and false alarm rates, as well as other performance boundaries, are produced for a shallow water channel subject to multipath and additive noise.

Mobasseri, Bijan G.; Lynch, Robert S.

2010-04-01

8

Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

Burgoyne, John G.

2010-01-01

9

Realistic nurse-led policy implementation, optimization and evaluation: novel methodological exemplar.  

PubMed

AIM: To report the first large-scale realistic nurse-led implementation, optimization and evaluation of a complex children's continuing-care policy. BACKGROUND: Health policies are increasingly complex, involve multiple Government departments and frequently fail to translate into better patient outcomes. Realist methods have not yet been adapted for policy implementation. DESIGN: Research methodology - Evaluation using theory-based realist methods for policy implementation. METHODS: An expert group developed the policy and supporting tools. Implementation and evaluation design integrated diffusion of innovation theory with multiple case study and adapted realist principles. Practitioners in 12 English sites worked with Consultant Nurse implementers to manipulate the programme theory and logic of new decision-support tools and care pathway to optimize local implementation. Methods included key-stakeholder interviews, developing practical diffusion of innovation processes using key-opinion leaders and active facilitation strategies and a mini-community of practice. New and existing processes and outcomes were compared for 137 children during 2007-2008. RESULTS: Realist principles were successfully adapted to a shorter policy implementation and evaluation time frame. Important new implementation success factors included facilitated implementation that enabled 'real-time' manipulation of programme logic and local context to best-fit evolving theories of what worked; using local experiential opinion to change supporting tools to more realistically align with local context and what worked; and having sufficient existing local infrastructure to support implementation. Ten mechanisms explained implementation success and differences in outcomes between new and existing processes. CONCLUSIONS: Realistic policy implementation methods have advantages over top-down approaches, especially where clinical expertise is low and unlikely to diffuse innovations 'naturally' without facilitated implementation and local optimization. PMID:23713840

Noyes, Jane; Lewis, Mary; Bennett, Virginia; Widdas, David; Brombley, Karen

2013-05-28

10

Team training in obstetric and neonatal emergencies using highly realistic simulation in Mexico: impact on process indicators.  

PubMed

BackgroundIneffective management of obstetric emergencies contributes significantly to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Mexico. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a highly-realistic, low-tech simulation-based obstetric and neonatal emergency training program. A pair-matched hospital-based controlled implementation trial was undertaken in three states in Mexico, with pre/post measurement of process indicators at intervention hospitals. This report assesses the impact of PRONTO simulation training on process indicators from the pre/post study design for process indicators.MethodsData was collected in twelve intervention facilities on process indicators, including pre/post changes in knowledge and self-efficacy of obstetric emergencies and neonatal resuscitation, achievement of strategic planning goals established during training and changes in teamwork scores. Authors performed a longitudinal fixed-effects linear regression model to estimate changes in knowledge and self-efficacy and logistic regression to assess goal achievement.ResultsA total of 450 professionals in interprofessional teams were trained. Significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy were noted for both physicians and nurses (p <0.001- 0.009) in all domains. Teamwork scores improved and were maintained over a three month period. A mean of 58.8% strategic planning goals per team in each hospital were achieved. There was no association between high goal achievement and knowledge, self-efficacy, proportion of doctors or nurses in training, state, or teamwork score.ConclusionsThese results suggest that PRONTO¿s highly realistic, locally appropriate simulation and team training in maternal and neonatal emergency care may be a promising avenue for optimizing emergency response and improving quality of facility-based obstetric and neonatal care in resource-limited settings.Trial registration NCT01477554. PMID:25409895

Walker, Dilys; Cohen, Susanna; Fritz, Jimena; Olvera, Marisela; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Cowan, Jessica; Hernandez, Dolores; Dettinger, Julia C; Fahey, Jenifer O

2014-11-20

11

A New Realistic Evaluation Analysis Method: Linked Coding of Context, Mechanism, and Outcome Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In attempting to use a realistic evaluation approach to explore the role of Community Parents in early parenting programs in Toronto, a novel technique was developed to analyze the links between contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) directly from experienced practitioner interviews. Rather than coding the interviews into themes in terms of…

Jackson, Suzanne F.; Kolla, Gillian

2012-01-01

12

Realistic numerical simulations of solar convection: emerging flux, pores, and Stokes spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on magneto-convection simulations of magnetic flux emerging through the upper layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Simulations by Georgobiani, Stein and Nordlund start from minimally structured, uniform, untwisted horizontal field advected into the computational domain by supergranule scale inflows at 20 Mm depth. At the opposite extreme, simulations by Cheung (2007, 2008, 2011) start with a coherent flux tube inserted into or forced into the bottom of the computational domain. Several robust results have emerged from the comparison of results from these two very different initial states. First, rising magnetic flux gets deformed into undulating, serpentine shapes by the influence of the convective up- and down-flows. The flux develops fine structure and appears at the surface first as a "pepper and salt" pattern of mixed polarity. Where magnetic flux approaches the surface, granules become darker and elongated in the direction of the field. Subsequently, the underlying large scale magnetic structures make the field collect into unipolar regions. Magneto-convection produces a complex, small-scale magnetic field topology, whatever the initial state. A heirarchy of magnetic loops corresponding to the different scales of convective motions are produced. Vertical vortex tubes form at intergranule lane vertices which can lead to tornado-like magnetic fields in the photosphere. Gradients in field strength and velocity produce asymmetric Stokes spectra. Where emerging Omega loops leave behind nearly vertical legs, long lived pores can spontaneously form. The field in the pores first becomes concentrated and evacuated near the surface and the evacuated flux concentration then extends downward.

Georgobiani, D.; Stein, R.; Nordlund, A.

2012-12-01

13

Evaluation of automated emergency response systems  

SciTech Connect

Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

Addis, R.P.

1988-12-31

14

The management challenge for household waste in emerging economies like Brazil: realistic source separation and activation of reverse logistics.  

PubMed

Business opportunities in the household waste sector in emerging economies still evolve around the activities of bulk collection and tipping with an open material balance. This research, conducted in Brazil, pursued the objective of shifting opportunities from tipping to reverse logistics in order to close the balance. To do this, it illustrated how specific knowledge of sorted waste composition and reverse logistics operations can be used to determine realistic temporal and quantitative landfill diversion targets in an emerging economy context. Experimentation constructed and confirmed the recycling trilogy that consists of source separation, collection infrastructure and reverse logistics. The study on source separation demonstrated the vital difference between raw and sorted waste compositions. Raw waste contained 70% biodegradable and 30% inert matter. Source separation produced 47% biodegradable, 20% inert and 33% mixed material. The study on collection infrastructure developed the necessary receiving facilities. The study on reverse logistics identified private operators capable of collecting and processing all separated inert items. Recycling activities for biodegradable material were scarce and erratic. Only farmers would take the material as animal feed. No composting initiatives existed. The management challenge was identified as stimulating these activities in order to complete the trilogy and divert the 47% source-separated biodegradable discards from the landfills. PMID:24990590

Fehr, M

2014-09-01

15

Football reminiscence for men with dementia: lessons from a realistic evaluation.  

PubMed

Football reminiscence for men with dementia: lessons from a realistic evaluation A major challenge of studies of non pharmacological dementia interventions is the likely modest intervention effect size and difficulties collecting data from individuals with behavioural, psychological and communicative symptoms. The reported Realist Evaluation is built around sets of contextually comparable case studies of Football Focussed Reminiscence for men with dementia. The study aim was to evaluate benefits of football related reminiscence for individuals and family carers. Four case studies were constructed; two community groups, one nursing home groups and individual sessions within their family home. Data was collected as field notes from non-participation observation of reminiscence sessions, notes of conversations with people with dementia, audio recorded interviews with family members, facilitators and dementia link workers. The analysis was framed around identification and extraction of data pertaining to Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations within each data set, and patterns and threads were compared across the cases. An important finding was that anticipation of pleasure in tandem with a sense of continuity appeared to be important mechanisms triggering optimal benefit. The paper explores design considerations, project delivery experiences and the contribution that innovative theory driven research adds to the study of complex interventions including those with behavioural and communicative symptoms of dementia. PMID:21951769

Tolson, Debbie; Schofield, Irene

2012-03-01

16

The SMART personalised self-management system for congestive heart failure: results of a realist evaluation.  

PubMed

BackgroundTechnology has the potential to provide support for self-management to people with congestive heart failure (CHF). This paper describes the results of a realist evaluation of the SMART Personalised Self-Management System (PSMS) for CHF.MethodsThe PSMS was used, at home, by seven people with CHF. Data describing system usage and usability as well as questionnaire and interview data were evaluated in terms of the context, mechanism and outcome hypotheses (CMOs) integral to realist evaluation.ResultsThe CHF PSMS improved heart failure related knowledge in those with low levels of knowledge at baseline, through providing information and quizzes. Furthermore, participants perceived the self-regulatory aspects of the CHF PSMS as being useful in encouraging daily walking. The CMOs were revised to describe the context of use, and how this influences both the mechanisms and the outcomes.ConclusionsParticipants with CHF engaged with the PSMS despite some technological problems. Some positive effects on knowledge were observed as well as the potential to assist with changing physical activity behaviour. Knowledge of CHF and physical activity behaviour change are important self-management targets for CHF, and this study provides evidence to direct the further development of a technology to support these targets. PMID:25421307

Bartlett, Yvonne K; Haywood, Annette; Bentley, Claire L; Parker, Jack; Hawley, Mark S; Mountain, Gail A; Mawson, Susan

2014-11-25

17

Mechanisms for achieving adolescent-friendly services in Ecuador: a realist evaluation approach  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence showing that adolescent-friendly health services (AFSs) increase young people's access to these services, health systems across the world are failing to integrate this approach. In Latin America, policies aimed at strengthening AFS abound. However, such services are offered only in a limited number of sites, and providers’ attitudes and respect for confidentiality have not been addressed to a sufficient extent. Methods The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms that triggered the transformation of an ‘ordinary’ health care facility into an AFS in Ecuador. For this purpose, a realist evaluation approach was used in order to analyse three well-functioning AFSs. Information was gathered at the national level and from each of the settings including: (i) statistical information and unpublished reports; (ii) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with policy makers, health care providers, users and adolescents participating in youth organisations and (iii) observations at the health care facilities. Thematic analysis was carried out, driven by the realist evaluation approach, namely exploring the connections between mechanisms, contexts and outcomes. Results The results highlighted that the development of the AFSs was mediated by four mechanisms: grounded self-confidence in trying new things, legitimacy, a transformative process and an integral approach to adolescents. Along this process, contextual factors at the national and institutional levels were further explored. Conclusion The Ministry of Health of Ecuador, based on the New Guidelines for Comprehensive Care of Adolescent Health, has started the scaling up of AFSs. Our research points towards the need to recognise and incorporate these mechanisms as part of the implementation strategy from the very beginning of the process. Although contextually limited to Ecuador, many mechanisms and good practices in these AFS may be relevant to the Latin American setting and elsewhere. PMID:22855646

Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

2012-01-01

18

How do primary health care teams learn to integrate intimate partner violence (IPV) management? A realist evaluation protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the existence of ample literature dealing, on the one hand, with the integration of innovations within health systems and team learning, and, on the other hand, with different aspects of the detection and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) within healthcare facilities, research that explores how health innovations that go beyond biomedical issues—such as IPV management—get integrated into health systems, and that focuses on healthcare teams’ learning processes is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce if not absent. This realist evaluation protocol aims to ascertain: why, how, and under what circumstances primary healthcare teams engage (if at all) in a learning process to integrate IPV management in their practices; and why, how, and under what circumstances team learning processes lead to the development of organizational culture and values regarding IPV management, and the delivery of IPV management services. Methods This study will be conducted in Spain using a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from selected cases (primary healthcare teams) through different methods: individual and group interviews, routinely collected statistical data, documentary review, and observation. Cases will be purposively selected in order to enable testing the initial middle-range theory (MRT). After in-depth exploration of a limited number of cases, additional cases will be chosen for their ability to contribute to refining the emerging MRT to explain how primary healthcare learn to integrate intimate partner violence management. Discussion Evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are scarce, and even fewer focus on why, how, and when the healthcare services integrate IPV management. There is a consensus that healthcare professionals and healthcare teams play a key role in this integration, and that training is important in order to realize changes. However, little is known about team learning of IPV management, both in terms of how to trigger such learning and how team learning is connected with changes in organizational culture and values, and in service delivery. This realist evaluation protocol aims to contribute to this knowledge by conducting this project in a country, Spain, where great endeavours have been made towards the integration of IPV management within the health system. PMID:23522404

2013-01-01

19

The toxicological evaluation of realistic emissions of source aerosols study: statistical methods.  

PubMed

The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) study involved withdrawal, aging, and atmospheric transformation of emissions of three coal-fired power plants. Toxicological evaluations were carried out in rats exposed to different emission scenarios with extensive exposure characterization. Data generated had multiple levels of resolution: exposure, scenario, and constituent chemical composition. Here, we outline a multilayered approach to analyze the associations between exposure and health effects beginning with standard ANOVA models that treat exposure as a categorical variable. The model assessed differences in exposure effects across scenarios (by plant). To assess unadjusted associations between pollutant concentrations and health, univariate analyses were conducted using the difference between the response means under exposed and control conditions and a single constituent concentration as the predictor. Then, a novel multivariate analysis of exposure composition and health was used based on Random Forests(™), a recent extension of classification and regression trees that were applied to the outcome differences. For each exposure constituent, this approach yielded a nonparametric measure of the importance of that constituent in predicting differences in response on a given day, controlling for the other measured constituent concentrations in the model. Finally, an R(2) analysis compared the relative importance of exposure scenario, plant, and constituent concentrations on each outcome. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is used to demonstrate how the multiple levels of the analysis complement each other to assess constituents most strongly associated with health effects. PMID:21913820

Coull, Brent A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz; Diaz, Edgar; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

2011-08-01

20

Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)-power plant studies: assessment of cellular responses  

PubMed Central

The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA) project assessed primary and secondary particulate by simulating the chemical reactions that a plume from a source might undergo during atmospheric transport and added other atmospheric constituents that might interact with it. Three coal-fired power plants with different coal and different emission controls were used. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to either filtered air or aged aerosol from the power plant. Four exposure scenarios were studied: primary particles (P); primary + secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); primary + secondary (oxidized) particles + SOA (POS); and primary + secondary (oxidized) particles neutralized + SOA (PONS). Exposure concentrations varied by scenario to a maximum concentration of 257.1 ± 10.0 µg/m3. Twenty-four hours after exposure, pulmonary cellular responses were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), complete blood count (CBC), and histopathology. Exposure to the PONS and POS scenarios produced significant increases in BAL total cells and macrophage numbers at two plants. The PONS and P scenarios were associated with significant increases in BAL neutrophils and the presence of occasional neutrophils and increased macrophages in the airways and alveoli of exposed animals. Univariate analyses and random forest analyses showed that increases in total cell count and macrophage cell count were significantly associated with neutralized sulfate and several correlated measurements. Increases in neutrophils in BAL were associated with zinc. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters or blood vessel wall thickness by histopathology. The association between neutrophils increases and zinc raises the possibility that metals play a role in this response. PMID:21466245

Godleski, John J.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Long, Mark; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent

2013-01-01

21

A realistic simulator for the design and evaluation of intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of vehicles hitting the road each day is rapidly increasing, and several problems, such as traffic congestion or driver safety, can no longer be solved in the same fashion as before. Intelligent transportation systems could potentially solve part of these problems, but prototyping, designing and testing cooperative smart vehicles is a cumbersome task. This paper presents a realistic

Sven Gowal; Yizhen Zhang; Alcherio Martinoli

2010-01-01

22

Emergency department patient-tracking system evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology is rapidly being developed and implemented for health care environments, often as a replacement for paper based or other manual tools. One example of this transition is the replacement of large dry-erase boards, used in emergency departments (ED) for tracking patient locations and clinical care, with computerized patient-tracking systems. The design of such systems has important implications for

Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Dapeng Cao; Ann M. Bisantz; Li Lin; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Robert L. Wears; Shawna J. Perry; Theresa K. Guarrera; Jennifer L. Brown; Zheng Sui

2011-01-01

23

Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans  

PubMed Central

Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary), who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions (“attentional myopia”) and promotes a bias toward hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e., before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness. PMID:25374519

Haller, Jozsef; Raczkevy-Deak, Gabriella; Gyimesine, Katalin P.; Szakmary, Andras; Farkas, Istvan; Vegh, Jozsef

2014-01-01

24

Towards a Holistic Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Plans in Indoor Environments  

PubMed Central

One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

2014-01-01

25

Towards a holistic framework for the evaluation of emergency plans in indoor environments.  

PubMed

One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

2014-01-01

26

A Realistic Neural Mass Model of the Cortex with Laminar-Specific Connections and Synaptic Plasticity – Evaluation with Auditory Habituation  

PubMed Central

In this work we propose a biologically realistic local cortical circuit model (LCCM), based on neural masses, that incorporates important aspects of the functional organization of the brain that have not been covered by previous models: (1) activity dependent plasticity of excitatory synaptic couplings via depleting and recycling of neurotransmitters and (2) realistic inter-laminar dynamics via laminar-specific distribution of and connections between neural populations. The potential of the LCCM was demonstrated by accounting for the process of auditory habituation. The model parameters were specified using Bayesian inference. It was found that: (1) besides the major serial excitatory information pathway (layer 4 to layer 2/3 to layer 5/6), there exists a parallel “short-cut” pathway (layer 4 to layer 5/6), (2) the excitatory signal flow from the pyramidal cells to the inhibitory interneurons seems to be more intra-laminar while, in contrast, the inhibitory signal flow from inhibitory interneurons to the pyramidal cells seems to be both intra- and inter-laminar, and (3) the habituation rates of the connections are unsymmetrical: forward connections (from layer 4 to layer 2/3) are more strongly habituated than backward connections (from Layer 5/6 to layer 4). Our evaluation demonstrates that the novel features of the LCCM are of crucial importance for mechanistic explanations of brain function. The incorporation of these features into a mass model makes them applicable to modeling based on macroscopic data (like EEG or MEG), which are usually available in human experiments. Our LCCM is therefore a valuable building block for future realistic models of human cognitive function. PMID:24205009

Wang, Peng; Knösche, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

27

Implementing health research through academic and clinical partnerships: a realistic evaluation of the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC)  

PubMed Central

Background The English National Health Service has made a major investment in nine partnerships between higher education institutions and local health services called Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). They have been funded to increase capacity and capability to produce and implement research through sustained interactions between academics and health services. CLAHRCs provide a natural 'test bed' for exploring questions about research implementation within a partnership model of delivery. This protocol describes an externally funded evaluation that focuses on implementation mechanisms and processes within three CLAHRCs. It seeks to uncover what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Design and methods This study is a longitudinal three-phase, multi-method realistic evaluation, which deliberately aims to explore the boundaries around knowledge use in context. The evaluation funder wishes to see it conducted for the process of learning, not for judging performance. The study is underpinned by a conceptual framework that combines the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services and Knowledge to Action frameworks to reflect the complexities of implementation. Three participating CLARHCS will provide in-depth comparative case studies of research implementation using multiple data collection methods including interviews, observation, documents, and publicly available data to test and refine hypotheses over four rounds of data collection. We will test the wider applicability of emerging findings with a wider community using an interpretative forum. Discussion The idea that collaboration between academics and services might lead to more applicable health research that is actually used in practice is theoretically and intuitively appealing; however the evidence for it is limited. Our evaluation is designed to capture the processes and impacts of collaborative approaches for implementing research, and therefore should contribute to the evidence base about an increasingly popular (e.g., Mode two, integrated knowledge transfer, interactive research), but poorly understood approach to knowledge translation. Additionally we hope to develop approaches for evaluating implementation processes and impacts particularly with respect to integrated stakeholder involvement. PMID:21771329

2011-01-01

28

The New Mexico School Nurse and Emergency Medical Services Emergency Preparedness Course: Program Description and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illness and injuries are common among students and school staff. Therefore, school nurses must be prepared. In this study, a 16-hour scenario-based emergency preparedness course for school nurses was evaluated for its effectiveness. Effectiveness was measured by (a) traditional methods (written exams and confidence surveys) and (b) skills and…

Elgie, Robert; Sapien, Robert E.; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne

2005-01-01

29

Challenges in integrating nondestructive evaluation and finite-element methods for realistic structural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image

Ali Abdul-Aziz; George Y. Baaklini; Dmitri Zagidulin; Richard W. Rauser

2000-01-01

30

A Realist Evaluation Approach to Unpacking the Impacts of the Sentencing Guidelines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluations of complex interventions such as sentencing guidelines provide an opportunity to understand the mechanisms by which policies and programs can impact intermediate and long-term outcomes. There is limited previous discussion of the underlying frameworks by which sentencing guidelines can impact outcomes such as crime rates. Guided by a…

Hunt, Kim Steven; Sridharan, Sanjeev

2010-01-01

31

Creating realistic, scenario-based synthetic data for test and evaluation of information analytics software  

SciTech Connect

The Threat Stream Generator (TSG) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing synthetic datasets to test and evaluate visual analytics tools for the past four years. Our activities have ranged from supporting the evaluation of major U.S. Government analytical frameworks to creating four datasets for the IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) contest over the past two years. We have developed a reasonable method and supporting toolset for creating believable synthetic data sets for different uses. A key differentiator for our datasets is that they contain data concerning one or more invented threats, based on a scenario. Embedding a known threat into the data provides ground truth for analytic tools to work against in evaluating their performance, as well as new opportunities for evaluation researchers to explore techniques given ground truth exists. We describe the process of creating the scenarios and threats and the process of transforming them into data elements, and then we describe how this data is embedded in other data to form a TSG dataset.

Whiting, Mark A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Varley, Caroline F.

2008-04-10

32

What's Wrong Is What's Right: Setting Realistic Expectations for Peer Evaluation (a Bildungsroman).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that peer evaluation can work effectively if the teacher realizes that success should be measured more in long-term, cumulative benefits than in the immediate success or failure. Uses a fictitious scenario involving a teacher's first efforts at peer editing to make the above point. (TB)

Etheridge, Chuck

1995-01-01

33

Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper’s ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as ? exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography. PMID:21158272

Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N.

2010-01-01

34

Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography.

Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece); Department of Radiology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece)

2010-11-15

35

Evaluating phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) emergence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the use of ornamental plants as phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail emergence, and compared their performance with predictions based upon calendar date, cumulative growing degree-days (GDD) and the WeedCast program. From 1997 to 2001, we monitored giant foxtail emergenc...

36

Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)—Power plant studies: assessment of breathing pattern  

PubMed Central

Our approach to study multi-pollutant aerosols isolates a single emissions source, evaluates the toxicity of primary and secondary particles derived from this source, and simulates chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere after emission. Three U.S. coal-fired power plants utilizing different coals and with different emission controls were evaluated. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from ?-pinene and/or ammonia was added in some experiments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Scenarios studied at each plant included the following: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + SOA (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS); additional control scenarios were also studied. Continuous respiratory data were obtained during exposures using whole body plethysmography chambers. Of the 12 respiratory outcomes assessed, each had statistically significant changes at some plant and with some of the 4 scenarios. The most robust outcomes were found with exposure to the PO scenario (increased respiratory frequency with decreases in inspiratory and expiratory time); and the PONS scenario (decreased peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50%). PONS findings were most strongly associated with ammonium, neutralized sulfate, and elemental carbon (EC) in univariate analyses, but only with EC in multivariate analyses. Control scenario O (oxidized without primary particles) had similar changes to PO. Adjusted R2 analyses showed that scenario was a better predictor of respiratory responses than individual components, suggesting that the complex atmospheric mixture was responsible for respiratory effects. PMID:21639693

Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Coull, Brent; Long, Mark S.; Rohr, Annette C.; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Godleski, John J.

2013-01-01

37

Challenges in integrating nondestructive evaluation and finite-element methods for realistic structural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity2 in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

2000-05-01

38

Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system  

PubMed Central

The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C.; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

2014-01-01

39

Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

2000-01-01

40

The Management of Long-Term Sickness Absence in Large Public Sector Healthcare Organisations: A Realist Evaluation Using Mixed Methods.  

PubMed

Purpose The success of measures to reduce long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in public sector organisations is contingent on organisational context. This realist evaluation investigates how interventions interact with context to influence successful management of LTSA. Methods Multi-method case study in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland comprising realist literature review, semi-structured interviews (61 participants), Process-Mapping and feedback meetings (59 participants), observation of training, analysis of documents. Results Important activities included early intervention; workplace-based occupational rehabilitation; robust sickness absence policies with clear trigger points for action. Used appropriately, in a context of good interpersonal and interdepartmental communication and shared goals, these are able to increase the motivation of staff to return to work. Line managers are encouraged to take a proactive approach when senior managers provide support and accountability. Hindering factors: delayed intervention; inconsistent implementation of policy and procedure; lack of resources; organisational complexity; stakeholders misunderstanding each other's goals and motives. Conclusions Different mechanisms have the potential to encourage common motivations for earlier return from LTSA, such as employees feeling that they have the support of their line manager to return to work and having the confidence to do so. Line managers' proactively engage when they have confidence in the support of seniors and in their own ability to address LTSA. Fostering these motivations calls for a thoughtful, diagnostic process, taking into account the contextual factors (and whether they can be modified) and considering how a given intervention can be used to trigger the appropriate mechanisms. PMID:25385199

Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

2014-11-11

41

Development and evaluation of realistic microbioassays in freely suspended droplets on a chip  

PubMed Central

A novel technique for biomolecular detection in microliter droplets floating on the surface of high density oil is presented. Each droplet was captured and manipulated dielectrophoretically and was used as a site for a microscopic bioassay based on agglutination of antibody-conjugated particles. The results were read out by the pattern of unagglomerated gold nanoparticles collected on the droplet surface. Two formats of bioassays, namely gold only agglutination and gold and latex agglutination, were investigated experimentally by varying analyte concentration, particle size and concentration, number of antigen binding sites per particle, time for incubation, and rate of particle collection on the droplet surface. The microbioassays performance was also evaluated with ricin antibodies and compared to the ricin assays in field use. It is estimated that the droplet based assays require 100× smaller sample volume and are ten times more sensitive, though they require longer times to complete. The experiments were interpreted by modeling the kinetics of particle agglutination and mass transfer processes inside the droplets. The incubation time and antigen concentration values calculated by the model correlate well with the experimental results. The results could allow for development of efficient immunoassays on a chip requiring even smaller sample volumes. PMID:19693356

Rastogi, Vinayak; Velev, Orlin D.

2007-01-01

42

Realistic Subscale Evaluations of the Mechanical Properties of Advanced Disk Superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experimental powder metallurgy disk alloys were evaluated for their processing characteristics and high temperature mechanical properties. Powder of each alloy was hot compacted, extruded, and isothermally forged into subscale disks. Disks were subsolvus and supersolvus heat treated, then quenched using procedures designed to reproduce the cooling paths expected in large-scale disks. Mechanical tests were then performed at 538, 704, and 815 C. Several alloys had superior tensile and creep properties at 704 C and higher temperatures, but were difficult to process and prone to quench cracking, chiefly due to their high gamma prime solvus temperature. Several other alloys had more favorable processing characteristics due to their lower gamma prime solvus temperature and balanced time-dependent properties at 704 C. Results indicate an experimental low solvus, high refractory alloy can build upon the best attributes of all these alloys, giving exceptional tensile and creep properties at high temperatures with good processing characteristics due to a low gamma prime solvus.

Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Konkel, William A.

2003-01-01

43

Evaluating the influence of the 'unity assumption' on the temporal perception of realistic audiovisual stimuli.  

PubMed

Vatakis, A. and Spence, C. (in press) [Crossmodal binding: Evaluating the 'unity assumption' using audiovisual speech stimuli. Perception &Psychophysics] recently demonstrated that when two briefly presented speech signals (one auditory and the other visual) refer to the same audiovisual speech event, people find it harder to judge their temporal order than when they refer to different speech events. Vatakis and Spence argued that the 'unity assumption' facilitated crossmodal binding on the former (matching) trials by means of a process of temporal ventriloquism. In the present study, we investigated whether the 'unity assumption' would also affect the binding of non-speech stimuli (video clips of object action or musical notes). The auditory and visual stimuli were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which modality stream had been presented first. The auditory and visual musical and object action stimuli were either matched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the corresponding sound) or else mismatched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the sound of a guitar string being plucked). However, in contrast to the results of Vatakis and Spence's recent speech study, no significant difference in the accuracy of temporal discrimination performance for the matched versus mismatched video clips was observed. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:17258164

Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

2008-01-01

44

Monte Carlo evaluation of water equivalency of some plastic materials for realistic electron IORT beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water equivalency of some commercially available water substitute materials for high energy electron beams dosimetry (PMMA, polystyrene and solid water WT1) has been investigated in this work for electron beams generated by the IORT linear accelerator NOVAC 7. The beams were simulated by the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, while the dose distributions in water and plastic phantoms were calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The stopping power ratios were evaluated using SPRRZnrc user code. The results obtained for the depth-and fluence-scaling factors have been compared with the values recommended by the TRS-398 IAEA code of practice for absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. Due to the significant differences observed (sometimes more than 1%) and to the dependence of the scaling factors on the beam quality we can conclude that every time when plastic phantoms are used in electron IORT dosimetry, a theoretical or experimental investigation of the water equivalency of the water substitute materials must be done.

Oprea, M.; Mihailescu, D.; Borcia, C.

2012-12-01

45

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the scenarios utilizing secondary particles (oxidized emissions) ranged from 70-256 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and some of the atmospheres contained high acidity levels (up to 49 {micro}g/m{sup 3} equivalent of sulfuric acid). However, caution must be used in generalizing these results to other power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations, as the emissions may vary based on these factors.

Annette Rohr

2006-03-01

46

Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

2010-01-01

47

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

2011-03-31

48

Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.

Heather, Paul; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Conger, Bruce

2006-01-01

49

More than a checklist: a realist evaluation of supervision of mid-level health workers in rural Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Mid-level health workers (MLHWs) form the front-line of service delivery in many low- and middle-income countries. Supervision is a critical institutional intervention linking their work to the health system, and it consists of activities intended to support health workers’ motivation and enable them to perform. However its impact depends not only on the frequency of these activities but also how they are carried out and received. This study aims to deepen understanding of the mechanisms through which supervision activities support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of MLHWs, in rural Guatemala. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to examine the operation of supervision of five health posts using a realist evaluation approach. A program theory was formulated describing local understanding of how supervision activities are intended to work. Data was collected through interviews and document review to test the theory. Analysis focused on comparison of activities, outcomes, mechanisms and the influence of context across cases, leading to revision of the program theory. Results The supervisor’s orientation was identified as the main mechanism contributing to variation observed in activities and their outcomes. Managerial control was the dominant orientation, reflecting the influence of standardized performance criteria and institutional culture. Humanized support was present in one case where the auxiliary nurse was motivated by the sense that the full scope of her work was valued. This orientation reflected the supervisor’s integration of her professional identity as a nurse. Conclusions The nature of the support health workers received was shaped by supervisors’ orientation, and in this study, nursing principles were central to humanized support. Efforts to strengthen the support that supervision provides to MLHWs should promote professional ethos as a means of developing shared performance goals and orient supervisors to a more holistic view of the health worker and their work. PMID:24602196

2014-01-01

50

Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery. PMID:24903401

2014-01-01

51

Integration of robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration, and decision making: a realist process evaluation protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Robotic surgery offers many potential benefits for patients. While an increasing number of healthcare providers are purchasing surgical robots, there are reports that the technology is failing to be introduced into routine practice. Additionally, in robotic surgery, the surgeon is physically separated from the patient and the rest of the team, with the potential to negatively impact teamwork in the operating theatre. The aim of this study is to ascertain: how and under what circumstances robotic surgery is effectively introduced into routine practice; and how and under what circumstances robotic surgery impacts teamwork, communication and decision making, and subsequent patient outcomes. Methods and design We will undertake a process evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and robotic surgery for the curative treatment of rectal cancer. Realist evaluation provides an overall framework for the study. The study will be in three phases. In Phase I, grey literature will be reviewed to identify stakeholders’ theories concerning how robotic surgery becomes embedded into surgical practice and its impacts. These theories will be refined and added to through interviews conducted across English hospitals that are using robotic surgery for rectal cancer resection with staff at different levels of the organisation, along with a review of documentation associated with the introduction of robotic surgery. In Phase II, a multi-site case study will be conducted across four English hospitals to test and refine the candidate theories. Data will be collected using multiple methods: the structured observation tool OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery); video recordings of operations; ethnographic observation; and interviews. In Phase III, interviews will be conducted at the four case sites with staff representing a range of surgical disciplines, to assess the extent to which the results of Phase II are generalisable and to refine the resulting theories to reflect the experience of a broader range of surgical disciplines. The study will provide (i) guidance to healthcare organisations on factors likely to facilitate successful implementation and integration of robotic surgery, and (ii) guidance on how to ensure effective communication and teamwork when undertaking robotic surgery. PMID:24885669

2014-01-01

52

Performance evaluation of two emerging media processors: VIRAM and imagine  

SciTech Connect

This work presents two emerging media microprocessors, VIRAM and Imagine, and compares the implementation strategies and performance results of these unique architectures. VIRAM is a complete system on a chip which uses PIM technology to combine vector processing with embedded DRAM. Imagine is a programmable streaming architecture with a specialized memory hierarchy designed for computationally intensive data-parallel codes. First, we present a simple and effective approach for understanding and optimizing vector/stream applications. Performance results are then presented from a number of multimedia benchmarks and a computationally intensive scientific kernel. We explore the complex interact ions between programming paradigms, the architectural support at the ISA lever and the underlying microarchitecture of these two systems. Our long term goal is to evaluate leading media microprocessors as possible building blocks for future high performance systems.

Oliker, Leonid; Duell, Jason; Narayanan, Manikandan; Chatterji, Sourav

2003-01-01

53

76 FR 72431 - Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2008-0022] Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation...Support of Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Supplement 4 and FEMA Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program...

2011-11-23

54

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Significant progress was made on the Project during this reporting period, with field work being initiated at Plant 0. Initial testing of the stack sampling system and reaction apparatus revealed that primary particle concentrations were lower than expected in the emissions entering the mobile chemical laboratory. Initial animal exposures to primary emissions were carried out (Scenario 1) to ensure successful implementation of all study methodologies and toxicological assessments. Results indicated no significant toxicological effects in response to primary emissions exposures. Exposures were then carried out to diluted, oxidized, neutralized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (Scenario 5), both during the day and also at night when primary particle concentrations in the sampled stack emissions tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

Annette Rohr

2004-12-02

55

Emergency flight planning with the EFP interface: an empirical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During emergency situations, pilots must generate an emergency flight plan that is feasible, effective and safe to guide the plane to touchdown. An initial experiment with the Emergency Flight Planner (EFP) revealed problems with pilots' use of the planner's interface. This study is aimed at discovering whether pilot difficulties are the direct result of a poor interface, or the result

D. C. Nix

2001-01-01

56

Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital, France. Results will be published in scientific journals, and communicated to respondents and relevant institutions. PMID:25631314

Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

2015-01-01

57

Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current generations of GPUs lack a sufficient balance of computational resources to replace the general-purpose microprocessor found in most traditional supercomputer architectures. ARSC has also worked with the Cell Broadband Engine in a small Playstation3 cluster, as well as a 24-processor system based on IBM's QS22 blades. The QS22 system, called Quasar, features the PowerXCell 8i processor found in the RoadRunner system, along with an InfiniBand network and high performance storage. Quasar overcomes the limitations of the small memory and relatively slow network of the PS3 systems. The presentation will include system-level benchmarks on Quasar, as well as evaluation of the WRF test cases. Another technology evaluation focused on Sun's UltraSPARC T2+ processor, which ARSC evaluated in a two-way system. Each T2+ provides eight processor cores, each of which provides eight threads, for a total of 128 threads in a single system. WRF scalability was good up to the number of cores, but multiple threads per core did not scale as well. Throughout the discussion, practical findings from ARSC will be summarized. While multicore general-purpose microprocessors are anticipated to remain important for large computers running earth and space science applications, the role of other potentially disruptive technologies is less certain. Limitations of current and future technologies will be discussed. class="ab'>

Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

2008-12-01

58

What works in ‘real life’ to facilitate home deaths and fewer hospital admissions for those at end of life?: results from a realist evaluation of new palliative care services in two English counties  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated end of life care services in two English counties including: coordination centres, telephone advice line, ‘Discharge in Reach’ nurses, a specialist community personal care team and community nurse educators. Elsewhere, we published findings detailing high family carer satisfaction and fewer hospital admissions, Accident and Emergency attendances and hospital deaths for service users compared to controls. The aim of this paper is to discuss what contributed to those outcomes. Methods Using realist evaluation, data collection included documentation (e.g. referral databases), 15 observations of services and interviews with 43 family carers and 105 professionals. Data were analysed using framework analysis, applying realist evaluation concepts. Findings were discussed at successive team meetings and further data was collected until team consensus was reached. Results Services ‘worked’ primarily for those with cancer with ‘fast track’ funding who were close to death. Factors contributing to success included services staffed with experienced palliative care professionals with dedicated (and sufficient) time for difficult conversations with family carers, patients and/or clinical colleagues about death and the practicalities of caring for the dying. Using their formal and informal knowledge of the local healthcare system, they accessed community resources to support homecare and delivered excellent services. This engendered confidence and reassurance for staff, family carers and patients, possibly contributing to less hospital admissions and A&E attendances and more home deaths. Conclusions With demand for 24-hour end of life care growing and care provision fragmented across health and social care boundaries, services like these that cut across organisational sectors may become more important. They offer an overview to help navigate those desiring a home death through the system. PMID:25075202

2014-01-01

59

Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Modifications to the original study design, which will improve the atmospheric aging component of the project and ensure that emissions are as realistic as possible, have resulted in project delays, and, at the time of report preparation, fieldwork at the Upper Midwest plant had not begun. However, such activities are imminent. This report therefore does not present data for activities covered by the Agreement, but does present results for the laboratory methods development work. This work is critical for the future success of the project. In particular, the atmospheric reaction simulation system is of paramount importance to the TERESA study design, since the basis for the toxicity assessment lies in the generation of realistic exposure atmospheres. The formation, composition, and toxicity of particles will be related to different atmospheric conditions and plume dilution scenarios through variations in reaction conditions. Because of the critical role played by this component in ensuring the overall success of the project, more time was required to develop and optimize the system, and the one-chamber simulation system outlined in the original Scope of Work for the Agreement was modified to comprise a more realistic dual chamber system. We are confident that the additional time required to optimize these methodologies will result in a significant improvement in the study. We fully expect that results for tasks covered under the Agreement, and a complete discussion of their relevance and value, will be included in the next semiannual progress report.

Annette Rohr

2004-02-29

60

1992 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has encouraged and financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies suitable for use at hazardous waste sites for five year...

61

Advanced Topics in Emergency Medicine: Curriculum Development and Initial Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency medicine (EM) is a young specialty and only recently has a recommended medical student curriculum been developed. Currently, many schools do not require students to complete a mandatory clerkship in EM, and if one is required, it is typically an overview of the specialty. Objectives We developed a 10-month longitudinal elective to teach subject matter and skills in EM to fourth-year medical students interested in the specialty. Our goal was producing EM residents with the knowledge and skills to excel at the onset of their residency. We hoped to prove that students participating in this rigorous 10-month longitudinal EM elective would feel well prepared for residency. Methods We studied the program with an end-of-the-year, Internet-based, comprehensive course evaluation completed by each participant of the first 2 years of the course. Graduates rated each of the course components by using a 5-point Likert format from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree,” either in terms of whether the component was beneficial to them or whether the course expectations were appropriate, or their perceptions related to the course. Results Graduates of this elective have reported feeling well prepared to start residency. The resident-led teaching shifts, Advanced Pediatric Life Support certification, Grand Rounds presentations, Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support proficiency testing, and ultrasound component, were found to be beneficial by all students. Conclusions Our faculty believes that participating students will be better prepared for an EM residency than those students just completing a 1-month clerkship. Our data, although limited, lead us to believe that a longitudinal, immersion-type experience assists fourth-year medical students in preparation for residency. PMID:22224157

Kman, Nicholas E; Bernard, Aaron W; Martin, Daniel R; Bahner, David; Gorgas, Diane; Nagel, Rollin; Khandelwal, Sorabh

2011-01-01

62

A Framework for Performance Evaluation and Optimization of an Emerging Multimedia DS-CDMA  

E-print Network

A Framework for Performance Evaluation and Optimization of an Emerging Multimedia DS-CDMA Network* Vladimir Marbukh National Institute of Standards and Technology 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8920 Gaithersburg for performance evaluation and optimization of an emerging multimedia, packet Direct-Sequence Code Division

63

Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.

Aumeunier, M.-H.; Travere, J.-M. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Les-Durance F-13108 (France)

2010-10-15

64

Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER.  

PubMed

In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed. PMID:21034052

Aumeunier, M-H; Travere, J-M

2010-10-01

65

Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases   

E-print Network

New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

Meredith, Anna Louise

2012-06-30

66

The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.  

PubMed

We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24? × ?48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of (99m)Tc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion correction methods for improved SPECT/CT imaging. PMID:25612263

Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M W

2015-02-21

67

The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24? × ?48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of 99mTc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion correction methods for improved SPECT/CT imaging.

Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

2015-02-01

68

Evaluation of the need for emergency heat exchangers for long term emergency cooling of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate the heat transferred to the light water pools from the primary piping system for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor (ANSR) conceptual design. It has been determined that the ANSR primary piping system will remove sufficient heat from the primary coolant system to the pools for certain design basis event accidents without the emergency heat exchangers if the design parameters, such as pool volumes and pipe sizes (length and surface area), are selected appropriately. Based on this analysis, the emergency heat exchangers might be removed, and their function can be performed by the primary piping passing through the light water pools described in the conceptual design report. This study also shows that connecting the pipe chase pool and the heat exchanger pools improve performance for ANSR emergency heat removal.

Khayat, M.I.; Anderson, J.L.; Battle, R.E.; March-Leuba, J.

1994-05-01

69

Evaluation of third nerve palsy in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Third nerve palsy is an uncommon condition that carries significant risk of serious disease due to both the variability of its presentation and its association with intracranial aneurysms. In this article, we review the existing literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of third nerve palsy presenting to the Emergency Department. PMID:17976817

Woodruff, Michael M; Edlow, Jonathan A

2008-10-01

70

The economic evaluation of emerging nuclear energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most emerging nuclear energy systems are in the early phases of the research, development, design, and deployment life cycle and\\/or represent pioneer or first-of-a-kind projects; hence, the uncertainties associated with capital and life cycle costs are often considerable. The type of cost estimate prepared for a given system also depends heavily on the system's development\\/deployment status, and the cost projections

1991-01-01

71

Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

Chavez, Alfred Paul

2004-01-01

72

1994 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE), Emerging Technology Partnership (ETP) has initiated actions since 1987 that support the Clinton Administration's policy to foster and accelerate the research and development of inn...

73

EVALUATING AND TESTING EMERGENCY TESTING MONITORING DEVICES IN EXTREME COLD TEMPERATURES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: F8P11070 Title: Evaluating and Testing Emergency Testing Monitoring Devices in Extreme Cold Temperatures Fellow (Principal Investigator): Tyler S. O?Dell Institution: Lake Superior State University EPA GRANT Represent...

74

Integrative Evaluation: An Emerging Role for Classroom Studies of CAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews evaluations of CAL (computer-assisted learning) in use at the University of Glasgow (Scotland). Topics include methods used; prior knowledge; learning motivation; attitude measures; confidence logs; knowledge quizzes; study habits; Hawthorne effects; formative, summative, illuminative, and integrative evaluation; quality assurance…

Draper, Stephen W.; And Others

1996-01-01

75

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2004 through February 28, 2005. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, all fieldwork at Plant 0 was completed. Stack sampling was conducted in October to determine if there were significant differences between the in-stack PM concentrations and the diluted concentrations used for the animal exposures. Results indicated no significant differences and therefore confidence that the revised stack sampling methodology described in the previous semiannual report is appropriate for use in the Project. Animal exposures to three atmospheric scenarios were carried out. From October 4-7, we conducted exposures to oxidized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Later in October, exposures to the most complex scenario (oxidized, neutralized emissions plus SOA) were repeated to ensure comparability with the results of the June/July exposures where a different stack sampling setup was employed. In November, exposures to oxidized emissions were performed. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biological endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. No significant differences between exposed animals and sham animals (exposed to filtered air) were observed for any of the endpoints; histopathological results are pending and will be reported in the next semiannual report. The scenarios evaluated during this reporting period were slightly modified from those originally proposed. We substituted a new scenario, secondary aerosol + SOA, to investigate the effects of a strongly acidic aerosol with a biogenic component. Since we did not observe any biological response to this scenario, the neutralized secondary aerosol scenario (i.e., oxidized emissions + ammonia) was deemed unnecessary. Moreover, in light of the lack of response observed in the Stage I assessment, it was decided that a Stage II assessment (evaluation of cardiac function in a compromised rat model) was unlikely to provide useful information. However, this model will be employed at Plant 1 and/or 2. During this reporting period, significant progress was made in planning for fieldwork at Plant 1. Stack sampling was carried out at the plant in mid-December to determine the concentration of primary particles. It was found that PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations were approximately three times higher than those observed at Plant 0. In mid-February, installation and setup for the mobile laboratories began. Animal exposures are scheduled to begin at this plant on March 21, 2005. During the next reporting period, we will initiate fieldwork at Plant 1. At either or both Plants 1 and 2, a detailed Stage II assessment will be performed, even if no significant findings are observed in Stage I. The next semiannual report is expected to include a detailed description of the fieldwork at Plant 1, including toxicological findings and interpretation.

Annette Rohr

2005-03-31

76

The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in kermanshah.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

2015-01-01

77

Evaluation of responses of an air medical helicopter program during a comprehensive emergency response drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionParticipation of air medical service programs in emergency response drills can reveal important information regarding preparedness. This article reviews one program's participation in a drill, the evaluation methods used to assess the program's response, and the findings of the drill evaluation.

Karyl J. Burns; Kenneth Robinson; Eric G. Lowe

2007-01-01

78

Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex

P. H. Gudiksen; R. Lange; D. J. Rodriguez; J. S. Nasstrom

1985-01-01

79

Evaluation of Emerging Diagnostic Tools for Commercial HVAC Systems  

E-print Network

and manual diagnostic methods. Control points Automated data acquisition Archive Pre-process Visualize Detect Diagnose TOOL F TOOL E TOOL D limited TOOL C limited TOOL B TOOL A Figure 1. Tool Scope TOOL EVALUATION The introduction gave an overview of tool.... Tool F?s main limitation is a lack of automation to diagnostics, with user-defined conditional alarms as the only method of automated detection. The tool extends beyond EMCS alarm capabilities by adding long-term archiving and advanced visualization...

Friedman, H.; Piette, M. A.

2001-01-01

80

How to evaluate emerging technologies in cervical cancer screening?  

PubMed Central

Excellent recommendations exist for studying therapeutic and diagnostic questions. We observe that good guidelines on assessment of evidence for screening questions are currently lacking. Guidelines for diagnostic research (STARD), involving systematic application of the reference test (gold standard) to all subjects of large study populations, are not pertinent in situations of screening for disease that is currently not yet present. A five-step framework is proposed for assessing the potential use of a biomarker as a screening tool for cervical cancer: 1) correlation studies establishing a trend between the rate of biomarker expression and severity of neoplasia; 2) diagnostic studies in a clinical setting where all women are submitted to verification by the reference standard; 3) biobank-based studies with assessment in archived cytology samples of the biomarker in cervical cancer cases and controls; 4) prospective cohort studies with baseline assessment of the biomarker and monitoring of disease; 5) randomised intervention trials aiming to observe reduced incidence of cancer (or its surrogate, severe dysplasia) in the experimental arm at subsequent screening rounds. The 5-phases framework should guide researchers and test developers in planning assessment of new biomarkers and protect clinicians and stakeholders against premature claims for insufficiently evaluated products. PMID:19626591

Arbyn, Marc; Ronco, Guglielmo; Cuzick, Jack; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Castle, Philip E.

2009-01-01

81

Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: realist evaluation of the Leadership Development Programme for district manager decision-making in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Although there is widespread agreement that strong district manager decision-making improves health systems, understanding about how the design and implementation of capacity-strengthening interventions work is limited. The Ghana Health Service has adopted the Leadership Development Programme (LDP) as one intervention to support the development of management and leadership within district teams. This paper seeks to address how and why the LDP ‘works’ when it is introduced into a district health system in Ghana, and whether or not it supports systems thinking in district teams. Methods We undertook a realist evaluation to investigate the outcomes, contexts, and mechanisms of the intervention. Building on two working hypotheses developed from our earlier work, we developed an explanatory case study of one rural district in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data collection included participant observation, document review, and semi-structured interviews with district managers prior to, during, and after the intervention. Working backwards from an in-depth analysis of the context and observed short- and medium-term outcomes, we drew a causal loop diagram to explain interactions between contexts, outcomes, and mechanisms. Results The LDP was a valuable experience for district managers and teams were able to attain short-term outcomes because the novel approach supported teamwork, initiative-building, and improved prioritisation. However, the LDP was not institutionalised in district teams and did not lead to increased systems thinking. This was related to the context of high uncertainty within the district, and hierarchical authority of the system, which triggered the LDP’s underlying goal of organisational control. Conclusions Consideration of organisational context is important when trying to sustain complex interventions, as it seems to influence the gap between short- and medium-term outcomes. More explicit focus on systems thinking principles that enable district managers to better cope with their contexts may strengthen the institutionalisation of the LDP in the future. PMID:24935521

2014-01-01

82

Investigating the organisational impacts of quality improvement: a protocol for a realist evaluation of improvement approaches drawing on the Resource Based View of the Firm  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is understood about the role of quality improvement in enabling health organisations to survive and thrive in the contemporary context of financial and economic challenges. We will draw on the theoretical foundations of the ‘Resource Based View of the Firm’ (RBV) to develop insights into why health organisations engage in improvement work, how impacts are conceptualised, and ‘what works’ in delivering these impacts. Specifically, RBV theorises that the mix and use of resources across different organisations may explain differences in performance. Whether improvement work influences these resources is unclear. Methods and analysis Case study research will be conducted across health organisations participating in four approaches to improvement, including: a national improvement programme; a multiorganisational partnership around implementation; an organisational strategy for quality improvement; and a coproduction project designed to enhance the experience of a clinical service from the perspective of patients. Data will comprise in-depth interviews with key informants, observation of key events and documents; analysed within and then across cases. Adopting a realist perspective, the core tenets of RBV will be evaluated as a programme theory, focusing on the interplay between organisational conditions and behavioural or resource responses that are reported through engagement in improvement. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by Bangor University Ethics Committee. The investigation will not judge the relative merits of different approaches to healthcare quality improvement. Rather, we will develop unique insights into the organisational consequences, and dependencies of quality improvement, providing an opportunity to add to the explanatory potential of RBV in this and other contexts. In addition to scientific and lay reports of the study findings, research outputs will include a framework for constructing the economic impacts of quality improvement and practical guidance for health service managers that maximises the impacts of investment in quality improvement. PMID:25082421

Burton, Christopher R; Rycroft Malone, Jo; Robert, Glenn; Willson, Alan; Hopkins, Angela

2014-01-01

83

Performance Evaluation on Emergency Management of the Conflict Groups Social Events of Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

From angle of the enterprise, according to the idears of strategic management of Balanced Scorecard(BSC), the paper focuses on the central of the emergency managerial system of the conflict groups social events and operational mechanism to construct the performance evaluation system. After that, according to the example of the strikes of Taxi companies in Chongqin, the paper made use of

Cheng Chunmei; Wang Zhihong; Li Ming

2010-01-01

84

Evaluation of knowledge of common hand surgery problems in internal medicine and emergency medicine residents.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal disorders are the principal reason for primary care outpatient visits and make up 14% of visits to emergency departments, with the upper extremity as the most common site affected. However, formal musculoskeletal education is inconsistent in medical school and primary care residencies, with many first-year residents reporting a lack of confidence in examination and diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions. The authors evaluated the level of knowledge of common upper-extremity conditions with a validated examination taken by internal medicine and emergency medicine residents. A 38-question upper-extremity examination was created by a group of hand and upper-extremity surgeons from the Resident Education Committee of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The examination was reviewed by 30 hand fellowship directors, who rated each question on a Likert scale and determined a recommended passing percentage. The Web-based examination was taken by emergency and internal medicine residents from multiple institutions. The fellowship directors' recommended passing grade averaged 73%. The majority of respondents were in their first (33%) or second (33%) year of training. The average scores were 56% and 46% for the internal and emergency medicine residents, respectively. This evaluation of a cross-section of internal and emergency residents indicates a deficiency in knowledge of common upper-extremity conditions. PMID:21717989

Scher, Danielle L; Boyer, Martin I; Hammert, Warren C; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis

2011-07-01

85

Realistic Animation of Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our ap- proach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the Navier-Stokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and

Nick Foster; Dimitris N. Metaxas

1996-01-01

86

Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We perform essentially parameter free simulations with realistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize the physics that is included and compare the simulation results with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the depth of the convection zone, the p-mode frequencies, the p-mode excitation rate, the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, and the profiles of weak photospheric lines. We describe how solar convection is nonlocal. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative cooling produces low entropy gas which forms the cores of the downdrafts in which most of the buoyancy work occurs. We show that turbulence and vorticity are mostly confined to the intergranular lanes and underlying downdrafts. Finally, we illustrate our current work on magneto-convection.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake

2000-01-01

87

Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

88

Teaching and evaluating multitasking ability in emergency medicine residents - what is the best practice?  

PubMed Central

Multitasking is an essential skill to develop during Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. Residents who struggle to cope in a multitasking environment risk fatigue, stress, and burnout. Improper management of interruption has been causally linked with medical errors. Formal teaching and evaluation of multitasking is often lacking in EM residency programs. This article reviewed the literature on multitasking in EM to identify best practices for teaching and evaluating multitasking amongst EM residents. With the advancement in understanding of what multitasking is, deliberate attempts should be made to teach residents pitfalls and coping strategies. This can be taught through a formal curriculum, role modeling by faculty, and simulation training. The best way to evaluate multitasking ability in residents is by direct observation. The EM Milestone Project provides a framework by which multitasking can be evaluated. EM residents should be deployed in work environments commiserate with their multitasking ability and their progress should be graduated after identified deficiencies are remediated. PMID:25635201

2014-01-01

89

[Preparedness - decisions in the face of uncertainty. Evaluation of nurses' response readiness in hospital emergency exercises].  

PubMed

Events in which the health and life of a large number of people are at stake impose particular challenges to all who are involved in healthcare. An effective response requires prompt decision-making under time pressure, in a context characterised by uncertainty and low routine. The hypothesis is that healthcare staffs' preparedness-related competency increases response quality. An evaluation tool was developed to assess response-relevant competencies of emergency nurses. Competencies relevant to the German healthcare system were systematically defined and operationalised into observable items. Multiple phases of qualitative field studies were employed to develop a conceptual guide to planning and conducting the evaluation. The usability of the evaluation tool was piloted and iteratively optimised. The resulting evaluation approach has the potential to substantiate education and training in the context of curriculum development. PMID:24315332

Kupfer, Ramona; Michalzik, Elisabeth; Lenz, Matthias

2013-01-01

90

Evaluating adverse drug event reporting in administrative data from emergency departments: a validation study  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse drug events are a frequent cause of emergency department presentations. Administrative data could be used to identify patients presenting with adverse drug events for post-market surveillance, and to conduct research in patient safety and in drug safety and effectiveness. However, such data sources have not been evaluated for their completeness with regard to adverse drug event reporting. Our objective was to determine the proportion of adverse drug events to outpatient medications diagnosed at the point-of-care in emergency departments that were documented in administrative data. Methods We linked the records of patients enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study on adverse drug events conducted in two Canadian tertiary care emergency departments to their administrative data. We compared the number of adverse drug events diagnosed and recorded at the point-of-care in the prospective study with the number of adverse drug events recorded in the administrative data. Results Among 1574 emergency department visits, 221 were identified as adverse drug event-related in the prospective database. We found 15 adverse drug events documented in administrative records with ICD-10 codes clearly indicating an adverse drug event, indicating a sensitivity of 6.8% (95% CI 4.0–11.2%) of this code set. When the ICD-10 code categories were broadened to include codes indicating a very likely, likely or possible adverse event to a medication, 62 of 221 events were identifiable in administrative data, corresponding to a sensitivity of 28.1% (95% CI 22.3-34.6%). Conclusions Adverse drug events to outpatient medications were underreported in emergency department administrative data compared to the number of adverse drug events diagnosed and recorded at the point-of-care. PMID:24219303

2013-01-01

91

Maternal Evaluations of Children's Emergent Literacy Level, Maternal Mediation in Book Reading, and Children's Emergent Literacy Level: A Comparison Between SES Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether maternal evaluations of children's emergent literacy (EL) levels, maternal mediation during a book-reading activity with children, and the children's EL levels differ as a function of socioeconomic status (SES; low vs. high), and whether the relationships between these variables differ as a function of SES levels. Study…

Korat, Ofra; Haglili, Sharon

2007-01-01

92

Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to identify, measure, and value the likely effectiveness and the costs and consequences of the new technology, handling of uncertainty), and whether the study results adequately address the main study question or objective. Data will be summarized overall and stratified by publication status. Discussion This study is timely to inform early economic evaluation practice, given the international trend in early health technology assessment initiatives. PMID:25055987

2014-01-01

93

Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs. This framework involves a logic model that incorporates Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of…

Zantal-Wiener, Kathy; Horwood, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

94

Evaluation and management of acute abdominal pain in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of the emergency department patient with acute abdominal pain is sometimes difficult. Various factors can obscure the presentation, delaying or preventing the correct diagnosis, with subsequent adverse patient outcomes. Clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those life-threatening conditions that require timely intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. This article will review general information on abdominal pain and discuss the clinical approach by review of the history and the physical examination. Additionally, this article will discuss the approach to unstable patients with abdominal pain. PMID:23055768

Macaluso, Christopher R; McNamara, Robert M

2012-01-01

95

Evaluation of emergency-locator-transmitter performance in real and simulated crash tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) activation problems were investigated by testing a sampling of ELT units in actual airplane crashes and in a special test apparatus which simulated longitudinal crash pulses with superimposed local structural resonances. Probable causes of excessive false alarms and nonactivations of ELT's during crash situations were determined and solutions to the current operational and technical problems were obtained. The results, which considered placement, mounting, and activation of ELT's under simulated crash impacts, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of ELT impact switches to orientation and to local structural vibrations are discussed.

Carden, H. D.

1981-01-01

96

Analysis of the Evaluative Components on the Standard Letter of Recommendation (SLOR) in Emergency Medicine  

PubMed Central

Introduction The standard letter of recommendation in emergency medicine (SLOR) was developed to standardize the evaluation of applicants, improve inter-rater reliability, and discourage grade inflation. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of categorical variables on the SLOR in order to characterize scoring tendencies of writers. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all SLORs written on behalf of applicants to the three Emergency Medicine residency programs in the University of Arizona Health Network (i.e. the University Campus program, the South Campus program and the Emergency Medicine/Pediatrics combined program) in 2012. All “Qualifications for Emergency Medicine” and “Global Assessment” variables were analyzed. Results 1457 SLORs were reviewed, representing 26.7% of the total number of Electronic Residency Application Service applicants for the academic year. Letter writers were most likely to use the highest/most desirable category on “Qualifications for EM” variables (50.7%) and to use the second highest category on “Global Assessments” (43.8%). For 4-point scale variables, 91% of all responses were in one of the top two ratings. For 3-point scale variables, 94.6% were in one of the top two ratings. Overall, the lowest/least desirable ratings were used less than 2% of the time. Conclusions SLOR letter writers do not use the full spectrum of categories for each variable proportionately. Despite the attempt to discourage grade inflation, nearly all variable responses on the SLOR are in the top two categories. Writers use the lowest categories less than 2% of the time. Program Directors should consider tendencies of SLOR writers when reviewing SLORs of potential applicants to their programs. PMID:25035747

Grall, Kristi H.; Hiller, Katherine M.; Stoneking, Lisa R.

2014-01-01

97

Evaluation of emerging factors blocking filtration of high-adjunct-ratio wort.  

PubMed

Corn starch has become a common adjunct for beer brewing in Chinese breweries. However, with increasing ratio of corn starch, problems like poor wort filtration performance arise, which will decrease production capacity of breweries. To solve this problem, factors affecting wort filtration were evaluated, such as the size of corn starch particle, special yellow floats formed during liquefaction of corn starch, and residual substance after liquefaction. The effects of different enzyme preparations including ?-amylase and ?-glucanase on filtration rate were also evaluated. The results indicate that the emerging yellow floats do not severely block filtration, while the fine and uniform-shape corn starch particle and its incompletely hydrolyzed residue after liquefaction are responsible for filtration blocking. Application of ?-amylase preparation increased the filtration rate of liquefied corn starch. This study is useful for our insight into the filtration blocking problem arising in the process of high-adjunct-ratio beer brewing and also provides a feasible solution using enzyme preparations. PMID:25088033

Ma, Ting; Zhu, Linjiang; Zheng, Feiyun; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

2014-08-20

98

Evaluating oversight systems for emerging technologies: a case study of genetically engineered organisms.  

PubMed

The U.S. oversight system for genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) was evaluated to develop hypotheses and derive lessons for oversight of other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Evaluation was based upon quantitative expert elicitation, semi-standardized interviews, and historical literature analysis. Through an interdisciplinary policy analysis approach, blending legal, ethical, risk analysis, and policy sciences viewpoints, criteria were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of GEOs oversight and explore correlations among its attributes and outcomes. From the three sources of data, hypotheses and broader conclusions for oversight were developed. Our analysis suggests several lessons for oversight of emerging technologies: the importance of reducing complexity and uncertainty in oversight for minimizing financial burdens on small product developers; consolidating multi-agency jurisdictions to avoid gaps and redundancies in safety reviews; consumer benefits for advancing acceptance of GEO products; rigorous and independent pre- and post-market assessment for environmental safety; early public input and transparency for ensuring public confidence; and the positive role of public input in system development, informed consent, capacity, compliance, incentives, and data requirements and stringency in promoting health and environmental safety outcomes, as well as the equitable distribution of health impacts. Our integrated approach is instructive for more comprehensive analyses of oversight systems, developing hypotheses for how features of oversight systems affect outcomes, and formulating policy options for oversight of future technological products, especially nanotechnology products. PMID:20122100

Kuzma, Jennifer; Najmaie, Pouya; Larson, Joel

2009-01-01

99

Emergency department evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of cocaine metabolites in urine specimens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the Abuscreen ONTRAK assay for cocaine metabolites, a rapid immunoassay for the detection of cocaine metabolites in a pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The ONTRAK uses a cutoff point of 300 micrograms/L for benzoylecgonine (BEC), cocaine's major urinary metabolite. One hundred and thirty-two urine specimens obtained from infants, children, and adolescents whose clinical findings warranted toxicology screening were evaluated. The ONTRAK identified all 15 specimens with BEC values of 300 micrograms/L, but did not detect seven additional specimens positive for cocaine metabolites at concentrations less than 300 micrograms/L. One third of the positive specimens for cocaine metabolite identified by fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA), cutoff point set at 80 micrograms/L, and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GUMS), cutoff point 50 micrograms/L, were not detected by the ONTRAK. These false negative specimens were seen exclusively in young children, whose concentration of cocaine metabolite was less than the ONTRAK's cutoff value. The test was sensitive to drug concentration at or around the stated cutoff values. The ONTRAK test for cocaine metabolites, although both a sensitive and specific screening test for adolescents who smoke or snort cocaine, lacks the sensitivity to be a useful screening too[ for detecting cocaine metabolites in young children. Limitations of currently performed toxicology screening tests (ie, stated cutoff levels) may cause emergency physicians to miss most young children whose symptoms may he related to cocaine exposure. PMID:8859922

Belfer, R A; Klein, B L; Boenning, D A; Soldin, S J

1996-04-01

100

Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

Not Available

1993-11-01

101

Study Designs and Evaluation Models for Emergency Department Public Health Research  

PubMed Central

Public health research requires sound design and thoughtful consideration of potential biases that may influence the validity of results. It also requires careful implementation of protocols and procedures that are likely to translate from the research environment to actual clinical practice. This article is the product of a breakout session from the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference entitled “Public Health in the ED: Screening, Surveillance, and Intervention” and serves to describe in detail aspects of performing emergency department (ED)-based public health research, while serving as a resource for current and future researchers. In doing so, the authors describe methodologic features of study design, participant selection and retention, and measurements and analyses pertinent to public health research. In addition, a number of recommendations related to research methods and future investigations related to public health work in the ED are provided. Public health investigators are poised to make substantial contributions to this important area of research, but this will only be accomplished by employing sound research methodology in the context of rigorous program evaluation. PMID:20053232

Broderick, Kerry B.; Ranney, Megan L.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Rothman, Richard E.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Becker, Bruce; Haukoos, Jason S.

2011-01-01

102

Toxicological evaluation of three contaminants of emerging concern by use of the Allium cepa test.  

PubMed

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, triclosan and propylparaben are contaminants of emerging concern that have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, but for which limited information is currently available concerning adverse effects on terrestrial plant systems. The Allium cepa test, which is considered one of the most efficient approaches to assess toxic effects of environmental chemicals, was selected to evaluate the potential risks of these ubiquitous pollutants. Our data demonstrate that all three compounds studied may in some way be considered toxic, but different effects were noted depending on the chemical and the end point analysed. Results derived from the analysis of macroscopic parameters used in testing for general toxicity, revealed that while di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate had no apparent effects, the other two chemicals inhibited A. cepa root growth in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, although all three compounds caused alterations in the mitotic index of root-tip cells, propylparaben was the only one that did not show evidence of genotoxicity in assays for chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. The results of the present study clearly indicate that sensitive plant bioassays are useful and complementary tools to determine environmental impact of contaminants of emerging concern. PMID:22249112

Herrero, O; Pérez Martín, J M; Fernández Freire, P; Carvajal López, L; Peropadre, A; Hazen, M J

2012-03-18

103

Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

1999-01-01

104

Preclinical Biosafety Evaluation of Cell-based Therapies: Emerging Global Paradigms.  

PubMed

Cell-based therapies have the potential to treat a diversity of disease conditions, many representing significant and long-standing unmet medical needs. Certain properties of cell-based therapies, such as differentiation potential and proliferative potential, present safety concerns uniquely distinct from those of small molecule drugs and other macromolecule biologics. These cellular products carry risks associated with localized host tissue response, long-term persistence, ectopic tissue formation, differentiation to undesirable cell and tissue types, uncontrollable biodistribution, tumorigenicity, and immunogenicity. Such risks are generally evaluated in preclinical animal model studies as part of a comprehensive safety program prior to administration in humans. However, safety assessment for these products can be challenging because of inconsistent approaches to product characterization, inadequately defined product parameters that anticipate adverse events, and the lack of standardized approaches in evaluating in vivo host responses. In this symposium, we introduced cell-based therapies as an emerging product class to the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and highlighted key challenges for consideration during product biosafety evaluation. PMID:25476796

Basu, Joydeep; Assaf, Basel T; Bertram, Timothy A; Rao, Mahendra

2015-01-01

105

Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over-the-counter medication clobutinol.  

PubMed

Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life-threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection-associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non-specific summation effects. Accidental re-exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non-proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva-B; Trautmann, Axel

2007-03-01

106

Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over?the?counter medication clobutinol  

PubMed Central

Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life?threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE?mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection?associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non?specific summation effects. Accidental re?exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non?proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva?B; Trautmann, Axel

2007-01-01

107

Can summits lead to curricula change? An evaluation of emergency preparedness summits for schools of nursing in Georgia.  

PubMed

The Emory University Center for Public Health Preparedness held two summits for nurses that were evaluated by survey. Participants cited multiple deficiencies and challenges with integrating emergency preparedness into nursing curricula. The summits and the related materials were reported as highly useful by survey respondents. More than three fourths of respondents reported incorporating emergency preparedness education into their curricula after summit attendance. Nursing professionals could use summits to encourage active practitioners to pursue continuing education and to initiate efforts to incorporate emergency preparedness and related health care issues into the curricula of schools of nursing. PMID:19489519

Buyum, Arielle; Dubruiel, Nicole; Torghele, Karen; Alperin, Melissa; Miner, Kathleen R

2009-05-01

108

Evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted, multilevel continuous quality improvement program in primary health care: developing a realist theory of change  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in effectiveness of continuous quality improvement (CQI) interventions between services is commonly reported, but with little explanation of how contextual and other factors may interact to produce this variation. Therefore, there is scant information available on which policy makers can draw to inform effective implementation in different settings. In this paper, we explore how patterns of change in delivery of services may have been achieved in a diverse range of health centers participating in a wide-scale program to achieve improvements in quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Methods We elicited key informants’ interpretations of factors explaining patterns of change in delivery of guideline-scheduled services over three or more years of a wide-scale CQI project, and inductively analyzed these interpretations to propose fine-grained realist hypotheses about what works for whom and in what circumstances. Data were derived from annual clinical audits from 36 health centers operating in diverse settings, quarterly project monitoring reports, and workshops with 12 key informants who had key roles in project implementation. We abstracted potential context-mechanism-outcome configurations from the data, and based on these, identified potential program-strengthening strategies. Results Several context-specific, mechanism-based explanations for effectiveness of this CQI project were identified. These were collective valuing of clinical data for improvement purposes; collective efficacy; and organizational change towards a population health orientation. Health centers with strong central management of CQI, and those in which CQI efforts were more dependent on local health center initiative and were adapted to resonate with local priorities were both favorable contexts for collective valuing of clinical data. Where health centers had prior positive experiences of collaboration, effects appeared to be achieved at least partly through the mechanism of collective efficacy. Strong community linkages, staff ability to identify with patients, and staff having the skills and support to take broad ranging action, were favorable contexts for the mechanism of increased population health orientation. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support strategies for program strengthening described in the literature, and extends the understanding of mechanisms through which strategies may be effective in achieving particular outcomes in different contexts. PMID:24098940

2013-01-01

109

Acute Nontraumatic Chest Pain in Emergency Department and Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cost-effective use of cardiac markers for the evaluation of ischemic chest pain (CP) patients at the emergency department (ED) is attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study is to define how cost-effective an approach should be for evaluate CP patients and to evaluate whether testing for cardiac markers is done cost-effectively in CP patients. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 1028 ischemic CP patients (aged from 17–89 years, 389 female, 639 male) with non-diagnostic electrocardiography (ECG) who were admitted to the ED between September 2002 and September 2003 were enrolled into the study. Results: The conditions of how diagnostic tests were actually ordered for these patients and how they should have been ordered cost-effectively were assessed and both the cost and effectiveness were compared. The actual total cost of the diagnostic tests ordered to investigate ischemic CP was $42,476. The cost would have been $32,342 if they had been ordered in the most cost-effective manner, for a total savings of $10,134. The ED cost, the calculated cost-effective cost and the lost amount were compared with the Student’s t-test, and the differences between them was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). The effectiveness was compared using the chi-square test and was found to be significant (?2= 12.20, SD= 1, p<0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, fast and effective evaluation of ischemic CP in the ED and correct management of patients by correct determination of the risk factors provides a high level of cost-effectiveness. Every ED should determine an algorithm for patients admitted with CP and physicians should obey this algorithm.

Cakir, Zeynep; Saritas, Ayhan; Aslan, Sahin; Emet, Mucahit; Kandis, Hayati

2008-01-01

110

Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)  

SciTech Connect

The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

1990-10-01

111

An Independent Human Factors Analysis and Evaluation of the Emergency Medical Protocol Checklist for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency medical capabilities aboard the ISS include a Crew Medical Officer (CMO) (not necessarily a physician), and back-up, resuscitation equipment, and a medical checklist. It is essential that CMOs have reliable, usable and informative medical protocols that can be carried out independently in flight. The study evaluates the existing ISS Medical Checklist layout against a checklist updated to reflect a human factors approach to structure and organization. Method: The ISS Medical checklist was divided into non-emergency and emergency sections, and re-organized based on alphabetical and a body systems approach. A desk-top evaluation examined the ability of subjects to navigate to specific medical problems identified as representative of likely non-emergency events. A second evaluation aims to focus on the emergency section of the Medical Checklist, based on the preliminary findings of the first. The final evaluation will use Astronaut CMOs as subjects comparing the original checklist against the updated layout in the task of caring for a "downed crewmember" using a Human Patient Simulator [Medical Education Technologies, Inc.]. Results: Initial results have demonstrated a clear improvement of the re-organized sections to determine the solution to the medical problems. There was no distinct advantage for either alternative, although subjects stated having a preference for the body systems approach. In the second evaluation, subjects will be asked to identify emergency medical conditions, with measures including correct diagnosis, time to completion and solution strategy. The third evaluation will compare the original and fully updated checklists in clinical situations. Conclusions: Initial findings indicate that the ISS Medical Checklist will benefit from a reorganization. The present structure of the checklist has evolved over recent years without systematic testing of crewmember ability to diagnose medical problems. The improvements are expected to enable ISS Crewmembers to more speedily and accurately respond to medical situations on the ISS.

Marshburn, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Ortiz, Rosie; Segal, Michele; Smart, Kieran; Hughes, Catherine

2003-01-01

112

Evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital: assessment of radiology performance in the accident and emergency department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) x-ray images are used to assist in the initial diagnosis and management of the patient. It is therefore expected that the main benefits of PACS in A&E will arise from the ability of clinicians to manipulate the digital image and thus potentially improve their diagnostic performance. In order to evaluate whether this benefit is realized or not a case-study evaluation has been undertaken; this has three components: (a) monitoring the extent of misdiagnosis by A&E clinicians before and after the PACS implementation; (b) an examination of the decision performance of the clinician-image combination for the visualization of the lower cervical spine/upper thoracic spine and of fracture of the head of the radius; and (c) a more general monitoring of the impact of the image archiving and communication aspects of PACS. In this paper the study of the impact of PACS on misdiagnosis by A&E clinicians at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, is described and pre-PACS results for the period 31 March 1992 to 30 September 1992 are presented.

Weatherburn, Gwyneth C.; Bryan, Stirling; Cocks, Robert

1993-09-01

113

Clinical impact of BNP and other emerging biomarkers in heart failure evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Hospitalization for decompensated heart failure (HF) is associated with extraordinarily high rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite its high prevalence its pathophysiologic mechanisms and future risk stratification remain poorly defined and understudied. Several clinical Risk Scores to recognize high risk patients, has been purposed in the past but they are not able to completely identify future adverse events. In this sense, laboratory biomarkers play an important role in heart failure, but there remain unanswered questions regarding optimization of their use. One of the biggest hopes for utilizing biomarker testing is to determine the level of disease severity in a manner to triage medical decisions as well as to monitor their responses. Early diagnosis is very important for a better therapy optimization and outcome improving. Indeed, identification is often difficult because of symptoms unspecificity and the lack of gold standard protocol to make diagnosis. B-type natriuretic peptide is a useful tool to confirm or rule out heart failure. Therefore, BNP is one of the most best prognostic indicator in all stages of heart failure predicting outcome in both hospitalized and outpatients. Other neurohormonal, inflammatory and metabolic markers may add complementary information to that provided by currently available B-type natriuretic peptide assays. However all specific and general laboratory parameters cannot substitute to traditional clinical evaluation but could be used in adjunction for more precise evaluation and assessment. We reviewed traditional and some of emerging biomarkers of potential clinical application in HF setting. PMID:22495167

Palazzuoli, A; Caputo, M; Calabrò, A; Nuti, R

2012-04-01

114

HPM coupling into realistic targets  

SciTech Connect

High-Power Microwave coupling into targets of interest is extremely difficult to assess analytically or numerically. The practicalities of accurately modeling physical structures, as well as the subtlety of determining which simplifications are allowable for the accuracy needed, require that target interaction calculations be verified by careful laboratory measurements. In addition, the differences in construction techniques and tolerances on joints and seams make an experimental scan of the parameter space essential if we are to establish rules-of-thumb for coupling into systems. To meet this need for a benchmark for HPM coupling calculations, we have designed and constructed several RF shielding enclosures with generic but realistic joints and seams. We measured the coupling of RF into these enclosures over the frequency range of 45 MHz to 18 GHz, recording both amplitude and phase information. These data allow us to evaluate the response of various ports-of-entry to both continuous wave and pulsed sources. We can see trends with frequency for various port of entry types that relate to relatively simple geometric factors. This paper outlines what these results for generic targets imply for HPM coupling to real systems.

Bacon, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Toth, R.P.

1988-01-01

115

EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT AND CLEAN-UP OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This article provides an overview of the Phase III Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. It also contains the key conclusions of the Pilot Study and recommendations for further act...

116

Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River estuary  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, the US EPA MED laboratory has been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). ...

117

Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

118

Any realistic theory must be computationally realistic: a response to N. Gisin's definition of a Realistic Physics Theory  

E-print Network

It is argued that the recent definition of a realistic physics theory by N. Gisin cannot be considered comprehensive unless it is supplemented with requirement that any realistic theory must be computationally realistic as well.

Arkady Bolotin

2014-01-08

119

Developing and evaluating an automated appendicitis risk stratification algorithm for pediatric patients in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate a proposed natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning based automated method to risk stratify abdominal pain patients by analyzing the content of the electronic health record (EHR). Methods We analyzed the EHRs of a random sample of 2100 pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with abdominal pain, including all with a final diagnosis of appendicitis. We developed an automated system to extract relevant elements from ED physician notes and lab values and to automatically assign a risk category for acute appendicitis (high, equivocal, or low), based on the Pediatric Appendicitis Score. We evaluated the performance of the system against a manually created gold standard (chart reviews by ED physicians) for recall, specificity, and precision. Results The system achieved an average F-measure of 0.867 (0.869 recall and 0.863 precision) for risk classification, which was comparable to physician experts. Recall/precision were 0.897/0.952 in the low-risk category, 0.855/0.886 in the high-risk category, and 0.854/0.766 in the equivocal-risk category. The information that the system required as input to achieve high F-measure was available within the first 4?h of the ED visit. Conclusions Automated appendicitis risk categorization based on EHR content, including information from clinical notes, shows comparable performance to physician chart reviewers as measured by their inter-annotator agreement and represents a promising new approach for computerized decision support to promote application of evidence-based medicine at the point of care. PMID:24130231

Deleger, Louise; Brodzinski, Holly; Zhai, Haijun; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kirkendall, Eric S; Alessandrini, Evaline; Solti, Imre

2013-01-01

120

An evaluation of hospital emergency department (HED) adherence to universal precautions.  

PubMed

A longitudinal cross sectional study of Hospital Emergency Department (HED) procedures over a nine month period was conducted. A total of 1,541 procedures were observed on 56 randomly selected 8-h work shifts. Shifts were distributed: 34% day shift; 34% evening shift; and 32% on the night shift. Observations on the evening shift were oversampled to capture an adequate number of trauma patients. Observations were distributed: 33% day shift; 39% evening shift; and 28% on the night shift. Measurements included: type of procedure; adherence to specific barrier technique, i.e., use of gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and occurrence of adverse exposure. Ten types of HED procedures were documented and analyzed. Computerized tracking of study observations established periodic rates of HED health care worker (HCW) adherence to universal precautions. These data are important for internal quality control/assurance programs and rate comparisons within and across institutions over time. The longitudinal evaluation of the database revealed that glove compliance increased over the period of the study and adverse exposure decreased. Conducting ongoing or periodic observational studies of this kind are important and necessary in order to gauge HED response to the epidemiologic challenges of urban society. PMID:7829982

Rydman, R J; Tannebaum, R D; Zalenski, R J

1994-08-01

121

Predicting pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the emergency department: Evaluation of clinical parameters.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify the value of clinical predictors available in the emergency department (ED) in predicting Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A prospective, observational, cohort study of patients with CAP presenting in the ED was performed. Pneumococcal aetiology of CAP was based on either bacteraemia, or S. pneumoniae being cultured from sputum, or urinary immunochromatographic assay positivity, or positivity of a novel serotype-specific urinary antigen detection test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors and various cut-off values of probability scores were used to evaluate the usefulness of the model. Three hundred and twenty-eight (31.0%) of 1057 patients with CAP had pneumococcal CAP. Nine independent predictors for pneumococcal pneumonia were identified, but the clinical utility of this prediction model was disappointing, because of low positive predictive values or a small yield. Clinical criteria have insufficient diagnostic capacity to predict pneumococcal CAP. Rapid antigen detection tests are needed to diagnose S. pneumoniae at the time of hospital admission. PMID:24975428

Huijts, S M; Boersma, W G; Grobbee, D E; Gruber, W C; Jansen, K U; Kluytmans, J A J W; Kuipers, B A F; Palmen, F; Pride, M W; Webber, C; Bonten, M J M

2014-12-01

122

The Potential and Challenges of Critical Realist Ethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits the critical realist ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I…

Barron, Ian

2013-01-01

123

Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

2012-04-01

124

Evaluating Crisis Intervention Services for Youth within an Emergency Department: A View from within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative crisis intervention programme was created at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Canada in order to provide emergency assessments for youth presenting with mental health crises. The current investigation presents an overview of the programme and examines the emergency staff's perception and satisfaction with it.…

Dion, Jacinthe; Kennedy, Allison; Cloutier, Paula; Gray, Clare

2010-01-01

125

Evaluation of a low-cost permanent emergency lighting system based on high-efficiency LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, Permanent Emergency Lighting Systems (PELSs) are widely used in many applications, including emergency exit indication and lighting in critical or strategic points. Limitation in operation hours in classical lamps (10 000-20 000 h for fluorescent lamps) implies short lamp replacement times and, therefore, high maintenance costs. This paper shows an alternative solution based on high-efficiency LEDs. The long operation

M. Rico-Secades; A. J. Calleja; J. Ribas; E. L. Corominas; J. M. Alonso; J. Cardesin; J. Garcia-Garcia

2005-01-01

126

Evaluation of Child Maltreatment in the Emergency Department Setting: An Overview for Behavioral Health Providers.  

PubMed

Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case of possible child maltreatment. Keeping a high clinical suspicion is key to diagnosing latent abuse. Child abuse, especially sexual abuse, is best handled by a multidisciplinary team including emergency providers, nurses, social workers, and law enforcement trained in caring for victims and handling forensic evidence. The role of the emergency provider in such cases is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and provide an ethical testimony if called to court. PMID:25455575

Leetch, Aaron N; Leipsic, John; Woolridge, Dale P

2015-01-01

127

Evaluating the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) System for Admitted Patients in the Pediatric Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) systems were developed to provide a reproducible assessment of a child’s clinical status while hospitalized. Most studies investigating the PEWS evaluate its usefulness in the inpatient setting. Limited studies evaluate the effectiveness and integration of PEWS in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to explore the test characteristics of an ED-assigned PEWS score for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or clinical deterioration in admitted patients. Methods This was a prospective 12-month observational study of patients, aged 0 to 21 years, admitted from the ED of an urban, tertiary care children’s hospital. ED nurses were instructed in PEWS assignment and electronic medical record (EMR) documentation. Interrater reliability between nurses was evaluated. PEWS scores were measured at initial assessment (P0) and time of admission (P1). Patients were stratified into outcome groups: those admitted to the ICU either from the ED or as transfers from the floor and those admitted to the floor only. Clinical deterioration was defined as transfer to the ICU within 6 hours or within 6 to 24 hours of admission. PEWS scores and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared for patients admitted to the floor, ICU, and with clinical deterioration. Results The authors evaluated 12,306 consecutively admitted patients, with 99% having a PEWS documented in the EMR. Interrater reliability was excellent (intraclass coefficient 0.91). A total of 1,300 (10.6%) patients were admitted to the ICU and 11,066 (89.4%) were admitted to the floor. PEWS scores were higher for patients in the ICU group (P0 = 2.8, SD ± 2.4; P1 = 3.2, SD ± 2.4; p < 0.0001) versus floor patients (P0 = 0.7, SD ± 1.2; P1 = 0.5, SD ± 0.9; p < 0.0001). To predict the need for ICU admission, the optimal cutoff points on the ROC are P0 = 1 and P1 = 2, with areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of 0.79 and 0.86, respectively. The likelihood ratios (LRs) for these optimal cutoff points were as follows: P0 +LR = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4 to 2.6, p < 0.05), ?LR = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.28 to 0.36, p < 0.05); and P1 +LR = 6.2 (95% CI = 5.8 to 6.6, p < 0.05), ?LR = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.29 to 0.35, p < 0.05). For every unit increase in P0 and P1, the odds of admission to the ICU were 1.9 times greater (95% CI = 1.8 to 1.9, p < 0.0001) and 2.9 times greater (95% CI = 2.7 to 3.1, p < 0.0001) than to the floor. There were 89 patients in the clinical deterioration group, with 36 (0.3%) patients transferred to the ICU within 6 hours of admission and 53 (0.4%) patients transferred within 6 to 24 hours. In this group, an elevated P0 and P1 were statistically associated with an increased risk of transfer with optimal cutoff points similar to above; however, there were poorer AUCs and test characteristics. Conclusions A PEWS system was implemented in this pediatric ED with excellent data capture and nurse interrater reliability. The study found that an elevated PEWS is associated with need for ICU admission directly from the ED and as a transfer, but lacks the necessary test characteristics to be used independently in the ED environment. PMID:25377402

Gold, Delia L.; Mihalov, Leslie K.; Cohen, Daniel M.

2015-01-01

128

Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation  

E-print Network

for common emergent freshwater marsh species, Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus acutus, at two restored marshes. acutus: %RMSE = 24.9%), likely due to the more vertical structure and deeper water habitat of S. acutus

Kelly, Maggi

129

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

130

A performance evaluation of emerging Ethernet technologies: switched\\/high-speed\\/full-duplex Ethernet and Ethernet LAN emulation over ATM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of switched LAN and ATM technology is dramatically altering today's networking environment. Given the preponderance of existing Ethernet networks today, high-speed, switched and\\/or full-duplex Ethernet and Ethernet LAN emulation over ATM are extremely important, as is bridging between Ethernet and ATM. We evaluate the performance of these newly emerging technologies, using measurements from actual Ethernet and ATM products.

Andrew Rindos; S. Woolet; Larry Nicholson; Mladen Vouk

1996-01-01

131

Investigating Attitudes towards an Emerging Standard of English: Evaluations of Newscasters' Accents in Trinidad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the issue of the emergence of new standards of English in the postcolonial world by means of a language attitude study conducted in the Caribbean island of Trinidad that involved rating the accents of newscasters. Accents represented in the clips played to respondents comprised various local as well as non-local ones. The…

Deuber, Dagmar; Leung, Glenda-Alicia

2013-01-01

132

EVALUATION OF FORMALDEHYDE LEVELS IN OCCUPIED FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY-OWNED TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

E-print Network

Health 12/13/2007; 11:00 PM Protocol Formaldehyde FEMA WED version 18-dec13.doc #12;I. Summary On August to severely damaged housing. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided disaster related housing along the US Gulf Coast reported increases in upper respiratory issues in children who lived in FEMA

133

Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

2010-01-01

134

A pilot study to evaluate learning style–tailored information prescriptions for hypertensive emergency department patients*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This pilot study explored whether learning style–tailored education materials, “information prescriptions,” are effective in increasing hypertension knowledge in emergency room patients. Methods: In a randomized trial, hypertensive emergency medicine patients received either standard care discharge instructions or discharge instructions in combination with an information prescription individualized to each patient's learning-style preference. Two weeks post-visit, the study team assessed changes in hypertension knowledge via a survey. Results: No significant difference was observed for changes in quiz scores on the hypertension knowledge assessment, though patients receiving the tailored information prescriptions reported higher levels of satisfaction with intervention materials. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the workflow feasibility of implementing a learning-style approach to patient education in the emergency department setting. Further research is needed to develop more robust measures of high blood pressure knowledge among the emergency department patient population. This work will contribute to establishing a framework for developing customized information prescriptions that can be broadly adapted for use in varied settings and with varied health care conditions. PMID:22022222

Giuse, Nunzia B; Storrow, Alan B

2011-01-01

135

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM (ETP) OF THE U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Emerging Technology Program offers a mechanism for performing joint technology development between the private sector and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the goal of shortening the time period from 'proof of concept' to actual technology use at a Superfund...

136

EVALUATION OF NEW AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A research program was completed to identify new and emerging waste management technologies in the metal finishing industry. A limited field sampling and analytical program was pursued to define performance at full scale operating facilities for the following technologies: (1) bu...

137

Evaluation of Emerging Alternative Chemicals for Control of Pathogens and Weeds.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several emerging chemicals were tested in 2 field trials in combination with metham sodium as replacements for methyl bromide. These included 2-bromoethanol, dimethyl disulfide, furfural, propylene oxide, and sodium azide. Populations of weed and pathogens were measured after chemical application....

138

AN EMERGENT FRAMEWORK FOR REALISTIC PSYCHOSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN NON PLAYER  

E-print Network

.1 [Artificial Intelligence]: Applications and Expert Systems ­ games. General Terms Algorithms, Design, Human gameplay, stimulus-response systems. 1. INTRODUCTION The field of artificial intelligence in games is a broad, yet demanding area of study. In [34], artificial intelligence is defined as being concerned

Katchabaw, Michael James

139

Comparative evaluation of different modes of a national accident and emergency department-based injury surveillance system: Jamaican experience.  

PubMed

The objective was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two injury surveillance systems in operation in the Accident and Emergency departments of public hospitals in Jamaica. The evaluation was conducted at 12 hospitals across Jamaica offering varying levels of service delivery. It was designed in three phases: (1) a retrospective review of surveillance system data; (2) prospective process evaluation; (3) system environment evaluation. These data were analysed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the manual Accident & Emergency Statistical Report (A&ESR) versus the computer-based Patient administration system/Jamaica injury surveillance system (PAS/JISS), and to determine an injury registration rate. Results showed a variation from 8% to 27% in injury registration rates at the hospitals reviewed. The sensitivity of the computer-based PAS ranged from 29.7% to 97.1% while the sensitivity of the manual system ranged from 22.1% to 100%. The computer-based system generally detected a greater percentage of injuries. Problems were identified with missing data fields in the computer-based system, while problems of recording and transcription were identified in the manually-based system. Recommendations were made to improve data quality in both data collection systems. Although shortcomings were identified with the A&ESR, the system is performing the function for which it was designed, that of tracking A&E workload. The PAS/JISS is more user-friendly and a truer reflection of the injury situation. PMID:12613102

Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Holder, Yvette; Gordon, Georgiana

2002-12-01

140

Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in Community Hospital Emergency Departments: Multicenter Evaluation of a Quality Improvement Intervention  

PubMed Central

Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common and preventable problem in the emergency department (ED). In a previous single-center study, changing the process of ED blood culture collection from the traditional “clean,” nonsterile procedure to a fully sterile procedure with standardized use of sterile gloves, large volume chlorhexidine skin antisepsis, and fenestrated sterile drapes resulted in a substantial reduction in contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this sterile blood culture collection process for reducing blood culture contamination in two community hospital EDs. Methods The authors implemented the sterile blood culture collection process in the ED of two hospitals, including Hospital A, which historically had a contamination rate of approximately 5%, and Hospital B, with a 2.5% historical contamination rate. Using an interrupted times series design and segmented regression analysis to adjust for secular trends and autocorrelation, the monthly percentages of cultures contaminated at each hospital during an intervention period (sterile technique) were compared to a 10-month baseline period immediately preceding implementation (clean technique). At Hospital A, the full sterile blood culture collection process was used throughout the 16-month intervention period. At Hospital B, user feedback indicated poor compliance due to difficulty implementing the fenestrated drape component; therefore, the process was simplified to the modified sterile collection process, in which the fenestrated drape component was dropped and sterile gloves and large volume skin antisepsis were emphasized. Hence, at Hospital B, two intervention periods were compared to the baseline period—the 8-month intervention period 1 (full sterile process) and the subsequent 8-month intervention period 2 (modified sterile process). Results Hospital A: During the baseline period 165 / 3417 (4.83%) cultures were contaminated, while 142 / 5238 (2.71%) were contaminated during the intervention period (p < 0.01). In the segmented regression model, the full sterile blood culture collection process was associated with an immediate 2.68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43% to 3.52%) absolute reduction in contamination and sustained reductions during the entire intervention period. Hospital B: During the baseline, 63/2509 (2.51%) cultures were contaminated. In intervention period 1 with the full sterile process, 51/1865 (2.73%) cultures were contaminated (p=0.65), with segmented regression results showing no changes compared to baseline. After simplification of the process to address poor compliance, the modified sterile process during intervention period 2 was associated with a significant reduction in contamination, with 17/1860 (0.91%) cultures contaminated (p<0.01 compared to baseline). The segmented regression model demonstrated the modified sterile process was associated with an immediate 1.53% (95% CI: 1.00% to 1.88%) absolute reduction in contamination with significant sustained reductions. Conclusions Changing the method of blood culture collection from the commonly-used non-sterile technique to a sterile process resulted in significant reductions in blood culture contamination at two community hospital EDs, including one with low baseline contamination. Monitoring the implementation process at both sites was important to identify and overcome operational challenges. At one study site, simplification of the process by removing the fenestrated drape component was a key for successful implementation. PMID:24628752

Self, Wesley H.; Mickanin, Joyce; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Grant, Freda H.; Henderson, Michelle C.; Corley, Glenda; Blaschke, D. Glen; McNaughton, Candace D.; Barrett, Tyler W.; Talbot, Thomas R.; Paul, Barbara R.

2014-01-01

141

Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43  

SciTech Connect

The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

1982-09-01

142

Realistic modeling of neurons and networks: towards brain simulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Realistic modeling is a new advanced methodology for investigating brain functions. Realistic modeling is based on a detailed biophysical description of neurons and synapses, which can be integrated into microcircuits. The latter can, in turn, be further integrated to form large-scale brain networks and eventually to reconstruct complex brain systems. Here we provide a review of the realistic simulation strategy and use the cerebellar network as an example. This network has been carefully investigated at molecular and cellular level and has been the object of intense theoretical investigation. The cerebellum is thought to lie at the core of the forward controller operations of the brain and to implement timing and sensory prediction functions. The cerebellum is well described and provides a challenging field in which one of the most advanced realistic microcircuit models has been generated. We illustrate how these models can be elaborated and embedded into robotic control systems to gain insight into how the cellular properties of cerebellar neurons emerge in integrated behaviors. Realistic network modeling opens up new perspectives for the investigation of brain pathologies and for the neurorobotic field. PMID:24139652

D’Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Garrido, Jesus; Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Prestori, Francesca

143

Evaluation of Emergency-Locator-Transmitter performance in real and simulated crash tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) activation problems were investigated by testing a sampling of ELT units in actual crashes and in a special test apparatus which simulated longitudinal crash pulses with superimposed local structural resonances. The probable causes of excessive false alarms and nonactivation of ELT's during crash situations were determined. Solutions to operational and technical problems were also examined as well as the sensitivity of ELT impact switches to orientation and to local structural vibrations.

Carden, H. D.

1981-01-01

144

An evaluation of emergency room services during the New York City house officer strike.  

PubMed Central

A chart audit of emergency services provided by attending staff during the New York City House Officers' strike is compared to an audit of work previously performed by house staff. The usual quality of services provided in this institution was maintained during the strike. However, deficiencies in quality noted in house staff charts, continued to be noted in the charts of attending staff. Failure to improve quality of medical records when trained staff substitute for trainees suggests that the central strike issue of poor working conditions contributes to low quality of care. PMID:1251944

McNamara, J J; Greene, M

1976-01-01

145

Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach  

SciTech Connect

The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

Nunziata, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Napoli Federico II (Italy); Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Panza, G. F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ESP-SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

146

Encouraging Elementary Students To Set Realistic Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to set realistic goals and work toward their attainment contributes to successful learning. The current study used a strategy, originally developed by Tollefson et al. (1984), to explore goal setting by elementary students. The strategy explored consisted of psychomotor and academic games that rewarded students who set high, but realistic goals. A realistic goal was defined as a

Keith White; Robert Hohn; Nona Tollefson

1997-01-01

147

[Evaluation of emergency medicine knowledge and procedures after finishing the course "resuscitation specialty"].  

PubMed

Emergency medical services are an indispensable part of out-patient medical care. For this purpose, special qualifications are necessary and these are taught within the framework of a course entitled "Certificate for Emergency Medical Services". These courses are organized either as a block course, that is a one-week course, or as weekend courses in progression. These two types of courses are compared here. Three block courses with 546 participants and five weekend courses with 599 participants were examined. The practical examination took the form of four practice stages, with 95 people from the courses taking the examination. The examination focussed on certain areas such as ECG diagnostics in the case of cardiac arrest, early defibrillation, removing helmets, immobilizing a fractured tibia, respiration with emergency equipment, vein punctures and volume substitution. Of the doctors attending the courses, 59.7% were residents, 35.7% were senior house officers and 4.6% were specialists or general practitioners. Thirty-nine (or 41.1%) of those examined attended a block course and 56 (58.9%) weekend courses. In diagnosing cardiac arrest, those attending a block course were more reliable (92.3% diagnosed correctly, compared with 67.9% in the other group). Fifteen per cent from both groups were not able to correctly diagnose ventricular fibrillation from the ECG. Of the block course participants, 39.1% chose defibrillation with the correct energy, compared with 24.2% of those attending weekend courses. One out of two participants recognized a deliberate fault in the ECG equipment. Thirty-seven per cent of participants of the block course and 35.9% from the weekend courses failed to choose the right size splint for neck immobilization. Regarding respiration, 67.2% of participants of the block course group and 71.4% of the weekend course group carried out manual artificial respiration. When using respirator equipment, 90% from the block course and 72.2% of the other group noticed an increase in respiratory tract pressure. When giving artificial respiration to an infant, 51.9% of the weekend course group and 35.9% of the block course group used an unsuitable emergency respirator. When choosing a central puncture point most participants picked the external jugular vein and gave their own previous experience as the reason (block course 48.2%, others 52.1%). Accuracy regarding the volume requirements in the case of large-scale burns, as well as choosing the quantity (16.7% compared with 7.4%) and the correct solution (47.9% compared with 40.7%) was unsatisfactory. For these reasons, we strongly recommend intensifying training in block courses for the future qualification of doctors in emergency services. It would also be useful to conduct an oral exam at the end of the entire course, which could also entitle candidates to use this professional designation as one of their qualifications. PMID:12238267

Sefrin, P; Sagmeister, U

2002-01-01

148

Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

1996-01-01

149

Thruster Options for Microspacecraft: A Review and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art and Emerging Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Recent Microspacecraft Developments Background and Motivation Recent Microspacecraft Design Trends Preliminary Set of Micropropulsion Requirements for Microspacecraft System Integration Requirements Minimum Impulse Bit and Thrust Requirements Review of Chemical Propulsion Technologies Bipropellant Engines Monopropellant Thrusters: Hydrazine Monopropellant Thrusters: HAN-Based Monopropellant Thrusters: Hydrogen Peroxide Cold Gas Thrusters Tripropellant and Other Warm Gas Thrusters Solid Rocket Motors Hybrid Rocket Motors Review of Electric Propulsion Technologies Ion Engines Hall Thrusters FEEP Colloid Thrusters Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) Resistojets Emerging Technologies: MEMS and MEMS-Hybrid Propulsion Concepts Case for MEMS Propulsion and Its Challenges Brief History of MEMS Propulsion MEMS-Based FEEP and Colloid Thruster Concepts Micro-Ion Engine Concepts MEMS-Based Microresistojet Concepts MEMS-Based Subliming Solid Microthruster Concept MEMS-Based Cold Gas Thruster Concept MEMS-Based Bipropellant Thruster Concept Digital Microthruster Array Concepts Evaluation of Existing Propulsion Technologies and Identification - of Future Technology Needs Evaluation of Existing Propulsion Technologies Identification of Technology Needs Conclusions References

Mueller, Juergen

150

Evaluation of the precision of emergency department diagnoses in young children with fever.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To characterize causes of fever in children presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS. One-year retrospective review of ED records. Inclusion criteria were 2 to 36 months of age with a documented temperature ? 39°C. Exclusion criteria were elopement, repeat visit, and underlying diagnosis with a predisposition to infection. Medical records were reviewed using a predefined, study-specific, data abstraction tool. Based on diagnosis and pathogen detection, visits were assigned to 3 groups, laboratory confirmed pathogen and focal or nonfocal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. RESULTS. A total of 1091 visits met inclusion criteria. Fourteen percent had a pathogen detected, 56% had a focal diagnosis without a confirmed pathogen, and 30% had a nonfocal diagnosis without confirmed pathogen. CONCLUSIONS. In a cohort of febrile children 2 to 36 months of age, only 14% had a confirmed pathogen. New rapid viral diagnostic techniques may provide an opportunity to improve diagnostic certainty in young children presenting with fever. PMID:21868591

Colvin, Joshua M; Jaffe, David M; Muenzer, Jared T

2012-01-01

151

Emergency evaluation and intervention with female victims of rape and other violence.  

PubMed

Given the high prevalence of crime within the general population and the increased rates of victimization among those seeking medical care, professionals who work in emergency departments, primary care medical facilities, or mental health settings need to be prepared to address physical and psychological problems related to sexual and physical assault. In this paper, interpersonal violence prevalence studies are reviewed in terms of study design and findings for sexual assault and physical assault. Common injuries following both forms of assault are documented, followed by a review of long-term medical outcomes. In addition to a review of physical health outcomes, primary psychological effects of violence are also reviewed. Strategies with which to screen for interpersonal violence in the medical setting are offered, and issues related to mandatory reporting are summarized. Interventions for assault victims that can be implemented in the medical setting are outlined, and a new hospital-based treatment for victims of rape is described. PMID:11051061

Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Dammeyer, M; Kilpatrick, D

2000-10-01

152

Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem  

E-print Network

Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem Matthew E. S for the goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. However, relatively few studies have evalu- ated- ity to loss and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. ammonium diversity ecosystem function

Brody, James P.

153

Imaging-Based Tumor Treatment Response Evaluation: Review of Conventional, New, and Emerging Concepts  

PubMed Central

Tumor response may be assessed readily by the use of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor version 1.1. However, the criteria mainly depend on tumor size changes. These criteria do not reflect other morphologic (tumor necrosis, hemorrhage, and cavitation), functional, or metabolic changes that may occur with targeted chemotherapy or even with conventional chemotherapy. The state-of-the-art multidetector CT is still playing an important role, by showing high-quality, high-resolution images that are appropriate enough to measure tumor size and its changes. Additional imaging biomarker devices such as dual energy CT, positron emission tomography, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI shall be more frequently used for tumor response evaluation, because they provide detailed anatomic, and functional or metabolic change information during tumor treatment, particularly during targeted chemotherapy. This review elucidates morphologic and functional or metabolic approaches, and new concepts in the evaluation of tumor response in the era of personalized medicine (targeted chemotherapy). PMID:22778559

Kang, Hee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jae-Hun

2012-01-01

154

Evaluation of Emerging High Speed Networks on Brazos Software DSM System  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the factors that can influence the performance of a DSM system is the efficiency of multipoint access on the interconnection network. This work presents an evaluation of the Brazos system, a software implemented distributed shared memory (DSM) system designed for x86 SMP nodes running Windows NT and that takes advantage of multicast communication, with regard to different configurations

Andréa M. Matsunaga; Maurício O. Tsugawa; Sergio Takeo Kofuji

2001-01-01

155

The practical challenges of evaluating a blanket emergency feeding programme in northern Kenya.  

PubMed

A blanket supplementary feeding programme for young children was implemented for four months in five northern districts of Kenya from January 2010 because of fears of food insecurity exacerbated by drought. An attempt to evaluate the impact of the food on children's anthropometric status was put in place in three districts. The main aim of the analysis was to assess the quality of the data on the cohort of children studied in the evaluation and to propose methods by which it could be improved to evaluate future blanket feeding programmes. Data on the name, age, sex, weight and height of a systematic sample of children recruited at 61 food distribution sites were collected at the first, second and third rounds and again at an extra, fifth food distribution, offered only to the evaluation subjects. Of the 3,544 children enrolled, 483 (13.63%) did not collect a fifth ration. Of the 2,640 children who were considered by their name to be the same at the first and fifth food distribution (13% were different), data on only 902 children (34.17%) were considered acceptable based on their age (an arbitrary ±3 months different) and their length or height (between >-1 or ?4 cm different) at the two instances they were seen. Data on nearly two thirds of children were of questionable quality. The main reasons for the poor quality data were inconsistencies in estimating age or because caretakers may have brought different children. Recommendations are made about how to improve data quality including ensuring that entry to a blanket feeding programme is clearly based on height, not age, to avoid misreporting age; careful identification of subjects at all contacts; and using well-trained, specialist evaluation staff. PMID:22073119

Hall, Andrew; Oirere, Moragwa; Thurstans, Susan; Ndumi, Assumpta; Sibson, Victoria

2011-01-01

156

Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology  

PubMed Central

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 ?s, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.

Gomez, Carles; Oller, Joaquim; Paradells, Josep

2012-01-01

157

A Guide for Clinicians in the Evaluation of Emerging Molecular Diagnostics for Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is associated with a decline in prostate cancer-related mortality. However, screening has also led to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors. Recently, certain national guidelines (eg, US Preventive Services Task Force) have recommended against PSA screening, which may lead to a reverse-stage migration. Although many prostate tumors are indolent at presentation, others are aggressive and are appropriate targets for treatment interventions. Utilization of molecular markers may improve our ability to measure tumor biology and allow better discrimination of indolent and aggressive tumors at diagnosis. Many emerging commercial molecular diagnostic assays have been designed to provide more accurate risk stratification for newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Unfamiliarity with molecular diagnostics may make it challenging for some clinicians to navigate and interpret the medical literature to ascertain whether particular assays are appropriately developed and validated for clinical use. Herein, the authors provide a framework for practitioners to use when assessing new tissue-based molecular assays. This review outlines aspects of assay development, clinical and analytic validation and clinical utility studies, and regulatory issues, which collectively determine whether tests (1) are actionable for specific clinical indications, (2) measurably influence treatment decisions, and (3) are sufficiently validated to warrant incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:25548544

Canfield, Steven E; Kibel, Adam S; Kemeter, Michael J; Febbo, Phillip G; Lawrence, H. Jeffrey; Moul, Judd W

2014-01-01

158

Evaluating the components of an emergent literacy intervention for preschool children at risk for reading difficulties  

PubMed Central

Many preschool children are at risk for reading problems because of inadequate emergent literacy skills. Evidence supports the effectiveness of interventions to promote these skills, but questions remain about which intervention components work and whether combining intervention components will result in larger gains. In this study, 324 preschoolers (mean age = 54.32 months, SD = 5.88) from low-income backgrounds (46% girls and 54% boys; 82% African American, 14% White, and 4% other) were randomized to combinations of meaning-focused (dialogic reading or shared reading) and code-focused (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, or both) interventions or a control group. Interventions had statistically significant positive impacts only on measures of their respective skill domains. Combinations of interventions did not enhance outcomes across domains, indicating instructional needs in all areas of weakness for young children at risk for later reading difficulties. Less time for each intervention in the combined phonological awareness and letter knowledge intervention conditions, however, did not result in reduced effects relative to nearly twice as much time for each intervention when children received either only the phonological awareness intervention or only the letter knowledge intervention. This finding suggests that a relatively compact code-focused intervention can address the needs of children with weaknesses in both domains. PMID:23073367

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Walker, Patricia M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

2013-01-01

159

The consumer quality index (CQ-index) in an accident and emergency department: development and first evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of patients’ views are essential to provide a patient-centred health service and to evaluating quality of care. As no standardized and validated system for measuring patients’ experiences in accident and emergency departments existed, we have developed the Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department (CQI A&E). Methods Qualitative research has been undertaken to determine the content validity of the CQI A&E. In order to assess psychometric characteristics an 84-item questionnaire was sent to 653 patients who had attended a large A&E in the Netherlands. Also, fifty importance questions were added to determine relevance of the questions and for future calculations of improvement scores. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to detect the domains of the questionnaire. Results Survey data of 304 (47%) patients were used for the analysis. The first exploratory factor analysis resulted in three domains based on 13 items: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Environment and impression of the A&E’ and ‘Respect for and explanation to the patient’. The first two had an acceptable internal consistency. The second analysis, included 24 items grouped into 5 domains: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Information and explanation’, ‘Environment of the A&E’,’Leaving the A&E’ and ‘General information and rapidity of care’. All factors were internal consistent. According to the patients, the three most important aspects in healthcare performance in the A&E were: trust in the competence of the healthcare professionals, hygiene in the A&E and patients’ health care expectations. In general, the highest improvement scores concerned patient information. Conclusions The Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department measures patients’ experiences of A&E healthcare performance. Preliminary psychometric characteristics are sufficient to justify further research into reliability and validity. PMID:22929061

2012-01-01

160

Imaging acute complications in cancer patients: what should be evaluated in the emergency setting?  

PubMed Central

Increased incidence world-wide of cancer and increased survival has also resulted in physicians seeing more complications in patients with cancer. In many cases, complications are the first manifestations of the disease. They may be insidious and develop over a period of months, or acute and manifest within minutes to days. Imaging examinations play an essential role in evaluating cancer and its complications. Plain radiography and ultrasonography (US) are generally performed initially in an urgent situation due to their wide availability, low cost, and minimal or no radiation exposure. However, depending on a patient’s symptoms, evaluation with cross-sectional imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often necessary. In this review article, we discuss some of the most important acute noninfectious oncological complications for which imaging methods play an essential role in diagnosis. PMID:25609051

2014-01-01

161

Training the powerful: issues that emerged during the evaluation of a communication skills training programme for senior cancer care professionals.  

PubMed

'Connected' is the name of the national advanced communication skills training programme developed in 2008 for cancer care professionals in the NHS. A 3-day training course combining didactic and experiential learning elements is run by two facilitators with course participants expected to engage fully in simulated consultations with trained actors. In 2011, and as a result of participant feedback on the length of the course and increasing pressures on budgets and clinical time, the Connected team developed and piloted an alternative 2-day training course. Before its roll-out in 2012, Birmingham City University was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness and quality of the 2-day course vis-à-vis the 'traditional' 3-day one. This article is written by the two evaluators and it discusses some of the issues that emerged during the evaluation. We broadly grouped these issues into two overlapping categories: the mandatory nature of the course and the different professional background and seniority of participants. In our discussion we consider the implications these issues have for communication skills training policy and practice and put forward suggestions for further research. PMID:24373021

Bibila, S; Rabiee, F

2014-07-01

162

Sedation of children in the emergency department for short painful procedures compared with theatre, how much does it save? Economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSedation of children for short painful procedures is increasingly performed in emergency departments as an alternative to hospital admission and theatre. In this study, the savings of this are sought to be quantified.MethodsA matched-cohort economic evaluation was conducted. Detailed case note reviews were performed on children who were sedated in the emergency department and children who were admitted to theatre.

A Boyle; V Dixon; E Fenu; P Heinz

2010-01-01

163

Criteria for preparation and evaluation of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants: Criteria for utility offsite planning and preparedness: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have added a supplement to NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1 that provides guidance for the development, review, and evaluation of utility offsite radiological emergency response planning and preparedness for those situations in which state and/or local governments decline to participate in emergency planning. While this guidance primarily applies to plants that do not have full-power operating licenses, it does have relevance to operating nuclear power plants.

Podolak, E.M. Jr.; Sanders, M.E.; Wingert, V.L.; Donovan, R.W.

1988-09-01

164

Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology  

SciTech Connect

This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

2009-04-01

165

Computer Simulation in Mass Emergency and Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness as a Tool for Demonstrating Strategic Competency in Emergency Department Medical Responders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the capability of computer simulation as a tool for assessing the strategic competency of emergency department nurses as they responded to authentically computer simulated biohazard-exposed patient case studies. Thirty registered nurses from a large, urban hospital completed a series of computer-simulated case studies of…

O'Reilly, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

166

Use of computed tomography in the emergency room to evaluate blunt cerebrovascular injury.  

PubMed

BCVI remains a potentially devastating consequence of blunt-force trauma. However, over the past decades significant advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology, risk factors, and natural history of BCVI. Given the initial asymptomatic period, there is time to diagnose and treat these lesions before the onset of neurologic insult. This early recognition and intervention greatly improves morbidity and mortality directly associated with BCVI. Screening criteria have been identified and reviewed. All patients at risk of BCVI, based on mechanism of injury and risk factors, should be rapidly evaluated for possible injury. It is the authors' current belief that even the newest generation of CT scanners has not been proved to reliably diagnose BCVI. Until further work is done to advance the technology of CTA and prove its equivalence to DSA, there exists too much potential neurologic morbidity and mortality for one to rely on CTA alone (Table 2). Given the variable, and often low, reported sensitivities of CTA, the cost analysis done by Kaye and colleagues [23] would also recommend initial DSA as being cost-effective in avoiding the long-term devastating sequelae of stroke. At the time of writing the authors recommend that CTA be included in an algorithm to evaluate BCVI, but the current data are too disparate with widely variable reported sensitivities, and the risk of missed injury and stroke too severe, to rely on CTA as the definitive diagnostic or screening test for BCVI. Rather, abnormal CTA findings should be added to the traditional screening criteria to identify patients at risk of BCVI; these patients should be evaluated with DSA for definitive screening. Adding abnormal CTA findings to the traditionally described BCVI screening criteria widens the criteria substantially, allowing identification of almost all of the elusive 20% of patients traditionally not identified with basic screening criteria. In addition, given the high specificity of CTA and the decreased morbidity of BCVI with rapid institution of treatment, the authors recommend beginning a low-dose heparin drip (if there are no contraindications to anticoagulation) based on CTA findings while awaiting the confirmatory DSA. Despite advances in CTA technology in recent years, DSA currently remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BCVI. All patients with standard risk factors for BCVI, or abnormal findings on CTA, should undergo DSA as the screening test of choice for BCVI. PMID:22873041

Parks, Nancy A; Croce, Martin A

2012-01-01

167

Emerging Role of Cardiovascular CT and MRI in the Evaluation of Stroke.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this article are to explore the potential for use of CT angiography and MRI and to highlight data suggestive of their usefulness in specific cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSION. The evaluation of stroke requires comprehensive assessment of potential stroke mechanisms, including cardiac sources. Despite an exhaustive search for secondary causes, the precise cause of many strokes remains unknown (cryptogenic). It is well recognized, however, that some of these potential causes occur as a result of embolism from the heart or great vessels. Thus, echocardiography, in particular transesophageal echocardiography, is instrumental in a careful assessment of cardiac causes in selected individuals. Unfortunately, transesophageal echocardiography is invasive, and some patients may have relative or absolute contraindications. Cardiovascular CT angiography and MRI have growing potential compared with conventional cardiovascular echography. PMID:25615749

Pagán, Ricardo J; Parikh, Pragnesh P; Mergo, Patricia J; Gerber, Thomas C; Mankad, Rekha; Freeman, William D; Shapiro, Brian P

2015-02-01

168

Merits of random forests emerge in evaluation of chemometric classifiers by external validation.  

PubMed

Real-world applications will inevitably entail divergence between samples on which chemometric classifiers are trained and the unknowns requiring classification. This has long been recognized, but there is a shortage of empirical studies on which classifiers perform best in 'external validation' (EV), where the unknown samples are subject to sources of variation relative to the population used to train the classifier. Survey of 286 classification studies in analytical chemistry found only 6.6% that stated elements of variance between training and test samples. Instead, most tested classifiers using hold-outs or resampling (usually cross-validation) from the same population used in training. The present study evaluated a wide range of classifiers on NMR and mass spectra of plant and food materials, from four projects with different data properties (e.g., different numbers and prevalence of classes) and classification objectives. Use of cross-validation was found to be optimistic relative to EV on samples of different provenance to the training set (e.g., different genotypes, different growth conditions, different seasons of crop harvest). For classifier evaluations across the diverse tasks, we used ranks-based non-parametric comparisons, and permutation-based significance tests. Although latent variable methods (e.g., PLSDA) were used in 64% of the surveyed papers, they were among the less successful classifiers in EV, and orthogonal signal correction was counterproductive. Instead, the best EV performances were obtained with machine learning schemes that coped with the high dimensionality (914-1898 features). Random forests confirmed their resilience to high dimensionality, as best overall performers on the full data, despite being used in only 4.5% of the surveyed papers. Most other machine learning classifiers were improved by a feature selection filter (ReliefF), but still did not out-perform random forests. PMID:24139571

Scott, I M; Lin, W; Liakata, M; Wood, J E; Vermeer, C P; Allaway, D; Ward, J L; Draper, J; Beale, M H; Corol, D I; Baker, J M; King, R D

2013-11-01

169

Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect. PMID:24729712

Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

2014-01-01

170

Learning realistic human actions from movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to address recognition of natural human actions in diverse and realistic video settings. This challenging but important subject has mostly been ignored in the past due to several problems one of which is the lack of realistic and annotated video datasets. Our first contri- bution is to address this limitation and to investigate the

Ivan Laptev; Marcin Marszalek; Cordelia Schmid; Benjamin Rozenfeld

2008-01-01

171

The Howard Government's Foreign Policy: Really Realist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several scholars have suggested that the Howard government took a Realist approach to foreign policy, and others have claimed that it made important deviations from Realism. This article constructs a template of a Realist foreign policy and examines the Howard government's policies against it. It finds that the government scores highly on two of the indicators of Realism – emphasis on military

David McCraw

2008-01-01

172

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-09-30

173

Emergency psychiatry.  

PubMed

Up to 15% of people that are visited in the Emergency Department of a Hospital have a mental disorder and/or a psychiatric symptom: often this is not recognized or not properly treated. The reasons for this are more than one and involve: the emergency physicians that are not always prepared and sensible to face this kind of disorders; the psychiatrists that are not always well tuned with the language and the clinic of the emergency; and the patients, that can ignore or deny the psychiatric nature of their problems. After an initial definitions of the most important terms and concepts (Psychiatric Emergency and Urgency, Behavioral Emergency, Acute Presentations of Mental Disorders, and Crisis) the Medical and Psychiatric Assessment are discussed with different Clinical Presentations and Classifications, Psychosocial Evaluation and Risk Assessment. Finally the Clinical Management and the Pharmacological Treatment are presented with special attention to the underlying medical causes and to the use of new drugs, especially second generation antipsychotics, alone or combined with benzodiazepines. PMID:18043562

Villari, V; Rocca, P; Bogetto, F

2007-10-01

174

Topological approach toward quantum codes with realistic physical constraints  

E-print Network

The following open problems, which concern a fundamental limit on coding properties of quantum codes with realistic physical constraints, are analyzed and partially answered here: (a) the upper bound on code distances of quantum error-correcting codes with geometrically local generators, (b) the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. To investigate these problems, we study stabilizer codes supported by local interaction terms with translation and scale symmetries on a $D$-dimensional lattice. Our analysis uses the notion of topology emerging in geometric shapes of logical operators, which sheds a surprising new light on theory of quantum codes with physical constraints.

Beni Yoshida

2010-10-15

175

Realistic Control of Network Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The control of complex networks is of paramount importance in areas as diverse as ecosystem management, emergency response, and cell reprogramming. A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. Here, we show that it is possible to exploit the same principle to control network behavior. Our approach accounts for the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real systems, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible due to constraints that limit the allowed interventions. Applications show that this framework permits reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure—which we illustrate through the mitigation of cascading failures in a power-grid network and the identification of potential drug targets in a signaling network of human cancer. PMID:23803966

Cornelius, Sean P.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.

2014-01-01

176

Health-related quality of life for pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses: an Evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the validity and short-term responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for febrile illnesses evaluated in the pediatric emergency department (ED). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of children 2–18 years discharged after ED evaluation for fever (? 38°C). Self-administered, parent-report of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the

Rakesh D Mistry; Molly W Stevens; Marc H Gorelick

2009-01-01

177

EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

178

Vulnerability and Vaccination Strategies on realistic complex network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general understanding of non-equilibrium stochastic processes evolving on complex networks become an important challenge. In the framework of epidemiology, one of the key challenges is the identification and the understanding of the role of critical and vulnerable nodes in the diffusion process. Considering the SIER model evolving on a large realistic complex networks, we present a study of the vulnerability for different viral strength. Our result are used to evaluate the possible vaccination strategies.

Platini, Thierry; Apolloni, Andrea

2012-02-01

179

A novel emergency department based prevention intervention program for people living with HIV: evaluation of early experiences  

PubMed Central

Background HIV prevention is increasingly focused on people living with HIV (PLWH) and the role of healthcare settings in prevention. Emergency Departments (EDs) frequently care for PLWH, but do not typically endorse a prevention mission. We conducted a pilot exploratory evaluation of the first reported ED program to address the prevention needs of PLWH. Methods This retrospective observational cohort evaluation reviewed program records to describe the first six months of participants and programmatic operation. Trained counselors provided a risk assessment and counseling intervention combined with three linkage interventions: i) linkage to health care, ii) linkage to case management, and iii) linkage to partner counseling and referral. Results Of 81 self-identified PLWH who were approached, 55 initially agreed to participate. Of those completing risk assessment, 17/53 (32%, 95 CI 20% to 46%) reported unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse or needle sharing in the past six months with a partner presumed to be HIV negative. Counseling was provided to 52/53 (98%). For those requesting services, 11/15 (73%) were linked to healthcare, 4/23 (17%) were coordinated with case management, and 1/4 (25%) completed partner counseling and referral. Conclusion Given base resources of trained counselors, it was feasible to implement a program to address the prevention needs for persons living with HIV in an urban ED. ED patients with HIV often have unmet needs which might be addressed by improved linkage with existing community resources. Healthcare and prevention barriers for PLWH may be attenuated if EDs were to incorporate CDC recommended prevention measures for healthcare providers. PMID:17937817

Lyons, Michael S; Raab, Dana L; Lindsell, Christopher J; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J

2007-01-01

180

Parallel Quality Assessment of Emergency Departments by European Foundation for Quality Management Model and Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is a widely used quality management system (QMS) worldwide, including Iran. Current study aims to verify the quality assessment results of Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation (INPHE) based on those of EFQM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a sample of emergency departments (EDs) affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. The standard questionnaire of EFQM (V-2010) was used to gather appropriate data. The results were compared with those of INPHE. MS Excel was used to classify and display the findings. Results: The average assessment score of the EDs based on the INPHE and EFQM model were largely different (i.e. 86.4% and 31%, respectively). In addition, the variation range among five EDs’ scores according to each model was also considerable (22% for EFQM against 7% of INPHE), especially in the EDs with and without prior record of applying QMSs. Conclusion: The INPHE’s assessment results were not confirmed by EFQM model. Moreover, the higher variation range among EDs’ scores using EFQM model could allude to its more differentiation power in assessing the performance comparing with INPHE. Therefore, a need for improvement in the latter drawing on other QMSs’ (such as EFQM) strengths, given the results emanated from its comparison with EFQM seems indispensable. PMID:23967429

IMANI NASAB, Mohammad Hasan; MOHAGHEGH, Bahram; KHALESI, Nader; JAAFARIPOOYAN, Ebrahim

2013-01-01

181

Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. PMID:24793331

Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

2014-07-15

182

Evaluation of occupational injuries in an urban emergency medical services system before and after implementation of electrically powered stretchers.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal injuries are frequently reported among Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational injuries in an urban EMS system before and after implementation of hydraulic stretchers. Data for this analysis were obtained from Austin Travis County EMS (A/TCEMS). In December 2006, A/TCEMS placed into service electrically powered patient stretchers. The pre-intervention period was between 01/01/1999 and 12/31/2006, and the post-intervention period was between 01/01/2007 and 4/30/2008. Incidence rate calculations were performed for four injury sub-groups and rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were presented. There were 2087 and 706 person-years of observation pre- and post-intervention, respectively. The incidence rates for overall injury pre-intervention and post-intervention were 61.1 and 28.8 per 100 FTE, with a corresponding RR of 0.47 (95% CI 0.41-0.55) indicating a significant decrease in the rate of injury. The subcategory of stretcher-related injuries had the lowest RR (0.30; 95% CI 0.17-0.52) when comparing pre- and post-intervention time periods. PMID:21632034

Studnek, Jonathan R; Mac Crawford, J; Fernandez, Antonio R

2012-01-01

183

Blend Shape Interpolation and FACS for Realistic Avatar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest of developing realistic facial animation is ever-growing. The emergence of sophisticated algorithms, new graphical user interfaces, laser scans and advanced 3D tools imparted further impetus towards the rapid advancement of complex virtual human facial model. Face-to-face communication being the most natural way of human interaction, the facial animation systems became more attractive in the information technology era for sundry applications. The production of computer-animated movies using synthetic actors are still challenging issues. Proposed facial expression carries the signature of happiness, sadness, angry or cheerful, etc. The mood of a particular person in the midst of a large group can immediately be identified via very subtle changes in facial expressions. Facial expressions being very complex as well as important nonverbal communication channel are tricky to synthesize realistically using computer graphics. Computer synthesis of practical facial expressions must deal with the geometric representation of the human face and the control of the facial animation. We developed a new approach by integrating blend shape interpolation (BSI) and facial action coding system (FACS) to create a realistic and expressive computer facial animation design. The BSI is used to generate the natural face while the FACS is employed to reflect the exact facial muscle movements for four basic natural emotional expressions such as angry, happy, sad and fear with high fidelity. The results in perceiving the realistic facial expression for virtual human emotions based on facial skin color and texture may contribute towards the development of virtual reality and game environment of computer aided graphics animation systems.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Saba, Tanzila

2015-03-01

184

Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield  

PubMed Central

Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

2013-01-01

185

Looking at terrorism through left realist lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While terrorism has moved into the spotlight of criminological study, including critical criminology, it has yet to be thoroughly\\u000a explored from a left realist perspective. Left realism addresses four aspects of crime: causes of offending, impact on the\\u000a victims, and both official and public responses to crime. A left realist approach to terrorism would argue that similar to\\u000a those who

Jennifer C. Gibbs

2010-01-01

186

Terrainosaurus: realistic terrain synthesis using genetic algorithms  

E-print Network

TERRAINOSAURUS REALISTIC TERRAIN SYNTHESIS USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS A Thesis by RYAN L. SAUNDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 2006 Major Subject: Computer Science TERRAINOSAURUS REALISTIC TERRAIN SYNTHESIS USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS A Thesis by RYAN L. SAUNDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Saunders, Ryan L.

2007-04-25

187

Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

Chen, Chi-Tung

2012-01-01

188

Towards a general operational and realistic framework for quantum mechanics and relativity theory  

E-print Network

Towards a general operational and realistic framework for quantum mechanics and relativity theory and relativity theory, such that both appear as special cases of this new theory. Our framework is operational with the macroscopic material entities that have emerged from the microworld. This clarifies why general relativity

Aerts, Diederik

189

Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of three immunization strategies in controlling disease outbreaks in realistic social networks.  

PubMed

The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies-acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination-were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures). However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice. PMID:24787718

Xu, Zhijing; Zu, Zhenghu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Wendou; Xu, Qing; Liu, Jinjie

2014-01-01

190

Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)  

PubMed Central

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

2013-01-01

191

Evaluation of Risk for Late Language Emergence after In Utero Antiretroviral Drug Exposure in HIV-exposed Uninfected Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. Methods We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HEU children enrolled in a US-based prospective cohort study. LLE was defined as a caregiver-reported score ? 10th percentile in any of 4 domains of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for one-year-olds and as ?1 standard deviation below age-specific norms for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for two-year-olds. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of in utero cARV exposure with LLE, adjusting for infant, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results 1,129 language assessments were conducted among 792 one- and two-year-olds (50% male, 62% black, and 37% Hispanic). Overall, 86% had in utero exposure to cARV and 83% to protease inhibitors. LLE was identified in 26% of one-year-olds and 23% of two-year-olds, with higher rates among boys. In adjusted models, LLE was not associated with maternal cARV or ARV drug classes in either age group. Among cARV-exposed one-year-olds, increased odds of LLE was observed for those exposed to atazanavir (aOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.10-3.04), particularly after the first trimester (aOR=3.56, p=0.001), compared to atazanavir-unexposed infants. No associations of individual ARV drugs with LLE were observed among two-year-olds. Conclusions In utero cARV exposure showed little association with LLE, except for a higher risk of language delay observed in one-year-old infants with atazanavir exposure. PMID:24067563

Rice, Mabel L.; Zeldow, Bret; Siberry, George K.; Purswani, Murli; Malee, Kathleen; Hoffman, Howard J.; Frederick, Toni; Buchanan, Ashley; Sirois, Patricia A.; Allison, Susannah M.; Williams, Paige L

2013-01-01

192

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & SAFETY GUIDE EMERGENCIES  

E-print Network

& Communications Motorist Assist Program Other: EMERGENCY CONTACT INFO continued 617-496-NEWS 617-495-1585 617EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & SAFETY GUIDE EMERGENCY CONTACTS REPORTING EMERGENCIES MEDICAL EMERGENCIES Health & Safety (EH&S) EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION 911 617-495-1212 617-495-5560 617-432-1901 617

193

Blind field test evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a forensic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy has advanced rapidly in recent years to the point where commercial field-portable instruments are available. Raman analysis with portable instrumentation is a new capability that can provide emergency response teams with on-site evaluation of hazardous materials. Before Raman analysis is accepted and implemented in the field, realistic studies applied to unknown samples need to be

S. D. Harvey; M. E. Vucelick; R. N. Lee; B. W. Wright

2002-01-01

194

An Evaluation of Emergency Operator Actions by an Experimental SGTR Event at the IIST Facility and a Comparison of Mihama-2 SGTR Event Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current emergency operating procedures (EOPs) for a three-loop pressurized water reactor on steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) incident are experimentally evaluated at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Integral System Test Facility. The focus is on the adequacy of EOPs to limit primary-to-secondary leakage with particular emphasis on the number of ruptured U-tubes on the severity of an incident

T.-J. Liu; Chien-Hsiung Lee; C.-C. Yao; S.-C. Chiang

2000-01-01

195

Keeping It Real: How Realistic Does Realistic Fiction for Children Need to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

O'Connor, an author of realistic fiction for children, shares her attempts to strike a balance between carefree, uncensored, authentic, realistic writing and age-appropriate writing. Of course, complicating that balancing act is the fact that what seems age-appropriate to her might not seem so to everyone. O'Connor suggests that while it may be…

O'Connor, Barbara

2010-01-01

196

Resonant scattering by realistic impurities in graphene.  

PubMed

We develop a first-principles theory of resonant impurities in graphene and show that a broad range of typical realistic impurities leads to the characteristic sublinear dependence of the conductivity on the carrier concentration. By means of density functional calculations various organic groups as well as adatoms such as H absorbed to graphene are shown to create midgap states within ±0.03??eV around the neutrality point. A low energy tight-binding description is mapped out. Boltzmann transport theory as well as a numerically exact Kubo formula approach yield the conductivity of graphene contaminated with these realistic impurities in accordance with recent experiments. PMID:20867944

Wehling, T O; Yuan, S; Lichtenstein, A I; Geim, A K; Katsnelson, M I

2010-07-30

197

The quest for physically realistic streamflow forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generation of time stepping hydrological models used by operational forecasting agencies are process-weak, where model parameters are often assigned unrealistic values to compensate for model structural weaknesses. These time stepping simulation models are therefore subject to the same stationarity predicament that plagues statistical streamflow forecasting systems. Consequently, the operational forecasting community has similar research priorities to the science community, that is, to develop physically realistic hydrological models. This paper describes development of a new modeling framework to improve the representation of hydrological processes within operational streamflow forecasting models. The framework recognizes that the majority of process-based models use the same set of physics - most models use Darcy's Law to represent the flow of water through the soil matrix and Fourier's Law for thermodynamics. The new modeling framework uses numerically robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including different methods to represent spatial variability and different parameterizations of surface fluxes and shallow groundwater. Use of multivariate research data to evaluate these different modeling options reveals that the new modeling framework can provide realistic simulations of both point-scale measurements of hydrologic states and fluxes as well as realistic simulations of streamflow in headwater catchments, with minimal calibration. Moreover, the availability of multiple modeling options improves representation of model uncertainty.

Restrepo, Pedro; Wood, Andy; Clark, Martyn

2013-04-01

198

Near-realistic mobile exergames with wireless wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Exergaming is expanding as an option for sedentary behavior in childhood/adult obesity and for extra exercise for gamers. This paper presents the development process for a mobile active sports exergame with near-realistic motions through the usage of body-wearable sensors. The process begins by collecting a dataset specifically targeted to mapping real-world activities directly to the games, then, developing the recognition system in a fashion to produce an enjoyable game. The classification algorithm in this paper has precision and recall of 77% and 77% respectively, compared with 40% and 19% precision and recall on current activity monitoring algorithms intended for general daily living activities. Aside from classification, the user experience must be strong enough to be a successful system for adoption. Indeed, fast and intense activities as well as competitive, multiplayer environments make for a successful, enjoyable exergame. This enjoyment is evaluated through a 30 person user study. Multiple aspects of the exergaming user experience trials have been merged into a comprehensive survey, called ExerSurvey. All but one user thought the motions in the game were realistic and difficult to cheat. Ultimately, a game with near-realistic motions was shown to be an enjoyable, active video exergame for any environment. PMID:24608050

Mortazavi, Bobak; Nyamathi, Suneil; Lee, Sunghoon Ivan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

2014-03-01

199

Diabetic Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF What to do in a Medical Emergency Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

200

Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

2011-03-01

201

Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

Yue, Jianping

2008-01-01

202

Realistic, hardware-accelerated shading and lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With fast 3D graphics becoming more and more available even on low end platforms, the focus in hardware-accelerated rendering is beginning to shift towards higher quality rendering and additional functionality instead of simply higher performance implementa- tions based on the traditional graphics pipeline. In this paper we present techniques for realistic shading and lighting using computer graphics hardware. In particular,

Wolfgang Heidrich; Hans-Peter Seidel

1999-01-01

203

Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis  

E-print Network

Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis CHET S. HAASE and GARY W. MEYER University of Oregon This article discusses and applies the Kuhelka Munk theory of pigment mixing to computer]xing arc discussed and are shown to be insufficient for pigmented materials. The Kubclka Munk theory

Meyer, Gary

204

Artificial Animals in Realistic Virtual Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a virtual marine ecosystem inhab- ited by realistic artificial life that emulates the appearan ce, movement, and behavior of real fishes. Each artificial fish is an autonomous agent in a simulated physical world. It has (i) a three-dimensional body with internal muscle ac- tuators and functional fins, which deforms and locomotes in accordance with biomechanic and hydrodynamic

Demetri Terzopoulos

1996-01-01

205

Modeling realistic hybrid flexible flowshop scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to contribute to the recent research efforts to bridge the gap between the theory and the practice of scheduling by modelizing a realistic manufacturing environment and analyzing the effect of the inclusion of several characteristics in the problem formulation. There are several constraints and characteristics that affect the scheduling operations at companies. While these constraints are many

Rubén Ruiz; Funda Sivrikaya-serifoglu; Thijs Urlings

2008-01-01

206

Wiskobas and Freudenthal: Realistic Mathematics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freudenthal was the founder of realistic mathematics education, in which reality serves as a source of applications and learning. Takes a newspaper article about reproducing a Van Gogh painting using plants in a field to exemplify a rich context problem containing elements of all areas of elementary school mathematics. (MDH)

Treffers, A.

1993-01-01

207

Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When Redwood City, California-based Electronic Arts (EA) decided to make SSX, its latest snowboarding video game, it faced challenges in creating realistic-looking mountains. The solution was NASA's ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map, made available by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which EA used to create 28 real-life mountains from 9 different ranges for its award-winning game.

2013-01-01

208

In Search of Realistic Optimism: Meaning, Knowledge, and Warm Fuzziness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it better to be realistic or optimistic? A realistic outlook improves chances to negotiate the environment successfully, whereas an optimistic outlook places priority on feeling good. But are realistic and optimistic outlooks necessarily in conflict? The author suggests that the fuzzy nature of accuracy typically places only loose boundaries on what it means to be realistic. As a result,

Sandra L. Schneider

2001-01-01

209

Dynamic apeerture in damping rings with realistic wigglers  

SciTech Connect

The International Linear Collider based on superconducting RF cavities requires the damping rings to have extremely small equilibrium emittance, huge circumference, fast damping time, and large acceptance. To achieve all of these requirements is a very challenging task. In this paper, we will present a systematic approach to designing the damping rings using simple cells and non-interlaced sextupoles. The designs of the damping rings with various circumferences and shapes, including dogbone, are presented. To model realistic wigglers, we have developed a new hybrid symplectic integrator for faster and accurate evaluation of dynamic aperture of the lattices.

Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

2005-05-04

210

Viral Evolution and Emerging Viral Infections: What Future for the Viruses? A Theoretical Evaluation Based on Informational Spaces and Quasispecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergence of new viruses is dependent on the intrinsic and extrinsic constraints exerting on viral evolution. Intrinsic constraints are semantic and grammatical in nature. They are analysed here in reference to Hamming's spaces, driving to a new interpretation of the evolution of the quasispecies of Manfred Eigen. Extrinsic constraints are relevant to the fact that viral evolution is always a

Hugues Tolou; Jean Nicoli; Claude Chastel

2002-01-01

211

Understanding Sources of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: An Evaluation of Land Use with Occurrence of Aquatic Contaminants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, hormones, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in surface waters, nationally and internationally, raises questions of their source, fate, and potential ecological and human health effects. A number of CECs have been shown to disrupt the nor...

212

Emergency School Aid Act, Basic Project 1975-76. Research and Evaluation Report, V. 10 n. 11, March 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report of a program funded under the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). The program was designed to aid the Atlanta, Georgia School System in the integration process and to aid pupils in overcoming their academic deficiences due to racial isolation. The program provided individual assistance in reading and mathematics to minority students.…

Henning, Patrick

213

A chimeric virus-mouse model system for evaluating the function and inhibition of papain-like proteases of emerging coronaviruses.  

PubMed

To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. Importance: Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to facilitate evaluation of inhibitors directed against highly pathogenic coronaviruses. We used this system to demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor of the papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the chimeric-virus system can be adapted to study the proteases of emerging human pathogens, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. This system provides an important tool to rapidly assess the efficacy of protease inhibitors targeting existing and emerging human pathogens, as well as other enzymes capable of removing ISG15 from cellular proteins. PMID:25100850

Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M; Nichols, Daniel B; Wilson, Michael W; StJohn, Sarah E; Larsen, Scott D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lenschow, Deborah J; Baric, Ralph S; Baker, Susan C

2014-10-01

214

Emergency Carotid Endarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of the therapeutical efficacy of emergency carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in neurologically unstable patients. Patients and Methods: Three groups of a consecutive series of 71 emergency CEAs performed from 1980 to July 1998 were classified: (1) acute onset of severe stroke (n = 16), (2) progressive stroke\\/stroke in evolution (n = 34), and (3) crescendo transient ischemic attacks (n

Hans-Henning Eckstein; Hardy Schumacher; Klaus Klemm; Hans Laubach; Thomas Kraus; Peter Ringleb; Arnd Dörfler; Markus Weigand; Hubert Bardenheuer; Jens-Rainer Allenberg

1999-01-01

215

Emergence of Anisotropy in Flock Simulations and Its Computational Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In real flocks, it was revealed that the angular density of nearest neighbors shows a strong anisotropic structure of individuals by very recent extensive field studies [Ballerini et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105, pp. 1232-1237 (2008)]. In this paper, we show this structure of anisotropy also emerges in an artificial flock simulation, namely, Boid simulation. To quantify the anisotropy, we evaluate a useful statistics, that is to say, the so-called ?-value which is defined as an inner product between the vector in the direction of the lowest angular density of flocks and the vector in the direction of moving of the flock. Our results concerning the emergence of the anisotropy through the ?-value might enable us to judge whether an optimal flock simulation seems to be realistic or not.

Makiguchi, Motohiro; Inoue, Jun-Ichi

216

An evaluation of the professional, social and demographic profile and quality of life of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil and to evaluate their quality of life. METHODS: Both a semi-structured questionnaire with 57 questions and the SF-36 questionnaire were sent to research departments within SAMU in the Brazilian state capitals, the Federal District and inland towns in Brazil. RESULTS: Of a total of 902 physicians, including 644 (71.4%) males, 533 (59.1%) were between 30 and 45 years of age and 562 (62.4%) worked in a state capital. Regarding education level, 45.1% had graduated less than five years before and only 43% were specialists recognized by the Brazilian Medical Association. Regarding training, 95% did not report any specific training for their work at SAMU. The main weaknesses identified were psychiatric care and surgical emergencies in 57.2 and 42.9% of cases, respectively; traumatic pediatric emergencies, 48.9%; and medical emergencies, 42.9%. As for procedure-related skills, the physicians reported difficulties in pediatric advanced support (62.4%), airway surgical access (45.6%), pericardiocentesis (64.4%) and thoracentesis (29.9%). Difficulties in using an artificial ventilator (43.3%) and in transcutaneous pacing (42.2%) were also reported. Higher percentages of young physicians, aged 25-30 years (26.7 vs 19.0%; p<0.01), worked exclusively in prehospital care (18.0 vs 7.7%; p<0.001), with workloads >48 h per week (12.8 vs 8.6%; p<0.001), and were non-specialists with the shortest length of service (<1 year) at SAMU (30.1 vs 18.2%; p<0.001) who were hired without having to pass public service exams* (i.e., for a temporary job) (61.8 vs 46.2%; p<0.001). Regarding quality of life, the pain domain yielded the worst result among physicians at SAMU. CONCLUSIONS: The doctors in this sample were young and within a few years of graduation, and they had no specific training in prehospital emergencies. Deficiencies were mostly found in pediatrics and psychiatry, with specific deficiencies in the handling of essential equipment and in the skills necessary to adequately attend to prehospital emergencies. A disrespectful labor scenario was also found; the evaluation of quality of life showed a notable presence of pain on the SF-36 among physicians at SAMU and especially among doctors who had worked for a longer length of time at SAMU. PMID:25318091

Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; Baitello, André Luciano; Lopes, Renato Delascio

2014-01-01

217

Computerized Provider Order Entry in the Emergency Department: Pilot Evaluation of a Return on Investment Analysis Instrument  

PubMed Central

The Vanderbilt Center for Better Health conducted a workflow analysis study to determine the benefits of implementing a computerized provider order entry system in the adult Emergency Department. Time savings by role was 1619 hours/year for nurses, 815 for medical receptionist, ?95 for attendings, and ?100 for residents. Translating time savings into bottom line savings (FTE/overtime reduction, additional charges) resulted in $31,424 in time savings and $40,000 cost savings (paper forms). PMID:16779368

Piasecki, Jill K.; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Engelberg, Jodi; Rice, Will; Dilts, David; Belser, Duncan; Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Mason, Donna; Stead, Bill

2005-01-01

218

Computerized provider order entry in the emergency department: pilot evaluation of a return on investment analysis instrument.  

PubMed

The Vanderbilt Center for Better Health conducted a workflow analysis study to determine the benefits of implementing a computerized provider order entry system in the adult Emergency Department. Time savings by role was 1619 hours/year for nurses, 815 for medical receptionist, -95 for attendings, and -100 for residents. Translating time savings into bottom line savings (FTE/overtime reduction, additional charges) resulted in $31,424 in time savings and $40,000 cost savings (paper forms). PMID:16779368

Piasecki, Jill K; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Engelberg, Jodi; Rice, Will; Dilts, David; Belser, Duncan; Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Mason, Donna; Stead, Bill

2005-01-01

219

Kaonic hydrogen atoms with realistic potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kaonic hydrogen is studied with various realistic potentials in an accurate numerical approach based on Sturmian functions. It is found that the mass difference between the K-p and K¯0n channels has a considerable effect on theoretical results of the energy shift and decay width of kaonic hydrogen. On average, the theoretical result in the isospin symmetry limit is smaller by a factor of about 20% than the full result where the mass difference between the K-p and K¯0n channels is properly treated. The theoretical results based on realistic local potentials, which reproduce well scattering data, are inconsistent with the recent measurement of the energy shift and decay width of the 1s kaonic hydrogen state by the DEAR Collaboration.

Yan, Y.; Poonsawat, W.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Suebka, P.

2010-06-01

220

Triton binding energy with realistic precision  

E-print Network

We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain $E_t=-7.638(15) \\, {\\rm MeV}$. Setting the numerical precision as $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm num} \\lesssim 1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ we obtain the statistical error $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm stat}= 15(1) \\, {\\rm keV}$ which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S-waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm exp}= 0.1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ and provides a bottleneck in the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

Perez, R Navarro; Amaro, J E; Arriola, E Ruiz

2014-01-01

221

Triton binding energy with realistic statistical uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain Et=-7.638(15)MeV. Setting the numerical precision as ?Etnum?1keV we obtain the statistical error ?Etstat=15(1)keV which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision ?Etexp=0.1keV, and sets a limit on the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

Pérez, R. Navarro; Garrido, E.; Amaro, J. E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.

2014-10-01

222

Triton binding energy with realistic precision  

E-print Network

We compute the binding energy of triton with realistic statistical errors stemming from NN scattering data uncertainties and the deuteron and obtain $E_t=-7.638(15) \\, {\\rm MeV}$. Setting the numerical precision as $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm num} \\lesssim 1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ we obtain the statistical error $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm stat}= 15(1) \\, {\\rm keV}$ which is mainly determined by the channels involving relative S-waves. This figure reflects the uncertainty of the input NN data, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the experimental precision $\\Delta E_t^{\\rm exp}= 0.1 \\, {\\rm keV}$ and provides a bottleneck in the realistic precision that can be reached. This suggests an important reduction in the numerical precision and hence in the computational effort.

R. Navarro Perez; E. Garrido; J. E. Amaro; E. Ruiz Arriola

2014-07-29

223

Realistic simulation of cardiac magnetic resonance studies modeling anatomical variability, trabeculae, and papillary muscles.  

PubMed

Simulated magnetic resonance imaging brain studies have been generated for over a decade. Despite their useful potential, simulated cardiac studies are only emerging. This article focuses on the realistic simulation of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging datasets. The methodology is based on the XCAT phantom, which is modified to increase realism of the simulated images. Modifications include the modeling of trabeculae and papillary muscles based on clinical measurements and published data. To develop and evaluate our approach, the clinical database included 40 patients for anatomical measurements, 10 patients for papillary muscle modeling, and 10 patients for local gray value statistics. The virtual database consisted of 40 digital voxel phantoms. Histograms from different tissues were obtained from the real datasets and compared with histograms of the simulated datasets with the Chi-square dissimilarity metric (?(2)) and Kullback-Leibler divergence. For the original phantom, ?(2) values averaged 0.65 ± 0.06 and Kullboek-Leibler values averaged 0.69 ± 0.38. For the modified phantom, ?(2) values averaged 0.34 ± 0.12 and Kullboek-Leibler values averaged 0.32 ± 0.15. The proposed approach demonstrated a noticeable improvement of the local appearance of the simulated images with respect to the ones obtained originally. PMID:20967793

Tobon-Gomez, C; Sukno, F M; Bijnens, B H; Huguet, M; Frangi, A F

2011-01-01

224

Group Based Rigging of Realistically Feathered Wings  

E-print Network

and Lehman 2002]. Effective rigging is essential to the look and movement of the character. For winged creatures in visual effects projects, where realism is key, rigging and control must have a strong connection to biological structure and action... for the animator to be able to define a good, believable performance. The primary contribution of this thesis is a tool that can be effectively used for rigging a range of avian wing structures and produces rigs that contribute to the animation of realistic...

Howard, Heather Vernette

2012-02-14

225

Fast, Realistic Lighting for Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global lighting effects produced by diffuse interreflections are typically simulated using global illumination methods such as radiosity or ray tracing. Although diffuse interreflections are crucial to produce realistic images, radiosity-like methods are rarely used in production rendering because of slow performance, robustness problems and difficulty-to-control. We present a novel technology that produces natural-looking lighting effects in a much faster way

Andrei Iones; Anton Krupkin; Mateu Sbert; Sergey Zhukov

2003-01-01

226

Dynamical Symmetries Reflected in Realistic Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, derived within the framework of meson theory or more recently in terms of chiral effective field theory, yield new possibilities for achieving a unified microscopic description of atomic nuclei. Based on spectral distribution methods, a comparison of these interactions to a most general Sp(4) dynamically symmetric interaction, which previously we found to reproduce well that part of the interaction that is responsible for shaping pairing-governed isobaric analog 0{sup +} states, can determine the extent to which this significantly simpler model Hamiltonian can be used to obtain an approximate, yet very good description of low-lying nuclear structure. And furthermore, one can apply this model in situations that would otherwise be prohibitive because of the size of the model space. In addition, we introduce a Sp(4) symmetry breaking term by including the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the analysis and examining the capacity of this extended model interaction to imitate realistic interactions. This provides a further step towards gaining a better understanding of the underlying foundation of realistic interactions and their ability to reproduce striking features of nuclei such as strong pairing correlations or collective rotational motion.

Sviratcheva, K.D.; Draayer, J.P.; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

2007-04-06

227

Exophobic quasi-realistic heterotic string vacua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the existence of heterotic string vacua that are free of massless exotic fields. The need to break the non-Abelian GUT symmetries in k=1 heterotic string models by Wilson lines, while preserving the GUT embedding of the weak hypercharge and the GUT prediction sin?w(MGUT)=3/8, necessarily implies that the models contain states with fractional electric charge. Such states are severely restricted by observations, and must be confined or sufficiently massive and diluted. We construct the first quasi-realistic heterotic string models in which the exotic states do not appear in the massless spectrum, and only exist, as they must, in the massive spectrum. The SO(10) GUT symmetry is broken to the Pati-Salam subgroup. Our PS heterotic string models contain adequate Higgs representations to break the GUT and electroweak symmetry, as well as colour Higgs triplets that can be used for the missing partner mechanism. By statistically sampling the space of Pati-Salam vacua we demonstrate the abundance of quasi-realistic three generation models that are completely free of massless exotics, rendering it plausible that obtaining realistic Yukawa couplings may be possible in this space of models.

Assel, Benjamin; Christodoulides, Kyriakos; Faraggi, Alon E.; Kounnas, Costas; Rizos, John

2010-01-01

228

Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Bio-Aerosols in Surgery Rooms and Emergency Department of an Educational Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: Bio-aerosols are a potential hazard in hospitals and are mostly produced by hospital staff, patients and visitors. Bio-aerosols are solid or liquid particles pending in the air and they consist of aerosols accompanying micro-organisms or organic compounds of micro-organisms such as endotoxin, metabolite, toxin and other parts of organism. Those are a potential hazard in hospitals and are mostly produced by hospital staff, patients and visitors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the types and amount of bacterial contamination in operating rooms and emergency department of an educational hospital in Zahedan, South-East of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 72 samples were collected from three operating rooms and three rooms in the emergency department of an educational hospital during 2012. On the first day of every month, a sample was taken from each room during the morning shift; active sampling was done on plates consisting of blood agar and brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) for 10 minutes in the axis of a one-story Anderson impactor (flow rate 28.1 litter per minutes) and SIBATA air pump SIP 32-L and samples were then placed in a 35°C Incubator. Bacterial colonies were counted; warm coloring and differential tests were done and the data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Seventeen types of bacteria were detected including Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Viridians, Pneumococcus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Diphtheroid, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. Quantitative bacterial results showed that the number of observed bacteria in the emergency department with an average of 103.88 ± 33.84 cfu/m³ was more than that of the surgery rooms with an average of 63.32 ± 32.94 cfu/m³. Furthermore, the highest average number of all counted colonies (106 ± 28.45 cfu/m³) was determined in autumn. In all samples, S. aureus and Micrococcus were the most detected bacteria. Conclusions: The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested relatively relaxed limits of 100 cfu/m3 for bacteria and 50 cfu/m3 for fungi in the hospital air. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative outcomes of this study demonstrate that contamination level and bacterial variety in surgery rooms and emergency departments is high and effective measures must be taken to control the possible health risks.

Mirzaei, Ramazan; Shahriary, Esmat; Qureshi, Mazhar Iqbal; Rakhshkhorshid, Ataollah; Khammary, Abdolali; Mohammadi, Mahdi

2014-01-01

229

911 Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Ebola: The Facts How to Make Sense of Health News Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine 911 Emergencies KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > Safety Basics > 911 Emergencies Print A A A Text ...

230

Emergency Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevention Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call ... may save you from a visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you ...

231

What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review  

PubMed Central

This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer –side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF’s functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF’s consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs’ effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public health This article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve health seeking behaviour. However, the existing evidence explores only its effectiveness and not the determinants of its effectiveness. It is also essential to understand the causal pathways of DSF’s effectiveness, i.e. what are the factors affecting its effectiveness. This Realist Review attempts to explore the causal pathways of effectiveness of many prominent DSF initiatives in the world. The study findings have policy implications and will be widely referred to in future. PMID:25553311

Gopalan, Saji S.; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

2014-01-01

232

What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review.  

PubMed

This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer -side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF's functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF's consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs' effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public healthThis article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve health seeking behaviour. However, the existing evidence explores only its effectiveness and not the determinants of its effectiveness. It is also essential to understand the causal pathways of DSF's effectiveness, i.e. what are the factors affecting its effectiveness. This Realist Review attempts to explore the causal pathways of effectiveness of many prominent DSF initiatives in the world. The study findings have policy implications and will be widely referred to in future. PMID:25553311

Gopalan, Saji S; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

2014-12-01

233

Clinical evaluation of viral acute respiratory tract infections in children presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe relative incidence and clinical impact of individual respiratory viruses remains unclear among children presenting to the hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI).MethodsDuring two winter periods, respiratory virus real-time multiplex PCR results were evaluated from children (< 18 years) presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital with ARTI that had been sampled within 48 hours of hospital presentation. In an attempt to identify virus-specific distinguishing clinical features, single virus infections were correlated with presenting signs and symptoms, clinical findings and outcomes using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsIn total, 274 children with ARTI were evaluated and most were aged¿<¿3 years (236/274, 86%). PCR detected respiratory viruses in 224/274 (81.8%) children and included 162 (59%) single and 62 (23%) mixed virus infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) single virus infections were common among children aged¿<¿3 years, but proportional differences compared to older children were only significant for RSV (95% CI 1.3¿15). Clinical differentiation between viral ARTIs was not possible due to common shared presenting signs and symptoms and the high frequency of mixed viral infections. We observed virus-associated outcome differences among children aged¿<¿3 years. Oxygen treatment was associated with RSV (OR 3.6) and inversely correlated with FLU (OR 0.05). Treatment with steroids (OR 3.4) or bronchodilators (OR 3.4) was associated with HRV. Severe respiratory complications were associated with HRV (OR 3.5) and inversely correlated with RSV (OR 0.24).ConclusionsRespiratory viruses are frequently detected in young children presenting to the hospital emergency department with ARTI and require PCR diagnosis since presenting signs and symptoms are not discriminant for a type of virus. RSV and HRV bear a high burden of morbidity in the pediatric clinical setting. PMID:25491885

Gooskens, Jairo; van der Ploeg, Vishnu; Sukhai, Ram N; Vossen, Ann; Claas, Eric; Kroes, Aloys

2014-12-10

234

Error Reduction and Performance Improvement in the Emergency Department through Formal Teamwork Training: Evaluation Results of the MedTeams Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of training and institutionalizing teamwork behaviors, drawn from aviation crew resource management (CRM) programs, on emergency department (ED) staff organized into caregiver teams. Study Setting Nine teaching and community hospital EDs. Study Design A prospective multicenter evaluation using a quasi-experimental, untreated control group design with one pretest and two posttests of the Emergency Team Coordination CourseTM (ETCC). The experimental group, comprised of 684 physicians, nurses, and technicians, received the ETCC and implemented formal teamwork structures and processes. Assessments occurred prior to training, and at intervals of four and eight months after training. Three outcome constructs were evaluated: team behavior, ED performance, and attitudes and opinions. Trained observers rated ED staff team behaviors and made observations of clinical errors, a measure of ED performance. Staff and patients in the EDs completed surveys measuring attitudes and opinions. Data Collection Hospital EDs were the units of analysis for the seven outcome measures. Prior to aggregating data at the hospital level, scale properties of surveys and event-related observations were evaluated at the respondent or case level. Principal Findings A statistically significant improvement in quality of team behaviors was shown between the experimental and control groups following training (p = .012). Subjective workload was not affected by the intervention (p = .668). The clinical error rate significantly decreased from 30.9 percent to 4.4 percent in the experimental group (p = .039). In the experimental group, the ED staffs' attitudes toward teamwork increased (p = .047) and staff assessments of institutional support showed a significant increase (p = .040). Conclusion Our findings point to the effectiveness of formal teamwork training for improving team behaviors, reducing errors, and improving staff attitudes among the ETCC-trained hospitals. PMID:12546286

Morey, John C; Simon, Robert; Jay, Gregory D; Wears, Robert L; Salisbury, Mary; Dukes, Kimberly A; Berns, Scott D

2002-01-01

235

Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication  

E-print Network

Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication Environments Eric W. Frew-theoretic framework for active sensing by unmanned aircraft systems in realistic communication environments of the active sensing framework. Keywords: active sensing, unmanned aircraft systems, stochastic approximation

Frew, Eric W.

236

QCD Thermodynamics with Almost Realistic Quark Masses  

E-print Network

Ongoing calculations on the QCDOC supercomputer at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the APEnext installation at the University of Bielefeld aim to determine the critical temperature of the QCD phase transition as well as the equation of state with almost realistic quark masses. We will discuss preliminary results of the quark mass and cut-off dependence of order parameters, susceptibilities, static quark potentials and the critical temperature in (2+1)-flavor QCD. All these quantities are of immediate interest for heavy ion phenomenology.

Christian Schmidt

2006-06-29

237

Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping  

SciTech Connect

Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2009-12-15

238

Photodisintegration of the triton with realistic potentials  

E-print Network

The process $\\gamma + t \\to n + d$ is treated by means of three-body integral equations employing in their kernel the W-Matrix representation of the subsystem amplitudes. As compared to the plane wave (Born) approximation the full solution of the integral equations, which takes into account the final state interaction, shows at low energies a 24% enhancement. The calculations are based on the semirealistic Malfliet-Tjon and the realistic Paris and Bonn B potentials. For comparison with earlier calculations we also present results for the Yamaguchi potential. In the low-energy region a remarkable potential dependence is observed, which vanishes at higher energies.

W. Schadow; W. Sandhas

1997-12-08

239

Evaluation of a biologically-based filtration water reclamation plant for removing emerging contaminants: a pilot plant study.  

PubMed

The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solar radiation and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 18 emerging contaminants has been studied in a biological filtration pilot plant based on Daphnia sp. The pilot plant consisted of a homogenization tank and two lines, A and B, each with four 1 m(3) tanks. One of these lines was directly exposed to sunlight whereas the other line was covered. Our results suggest that biodegradation and photodegradation are the most important removal pathways, whereas sorption makes a minor contribution. The removal efficiency ranged from no detectable removal to more than 90%. The kinetics of the degradation process was fit to a first order kinetic, with half-lives from 0.6 to 42 days, depending on the particular compound. However, a scaling effect comes into play as the pilot plant was found to be more efficient than a similar full-scale polishing pond. PMID:22153292

Matamoros, Víctor; Sala, Lluís; Salvadó, Victòria

2012-01-01

240

Retained Intra-Abdominal Surgical Clamp Complicating Emergency Laparotomy: Incidental Finding on Hysterosalpingogram for Evaluation of Tubal Infertility  

PubMed Central

The finding of intraperitoneal foreign body complicating surgical intervention broadly remains as an issue of safety in the operative room, a source of emotive concern for the patient, and an upsetting but equally embarrassing situation to the surgeon and the team. However, in the media world, it is a source of sumptuous and captivating headline on the newspaper and to the legal profession, an attractive case to prosecute. A middle age teacher presented with secondary infertility. She had emergency laparotomy fifteen years ago for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in a private hospital and postoperative period was uneventful. Amongst other investigations to find out the cause of infertility, she had hysterosalpingography and a radio-opaque clamp was visualized on the films. She was counselled and had laparotomy. A pair of surgical Kocher clamps was retrieved buried in the mesentery. PMID:25436162

Adesiyun, Adebiyi Gbadebo; Ameh, Nkeiruka; Umar-Sullayman, Hajaratu; Avidime, Solomon; Aliyu, Rabia't

2014-01-01

241

Evaluation of the Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) Scale in Chinese Patients in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the Recognition Of Stroke In the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale in risk-stratifying Chinese patients with suspected stroke in Hong Kong. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic emergency department (ED) over a 7-month period. Patients over 18 years of age with suspected stroke were recruited between June 2011 and December 2011. ROSIER scale assessment was performed in the ED triage area. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the impacts of diagnostic variables, including ROSIER scale, past history and ED characteristics. Findings 715 suspected stroke patients were recruited for assessment, of whom 371 (52%) had acute cerebrovascular disease (302 ischaemic strokes, 24 transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), 45 intracerebral haemorrhages), and 344 (48%) had other illnesses i.e. stroke mimics. Common stroke mimics were spinal neuropathy, dementia, labyrinthitis and sepsis. The suggested cut-off score of>0 for the ROSIER scale for stroke diagnosis gave a sensitivity of 87% (95%CI 83–90), a specificity of 41% (95%CI 36–47), a positive predictive value of 62% (95%CI 57–66), and a negative predictive value of 75% (95%CI 68–81), and the AUC was 0.723. The overall accuracy at cut off>0 was 65% i.e. (323+141)/715. Interpretation The ROSIER scale was not as effective at differentiating acute stroke from stroke mimics in Chinese patients in Hong Kong as it was in the original studies, primarily due to a much lower specificity. If the ROSIER scale is to be clinically useful in Chinese suspected stroke patients, it requires further refinement. PMID:25343496

Jiang, Hui-lin; Chan, Cangel Pui-yee; Leung, Yuk-ki; Li, Yun-mei; Graham, Colin A.; Rainer, Timothy H.

2014-01-01

242

Effect of realistic vegetation variability on seasonal forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real predictability hindcast experiment with prescribed Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been performed using the state-of-the-art Earth System Model EC-Earth. LAI input to the climate model has been prescribed using a novel observational dataset based on the third generation GIMMS and MODIS satellite data. The LAI dataset has been pre-processed (monthly averaged, interpolated, gap-filled) to use it in the land surface scheme of EC-Earth (HTESSEL). The vegetation density is modeled by an exponential dependence on LAI, based on the Lambert-Beer formulation. Retrospective hindcasts have been performed with the following model setup: 7 months forecast length, 2 start dates (1st May and 1st November), 10 members, 28 years (1982-2009). Initial conditions were produced at IC3, based on ERA-40/ERA-Interim (atmosphere and land-surface) and NEMOVAR-ORAS4 (ocean and sea-ice) data. Model resolution is T159L62 for the atmosphere and the ORCA1 grid for the ocean. The effect of the realistic LAI prescribed from observation is evaluated with respect to a control experiment where LAI does not vary. Results of the retrospective hindcast experiment demonstrate that a realistic representation of vegetation has a significant effect on evaporation, temperature and precipitation. An improvement of model sensitivity to vegetation variability on the seasonal scale is also evidenced, especially during boreal winter. This may be attributed in particular to the effect of the high vegetation component on the snow cover.

Catalano, Franco; Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

2014-05-01

243

Realistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing  

E-print Network

. Modeling at realistic Reynolds numbers and nozzle geometries requires tens of billions of points. Simply and acoustics measurements from high- quality experiments using realistic nozzle geometries. This projectRealistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing Sponsor: National Science

Ginzel, Matthew

244

Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of standard ocean hydrographic and circulation metrics are applied to the equilibrium physical solutions from 13 global carbon models participating in phase 2 of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2). Model-data comparisons are presented for sea surface temperature and salinity, seasonal mixed layer depth, meridional heat and freshwater transport, 3-D hydrographic fields, and meridional overturning. Considerable variation

S. C. Doney; K. Lindsay; K. Caldeira; J.-M. Campin; H. Drange; J.-C. Dutay; M. Follows; Y. Gao; A. Gnanadesikan; N. Gruber; A. Ishida; F. Joos; G. Madec; E. Maier-Reimer; J. C. Marshall; R. J. Matear; P. Monfray; A. Mouchet; R. Najjar; J. C. Orr; G.-K. Plattner; J. Sarmiento; R. Schlitzer; R. Slater; I. J. Totterdell; M.-F. Weirig; Y. Yamanaka; A. Yool

2004-01-01

245

A Dual-System Approach to Realistic Evaluation  

E-print Network

Defense / Richard Alimi 5 Networked Systems are Simple, Right? Alice Bob Charlie #12;2010-09-29 Thesis Defense / Richard Alimi 6 Networked Systems are Complex! Routing Alice Bob Charlie External Services DNS environment as black box Alice Bob Charlie But some key features are missing! Production System Test System

246

Emerging technologies  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

Lu, Shin-yee

1993-03-01

247

Emergence of Joint Attention through Bootstrap Learning based on the Mechanisms of Visual Attention and Learning with Self-evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study argues how human infants acquire the ability of joint attention through interactions with their caregivers from a viewpoint of cognitive developmental robotics. In this paper, a mechanism by which a robot acquires sensorimotor coordination for joint attention through bootstrap learning is described. Bootstrap learning is a process by which a learner acquires higher capabilities through interactions with its environment based on embedded lower capabilities even if the learner does not receive any external evaluation nor the environment is controlled. The proposed mechanism for bootstrap learning of joint attention consists of the robot's embedded mechanisms: visual attention and learning with self-evaluation. The former is to find and attend to a salient object in the field of the robot's view, and the latter is to evaluate the success of visual attention, not joint attention, and then to learn the sensorimotor coordination. Since the object which the robot looks at based on visual attention does not always correspond to the object which the caregiver is looking at in an environment including multiple objects, the robot may have incorrect learning situations for joint attention as well as correct ones. However, the robot is expected to statistically lose the learning data of the incorrect ones as outliers because of its weaker correlation between the sensor input and the motor output than that of the correct ones, and consequently to acquire appropriate sensorimotor coordination for joint attention even if the caregiver does not provide any task evaluation to the robot. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the proposed mechanism could explain the developmental mechanism of infants' joint attention because the learning process of the robot's joint attention can be regarded as equivalent to the developmental process of infants' one.

Nagai, Yukie; Hosoda, Koh; Morita, Akio; Asada, Minoru

248

The Implementation and Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) is a system which combines the mesoscale meteorological prediction model RAMS with the diffusion models REEDM and HYPACT. Operators use a graphical user interface to run the models for emergency response and toxic hazard planning at CCAS/KCS. The Applied Meteorology Unit has been evaluating the ERDAS meteorological and diffusion models and obtained the following results: (1) RAMS adequately predicts the occurrence of the daily sea breeze during non-cloudy conditions for several cases. (2) RAMS shows a tendency to predict the sea breeze to occur slightly earlier and to move it further inland than observed. The sea breeze predictions could most likely be improved by better parameterizing the soil moisture and/or sea surface temperatures. (3) The HYPACT/REEDM/RAMS models accurately predict launch plume locations when RAMS winds are accurate and when the correct plume layer is modeled. (4) HYPACT does not adequately handle plume buoyancy for heated plumes since all plumes are presently treated as passive tracers. Enhancements should be incorporated into the ERDAS as it moves toward being a fully operational system and as computer workstations continue to increase in power and decrease in cost. These enhancements include the following: activate RAMS moisture physics; use finer RAMS grid resolution; add RAMS input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, radar, and/or satellite data); automate data quality control; implement four-dimensional data assimilation; modify HYPACT plume rise and deposition physics; and add cumulative dosage calculations in HYPACT.

Evans, Randolph J.; Tremback, Craig J.; Lyons, Walter A.

1996-01-01

249

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization  

E-print Network

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

Cho, Sung-Bae

250

HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF A REALISTIC MAGNETOCONVECTIVE SUNSPOT SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C. [Northwest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rempel, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, HAO Division, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr., E-mail: dbraun@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: aaronb@cora.nwra.com, E-mail: renpel@ucar.edu, E-mail: Thomas.L.Duvall@nasa.gov [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-01-01

251

Realistic page-turning of electronic books  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

2014-01-01

252

Helioseismology of a Realistic Magnetoconvective Sunspot Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.; Rempel, M.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

2012-01-01

253

Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

2003-01-01

254

Realist review--a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions.  

PubMed

Evidence-based policy is a dominant theme in contemporary public services but the practical realities and challenges involved in using evidence in policy-making are formidable. Part of the problem is one of complexity. In health services and other public services, we are dealing with complex social interventions which act on complex social systems--things like league tables, performance measures, regulation and inspection, or funding reforms. These are not 'magic bullets' which will always hit their target, but programmes whose effects are crucially dependent on context and implementation. Traditional methods of review focus on measuring and reporting on programme effectiveness, often find that the evidence is mixed or conflicting, and provide little or no clue as to why the intervention worked or did not work when applied in different contexts or circumstances, deployed by different stakeholders, or used for different purposes. This paper offers a model of research synthesis which is designed to work with complex social interventions or programmes, and which is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. The first step is to make explicit the programme theory (or theories)--the underlying assumptions about how an intervention is meant to work and what impacts it is expected to have. We then look for empirical evidence to populate this theoretical framework, supporting, contradicting or modifying the programme theories as it goes. The results of the review combine theoretical understanding and empirical evidence, and focus on explaining the relationship between the context in which the intervention is applied, the mechanisms by which it works and the outcomes which are produced. The aim is to enable decision-makers to reach a deeper understanding of the intervention and how it can be made to work most effectively. Realist review does not provide simple answers to complex questions. It will not tell policy-makers or managers whether something works or not, but will provide the policy and practice community with the kind of rich, detailed and highly practical understanding of complex social interventions which is likely to be of much more use to them when planning and implementing programmes at a national, regional or local level. PMID:16053581

Pawson, Ray; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Harvey, Gill; Walshe, Kieran

2005-07-01

255

Emerging role of echocardiographic strain/strain rate imaging and twist in systolic function evaluation and operative procedure in patients with aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

Systolic function of the left ventricle is vital for patients with aortic stenosis. Unfortunately, the most widely used clinical parameter, the left ventricular ejection fraction, is not sensitive enough, especially for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiographic strain/strain rate and twist are emerging parameters for left ventricular systolic and diastolic function evaluation. Aortic stenosis could reduce strain/strain rate while magnifying twist. Furthermore, strain/strain rate correlates well with the prognosis of patients with aortic stenosis. Most importantly the circumferential strain, strain rate and twist also play a role in differentiating cardiac compensation or decompensation. In any case, these parameters could normalize after successful surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Regardless of these advantages, clinical evidence is needed to ensure their usefulness. PMID:23644729

Wang, Bin; Chen, Haiyan; Shu, Xianhong; Hong, Tao; Lai, Hao; Wang, Chunsheng; Cheng, Leilei

2013-08-01

256

Humanitarian Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries or regions affected by humanitarian emergencies remain challenging situations for the provision of health and nutrition services in developing countries. Major advances in recent decades have been made regarding our knowledge of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, the availability of standardized guidance protocols and indicators, and the development of new products, especially for severely

Reinhard Kaiser; Paul B. Spiegel

257

Emergent Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses ways to let semantics emerge from simple observations from the bottom-up, rather than imposing concepts on the observations top-down, to provide precise query, retrieval, communication or translation for a wide variety of applications. The following areas are examined: image retrieval and databases; media information spaces including the Semantic Web and MPEG frameworks; language games for emergent semantics;

Steffen Staab; S. Santini; F. Nack; L. Steels; A. Maedche

2002-01-01

258

Emergency contraception.  

PubMed

The term 'emergency contraception', as employed in this paper, refers to methods that are used as emergency procedures to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse. Alternative, less appropriate, terms are postcoital and 'morning-after' contraception. References to postcoital preparations can be found as far back as 1500 BC in Egyptian papyri, but it was not until fairly recently that contraceptive research has been able to at least partially fulfill that need. The development of hormonal methods of emergency contraception goes back to the 1960s when the first human trials of postcoitally administered high-dose oestrogens were undertaken. Combined oestrogen- progestogen combination therapy (the so-called Yuzpe regimen) was introduced in the early 1970s, while the postcoital insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for emergency contraception was first reported in 1976. Other compounds that have been tested more recently include levonorgestrel, the antiprogestogen mifepristone, and danazol. Although there is some debate about the magnitude of the protective effect, few people question the important role that emergency contraception can play in preventing unwanted pregnancy and hence maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from unsafe abortion. Given that the most often used methods of emergency contraception, namely the Yuzpe regimen and postcoital insertion of an IUD, rely on technology that has been available for some 30 years, family planning programmes that claim to be concerned with improving women's reproductive health, cannot really be excused if they do not provide emergency contraception as part of their routine services. PMID:8324605

Van Look, P F; von Hertzen, H

1993-01-01

259

Towards realistic representation of hydrological processes in integrated WRF-urban modeling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the demand of the ever-increasing urbanized global population, substantial conversion of natural landscapes to urban terrains is expected in the next few decades. The landscape modification will emerge as the source of many adverse effects that challenge the environmental sustainability of cities under changing climatic patterns. To address these adverse effects and to develop corresponding adaptation/mitigation strategies, physically-based single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) has been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) platform. However, due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes, simulation of urban climatology by current coupled WRF/SLUCM is inevitably inadequate. Aiming at improving the accuracy of simulations, in this study we implement physically-based parameterization of urban hydrological processes into the model, including (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation over water-holding engineered pavements, (4) urban oasis effect, and (5) green roof. In addition, we use an advanced Monte Carlo approach to quantify the sensitivity of urban hydrological modeling to parameter uncertainties. Evaluated against field observations at four major metropolitan areas, results show that the enhanced model is significantly improved in accurately predicting turbulent fluxes arising from built surfaces, especially the latent heat flux. Case studies show that green roof is capable of reducing urban surface temperature and sensible heat flux effectively, and modifying local and regional hydroclimate. Meanwhile, it is efficient in decreasing energy loading of buildings, not only cooling demand in summers but also heating demand in winters, through the combined evaporative cooling and insulation effect. Effectiveness of green roof is found to be limited by availability of water resources and highly sensitive to surface roughness heights. The enhanced WRF/SLUCM model deepens our insight into the dynamics of urban land surface processes and its impact on the regional hydroclimate through land-atmosphere interactions.

Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Georgescu, Matei

2014-05-01

260

Psychiatric Advance Directives as a complex and multistage intervention: a realist systematic review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) are documents that allow users with severe and chronic mental illnesses to notify their treatment preferences for future crisis relapses and to appoint a surrogate decision-maker for a period of incompetence. Despite many supposed clinical and organisational benefits, their take-up rate has remained very low and their clinical evaluation has given contradictory results for organisational outcomes. Intermediary results are available, however, which rely on different theoretical views about how PADs are supposed to work. We carried out a realist systematic review that considered the PAD as a multistage intervention including the definition of the document, its completion and its access and honouring. We identified the theoretical frameworks underlying this kind of intervention and examined the available evidence that supported or contradicted the expectations at each stage of the intervention. Forty-seven references were retrieved, ranging from 1996 to 2009. Three frameworks underlie a PAD intervention: enhancement of the autonomy of the user, improvement of the therapeutic alliance and integration of care through partnership working. Although designed in the first place with a view to sustaining the user's autonomy, results indicate that the intervention is more efficient within a therapeutic alliance framework. Moreover, much is known about the completion process and the content of the document, but very little about its access and honouring. The mixture of expectations makes the purpose of PADs unclear, for example, crisis relapse prevention or management, advance planning of long-term or emergency care, or reduction in the resort to coercion. This may explain their low take-up rates. Hence, frameworks and purpose have to be clarified. The shape of the whole intervention at each stage relies on such clarification. More research is needed, particularly on the later stages of the intervention, as the evidence for how PADs should be implemented is still incomplete. PMID:22452515

Nicaise, Pablo; Lorant, Vincent; Dubois, Vincent

2013-01-01

261

Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

2011-06-01

262

Realistic Simulation of NDCX-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy-Ion Fusion Science is now constructing NDCX-II, an accelerator facility for studying ion-heated warm dense matter and aspects of ion-driven targets for inertial-fusion energy. Plans call for using twelve or more induction cells to accelerate 30-50 nC of Li^+ ions to 1.2-3 MeV. Plasma neutralization will enable compression of the beam to the sub-millimeter radius and sub-nanosecond duration needed for the desired target experiments. The initial NDXC-II physics design was developed using idealized analytic waveforms. Acceleration schedules were first worked out with a fast-running 1-D particle-in-cell code ASP (Acceleration Schedule Program), then 2-D and 3-D Warp simulations were used to verify the 1-D model, design transverse focusing, and establish tolerances for beam and lattice errors. As part of recent work to refine and validate this physics design, the idealized waveforms in the simulations have been replaced by experimentally measured ones. ASP and Warp results obtained with these realistic waveforms are compared with those from earlier simulations, and ongoing work to optimize the acceleration schedule is discussed.

Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Cohen, R. H.; Lund, S. M.; Leitner, M. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.

2010-11-01

263

Fast sawtooth reconnection at realistic Lundquist numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection, a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysics, space science and magnetic confinement research, frequently proceeds much faster than predicted by simple resistive MHD theory. Acceleration can result from the break-up of the thin Sweet–Parker current sheet into plasmoids, or from two-fluid effects decoupling mass and magnetic flux transport over the ion inertial length {{v}A}/{?ci} or the drift scale \\sqrt{{{T}e}/{{m}i}}/{?ci}, depending on the absence or presence of a strong magnetic guide field. We describe new results on the modelling of sawtooth reconnection in a simple tokamak geometry (circular cylindrical equilibrium) pushed to realistic Lundquist numbers for present day tokamaks. For the resistive MHD case, the onset criteria and the influence of plasmoids on the reconnection process agree well with earlier results found in the case of vanishing magnetic guide fields. While plasmoids are also observed in two-fluid calculations, they do not dominate the reconnection process for the range of plasma parameters considered in this study. In the two-fluid case they form as a transient phenomenon only. The reconnection times become weakly dependent on the S-value and for the most complete model—including two-fluid effects and equilibrium temperature and density gradients—agree well with those experimentally found on ASDEX Upgrade ?ft(?slant 100 ? s\\right).

Günter, S.; Yu, Q.; Lackner, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.-M.

2015-01-01

264

Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

2013-01-01

265

Realistic solution to the tunneling time problem  

E-print Network

There remains the old question of how long a quantum particle takes to tunnel through a potential barrier higher than its incident kinetic energy. In this article a solution of the question is proposed on the basis of a realistic explanation of quantum mechanics. The explanation implies that the tunneling particle has a certain chance to borrow enough energy from self-interference to high-jump over the barrier. The root-mean-square velocity and the effective tunneling time of an electron tunneling through a rectangular barrier are numerically calculated. No superluminal effect (Hartman effect) is found for the tunneling electron. Heisenberg's energy-time uncertainty relation for the tunneling effect is verified by calculating an introduced coefficient representing uncertainty. The present author argues that phase time, dwell time and B\\"{u}tticker-Landauer time are not appropriate expressions for the actual transit time in a tunneling process. A quantum high-jumping model is presented to resolve the paradox that kinetic energy of the tunneling particle is negative and its momentum is imaginary.

Wang Guowen

2007-06-24

266

Emergency contraception  

MedlinePLUS

... in women. It can be used: After a sexual assault or rape When a condom breaks or a diaphragm slips ... your health care provider first). Emergency contraception may cause side effects. Most are mild. They may include: ...

267

Radiation Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Simulation Tools CDC Response, Japan 2011 Specific Hazards Radiation Emergencies Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir If ... loved ones, and your pets. Learn More » Radiation and Your Health Radiation can affect the body ...

268

Emergency Contraception  

MedlinePLUS

... taken within 72 hours after having unprotected sex Levonorgestrel: 2 pills; the first dose taken within 72 ... can decrease the effectiveness of emergency contraceptives with levonorgestrel, including Plan B One-Step. Women weighing more ...

269

Evaluation of the Use and Reasons for Not Using a Helmet by Motorcyclists Admitted to the Emergency Ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman  

PubMed Central

Background: Motorcycle crashes are the cause of severe morbidity and mortality especially because of head injuries. It seems that wearing a helmet has an effective role in protection against head injuries. Nevertheless, motorcyclists usually have no tendency to wear a helmet when driving in cities and have several reasons for this behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the use and reasons for not using a helmet by motorcyclists admitted to an emergency ward of a trauma hospital due to accident in Kerman, Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out by recoding the opinions of motorcyclists who had been transferred to the emergency ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital (Kerman/Iran). Since no data was available on the frequency of the use of helmets, a pilot study was carried out and a sample size of 377 was determined for the main study. Then a researcher-made questionnaire was used to investigate the motorcyclists’ reasons for not using a helmet. Results: Only 21.5% of the motorcyclists had been wearing helmets at the time of the accident. The most frequent reasons for not using a helmet were the heavy weight of the helmet (77%), feeling of heat (71.4%), pain in the neck (69.4%), feeling of suffocation (67.7%), limitation of head and neck movements (59.6%) and all together, physical discomfort was the main cause of not wearing a helmet during motorcycle rides. Conclusions: In general, it appears that it is possible to increase the use of helmets by eliminating its physical problems, and increasing the knowledge of community members in relation to the advantages of helmet use, which will result in a significant decrease in traumas resulting from motorcycle accidents. PMID:25599066

Faryabi, Javad; Rajabi, Mahboobeh; Alirezaee, Shahin

2014-01-01

270

Endocrine emergencies  

PubMed Central

Diabetic and endocrine emergencies are traditionally treated by the acute medical admitting team or accident and emergency department staff. Most will see diabetic emergencies on a regular basis, as they are common and both type 1 and type 2 disease are increasing in prevalence. Diabetic emergencies are usually easily treated and the patients discharged. However, it is vital not to become complacent as these disorders can lead to death. It is particularly important to follow local guidance and to involve the diabetes team both during and after each episode. Recently it has become clear that about 30% of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome (including infarction) have either diabetes or "stress hyperglycaemia"; evidence suggests that these patients should be treated not only as a cardiac emergency but also as a diabetic one. Thus, every patient with acute coronary syndrome or acute myocardial infarction needs diabetes to be excluded. The other endocrine emergencies are less common, but in some ways more important simply because of their rarity. A high level of suspicion is often required to make a diagnosis, although some, such as myxoedema coma, are usually obvious. Treatment must be started before the diagnosis can be confirmed. Guidance on making the diagnosis and initiating treatment should be made available on the local NHS intranet for non-endocrinologists to access; and where possible expert advice made available by telephone. The basic management steps in the common diabetic and endocrine emergencies are outlined; this is not a complete list, but rather an insight for those involved in non-selected emergency admissions. PMID:15356351

Savage, M; Mah, P; Weetman, A; Newell-Price, J

2004-01-01

271

Health-related quality of life for pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses: an Evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to assess the validity and short-term responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for febrile illnesses evaluated in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Design Prospective cohort study of children 2–18 years discharged after ED evaluation for fever (? 38°C). Self-administered, parent-report of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the PedsQL™ Acute Version, a validated HRQOL instrument. HRQOL was measured on ED presentation and at 7–10 day follow-up. At follow-up, duration of fever, child functional impairment, missed daycare/school, and disrupted family unit functioning, were assessed. Results Of 160 subjects enrolled, 97 (61%) completed the study; mean follow-up was 8.7 days. Mean total HRQOL score on ED presentation was 76.4; mean follow-up score was 86.3. Compared to subjects that returned to baseline, statistically significant differences in HRQOL were noted for those with prolonged fever, child functional impairment, and relapse. Significant correlation was observed between HRQOL at follow-up and days of daycare/school missed (r = -0.35, p = .003) and days of family disruption (r = -0.43, p < .001). Mean change in HRQOL within subjects, from ED visit to follow-up, was +9.8 (95% CI: 5.6–14.6). Effect size was 0.53, indicating moderate responsiveness. Conclusion The PedsQL™ appears to be a valid and responsive indicator of HRQOL for short-term febrile illnesses evaluated in the ED. PMID:19178744

Mistry, Rakesh D; Stevens, Molly W; Gorelick, Marc H

2009-01-01

272

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.  

PubMed

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2009-09-22

273

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates  

PubMed Central

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2009-01-01

274

Realistic Simulation of Urban Mesh Networks - Part I: Urban Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a truism that simulations of mobile wireless networks are not realistic. There has been little effort in developing realistic mobility models. In urban areas, the mobility of vehicles and pedestrians is greatly influenced by the environement (e.g., the location of buildings) as well as by interaction with other nodes. For example, on a congested street of sidewalk, nodes

Jonghyun Kim; Vinay Sridhara; Stephan Bohacek

275

Fast Volume Preservation for Realistic Muscle Deformation Sunhwa Jung  

E-print Network

Fast Volume Preservation for Realistic Muscle Deformation Min Hong * Sunhwa Jung Min-Hyung Choi volume preservation is essential to achieve the realistic simulation of human muscle structure because approximately 75% of the human body is water and the overall volume is well maintained even during a large

Choi, Min-Hyung

276

In Search of Realistic Optimism: Meaning, Knowledge, and Warm Fuzziness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggest that the "fuzzy" nature of accuracy typically places only loose boundaries on what it means to be realistic. Describes several ways to differentiate realistic and unrealistic optimism, exploring the impact of this distinction for current views of optimism. Reviews how positive psychology may benefit from a focus on personal meaning and…

Schneider, Sandra L.

2001-01-01

277

A realistic large-signal MESFET model for SPICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive large-signal MESFET model that provides a realistic description of measured characteristics over all operating regions is presented, It describes subthreshold conduction and breakdown. It has frequency dispersion of both transconductance and drain conductance, and derates with power dissipation. All derivatives are continuous for a realistic description of circuit distortion and intermodulation. The model has improved descriptions of capacitance

Anthony Edward Parker; David James Skellern

1997-01-01

278

REALISTIC SIMULATION OF OCEAN SURFACE USING WAVE SPECTRA  

E-print Network

REALISTIC SIMULATION OF OCEAN SURFACE USING WAVE SPECTRA Jocelyn Fr´echot LaBRI - Laboratoire CEDEX, France jocelyn.frechot@labri.fr Keywords: Natural phenomena, realistic ocean waves, procedural wave spectra are independent of the ocean model, Gerstner parametric equations and Fourier transform

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Statistical Analysis of Real Radiofrequencies Exposure in a Realistic Environment  

E-print Network

of the distribution of FM, TV, and GSM signals in a realistic electromagnetic environment in Indoor distinguishing of emissions. Usually, electromagnetic-field measurements are performed in a real environment with a spectrumStatistical Analysis of Real Radiofrequencies Exposure in a Realistic Environment Zaher MAHFOUZ

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Diagnosis of Realistic Bridging Faults with Single Stuckat Information  

E-print Network

Diagnosis of Realistic Bridging Faults with Single Stuck­at Information Brian Chess David B. Lavo F that of traditional stuck­at diagnosis. 1 Introduction Accurate fault diagnosis of realistic defects is an in­ tegral faults [16]. However, most fault diagnosis tech­ niques use the single stuck­at fault model to diagnose

Larrabee, Tracy

281

Emerging phleboviruses.  

PubMed

The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

2014-04-01

282

Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood  

SciTech Connect

This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

Voitsekhovitch, O.V. [Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Inst., Kiev (Ukraine); Zheleznyak, M.J. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Cybernetics Center; Onishi, Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01

283

Evaluation of the in vitro estrogenicity of emerging bisphenol analogs and their respective estrogenic contributions in municipal sewage sludge in China.  

PubMed

There is a potential risk to the environment from persistent estrogenic compounds in sewage sludge. In this study, eight bisphenols (BPs) were identified in sewage sludge collected from wastewater treatment plants in 15 cities in China. The estrogenic potencies of the eight BPs and the estrogenic activities of sludge samples were evaluated using a bioluminescence yeast estrogen screen (BLYES) assay. All sludge samples elicited considerable estrogenic activity at a range of 2.8-4.7ng E2g(-1) dry weight (dw). All BPs exhibited estrogenic activity in the BLYES assay, but there were significant differences between the potency of individual chemicals. Bisphenol AF had the highest activity, followed by tetrachlorobisphenol A, bisphenol F, bisphenol A, bisphenol E, bisphenol S and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. Tetrabromobisphenol A showed weak estrogenic activity at 1×10(4)nM, but significant cytotoxicity above this concentration. The total estradiol equivalency quantities (EEQs) of BPs were in the range of 2.16-49.13pg E2g(-1) dw, accounting for 0.05-1.47% of the total EEQs in sewage sludge samples. The results indicate that BPs made a minor contribution to the estrogenic activity of the investigated sewage sludge. Nevertheless, our results suggest that considerable attention should be directed to the estrogenic potentials of emerging organic pollutants because of their widespread use and their potential to persist in the environment. PMID:25548037

Ruan, Ting; Liang, Dong; Song, Shanjun; Song, Maoyong; Wang, Hailin; Jiang, Guibin

2015-04-01

284

Pre-hospital/emergency department handover in Italy.  

PubMed

In Italy, emergency department (ED) triage is a complex and delicate interface in which different emergency healthcare providers interact: physicians, nurses, and pre-hospital rescuers. There are significant differences in the communication, training, and abilities of these providers. Communication failures during the pre-hospital/hospital interface have been identified as a major preventable cause of patient harm. We previously evaluated handover in simulated scenarios, and developed specialized handover training for pre-hospital emergency rescuers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate communication during the clinical handover between pre-hospital to ED staff, using realistic scenarios. A nurse, trained through high-fidelity simulation handover scenarios, used our adapted ISBAR tool to evaluate inter-professional communication at triage. We evaluated and statistically analyzed 240 handovers performed by pre-hospital rescuers over nine observing shifts. On the whole, the data analysis highlights a lack of communication standards, a lack of formal transfer of responsibility of patient care, and a marked inconsistency in information communicated by every professional group examined. Only those rescuers who were previously trained in handover performed 100 % of the ISBAR tool items. The information most often communicated was the reason for the call, (85 %) and the information least often communicated was the complete ABCDE patient survey (1 %). Currently, ED personnel receive poor verbal information from pre-hospital providers. The general habit of pre-hospital providers is to give different written reports to the triage nurses without a true shared transfer of responsibility. This lack of standardization in communication presumably has an adverse impact upon patient care. PMID:25281056

Di Delupis, Francesco Dojmi; Mancini, Niccolò; di Nota, Tommasina; Pisanelli, Paolo

2015-02-01

285

Hernia emergencies.  

PubMed

Hernia emergencies are commonly encountered by the acute care surgeon. Although the location and contents may vary, the basic principles are constant: address the life-threatening problem first, then perform the safest and most durable hernia repair possible. Mesh reinforcement provides the most durable long-term results. Underlay positioning is associated with the best outcomes. Components separation is a useful technique to achieve tension-free primary fascial reapproximation. The choice of mesh is dictated by the degree of contamination. Internal herniation is rare, and preoperative diagnosis remains difficult. In all hernia emergencies, morbidity is high, and postoperative wound complications should be anticipated. PMID:24267501

Yeh, D Dante; Alam, Hasan B

2014-02-01

286

Emerging Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

287

Radiation Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and ...

288

[Outpatient emergencies].  

PubMed

The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient. PMID:24979919

Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

2014-01-01

289

Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception  

PubMed Central

Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

2013-01-01

290

Optical forces and torques on realistic plasmonic nanostructures: a surface integral approach.  

PubMed

We develop a novel formalism to calculate the optical forces and torques on complex and realistic nanostructures by combining the surface integral equation (SIE) technique with Maxwell's stress tensor. The optical force is calculated directly on the scatterer surface from the currents obtained from the SIE, which does not require an additional surface to evaluate Maxwell's stress tensor; this is especially useful for intricate geometries such as plasmonic antennas. SIE enables direct evaluation of forces from the surface currents very efficiently and accurately for complex systems. As a proof of concept, we establish the accuracy of the model by comparing the results with the calculations from the Mie theory. The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by simulating a realistic plasmonic system with intricate geometry. PMID:25121852

Ji, Alok; Raziman, T V; Butet, Jérémy; Sharma, R P; Martin, Olivier J F

2014-08-15

291

A computer-controlled pump and realistic anthropomorphic respiratory phantom for validating image-guided systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of image-guided interventions requires validation studies to evaluate new protocols. So far, these validation studies have been limited to animal models and to software and physical phantoms that simulate respiratory motion but cannot accommodate needle punctures in a realistic manner. We have built a computer-controlled pump that drives an anthropomorphic respiratory phantom for simulating natural breathing patterns. This pump consists of a power supply, a motion controller with servo amplifier, linear actuator, and custom fabricated pump assembly. By generating several sample waveforms, we were able to simulate typical breathing patterns. Using this pump, we were able to produce chest wall movements similar to typical chest wall movements observed in humans. This system has potential applications for evaluating new respiratory compensation algorithms and may facilitate improved testing of image-guided protocols under realistic interventional conditions.

Lin, Ralph; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Stoianovici, Dan; Cleary, Kevin

2007-03-01

292

Black Hole Emergence in Supernovae  

E-print Network

If a black hole formed in a core-collapse supernova is accreting material from the base of the envelope, the accretion luminosity could be observable in the supernova light curve. Here we continue the study of matter fall back onto a black hole in the wake of a supernova and examine realistic supernovae models which allow for an early emergence of the accretion luminosity. Such cases may provide a direct observational identification of the black hole formed in the aftermath of the explosion. Our approach combines analytic estimates and fully relativistic, radiation-hydrodynamic numerical computations. We employ a numerical hydrodynamical scaling technique to accommodate the diverse range of dynamical time scales in a single simulation. We find that while in typical Type II supernovae heating by radioactive decays dominates the late-time light curve, low-energy explosions of more massive stars should provide an important exception where the accretion luminosity will emerge while it is still relatively large. O...

Balberg, S; Shapiro, S L; Balberg, Shmuel; Zampieri, Luca; Shapiro, Stuart L.

2000-01-01

293

Relativistic description of finite nuclei based on realistic NN interactions  

SciTech Connect

A set of relativistic mean-field models is constructed, which includes the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations accounting for the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons as well as the pion. Density-dependent coupling functions are determined to reproduce the components of the nucleon self-energy at the Fermi surface, obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-HF (DBHF) approach by using a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is investigated to which extent the various mean-field models can reproduce the DBHF results for the momentum dependence of the self-energies and the total energy of infinite matter. Also, the mean-field models are used to evaluate the bulk properties of spherical closed-shell nuclei. We find that the HF model, which allows for the exchange of {sigma}, {omega}, {rho}, and {delta} mesons and pions, yields the best reproduction of the DBHF results in infinite matter and also provides a good description of the properties of finite nuclei without any adjustment of parameters.

Dalen, E. N. E. van; Muether, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2011-08-15

294

Development and Evaluation of Educational Materials for Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department Personnel on the Care of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there…

McGonigle, John J.; Migyanka, Joann M.; Glor-Scheib, Susan J.; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J.; Hegde, Gajanan G.; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

2014-01-01

295

An Emergent Framework For Realistic Psychosocial Behaviour In Non Player Characters  

E-print Network

, and behaviour as it applies to human performance as well as ideal intelligence, or rationality. Artificial. Introduction The field of artificial intelligence in games is a broad, yet demanding area of study. In (Russel and Norvig, 2003), artificial intelligence is defined as being concerned with thought processes, reasoning

Katchabaw, Michael James

296

RADAR Realistic Animal Model Series for Dose Assessment  

PubMed Central

Rodent species are widely used in the testing and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, necessitating murine phantom models. As more therapy applications are being tested in animal models, calculating accurate dose estimates for the animals themselves becomes important to explain and control potential radiation toxicity or treatment efficacy. Historically, stylized and mathematically based models have been used for establishing doses to small animals. Recently, a series of anatomically realistic human phantoms was developed using body models based on nonuniform rational B-spline. Realistic digital mouse whole-body (MOBY) and rat whole-body (ROBY) phantoms were developed on the basis of the same NURBS technology and were used in this study to facilitate dose calculations in various species of rodents. Methods Voxel-based versions of scaled MOBY and ROBY models were used with the Vanderbilt multinode computing network (Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education), using geometry and tracking radiation transport codes to calculate specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) with internal photon and electron sources. Photon and electron SAFs were then calculated for relevant organs in all models. Results The SAF results were compared with values from similar studies found in reference literature. Also, the SAFs were used with standardized decay data to develop dose factors to be used in radiation dose calculations. Representative plots were made of photon electron SAFs, evaluating the traditional assumption that all electron energy is absorbed in the source organs. Conclusion The organ masses in the MOBY and ROBY models are in reasonable agreement with models presented by other investigators noting that considerable variation can occur between reported masses. Results consistent with those found by other investigators show that absorbed fractions for electrons for organ self-irradiation were significantly less than 1.0 at energies above 0.5 MeV, as expected for many of these small-sized organs, and measurable cross-irradiation was observed for many organ pairs for highenergy electrons (as would be emitted by nuclides such as 32P, 90Y, or 188Re). PMID:20197451

Keenan, Mary A.; Stabin, Michael G.; Segars, William P.; Fernald, Michael J.

2010-01-01

297

A time-responsive tool for informing policy making: rapid realist review  

PubMed Central

Background A realist synthesis attempts to provide policy makers with a transferable theory that suggests a certain program is more or less likely to work in certain respects, for particular subjects, in specific kinds of situations. Yet realist reviews can require considerable and sustained investment over time, which does not always suit the time-sensitive demands of many policy decisions. ‘Rapid Realist Review’ methodology (RRR) has been developed as a tool for applying a realist approach to a knowledge synthesis process in order to produce a product that is useful to policy makers in responding to time-sensitive and/or emerging issues, while preserving the core elements of realist methodology. Methods Using examples from completed RRRs, we describe key features of the RRR methodology, the resources required, and the strengths and limitations of the process. All aspects of an RRR are guided by both a local reference group, and a group of content experts. Involvement of knowledge users and external experts ensures both the usability of the review products, as well as their links to current practice. Results RRRs have proven useful in providing evidence for and making explicit what is known on a given topic, as well as articulating where knowledge gaps may exist. From the RRRs completed to date, findings broadly adhere to four (often overlapping) classifications: guiding rules for policy-making; knowledge quantification (i.e., the amount of literature available that identifies context, mechanisms, and outcomes for a given topic); understanding tensions/paradoxes in the evidence base; and, reinforcing or refuting beliefs and decisions taken. Conclusions ‘Traditional’ realist reviews and RRRs have some key differences, which allow policy makers to apply each type of methodology strategically to maximize its utility within a particular local constellation of history, goals, resources, politics and environment. In particular, the RRR methodology is explicitly designed to engage knowledge users and review stakeholders to define the research questions, and to streamline the review process. In addition, results are presented with a focus on context-specific explanations for what works within a particular set of parameters rather than producing explanations that are potentially transferrable across contexts and populations. For policy makers faced with making difficult decisions in short time frames for which there is sufficient (if limited) published/research and practice-based evidence available, RRR provides a practical, outcomes-focused knowledge synthesis method. PMID:24007206

2013-01-01

298

A Realistic Accretion Disk Model for AGNs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new relativistic accretion disk model of AGNs, based on alpha modified accretion disk theory, where alpha is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the mechanism of angular momentum transport. In this model we have considered a geometrically-thin, high-luminosity (alpha-accretion disk, around a supermassive black hole. The geometrically thin limit assumes a local energy balance within the accretion disk, which has been used to derive the plasma temperature of the disk. The energy balance equation has three solutions: low, medium and high temperature, depending on the heating rate of the accretion disk. We predict that the inner part of a high luminosity accretion disk is in the high- temperature (10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) K) state and for this we obtain the high temperature solution of the energy balance equation using a Comptonization process. We find the local spectrum of each ring of the disk (we have divided the high temperature region of the disk into 50 rings) to be a diluted Wien spectrum. However, the emergent integral spectrum of the high temperature region is a power-law with a high-energy cutoff that depends on the basic parameters of AGNs (the accretion rate, the incidence angle, and the mass and the angular momentum of the central black hole). We have fitted the observed spectra of 28 AGNs using the present model and have derived the values of the basic parameters of these AGNs. Results of these spectral fittings have been discussed in the framework of the unification model of AGNs.

Suleimanov, V.; Ghosh, K. K.; Austin, R. A.; Ramsey, B. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

299

Emergency granulopoiesis.  

PubMed

Neutrophils are a key cell type of the innate immune system. They are short-lived and need to be continuously generated in steady-state conditions from haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow to ensure their immediate availability for the containment of invading pathogens. However, if microbial infection cannot be controlled locally, and consequently develops into a life-threatening condition, neutrophils are used up in large quantities and the haematopoietic system has to rapidly adapt to the increased demand by switching from steady-state to emergency granulopoiesis. This involves the markedly increased de novo production of neutrophils, which results from enhanced myeloid precursor cell proliferation in the bone marrow. In this Review, we discuss the molecular and cellular events that regulate emergency granulopoiesis, a process that is crucial for host survival. PMID:24751955

Manz, Markus G; Boettcher, Steffen

2014-05-01

300

Emergent spin  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

Creutz, Michael, E-mail: creutz@bnl.gov

2014-03-15

301

Evaluation of rapid response team implementation in medical emergencies: A gallant evidence based medicine initiative in developing countries for serious adverse events  

PubMed Central

Background: Rapid response team (RRT) has been implemented in developed countries with the aim of early recognition and response to critical care triggers for the better patient outcome. However, the data concerning their efficacy is hardly available until date from Indian subcontinent. Aims: To evaluate the impact of RRT implementation on patient outcome during medical emergencies. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study of RRT records of in-bed patients of super specialty academic teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: RRT record forms during the first half of the year from January 2012 to June 2012 were included for all inpatients and out-patients irrespective of their age, gender and diseases profile after their inclusion in the system. Outcomes such as patient stayed in the room, patient transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), patient discharge and generation of code blue event, mortality and length of stay in hospital/ICU were measured. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis was performed with the help of statistical software STATA 9.0 and R 2.13.2 (StataCorp LP, Lakeway Drive College Station, Texas, USA). Results: Analysis of 41 RRT calls showed decreased code blue calls by 2.44% and decrease in mortality by 4.88%. Average length of stay in ICU and hospital post RRT assistance for patients was 2.55 and 6.95 days respectively. Conversely percentage of patients requiring a higher level of care was more (75.61%) than those who stayed in their rooms/wards (24.39%). Conclusion: Implementation of RRT in this hospital was associated with reduced code blue events and its attendant mortality outside the ICU settings. However, more number of patient requiring higher levels of care delineates the need for a larger evidence based medicine study. PMID:24741490

Rashid, Mohammed Fayyaz; Imran, Mohammed; Javeri, Yash; Rajani, Monika; Samad, Shadab; Singh, Omender

2014-01-01

302

Cost and Resource Utilization Associated with Use of Computed Tomography to Evaluate Chest Pain in the Emergency Department: The ROMICAT Study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) allows for rapid non-invasive exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, concern exists whether implementation of cCTA in the assessment of patients presenting to the emergency room with acute chest pain will lead to increased downstream testing and costs compared to alternative strategies. Our aim was to compare observed actual costs of usual care (UC) with projected costs of a strategy including early cCTA in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computed Tomography (ROMICAT I) study. Methods and Results We compared cost and hospital length of stay of UC observed among 368 patients enrolled in the ROMICAT I trial with projected costs of management based on cCTA. Costs of UC were determined by an electronic cost accounting system. Notably, UC was not influenced by cCTA results, as patients and caregivers were blinded to the cCTA results. Costs after early implementation cCTA were estimated assuming changes in management based on cCTA findings of presence and severity of CAD. Sensitivity analysis was used to test influence of key variables on both outcomes and costs. We determined that in comparison to UC, cCTA-guided triage whereby patients with no CAD are discharged, could reduce total hospital costs by 23%, p < 0.001. However, when the prevalence of obstructive CAD increases, index hospitalization cost increases such that when the prevalence of ?50% stenosis is greater than 28–33%, the use of cCTA becomes more costly than UC. Conclusion cCTA may be a cost saving tool in acute chest pain populations that have a prevalence of potentially obstructive CAD lower than 30%. However, increased cost would be anticipated in populations with higher prevalence of disease. PMID:24021693

Hulten, Edward; Goehler, Alexander; Bittencourt, Marcio; Bamberg, Fabian; Schlett, Christopher L.; Truong, Quynh A.; Nichols, John; Nasir, Khurram; Rogers, Ian S.; Gazelle, Scott G.; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo; Blankstein, Ron

2013-01-01

303

Newborn Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A 14-h-old male, 2,400 g, born at 37 weeks gestational age, is scheduled emergently for repair of esophageal atresia with\\u000a tracheoesophageal fistula. The newborn choked and gagged on the first glucose water feed. A contrast study confirmed the diagnosis.\\u000a Vital signs are BP = 88\\/52 mmHg, RR = 44\\/min, P = 158 bpm, T = 37.2°C. His hemoglobin is 13.0

Robert S. Holzman; Thomas J. Mancuso; Navil F. Sethna; James A. DiNardo

304

A SPATIALLY REALISTIC MODEL FOR INFORMING FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Spatially realistic population models (SRPMs) address a fundamental problem commonly confronted by wildlife managers - predicting the effects of landscape-scale habitat management on an animal population. SRPMs typically consist of three submodels: (1) a habitat submodel...

305

Support for Realist Foreign Policy: Reality Attunement or Ignorance?  

E-print Network

test of critical and celebratory knowledge about past US foreign interventions; I measured endorsement of blind and constructive orientations of American patriotism, and I examined the relationship of these predictors with support for realist foreign...

Snider, Danielle

2012-05-31

306

Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic  

E-print Network

Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic Environmental atmospheric environmental forcings. Analysis of several simulated convec- tive boundary layer (CBL) cases toward dynamic adjustment of environmental parameters in LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows

Fedorovich, Evgeni

307

``Interval Rational = Algebraic'' Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result  

E-print Network

the numbers representable in a computer are rational and therefore, form a set of Lebesgue measure 0, only rational numbers ``Interval Rational = Algebraic'' Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result Anatoly V. Lakeyev 1

Kreinovich, Vladik

308

Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method is found to be successful in producing a turbulent shear layer. Imposition of larger turbulent integral length scales at the inlet is found to be effective in achieving a quicker recovery of turbulent fluctuations at low Reynolds numbers.

Dhamankar, Nitin S.

309

Images of Poverty in Contemporary Realistic Fiction for Youth: Preliminary Results of a Content Analysis Using a Social Psychological Conceptual Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study of 20 contemporary realistic fiction books for youth, in middle school and above, analyzed images of poverty using a framework adapted from the work of Robert Leahy. Findings are related to demographics, images of poverty and emerging themes. Results indicate that, as a whole, the sample of books rely on concrete images of…

Fitzgibbons, Shirley A.; Tilley, Carol L.

310

Detecting Emerging Trends from Scientific Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging trend detection is a new challenge and an attractive topic in text mining. Our research goal was to construct a model to detect emerging trends in a set of scientific articles; the resulting model is richer in topic representation and more appropriate for evaluating emerging trends than existing models. To achieve this end, we associated each topic with many

Minh-Hoang Le; Tu-Bao Ho; Yoshiteru Nakamori

311

Transient Analysis for Evaluating the Potential Boiling in the High Elevation Emergency Cooling Units of PWR Following a Hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Subsequent Water Hammer Due to Pump Restart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Generic Letter GL-96-06 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required the utilities to evaluate the potential for voiding in their Containment Emergency Cooling Units (ECUs) due to a hypothetical Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accompanied by the Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP). When the offsite power is restored, the Component

S. Mahmood Husaini; Riyad K. Qashu

2004-01-01

312

Can virtual reality predict body part discomfort and performance of people in realistic world for assembling tasks?  

E-print Network

1 Can virtual reality predict body part discomfort and performance of people in realistic world. Keywords: virtual reality simulation; digital human modeling; evaluation of work design; ergonomics 1 handling workers in industrialized countries, and it affects a significant proportion of workforce. In 2001

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Effective health care for older people resident in care homes: the optimal study protocol for realist review  

PubMed Central

Background Care homes in the UK rely on general practice for access to specialist medical and nursing care as well as referral to therapists and secondary care. Service delivery to care homes is highly variable in both quantity and quality. This variability is also evident in the commissioning and organisation of care home-specific services that range from the payment of incentives to general practitioners (GPs) to visit care homes, to the creation of care home specialist teams and outreach services run by geriatricians. No primary studies or systematic reviews have robustly evaluated the impact of these different approaches on organisation and resident-level outcomes. Our aim is to identify factors which may explain the perceived or demonstrated effectiveness of programmes to improve health-related outcomes in older people living in care homes. Methods/Design A realist review approach will be used to develop a theoretical understanding of what works when, why and in what circumstances. Elements of service models of interest include those that focus on assessment and management of residents’ health, those that use strategies to encourage closer working between visiting health care providers and care home staff, and those that address system-wide issues about access to assessment and treatment. These will include studies on continence, dignity, and speech and language assessment as well as interventions to promote person centred dementia care, improve strength and mobility, and nutrition. The impact of these interventions and their different mechanisms will be considered in relation to five key outcomes: residents’ medication use, use of out of hours’ services, hospital admissions (including use of Accident and Emergency) and length of hospital stay, costs and user satisfaction. An iterative three-stage approach will be undertaken that is stakeholder-driven and optimises the knowledge and networks of the research team. Discussion This realist review will explore why and for whom different approaches to providing health care to residents in care homes improves access to health care in the five areas of interest. It will inform commissioning decisions and be the basis for further research. This systematic review protocol is registered on the PROSPERO database reference number: CRD42014009112. PMID:24887325

2014-01-01

314

Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality  

PubMed Central

Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

2014-01-01

315

Emerging Holography  

E-print Network

We rederive AdS/CFT predictions for infrared two-point functions by an entirely four dimensional approach, without reference to holography. This approach, originally due to Migdal in the context of QCD, utilizes an extrapolation from the ultraviolet to the infrared using a Pade approximation of the two-point function. We show that the Pade approximation and AdS/CFT give the same leading order predictions, and discuss including power corrections such as those due to condensates of gluons and quarks in QCD. At finite order the Pade approximation provides a gauge invariant regularization of a higher dimensional gauge theory in the spirit of deconstructed extra dimensions. The radial direction of anti-de Sitter space emerges naturally in this approach.

Joshua Erlich; Graham D. Kribs; Ian Low

2006-02-13

316

Emerging holography  

SciTech Connect

We rederive AdS/CFT predictions for infrared two-point functions by an entirely four-dimensional approach, without reference to holography. This approach, originally due to Migdal in the context of QCD, utilizes an extrapolation from the ultraviolet to the infrared using a Pade approximation of the two-point function. We show that the Pade approximation and AdS/CFT give the same leading order predictions, and we discuss including power corrections such as those due to condensates of gluons and quarks in QCD. At finite order the Pade approximation provides a gauge invariant regularization of a higher dimensional gauge theory in the spirit of deconstructed extra dimensions. The radial direction of anti-de Sitter space emerges naturally in this approach.

Erlich, Joshua [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Kribs, Graham D. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Low, Ian [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2006-05-01

317

Evaluation of thermal discomfort in Athens territory and its effect on the daily number of recorded patients at hospitals' emergency rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that temperature and humidity affect human health. However, only a few studies have examined the association of a biometeorological index, which combines several meteorological parameters and human physiology, with health outcomes. The aim of the present study is to assess the thermal discomfort in Athens city by using the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) as well as to examine its association with the number of patients recorded at the emergency rooms of four main hospitals. Patients were selected based on their diagnosis during the summer season (June August) from 1998 to 2004. Data included hourly values of meteorological parameters and daily numbers of patients who visited the emergency units of cardiology departments. Poisson regression models were applied using generalized estimating equations. A strong negative correlation between mean and maximum daily values of PMV and the number of emergency department visits was identified. More studies are needed to explore the association of this biometeorological index with health outcomes in other regions.

Pantavou, Katerina; Theoharatos, Georgios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Katavoutas, Georgios; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis

2008-11-01

318

Emergency Guide Tuscarawas Campus  

E-print Network

.................................................................................7 Biological Threat........................................................................... 11Emergency Guide Tuscarawas Campus Kent State University Prepared by: Kent State University Police;Emergency Guide Using the Emergency Guide The Tuscarawas Campus Emergency Guide is a companion document

Khan, Javed I.

319

I-Love relation for incompressible stars and realistic stars  

E-print Network

In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science {\\bf 341}, 365 (2013)], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability) and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

T. K. Chan; Atma P. O. Chan; P. T. Leung

2014-11-26

320

Emergency contraception.  

PubMed

There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI). From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (LNG), known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of UPSI, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, LNG alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2?×?0.75?mg 12 hours apart) showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5?mg LNG pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception (EC) are available on the market today with the most widely spread being LNG in a single dose of 1.5?mg (given as one tablet of 1.5?mg or 2 tablets of 0.75?mg each) for administration up to 3 days (according to WHO up to 5 days) after UPSI. Its limitations are the non-optimal efficacy which is decreasing the later the drug is taken and the fact that it is only approved for up to 72 hours after UPSI. This regimen has no effect on the endometrium, corpus luteum function and implantation, is not abortive and don't harm the fetus if accidentally taken in early pregnancy. It has no impact on the rate of ectopic pregnancies. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for EC, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that EC is considered an off label use for most IUDs (not for the GynFix copper IUD in the European Union) and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Furthermore IUD-insertion is an invasive procedure and it is required trained providers and sterilized facilities. Mifepristone in the dosages of 10 or 25?mg is used with good results as an emergency contraceptive in China for up to 120 hours after UPSI, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. While high doses of mifepristone has an effect on endometrial receptivity and will inhibit ovulation if given in the follicular phase and prevent implantation if given in the early luteal phase, low doses such as 10?mg has no impact on the endometrium. Mifepristone does not increase the rate of ectopic pregnancies. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate (UPA) in the dosage of 30?mg for EC up to 5 days after UPSI, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose LNG pill with an even higher efficacy. It has shown to be more efficacious than LNG and can be used for up to 120 hours after UPSI; the difference in efficacy is highest for 0-24 hours, followed by 0-72 hours following UPSI. No VTE has been reported following UPA-administration or any progesterone receptor modulator. No effect on endometrium, corpus luteum function and implantation has been observed with doses used for EC. Independent of the substance it should be noted that, if there is a choice, the intake of an oral emergency contraceptive pill should happen as soon as possible after the risk situation. A pre-existing pregnancy must be excluded. Possible contraindications and drug interactions must be considered according to the individual special product informations. PMID:23437846

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Rabe, Thomas; Cheng, Linan

2013-03-01

321

An evaluation of air pollution abatement relaxation strategies for Tennessee during periods of pending or actual energy emergencies. (Tennessee State science, engineering, and technology project). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses problems associated with the relaxation of air pollution abatement strategies, during periods of pending or actual energy emergencies, for coal-fired plants in Tennessee. Several general and specific constraints which policymakers face in implementing the relaxation of air pollution standards are reviewed: the emission standards required for compliance with the Tennessee State Implementation Plan; a pending consent decree,

L. Clinard; D. Backhus; W. Koehler

1980-01-01

322

Emerging technologies  

SciTech Connect

Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

1996-07-01

323

Emergency radiology.  

PubMed

US has a relevant role in the initial assessment of non-traumatic emergencies of the abdomen, sometimes being conclusive and some other times for selecting the patients for further imaging with CT. Injection of a contrast medium may give to the radiologist additional information to that obtained at baseline US and Doppler examination, since real-time, contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) may allow observing findings in the abdomen not recognizable at baseline US or even at color Doppler imaging. Extravascular use of microbubbles may also be useful in clinical practice to rapidly solve a number of unclear aspects. CEUS has a number of distinct advantages in acute patients, including its quickness, low invasiveness, and its possible bedside use. The information based on contrast enhancement is useful for initial diagnosis, therapeutic decision making, and follow-up of the critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of abdominal CEUS in the acute setting, with special emphasis on the detection and characterization of acute inflammatory processes, infarcts, and hemorrhages. PMID:25450869

Farina, Roberto; Catalano, Orlando; Stavolo, Ciro; Sandomenico, Fabio; Petrillo, Antonella; Romano, Luigia

2015-01-01

324

Emergent Relativity  

E-print Network

A possible resolution of the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and general relativity is that the relativity principle is emergent. I show that the central paradox of black holes also occurs at a liquid-vapor critical surface of a bose condensate but is resolved there by the phenomenon of quantum criticality. I propose that real black holes are actually phase boundaries of the vacuum analogous to this, and that the Einstein field equations simply fail at the event horizon the way quantum hydrodynamics fails at a critical surface. This can occur without violating classical general relativity anywhere experimentally accessible to external observers. Since the low-energy effects that occur at critical points are universal, it is possible to make concrete experimental predictions about such surfaces without knowing much, if anything about the true underlying equations. Many of these predictions are different from accepted views about black holes - in particular the absence of Hawking radiation and the possible transparency of cosmological black hole surfaces. [To appear in the C. N Yang Festschrift (World Sci., Singapore, 2003).

R. B. Laughlin

2003-02-27

325

[Pain therapy in emergency medicine. Focus on emergency admissions].  

PubMed

With a prevalence of 50-80 % pain is one of the main symptoms of emergency admission patients worldwide; however, study results demonstrate that only 30-50 % of patients receive adequate analgesia. Therefore, in the USA quality indicators have been established by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) since 2010 within the framework of quality assurance of emergency admissions, e.g. the time window until the start of pain therapy. Despite the prescribed pain evaluation as part of many existing triage systems, e.g. the Manchester triage system (MTS), emergency severity index (ESI), Australasian triage scale (ATS), Canadian triage and acuity scale (CATS), in most emergency rooms there is no standardized, documented pain assessment and pain intensity is documented by using the appropriate pain scales in only 30 % of cases. Lack of knowledge and training and lack of awareness by the nursing and medical staff regarding pain perception and management represent the main causal factors. Studies on the situation of pain therapy in German emergency departments are not currently available. Due to the increasing number of central emergency departments and interdisciplinary teams of physicians and nurses, it seems sensible to introduce interdisciplinary standards of treatment to achieve the greatest possible safety in the use of analgesics in the emergency room. It is important to incorporate the experiences of the various clinical departments in the standards. This article aims to provide an overview of the situation in pain management in emergency departments and to serve as a basis for recommendations for pain therapy in German emergency departments. This article particularly discusses the possibilities of pain evaluation, treatment options with various medications and under specific conditions, e.g. for children, pregnant women or the elderly or alternative ways of pain management. PMID:24173544

Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Koppert, W; Kumle, K; Gries, A

2013-11-01

326

Particles and gaseous emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellet heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous and particulate emissions from six residential wood pellet heating systems are determined at a realistic six day operation sequence. The study aims to investigate the total emissions from a realistic operation of the heating systems including start-up and stop phases. Five combined solar and pellet heating systems and one reference boiler without solar system with an integrated DHW preparation was tested in a laboratory at realistic operation conditions. The investigated emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, the emissions are presented as accumulated total emissions from the whole six days period and the emissions from start-up and stop phases are also presented separately to evaluate the influence of the emissions from these phases on the total emissions. Emission factors of the measured systems from the six day period are between 192 and 547 mg MJ-1 for the CO emissions, between 61 and 95 mg MJ-1 for the NO, between 6 and 45 mg MJ-1 for the TOC, between 31 and 116 mg MJ-1 for the particulate matter and between 2.1 × 1013 and 4 × 1013 for the number of particles. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases are significantly high for the CO (63-95 %) and the TOC (48-93 %). NO and particles emissions are shown to dominate during stationary operation. However, 30-40 % of the particle emissions arise from the start and stop periods. It is also shown that the average emissions of CO, TOC and particles under the realistic annual conditions were higher than the limit values of two eco labels.

Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris

2012-11-01

327

Effects of Defining Realistic Compositions of the Ocular Melanoma on Proton Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent studies in eye plaque brachytherapy have shown a considerable difference between the dosimetric results using water phantom and a model of human eye containing realistic materials. In spite of this fact, there is a lack of simulation studies based on such a model in proton therapy literatures. In the presented work, the effect of utilizing an eye model with ocular media on proton therapy is investigated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo Code. Methods: Two different eye models are proposed to study the effect of defining realistic materials on dose deposition due to utilizing pencil beam scanning (PBS) method for proton therapy of ocular melanoma. The first model is filled with water, and the second one contains the realistic materials of tumor and vitreous. Spread out Bragg peaks (SOBP) are created to cover a typical tumor volume. Moreover, isodose curves are figured in order to evaluate planar variations of absorbed dose in two models. Results: The results show that the maximum delivered dose in ocular media is approximately 12-32% more than in water phantom. Also it is found that using the optimized weighted beams in water phantom leads to disturbance of uniformity of SOBP in ocular media. Conclusion: Similar to the results reported in eye brachytherapy published papers, considering the ocular media in simulation studies leads to a more realistic assessment of sufficiency of the designed proton beam in tissue. This effect is of special importance in creating SOBP, as well as in delivered dose in the tumor boundaries in proton pencil beam scanning method. PMID:25599060

Keshazare, Sh; Masoudi, S F; S Rasouli, F

2014-01-01

328

Evidence of Multistability in a Realistic Computer Simulation of Hippocampus Subfield CA1  

PubMed Central

The manner in which hippocampus processes neural signals is thought to be central to the memory encoding process. A theoretically-oriented literature has suggested that this is carried out via “attractors” or distinctive spatio-temporal patterns of activity. However, these ideas have not been thoroughly investigated using computational models featuring both realistic single-cell physiology and detailed cell-to-cell connectivity. Here we present a 452 cell simulation based on Traub et al’s pyramidal cell [81] and interneuron [83] models, incorporating patterns of synaptic connectivity based on an extensive review of the neuroanatomic literature. When stimulated with a one second physiologically realistic input, our simulated tissue shows the ability to hold activity on-line for several seconds; furthermore, its spiking activity, as measured by frequency and interspike interval (ISI) distributions, resembles that of in vivo hippocampus. An interesting emergent property of the system is its tendency to transition from stable state to stable state, a behavior consistent with recent experimental findings [73]. Inspection of spike trains and simulated blockade of KAHP channels suggest that this is mediated by spike frequency adaptation. This finding, in conjunction with studies showing that apamin, a KAHP channel blocker, enhances the memory consolidation process in laboratory animals, suggests the formation of stable attractor states is central to the process by which memories are encoded. Ways that this methodology could shed light on the etiology of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, are discussed. PMID:19378385

Siekmeier, Peter J.

2009-01-01

329

Emergency contraception  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which Nova Scotian FPs prescribe and provide emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and to explore their knowledge of and attitudes toward ECPs. Design Survey of Nova Scotian FPs using a modified Dillman method. Setting All regions of Nova Scotia. Participants Family physicians registered with Dalhousie University’s Division of Continuing Medical Education. Main outcome measures Sex differences in the provision of ECPs and knowledge and attitudes about the ECP Plan B. Results Of 913 eligible FPs, 155 (17.0%) participated in the survey. Respondents resembled the sampling frame closely. Most physicians (64.0%) had prescribed ECPs in the previous year (mean number of prescriptions, 4.92); only 12.9% provided ECPs in advance of need. Knowledge about Plan B was quite good, except for knowledge of the time frame for potential effectiveness; only 29.2% of respondents answered that question correctly. Respondents generally supported nonprescription availability of ECPs, but 25.0% of FPs were concerned that this could lead to less use of more effective methods of contraception, and 39.2% believed that it would encourage repeat use. Younger FPs provided ECPs more often than their older colleagues, while female respondents had better knowledge about Plan B. In multivariate analysis being younger than 40 years was marginally associated with prescribing Plan B and with prescribing any form of ECP. Conclusion Most Nova Scotian FPs provided ECPs and had generally good knowledge about and attitudes toward providing such contraception without prescription. However, FPs were poorly informed about the length of time that Plan B can be effective, which could potentially affect use when patients consult several days after unprotected sex. There were some concerns about nonprescription availability of ECPs, which could have implications for recommending it to patients. Rarely were ECPs prescribed for advance use, which might represent a lost prevention opportunity, especially for adolescents who often do not use effective contraception. PMID:22586200

Langille, Donald B.; Allen, Michael; Whelan, Anne Marie

2012-01-01

330

Behavioral Game Theory: Towards a Realistic Representation of Strategic Behavior?  

E-print Network

Behavioral Game Theory: Towards a Realistic Representation of Strategic Behavior? Giovanna Devetag have been traditionally modelled using the formal language of game theory, first introduced by von Neumann and Morgenstern's 1944 seminal book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Game theory

Qian, Ning

331

Realistic Load Testing of Web Applications Dirk Draheim  

E-print Network

" because "failure to mimic real user behaviour can generate totally inconsistent results" [16]. Most in form-oriented analy- sis is technology-independent and suitable for the descrip- tion of user behaviour. In order to simulate realistic users we extend the model with stochastic functions that describe navigation

Grundy, John

332

Two-Capacitor Problem: A More Realistic View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the two-capacitor problem by considering the self-inductance of the circuit used and by determining how well the usual series RC circuit approximates the two-capacitor problem when realistic values of L, C, and R are chosen. (GA)

Powell, R. A.

1979-01-01

333

UAV Based Distributed ATR under Realistic Simulated Environmental Effects  

E-print Network

UAV Based Distributed ATR under Realistic Simulated Environmental Effects Xiaohan Chen, Shanshan has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor

Valenti, Matthew C.

334

Sample-Based Synthesis of Photo-Realistic Talking Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system that generates photo- realistic video animations of talking heads. First the system derives head models from existing video footage using image recognition techniques. It locates, extracts and labels facial parts such as mouth, eyes, and eyebrows into a compact library. Then, using these face models and a text-to-speech synthesizer, it synthesizes new video sequences of

Eric Cosatto; Hans Peter Graf

1998-01-01

335

Understanding Worms' Impact on the Internet Infrastructure through Realistic Simulation  

E-print Network

Understanding Worms' Impact on the Internet Infrastructure through Realistic Simulation Bob Bradley@utm.edu,lanwang@memphis.edu) Internet worms pose a significant threat to the stability of the Internet infrastructure. First, the huge, the random scanning used by most worms may cause routers to become unstable. For example, since a large

Wang, Lan

336

Title: Realistic Hair Simulation animation and rendering Submission Format & Area  

E-print Network

Title: Realistic Hair Simulation ­ animation and rendering Submission Format & Area Class SIGGRAPH of the most challenging tasks in character synthesis: hair simulation. This class covers both recent and novel research ideas in hair animation and rendering, and presents time tested industrial practices

337

Realistic, RealTime Rendering of Ocean Waves Microsoft Research  

E-print Network

Realistic, Real­Time Rendering of Ocean Waves Yaohua Hu Microsoft Research Luiz Velho IMPA Xin Tong surface in real time. Our system can render calm ocean waves with sophisticated lighting effects at 100 in recreating the look and feel of the ocean water. Our second idea is a view-dependent representation of wave

Rajamani, Sriram K.

338

Preventing SSL Traffic Analysis with Realistic Cover Traffic (extended abstract)  

E-print Network

and defense detection at- tacks, we propose using realistic cover traffic tunnels to mask the observable attention and scrutiny. We call this related attack defense detection. To resist both traffic analysis behavior of the real traffic to be trans- mitted. The user tunnels his or her real traffic via a proxy

Borisov, Nikita

339

"Interval Rational = Algebraic" Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result  

E-print Network

numbers are represented. The set of all rational numbers is countable and has, therefore, Lebesgue measure"Interval Rational = Algebraic" Revisited: A More Computer Realistic Result Anatoly V. Lakeyev1 rational functions, then the resulting class of "interval-rational" functions practically coincides

Kreinovich, Vladik

340

Independent component analysis forms place cells in realistic robot simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that the processing of sensory information in the entorhinal-hippocampal loop involves independent component analysis (ICA) on temporally concatenated inputs. Here, we demonstrate that ICA in a realistic robot simulation on a U-shaped track forms place fields similar to those found in rat experiments in vivo.

Bálint Takács; András Lörincz

2006-01-01

341

Sampling-Based Robot Motion Planning: Towards Realistic Applications  

E-print Network

, search and rescue robots, robots in surgery are just a few out of the many examples of roboticsSampling-Based Robot Motion Planning: Towards Realistic Applications Konstantinos I. Tsianos, Ioan Abstract This paper presents some of the recent improvements in sampling-based robot mo- tion planning

Kavraki, Lydia E.

342

Jet noise simulations for realistic jet nozzle geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology for the direct calculation of noise from realistic nozzle geometries. The focus of the paper is on the numerical approach to this problem to provide noise predictions to engineering accuracy in an efficient manner. In addition, issues related to grid generation are discussed. The methodology uses structured multiblock grids. The block surrounding the jet centerline

Philip J. Morris; Yongle Du; Kursat Kara

2010-01-01

343

A morphologically realistic shell model of atrial propagation and ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three dimensional morphologically realistic model of atrial propagation is developed, based on the male Visible Human dataset and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations for cardiac excitation. The atrial shell geometry incorporates eleven different anatomical structures, including the pulmonary veins, and the septum, Bachmann's bundle and coronary sinus as interatrial conduction pathways. Although the model utilizes a simplified cellular model of cardiac

A. Al Abed; S. Dokos; N. H. Lovell

2009-01-01

344

Evolutionary Trajectory Planner for Multiple UAVs in Realistic Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a path planner for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for realistic scenarios. The paths returned by the algorithm fulfill and optimize multiple criteria that 1) are calculated based on the properties of real UAVs, terrains, radars, and missiles and 2) are structured in different levels of priority according to the selected mission.

Eva Besada-Portas; Luis de la Torre; Jesús Manuel de la Cruz; Bonifacio Andres-Toro

2010-01-01

345

Evolutionary path planner for UAVs in realistic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a path planner for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) based on Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) that can be used in realistic risky scenarios. The path returned by the algorithm fulfills and optimizes multiple criteria which (1) are calculated based on properties of real UAVs, terrains, radars and missiles, and (2) are used to rank the solutions according to the

Jesús Manuel De La Cruz; Eva Besada-portas; Luis Torre-cubillo; Bonifacio Andres-toro; José Antonio López Orozco

2008-01-01

346

Informing the design of clinical decision support services for evaluation of children with minor blunt head trauma in the emergency department: a sociotechnical analysis.  

PubMed

Integration of clinical decision support services (CDSS) into electronic health records (EHRs) may be integral to widespread dissemination and use of clinical prediction rules in the emergency department (ED). However, the best way to design such services to maximize their usefulness in such a complex setting is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-site cross-sectional qualitative study whose aim was to describe the sociotechnical environment in the ED to inform the design of a CDSS intervention to implement the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) clinical prediction rules for children with minor blunt head trauma. Informed by a sociotechnical model consisting of eight dimensions, we conducted focus groups, individual interviews and workflow observations in 11 EDs, of which 5 were located in academic medical centers and 6 were in community hospitals. A total of 126 ED clinicians, information technology specialists, and administrators participated. We clustered data into 19 categories of sociotechnical factors through a process of thematic analysis and subsequently organized the categories into a sociotechnical matrix consisting of three high-level sociotechnical dimensions (workflow and communication, organizational factors, human factors) and three themes (interdisciplinary assessment processes, clinical practices related to prediction rules, EHR as a decision support tool). Design challenges that emerged from the analysis included the need to use structured data fields to support data capture and re-use while maintaining efficient care processes, supporting interdisciplinary communication, and facilitating family-clinician interaction for decision-making. PMID:23892207

Sheehan, Barbara; Nigrovic, Lise E; Dayan, Peter S; Kuppermann, Nathan; Ballard, Dustin W; Alessandrini, Evaline; Bajaj, Lalit; Goldberg, Howard; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Offerman, Steven R; Mark, Dustin G; Swietlik, Marguerite; Tham, Eric; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vinson, David R; Jones, Grant S; Bakken, Suzanne

2013-10-01

347

Black Hole Emergence in Supernovae  

E-print Network

If a black hole formed in a core-collapse supernova is accreting material from the base of the envelope, the accretion luminosity could be observable in the supernova light curve. Here we continue the study of matter fall back onto a black hole in the wake of a supernova and examine realistic supernovae models which allow for an early emergence of the accretion luminosity. Such cases may provide a direct observational identification of the black hole formed in the aftermath of the explosion. Our approach combines analytic estimates and fully relativistic, radiation-hydrodynamic numerical computations. We employ a numerical hydrodynamical scaling technique to accommodate the diverse range of dynamical time scales in a single simulation. We find that while in typical Type II supernovae heating by radioactive decays dominates the late-time light curve, low-energy explosions of more massive stars should provide an important exception where the accretion luminosity will emerge while it is still relatively large. Our main focus is on the only current candidate for such an observation, the very unusual SN1997D. Due to the low energy of the explosion and the very small ($2\\times10^{-3} M_\\sun$) inferred mass of Co56 in the ejected envelope, we find that accretion should become the dominant source of its luminosity during the year 2000. The total luminosity at emergence is expected to lie in the range $0.5-3\\times10^{36} $ ergs/s, potentially detectable with HST. We also discuss the more favorable case of explosions which eject negligible amounts of radioactive isotopes and find that the black hole is likely to emerge a few tens of days after the explosion, with a luminosity of $\\sim 10^{37} $\\ergss.

Shmuel Balberg; Luca Zampieri; Stuart L. Shapiro

2000-04-17

348

Emergency Management Institute- Federal Emergency Management Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emergency Management Institute (EMI) provides a nationwide training program of resident courses and non-resident courses to enhance U.S. emergency management practices. Lists the courses, programs, and activities offered.

349

Emergency Medical Services  

MedlinePLUS

... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

350

[Structure, organization and capacity problems in emergency medical services, emergency admission and intensive care units].  

PubMed

Emergency medicine is subjected worldwide to financial stringencies and organizational evaluations of cost-effectiveness. The various links in the chain of survival are affected differently. Bystander assistance or bystander CPR is available in only 30% of the emergencies, response intervals--if at all required by legislation--are observed to only a limited degree or are too extended for survival in cardiac arrest. A single emergency telephone number is lacking. Too many different phone numbers for emergency reporting result in confusion and delays. Organizational realities are not fully overcome and impair efficiency. The position of the emergency physician in the EMS System is inadequately defined, the qualification of too many emergency physicians are unsatisfactory. In spite of this, emergency physicians are frequently forced to answer out-of-hospital emergency calls. Conflicts between emergency physicians and EMTs may be overcome by providing both groups with comparable qualifications as well as by providing an explicit definition of emergency competence. A further source of conflict occurs at the juncture of prehospital and inhospital emergency care in the emergency department. Deficiencies on either side play a decisive role. At least in principle there are solutions to the deficiencies in the EMSS and in intensive care medicine. They are among others: Adequate financial compensation of emergency personnel, availability of sufficient numbers of highly qualified personnel, availability of a central receiving area with an adjacent emergency ward, constant information flow to the dispatch center on the number of available emergency beds, maintaining 5% of all beds as emergency beds, establishing intermediate care facilities. Efficiency of emergency physician activities can be demonstrated in polytraumatized patients or in patients with ventricular fibrillation or acute myocardial infarction, in patients with acute myocardial insufficiency and other emergency clinical pictures. Cost effectiveness is clearly in favor of emergency medicine. Future developments will be characterized by the consequences of new health care legislation and by effects of financial stringencies on the emergency medical services. PMID:7801705

Dick, W

1994-01-01

351

ImpastoR: A realistic surface display system.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe our efforts to create a surface display system that produces realistic representations of real-world surfaces. Our system, based on a desktop PC with GPU hardware, LCD display, light and position sensors, and custom graphics software, supports the photometrically accurate and visually realistic real-time simulation and display of surfaces with complex color, gloss, and textural properties in real-world lighting environments, and allows users to interact with and manipulate these virtual surfaces as naturally as if they were real ones. We explain the system design, illustrate its capabilities, describe experiments we conducted to validate its fidelity, and discuss potential applications in material appearance research and computer-aided appearance design. PMID:25449157

Ferwerda, James A

2014-11-15

352

Low-distance Surface Codes under Realistic Quantum Noise  

E-print Network

We study the performance of distance-three surface code layouts under realistic multi-parameter noise models. We first calculate their thresholds under depolarizing noise. We then compare a Pauli-twirl approximation of amplitude and phase damping to amplitude and phase damping. We find the approximate channel results in a pessimistic estimate of the logical error rate, indicating the realistic threshold may be higher than previously estimated. From Monte-Carlo simulations, we identify experimental parameters for which these layouts admit reliable computation. Due to its low resource cost and superior performance, we conclude that the 17-qubit layout should be targeted in early experimental implementations of the surface code. We find that architectures with gate times in the 5-40 ns range and T1 times of at least 1-2 us range will exhibit improved logical error rates with a 17-qubit surface code encoding.

Yu Tomita; Krysta M. Svore

2014-05-02

353

Prospects of realistic Quark-model baryon-baryon interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The QCD-inspired spin-flavor SU6 quark model for the baryon- baryon interaction, proposed by the Kyoto-Niigata group, is a unified model for the full octet-baryons (B8=N, ?, ? and ?), which has achieved very accurate descriptions of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) and hyperon-nucleon (YN) interactions. The present model, fss2, is not only more sophisticated than the previous model, FSS, for the description of the realistic NN and YN interaction, but also valid for reproducing of the existing experimental data in the strangeness S=-2 sector. We attempt to construct the more realistic quark-model baryon- baryon interactions possessing both the desirable feature of the quark model and the accuracy equivalent with fss2 for the experimental data.

Nakamoto, Choki; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2009-10-01

354

Realistic Covariance Prediction for the Earth Science Constellation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellation and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed using Monte Carlo techniques as well as by numerically integrating relative state probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, realistic covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate realistic covariance predictions for three of the Earth Science Constellation satellites: Aqua, Aura and Terra.

Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne

2006-01-01

355

Realistic Covariance Prediction For the Earth Science Constellations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellations (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellations and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed via Monte Carlo techniques as well as numerically integrating relative probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, realistic covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by NASA Goddard's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate realistic covariance predictions for three of the ESC satellites: Aqua, Aura, and Terra

Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne

2006-01-01

356

Bell's inequalities with realistic noise for polarization-entangled photons  

SciTech Connect

Contrary to the usual assumption that the experimental preparation of pure entangled states can be described by mixed states due to white noise, a more realistic description for polarization-entangled states produced by parametric down-conversion is that they are mixed states due to decoherence in a preferred polarization basis. This distinction between white and colored noise is crucial when we look for maximal violations of Bell's inequalities for two-qubit and two-qutrit entangled states. We find that violations of Bell's inequalities with realistic noise for polarization-entangled photons are extremely robust for colored noise, whereas this is not the case for white noise. In addition, we study the difference between white and colored noise for maximal violations of Bell's inequalities for three- and four-qubit entangled states.

Cabello, Adan; Feito, Alvaro; Lamas-Linares, Antia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Quantum Information Technology Lab, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)

2005-11-15

357

Automatic Perceptual Color Map Generation for Realistic Volume Visualization  

PubMed Central

Advances in computed tomography imaging technology and inexpensive high performance computer graphics hardware are making high-resolution, full color (24-bit) volume visualizations commonplace. However, many of the color maps used in volume rendering provide questionable value in knowledge representation and are non-perceptual thus biasing data analysis or even obscuring information. These drawbacks, coupled with our need for realistic anatomical volume rendering for teaching and surgical planning, has motivated us to explore the auto-generation of color maps that combine natural colorization with the perceptual discriminating capacity of grayscale. As evidenced by the examples shown that have been created by the algorithm described, the merging of perceptually accurate and realistically colorized virtual anatomy appears to insightfully interpret and impartially enhance volume rendered patient data. PMID:18430609

Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Parsad, Nigel M.; Tsirline, Victor

2008-01-01

358

Large Eddy Simulation of Solar Photosphere Convection with Realistic Physics  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional large eddy simulations of solar surface convection using realistic model physics are conducted. The thermal structure of convective motions into the upper radiative layers of the photosphere, the range of convection cell sizes, and the penetration depths of convection are investigated. A portion of the solar photosphere and the upper layers of the convection zone, a region extending 60 x 60 Mm horizontally from 0 Mm down to 20 Mm below the visible surface, is considered. We start from a realistic initial model of the Sun with an equation of state and opacities of stellar matter. The equations of fully compressible radiation hydrodynamics with dynamical viscosity and gravity are solved. We use: 1) a high order conservative TVD scheme for the hydrodynamics, 2) the diffusion approximation for the radiative transfer, 3) dynamical viscosity from subgrid scale modeling. The simulations are conducted on a uniform horizontal grid of 600 x 600, with 168 nonuniformly spaced vertical grid points, on 14...

Ustyugov, Sergey

2007-01-01

359

[Pediatric emergencies in the emergency medical service].  

PubMed

Out-of-hospital pediatric emergencies occur rarely but are feared among medical personnel. The particular characteristics of pediatric cases, especially the unaccustomed anatomy of the child as well as the necessity to adapt the drug doses to the little patient's body weight, produce high cognitive and emotional pressure. In an emergency standardized algorithms can facilitate a structured diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The aim of this article is to provide standardized procedures for the most common pediatric emergencies. In Germany, respiratory problems, seizures and analgesia due to trauma represent the most common emergency responses. This article provides a practical approach concerning the diagnostics and therapy of emergencies involving children. PMID:25523319

Silbereisen, C; Hoffmann, F

2015-01-01

360

Supersolid Phases in a Realistic Three-Dimensional Spin Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supersolid phases, in which a superfluid component coexists with conventional crystalline long range order, have recently attracted a great deal of attention in the context of both solid helium and quantum spin systems. Motivated by recent experiments on 2H-AgNiO2, we study the magnetic phase diagram of a realistic three-dimensional spin model with single-ion anisotropy and competing interactions on a layered

Luis Seabra; Nic Shannon

2010-01-01

361

Realistic localizer courses for aircraft instrument landing simulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The realistic instrument landing simulator (ILS) course structures for use in aircraft simulators are described. Software developed for data conversion and translation of ILS course structure measurements and calcomp plots of the courses provided are described. A method of implementing the ILS course structure data in existing aircraft simulators is outlined. A cockpit used in the lab to review the digitized ILS course structures is displayed.

Murphy, T. A.

1984-01-01

362

Photo-Realistic Talking-Heads from Image Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for creating aphoto-realistic model of the human head that can be animatedand lip-synched from phonetic transcripts of text. Combined witha state-of-the-art text-to-speech synthesizer (TTS), it generatesvideo animations of talking heads that closely resemble real people.To obtain a naturally looking head, we choose a "data-driven"approach. We record a talking person and apply image recognitionto extract automatically

Eric Cosatto; Hans Peter Graf

2000-01-01

363

A Real-Time Photo-Realistic Visual Flythrough  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a comprehensive flythrough system whichgenerates photo-realistic images in true real-time. The high performanceis due to an innovative rendering algorithm based on a discreteray casting approach, accelerated by ray coherence and multiresolutiontraversal. The terrain as well as the 3D objects are represented bya textured mapped voxel-based model. The system is based on a puresoftware algorithm and

Eran Rich; Uri Lerner; Victor Shenkar

1996-01-01

364

Simulation of human ischemic stroke in realistic 3D geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In silico research in medicine is thought to reduce the need for expensive clinical trials under the condition of reliable mathematical models and accurate and efficient numerical methods. In the present work, we tackle the numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion equations modeling human ischemic stroke. This problem induces peculiar difficulties like potentially large stiffness which stems from the broad spectrum of temporal scales in the nonlinear chemical source term as well as from the presence of steep spatial gradients in the reaction fronts, spatially very localized. Furthermore, simulations on realistic 3D geometries are mandatory in order to describe correctly this type of phenomenon. The main goal of this article is to obtain, for the first time, 3D simulations on realistic geometries and to show that the simulation results are consistent with those obtain in experimental studies or observed on MRI images in stroke patients. For this purpose, we introduce a new resolution strategy based mainly on time operator splitting that takes into account complex geometry coupled with a well-conceived parallelization strategy for shared memory architectures. We consider then a high order implicit time integration for the reaction and an explicit one for the diffusion term in order to build a time operator splitting scheme that exploits efficiently the special features of each problem. Thus, we aim at solving complete and realistic models including all time and space scales with conventional computing resources, that is on a reasonably powerful workstation. Consequently and as expected, 2D and also fully 3D numerical simulations of ischemic strokes for a realistic brain geometry, are conducted for the first time and shown to reproduce the dynamics observed on MRI images in stroke patients. Beyond this major step, in order to improve accuracy and computational efficiency of the simulations, we indicate how the present numerical strategy can be coupled with spatial adaptive multiresolution schemes. Preliminary results in the framework of simple geometries allow to assess the proposed strategy for further developments.

Dumont, Thierry; Duarte, Max; Descombes, Stéphane; Dronne, Marie-Aimée; Massot, Marc; Louvet, Violaine

2013-06-01

365

Testing and Diagnosis of Realistic Defects in Digital Microfluidic Biochips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidics-based biochips are soon expected to revolutionize biosensing, clinical diagnostics and drug discovery. Robust off-line and on-line test techniques are required to ensure system dependability as these biochips are deployed for safety-critical applications. Due to the underlying mixed-technology and mixed-energy domains, biochips exhibit unique failure mechanisms and defects. We first relate some realistic defects to fault models and observable errors.

Fei Su; William L. Hwang; Arindam Mukherjee; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2007-01-01

366

Realistic approach to an IR mission rehearsal simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a computer based infrared mission rehearsal system (IR-MRS). The IR-MRS can be used for IR mission planning, selecting navigation waypoints, and for mission rehearsal. For specific scenarios, locales, and environments the IR-MRS can simulate ingress\\/egress corridors and realistic target engagement ranges. In addition, the sensor model's modular design allows the IR-MRS to have a

Matthew Donn; Philip Yanni; Uri Bernstein

1996-01-01

367

Magical realist pathways into and under the psychotherapeutic imaginary  

Microsoft Academic Search

My experience of people's life stories from my work as a narrative therapist consistently destabilised distinctions between imagined\\/magical and real experiences. I came to realise that the day-to-day magical realist juxtapositions I came upon were encounters with people's daily lives, as lived, that have remained unacknowledged within the literatures of counselling. In this paper I speculate about the possible reasons

Jane Speedy

2011-01-01

368

Performance and Scalability Evaluation of the Ceph Parallel File System  

SciTech Connect

Ceph is an open-source and emerging parallel distributed file and storage system technology. By design, Ceph assumes running on unreliable and commodity storage and network hardware and provides reliability and fault-tolerance through controlled object placement and data replication. We evaluated the Ceph technology for scientific high-performance computing (HPC) environments. This paper presents our evaluation methodology, experiments, results and observations from mostly parallel I/O performance and scalability perspectives. Our work made two unique contributions. First, our evaluation is performed under a realistic setup for a large-scale capability HPC environment using a commercial high-end storage system. Second, our path of investigation, tuning efforts, and findings made direct contributions to Ceph's development and improved code quality, scalability, and performance. These changes should also benefit both Ceph and HPC communities at large. Throughout the evaluation, we observed that Ceph still is an evolving technology under fast-paced development and showing great promises.

Wang, Feiyi [ORNL] [ORNL; Nelson, Mark [Inktank Storage, Inc.] [Inktank Storage, Inc.; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

369

Behaviorly realistic simulations of stock market traders with a soul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The price fluctuations of the stocks in the financial markets are the result of the individual operations by many individual investors. However for many decades the financial theory did not use directly this “microscopic representation” of the markets. The main difficulties preventing this approach were solved recently with the advent of modern computer technology: - massive detailed data on the individual market operations became available; - “microscopic simulations” of the stock markets in terms of their individual participating agents allow very realistic treatment of the problem. By taking advantage of the modern computer processing and simulation techniques, we are now able to confront real market data with the results of simulating “microscopic” realistic models of the markets. These models have the potential to include and study the effects on the market of any desired feature in the investors behavior: departures from rationality, herding effects, heterogeneous investor-specific trading strategies. We propose to use the comparison of computer simulations of microscopic models with the actual market data in order to validate and enhance the knowledge on the financial behavior of individuals. Moreover we hope to explain, understand (and may be predict and control) macroscopic market dynamical features (e.g., cycles of booms and crashes, investors wealth distribution, market returns probability distribution etc.) based on realistic models using this knowledge.

Solomon, Sorin

1999-09-01

370

MRXCAT: Realistic numerical phantoms for cardiovascular magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

BackgroundComputer simulations are important for validating novel image acquisition and reconstruction strategies. In cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), numerical simulations need to combine anatomical information and the effects of cardiac and/or respiratory motion. To this end, a framework for realistic CMR simulations is proposed and its use for image reconstruction from undersampled data is demonstrated.MethodsThe extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) anatomical phantom framework with various motion options was used as a basis for the numerical phantoms. Different tissue, dynamic contrast and signal models, multiple receiver coils and noise are simulated. Arbitrary trajectories and undersampled acquisition can be selected. The utility of the framework is demonstrated for accelerated cine and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging using k-t PCA and k-t SPARSE.ResultsMRXCAT phantoms allow for realistic simulation of CMR including optional cardiac and respiratory motion. Example reconstructions from simulated undersampled k-t parallel imaging demonstrate the feasibility of simulated acquisition and reconstruction using the presented framework. Myocardial blood flow assessment from simulated myocardial perfusion images highlights the suitability of MRXCAT for quantitative post-processing simulation.ConclusionThe proposed MRXCAT phantom framework enables versatile and realistic simulations of CMR including breathhold and free-breathing acquisitions. PMID:25204441

Wissmann, Lukas; Santelli, Claudio; Segars, William P; Kozerke, Sebastian

2014-08-20

371

Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption. The energy management schemes are compared based on the following criteria: the hydrogen consumption, the state of charges of the batteries and supercapacitors and the overall system efficiency. Moreover the stress on each energy source, which impacts their life cycle, are measured using a new approach based on the wavelet transform of their instantaneous power. A simulation model and an experimental test bench are developed to validate all analysis and performances. The main results obtained are as follows: the state machine control scheme provided a slightly better efficiency and stresses on the batteries and supercapacitors. The classical PI control and the proposed scheme had the lowest fuel consumption and more use of the battery energy. As expected, the lowest fuel cell stress and lowest use of the battery energy was achieved with the frequency decoupling and fuzzy logic scheme, but at the expense of more fuel consumption and lower overall efficiency. The DC bus or supercapacitor voltage was maintained nearly constant for all the schemes. Also, the proposed strategy performed slightly better than the ECMS in terms of efficiency and fuel consumption, with an increase in fuel economy by 3 %. The energy management scheme suitable for a MEA emergency system should be a multischeme EMS such that each scheme is chosen based on a specific criterion to prioritize. As an example, depending on the operating life of each energy source, the energy management strategy can be chosen to either minimise the stress on the fuel cell system, the battery system or supercapacitor system, hence maximizing the life cycle of the hybrid power system. Also if the target is to reduce the fuel consumption, the proposed or the classical PI strategies are better alternatives.

Njoya Motapon, Souleman

372

Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and PhantomData Based onPhysiologically Realistic Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models  

SciTech Connect

The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, whichprovides a realistic model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac andrespiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to evaluate andimprove imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiacapplications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the abilityto accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result fromcardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal ofthis work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating aphysiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the leftventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. Thegeometry of the FE mechanical model was based on gated high-resolutionx-ray multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data of a healthy malesubject. The myocardial wall was represented as transversely isotropichyperelastic material, with the fiber angle varying from -90 degrees atthe epicardial surface, through 0 degreesat the mid-wall, to 90 degreesat the endocardial surface. A time varying elastance model was used tosimulate fiber contraction, and physiological intraventricular systolicpressure-time curves were applied to simulate the cardiac motion over theentire cardiac cycle. To demonstrate the ability of the FE mechanicalmodel to accurately simulate the normal cardiac motion as well abnormalmotions indicative of CAD, a normal case and two pathologic cases weresimulated and analyzed. In the first pathologic model, a subendocardialanterior ischemic region was defined. A second model was created with atransmural ischemic region defined in the same location. The FE baseddeformations were incorporated into the 4D NCAT cardiac model through thecontrol points that define the cardiac structures in the phantom whichwere set to move according to the predictions of the mechanical model. Asimulation study was performed using the FE-NCAT combination toinvestigate how the differences in contractile function between thesubendocardial and transmural infarcts manifest themselves in myocardialSPECT images. The normal FE model produced strain distributions that wereconsistent with those reported in the literature and a motion consistentwith that defined in the normal 4D NCAT beating heart model based ontagged MRI data. The addition of a subendocardial ischemic region changedthe average transmural circumferential strain from a contractile value of0.19 to a tensile value of 0.03. The addition of a transmural ischemicregion changed average circumferential strain to a value of 0.16, whichis consistent with data reported in the literature. Model resultsdemonstrated differences in contractile function between subendocardialand transmural infarcts and how these differences in function aredocumented in simulated myocardial SPECT images produced using the 4DNCAT phantom. In comparison to the original NCAT beating heart model, theFE mechanical model produced a more accurate simulation for the cardiacmotion abnormalities. Such a model, when incorporated into the 4D NCATphantom, has great potential for use in cardiac imaging research. Withits enhanced physiologically-based cardiac model, the 4D NCAT phantom canbe used to simulate realistic, predictive imaging data of a patientpopulation with varying whole-body anatomy and with varying healthy anddiseased states of the heart that will provide a known truth from whichto evaluate and improve existing and emerging 4D imaging techniques usedin the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui,Benjamin M.W.; Gullberg, Grant T.

2006-08-02

373

LQAS usefulness in an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) applicability and usefulness in the evaluation of quality indicators in a hospital emergency department (ED) and to determine the degree of compliance with quality standards according to this sampling method. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Descriptive observational research in the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón (HGUGM) emergency department (ED). Patients older

Susana Granado de la Orden; Cristina Rodríguez-Rieiro; Amaya Sánchez-Gómez; Ana Chacón García; Tomás Hernández-Fernández; Ángel Abad Revilla; Dolores Vigil Escribano; Paz Rodríguez Pérez

2008-01-01

374

Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of both formative and summative evaluation of instructional design technology in educational and business settings. Topics discussed include interactive video, computer assisted instruction, courseware, industrial training methods, cost effectiveness, learner performance data, current research, computer simulation, and…

Emerson, Lawrence

1987-01-01

375

An Alumni-based Evaluation of Graduate Training in Health Communication: Results of a Survey on Careers, Salaries, Competencies, and Emerging Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published information about career options and the core competencies necessary for health communication professionals (HCPs) is limited. Although the number of graduate programs in health communication continues to grow, no formal assessment of the success of this type of training has been conducted. The current study presents the results of an evaluation of the Master's Program in Health Communication offered

TIMOTHY EDGAR; JAMES N. HYDE

2005-01-01

376

Taking the pressure off in the Emergency Department: evaluation of the prophylactic application of a low shear, soft silicon sacral dressing on high risk medical patients.  

PubMed

Pressure injuries are key clinical indicators of care standard. In Australia, pressure injuries increase length of hospital stay by 4.31 and cost $285 million annually. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of sacral dressing in reducing the prevalence of pressure injuries in older, high-risk patients. A non randomised one-sample experimental design was used in this study comprising of four phases. Of the 51 patients recruited to the study, one patient developed a sacral pressure injury compared to six patients identified in a known group with similar demographics who were not approached to participate in the study. The results indicated that patients in the known group were 5.4 times more likely to develop a pressure injury than the intervention group. Findings suggest that applying a protective sacral dressing with a low shear backing as part of a simple standardised prevention injury prevention regime commencing in the Emergency Department was beneficial in the prevention of pressure injury in older 'at high risk' medical patients. PMID:22672730

Cubit, Katrina; McNally, Bernadette; Lopez, Violeta

2013-10-01

377

Video teleconferencing with realistic simulation for medical education.  

PubMed

This report describes how realistic patient simulation can be used with video teleconferencing to conduct long-distance clinical case discussions with realistic re-enactments of critical events. By observing what appears to be a real procedure unfolding in real time, it is intended that audience members will better learn and appreciate the lessons from conferences. A commercially available mannequin simulator and video teleconferencing technology were used in nine sessions between a free-standing simulation center and different conference sites throughout the U.S. Transmission was via high-speed telephone lines. In each conference, a clinical scenario was simulated on a screen. Audience members asked questions of a live simulated "patient" and family and later advised the care team on routine treatments and management of urgent clinical problems that arose during management of the mannequin simulator in a highly realistic clinical setting. Ninety-eight percent of respondents from one audience of 150 (response rate 60%) judged the quality of the presentation as "very good or excellent." In response to the statement that "the educational value of the presentation was much greater than that of a standard case conference," 95% scored 4 or 5 on a five-point Likert scale (where 5 is highest agreement). While all conferences were conducted successfully, there were instances of technical challenge in using teleconferencing technology. Technical information about the teleconferencing system and scenario preparation, contingency planning for failures, and other details of using this new teaching modality are described. Although audiences were enthusiastic in their response to this approach to clinical case conferences, further study is needed to assess the added value of interactive simulation for education compared to standard conference formats. PMID:10869931

Cooper, J B; Barron, D; Blum, R; Davison, J K; Feinstein, D; Halasz, J; Raemer, D; Russell, R

2000-05-01

378

Toward modeling of regional myocardial ischemia and infarction: generation of realistic coronary arterial tree for the heart model of the XCAT phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A realistic 3D coronary arterial tree (CAT) has been developed for the heart model of the computer generated 3D XCAT phantom. The CAT allows generation of a realistic model of the location, size and shape of the associated regional ischemia or infarction for a given coronary arterial stenosis or occlusion. This in turn can be used in medical imaging applications. An iterative rule-based generation method that systematically utilized anatomic, morphometric and physiologic knowledge was used to construct a detailed realistic 3D model of the CAT in the XCAT phantom. The anatomic details of the myocardial surfaces and large coronary arterial vessel segments were first extracted from cardiac CT images of a normal patient with right coronary dominance. Morphometric information derived from porcine data from the literature, after being adjusted by scaling laws, provided statistically nominal diameters, lengths, and connectivity probabilities of the generated coronary arterial segments in modeling the CAT of an average human. The largest six orders of the CAT were generated based on the physiologic constraints defined in the coronary generation algorithms. When combined with the heart model of the XCAT phantom, the realistic CAT provides a unique simulation tool for the generation of realistic regional myocardial ischemia and infraction. Together with the existing heart model, the new CAT provides an important improvement over the current 3D XCAT phantom in providing a more realistic model of the normal heart and the potential to simulate myocardial diseases in evaluation of medical imaging instrumentation, image reconstruction, and data processing methods.

Fung, George S. K.; Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

2009-02-01

379

Supersymmetry and light quark masses in a realistic superstring model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the light quark masses in a standard-like superstring model in the four-dimensional free fermionic formulation. We find that the supersymmetry constraints in the observable and hidden sectors eliminate all large contributions to mu and mu and force them to be much smaller than the other quark masses. The requirement for an acceptable Higgs doublet spectrum results in mu? md. In these models a realistic md can alway be obtained whereas mu is at most 10 -5 MeV. For particular choices of flat directions or vacua mu can be as small as 10 -7 MeV but cannot vanish.

Halyo, Edi

1994-08-01

380

Realistic syntheses of atmospheric and interstellar extinction spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is made of realistic numerical line by line spectral syntheses of atmospheric extinction spectra which have many diagnostic applications of spectroscopy to problems of the real world. A 200,001 point atmospheric transmission spectrum between 600 and 780 nm calculated for applications to remote sensing of ocean fluorescence from space is used to illustrate such work. In contrast, the celebrated low resolution extinction spectrum of the interstellar medium is modeled analytically between the far infrared and 1000 A by taking quantitatively into account the effects of Mie scattering of the interstellar dust grains, Gaussian absorption at 2175 A, Rayleigh scattering, and absorption by the H2 Lyman bands.

Nicholls, R. W.

1988-09-01

381

Cathodic disbonding of pipeline coatings under realistic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cathodic disbonding is one undesirable aspect of the combination of the corrosion control technology commonly used for the exterior of buried pipelines. This technology consists of the combined use of protective coatings and cathodic protection. While standard cathodic disbonding tests performed in the laboratory provide a relative ranking of coatings, due to the simplicity of the test environments and accelerated nature of the tests, the results may not necessarily be directly related to service performance. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cathodic disbonding behavior of three commonly used pipeline coating materials (i.e., fusion bonded epoxy, coal tar enamel, and tape coatings) under more realistic conditions. The research plan allowed the comparison of cathodic disbonding tests results between standard and realistic conditions by utilizing laboratory tests with controlled environments and cathodic protection levels. Several areas of focus were the effects of a moderate level of polarization, high level of polarization, and elevated temperatures. Additional factors examined included electrolyte composition (soil extract versus NaCl solutions), wet/dry cycling, and simulated soil conditions (i.e., sand moistened with soil extract). These tests delineated the effects of test parameters on cathodic disbonding and coating performance was related to these parameters. The processes considered to be important to the cathodic disbonding behavior of coatings are discussed as well as the implications of the realistic test results on laboratory cathodic disbonding test procedures. It was confirmed that greater disbonding occurred at more negative (i.e., cathodic) potentials, with higher alkalinity, and at elevated temperatures. This study also showed that disbonding increased greatly when sand moistened with soil extract solution was utilized in place of bulk electrolyte. The addition of such a barrier to convection may present a viable method to accelerate cathodic disbonding tests and is more representative of conditions in soils along pipelines. Wet/dry cycling showed no measurable effect on the extent of disbonding. Temperature, however, was determined to be a significant factor. The effect of initial electrolyte composition was not certain when comparing between NaCl and different soil extract solutions. Tests under realistic conditions generally exhibited larger scatter than standard tests, probably due to the added complexity caused by calcareous deposit formations and concurrent alteration of the electrolyte with the use of soil extract solutions.

Trautman, Brenda Lee

1998-09-01

382

Photoabsorption on {sup 4}He with a Realistic Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 4}He total photoabsorption cross section is calculated with the realistic nucleon-nucleon potential Argonne V18 and the three-nucleon force (3NF) Urbana IX. Final state interaction is included rigorously via the Lorentz integral transform method. A rather pronounced giant resonance with peak cross sections of 3.0 (3.2) mb is obtained with (without) the 3NF. Above 50 MeV strong 3NF effects, up to 35%, are present. Good agreement with experiment is found close to threshold. A comparison in the giant resonance region is inconclusive, since data do not show a unique picture.

Gazit, Doron; Barnea, Nir [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Bacca, Sonia [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Leidemann, Winfried; Orlandini, Giuseppina [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, I-38050 Povo (Italy)

2006-03-24

383

Realistic metamaterial lenses: Limitations imposed by discrete structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the peculiarities of a metamaterial “superlens,” caused by its discrete structure and finite size. We show that precise modeling of the lens provides remarkable distinctions from continuous medium approximation. In particular, we address the problem of highest resolution that can be achieved with a realistic electrically thin metamaterial lens. We conclude that discrete structure imposes essential limitations on the resolution and that the resolution cannot be improved by decreasing dissipation in the system. Further implications related to effective medium description of discrete structures are discussed.

Lapine, M.; Jelinek, L.; Freire, M. J.; Marqués, R.

2010-10-01

384

One-Year Outcomes of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Older Teens and Emerging Adults: Evaluating a Motivational Interviewing Booster Component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study tested the efficacy of motivational interviewing-based booster sessions for Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND), a 12-session school-based curriculum targeting youth at risk for drug abuse. In addition, generalization of effects to risky sexual behavior was assessed. The 1-year outcomes evaluation of the project is presented. Method: A total of 24 schools were randomized to one

Steve Sussman; Ping Sun; Louise A. Rohrbach; Donna Spruijt-Metz

2012-01-01

385

Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.  

PubMed

In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing. PMID:24890806

Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

2014-07-01

386

Exploitation of realistic computational anthropomorphic phantoms for the optimization of nuclear imaging acquisition and processing protocols.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo (MC) simulations play a crucial role in nuclear medical imaging since they can provide the ground truth for clinical acquisitions, by integrating and quantifing all physical parameters that affect image quality. The last decade a number of realistic computational anthropomorphic models have been developed to serve imaging, as well as other biomedical engineering applications. The combination of MC techniques with realistic computational phantoms can provide a powerful tool for pre and post processing in imaging, data analysis and dosimetry. This work aims to create a global database for simulated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) exams and the methodology, as well as the first elements are presented. Simulations are performed using the well validated GATE opensource toolkit, standard anthropomorphic phantoms and activity distribution of various radiopharmaceuticals, derived from literature. The resulting images, projections and sinograms of each study are provided in the database and can be further exploited to evaluate processing and reconstruction algorithms. Patient studies using different characteristics are included in the database and different computational phantoms were tested for the same acquisitions. These include the XCAT, Zubal and the Virtual Family, which some of which are used for the first time in nuclear imaging. The created database will be freely available and our current work is towards its extension by simulating additional clinical pathologies. PMID:25570355

Loudos, George K; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis G; Kagadis, George C

2014-08-01

387

Planning and preparedness for radiological emergencies at nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program was created after the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assists state and local governments in reviewing and evaluating state and local REP plans and preparedness for accidents at nuclear power plants, in partnership with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which evaluates safety and emergency preparedness at the power stations themselves. Argonne National Laboratory provides support and technical assistance to FEMA in evaluating nuclear power plant emergency response exercises, radiological emergency plans, and preparedness.

Thomson, R.; Muzzarelli, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.

1996-05-01

388

Evaluation of the prevalence and economic burden of adverse drug reactions presenting to the medical emergency department of a tertiary referral centre: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are now recognized as an important cause of hospital admissions, with a proportion ranging from 0.9–7.9%. They also constitute a significant economic burden. We thus aimed at determining the prevalence and the economic burden of ADRs presenting to Medical Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary referral center in India Methods A prospective, observational study of adult patients carried out over a 6 week period in 2005. The prevalence of ADRs, their economic burden from the hospital perspective, severity, and preventability were assessed using standard criteria. Results A total 6899 patients presented during the study period. Of these, 2046 were admitted for various reasons. A total of 265/6899 patients had ADRs (3.84 %). A total of 141/265 was admitted due to ADsR, and thus ADRs as a cause of admissions were 6.89% of total admissions. A majority (74.71%) were found to be of moderate severity. The most common ADRs were anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity, warfarin toxicity and chloroquine induced gastritis. The median duration of hospitalization was 5 days [95% CI 5.37, 7.11], and the average hospitalization cost incurred per patient was INR 6197/- (USD 150). Of total ADRs, 59.62% (158/265) were found to be either definitely or potentially avoidable. Conclusion The study shows that ADRs leading to hospitalization are frequent and constitute a significant economic burden. Training of patients and prescribers may lead to a reduction in hospitalization due to avoidable ADRs and thus lessen their economic burden. PMID:17662147

Patel, KJ; Kedia, MS; Bajpai, D; Mehta, SS; Kshirsagar, NA; Gogtay, NJ

2007-01-01

389

Critical evaluation of screening techniques for emerging environmental contaminants based on accurate mass measurements with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Emerging contaminants from wastewater effluent samples were analysed, using posttarget and nontarget analysis techniques. The samples were analysed with an ultra performance liquid chromatograph-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS), and the resulting data were processed with commercial deconvolution software. The method works well for posttarget analysis with prior information about the retention times of the compounds of interest. With positive polarity, 63 of 66 compounds and with negative polarity, 18 of 20 compounds were correctly identified in a spiked sample, while two compounds of a total of 88 fell out of the mass range. Furthermore, a four-stage process for identification was developed for the posttarget analysis lacking the retention time data. In the process, the number of candidate compounds was reduced by using the accurate mass of selected compounds in two steps (stages 1 and 2), structure-property relationships (stage 3) and isotope patterns of the analytes (stage 4). The process developed was validated by analysing wastewater samples spiked with 88 compounds. This procedure can be used to gain a preliminary indication of the presence of certain analytes in the samples. Nontarget analysis was tested by applying a theoretical mass spectra library for a wastewater sample spiked with six pharmaceuticals. The results showed a high number of false identifications. In addition, manual processing of the data was considered laborious and ineffective. Finally, the posttarget analysis was applied to a real wastewater sample. The analysis revealed the presence of six compounds that were afterwards confirmed with standard compounds as being correct. Three psycholeptics (nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam) could be tentatively identified, using the identification process developed. Posttarget analysis with UPLC-TOF-MS proved to be a promising method for analysing wastewater samples, while we concluded that the software for nontarget analysis will need improvement before it can be used in environmental analytical work with LC-TOF-MS systems. PMID:22431456

Nurmi, Joonas; Pellinen, Jukka; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

2012-03-01

390

Verification of NASA Emergent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

391

Righteous realists: Perceptions of American power and responsibility in the nuclear age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of the moral and ethical dimensions of political realism in post-World War II America, especially in relation to realist thought on nuclear weapons issues. Emphasis is placed on evolving notions of power and responsibility as they form the basis for a realist philosophy of power in the nuclear age. It is argued that the realists developed

Rosenthal

1988-01-01

392

Vision-realistic Rendering: Simulation of the Scanned Foveal Image with Elimination of Artifacts due to  

E-print Network

Vision-realistic Rendering: Simulation of the Scanned Foveal Image with Elimination of Artifacts://www.cs.berkeley.edu/barsky Abstract. We introduce the concept of vision-realistic rendering ­ the com- puter generation of synthetic, and finally compositing to form a vision-realistic rendered image. Although processing in image space allows

Barsky, Brian A.

393

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer

394

Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-jitter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this project a transient, fully three-dimensional computer simulation code was developed to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The simulation code is capable of simulating flame spread on a solid and nonpremixed or premixed gaseous combustion in nonturbulent flow with simple combustion models. Simple combustion models were used to preserve computational efficiency since this is meant to be an engineering code. Also, the use of sophisticated turbulence models was not pursued (a simple Smagorinsky type model can be implemented if deemed appropriate) because if flow velocities are large enough for turbulence to develop in a reduced gravity combustion scenario it is unlikely that g-jitter disturbances (in NASA's reduced gravity facilities) will play an important role in the flame dynamics. Acceleration disturbances of realistic orientation, magnitude, and time dependence can be easily included in the simulation. The simulation algorithm was based on techniques used in an existing large eddy simulation code which has successfully simulated fire dynamics in complex domains. A series of simulations with measured and predicted acceleration disturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) are presented. The results of this series of simulations suggested a passive isolation system and appropriate scheduling of crew activity would provide a sufficiently "quiet" acceleration environment for spherical diffusion flames.

Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.

2003-01-01

395

Unsteady transonic flow calculations for realistic aircraft configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelasticity code has been developed for application to realistic aircraft configurations. The new code is called CAP-TSD which is an acronym for Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance. The CAP-TSD code uses a time-accurate approximate factorization (AF) algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm is very efficient for solution of steady and unsteady transonic flow problems. It can provide accurate solutions in only several hundred time steps yielding a significant computational cost savings when compared to alternative methods. The new code can treat complete aircraft geometries with multiple lifting surfaces and bodies including canard, wing, tail, control surfaces, launchers, pylons, fuselage, stores, and nacelles. Applications are presented for a series of five configurations of increasing complexity to demonstrate the wide range of geometrical applicability of CAP-TSD. These results are in good agreement with available experimental steady and unsteady pressure data. Calculations for the General Dynamics one-ninth scale F-16C aircraft model are presented to demonstrate application to a realistic configuration. Unsteady results for the entire F-16C aircraft undergoing a rigid pitching motion illustrated the capability required to perform transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses for such configurations.

Batina, John T.; Seidel, David A.; Bland, Samuel R.; Bennett, Robert M.

1987-01-01

396

An Iterative Approach for Generating Statistically Realistic Populations of Households  

PubMed Central

Background Many different simulation frameworks, in different topics, need to treat realistic datasets to initialize and calibrate the system. A precise reproduction of initial states is extremely important to obtain reliable forecast from the model. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper proposes an algorithm to create an artificial population where individuals are described by their age, and are gathered in households respecting a variety of statistical constraints (distribution of household types, sizes, age of household head, difference of age between partners and among parents and children). Such a population is often the initial state of microsimulation or (agent) individual-based models. To get a realistic distribution of households is often very important, because this distribution has an impact on the demographic evolution. Usual techniques from microsimulation approach cross different sources of aggregated data for generating individuals. In our case the number of combinations of different households (types, sizes, age of participants) makes it computationally difficult to use directly such methods. Hence we developed a specific algorithm to make the problem more easily tractable. Conclusions/Significance We generate the populations of two pilot municipalities in Auvergne region (France) to illustrate the approach. The generated populations show a good agreement with the available statistical datasets (not used for the generation) and are obtained in a reasonable computational time. PMID:20107505

Gargiulo, Floriana; Ternes, Sônia; Huet, Sylvie; Deffuant, Guillaume

2010-01-01

397

Radiation-Spray Coupling for Realistic Flow Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for a lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor are performed and compared. In addition to the cold flow simulation, the effect of radiation coupling with the multi-physics reactive flow is analyzed. The flame let progress variable approach is used as a subgrid combustion model combined with a stochastic subgrid model for spray atomization and an optically thin radiation model. For accurate chemistry modeling, a detailed Jet-A surrogate mechanism is utilized. To achieve realistic inflow, a simple recycling technique is performed at the inflow section upstream of the swirler. Good comparison is shown with the experimental data mean and root mean square profiles. The effect of combustion is found to change the shape and size of the central recirculation zone. Radiation is found to change the spray dynamics and atomization by changing the heat release distribution and the local temperature values impacting the evaporation process. The simulation with radiation modeling shows wider range of droplet size distribution by altering the evaporation rate. The current study proves the importance of radiation modeling for accurate prediction in realistic spray combustion configurations, even for low pressure systems.

El-Asrag, Hossam; Iannetti, Anthony C.

2011-01-01

398

Large Eddy Simulation of Solar Photosphere Convection with Realistic Physics  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional large eddy simulations of solar surface convection using realistic model physics are conducted. The thermal structure of convective motions into the upper radiative layers of the photosphere, the range of convection cell sizes, and the penetration depths of convection are investigated. A portion of the solar photosphere and the upper layers of the convection zone, a region extending 60 x 60 Mm horizontally from 0 Mm down to 20 Mm below the visible surface, is considered. We start from a realistic initial model of the Sun with an equation of state and opacities of stellar matter. The equations of fully compressible radiation hydrodynamics with dynamical viscosity and gravity are solved. We use: 1) a high order conservative TVD scheme for the hydrodynamics, 2) the diffusion approximation for the radiative transfer, 3) dynamical viscosity from subgrid scale modeling. The simulations are conducted on a uniform horizontal grid of 600 x 600, with 168 nonuniformly spaced vertical grid points, on 144 processors with distributed memory multiprocessors on supercomputer MVS-15000BM in the Computational Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Sergey Ustyugov

2007-10-16

399

Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on colour holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

2013-02-01

400

Transient Analysis for Evaluating the Potential Boiling in the High Elevation Emergency Cooling Units of PWR Following a Hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Subsequent Water Hammer Due to Pump Restart  

SciTech Connect

The Generic Letter GL-96-06 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required the utilities to evaluate the potential for voiding in their Containment Emergency Cooling Units (ECUs) due to a hypothetical Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accompanied by the Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP). When the offsite power is restored, the Component Cooling Water (CCW) pumps restart causing water hammer to occur due to cavity closure. Recently EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) performed a research study that recommended a methodology to mitigate the water hammer due to cavity closure. The EPRI methodology allows for the cushioning effects of hot steam and released air, which is not considered in the conventional water column separation analysis. The EPRI study was limited in scope to the evaluation of water hammer only and did not provide any guidance for evaluating the occurrence of boiling and the extent of voiding in the ECU piping. This paper presents a complete methodology based on first principles to evaluate the onset of boiling. Also, presented is a methodology for evaluating the extent of voiding and the water hammer resulting from cavity closure by using an existing generalized computer program that is based on the Method of Characteristics. The EPRI methodology is then used to mitigate the predicted water hammer. Thus it overcomes the inherent complications and difficulties involved in performing hand calculations for water hammer. The heat transfer analysis provides an alternative to the use of very cumbersome modeling in using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) based computer programs. (authors)

Husaini, S. Mahmood; Qashu, Riyad K. [Southern California Edison, P.O. Box 128, San Clemente, CA 92672 (United States)

2004-07-01

401

Accuracy assessment of global and local atrophy measurement techniques with realistic simulated longitudinal Alzheimer's disease images.  

PubMed

The evaluation of atrophy quantification methods based on magnetic resonance imaging have been usually hindered by the lack of realistic gold standard data against which to judge these methods or to help refine them. Recently [Camara, O., Schweiger, M., Scahill, R., Crum, W., Sneller, B., Schnabel, J., Ridgway, G., Cash, D., Hill, D., Fox, N., 2006. Phenomenological model of diffuse global and regional atrophy using finite-element methods. IEEE Trans. Med.l Imaging 25, 1417-1430], we presented a technique in which atrophy is realistically simulated in different tissue compartments or neuroanatomical structures with a phenomenological model. In this study, we have generated a cohort of realistic simulated Alzheimer's disease (AD) images with known amounts of atrophy, mimicking a set of 19 real controls and 27 probable AD subjects, with an improved version of our atrophy simulation methodology. This database was then used to assess the accuracy of several well-known computational anatomy methods which provide global (BSI and SIENA) or local (Jacobian integration) estimates of longitudinal atrophy in brain structures using MR images. SIENA and BSI results correlated very well with gold standard data (Pearson coefficient of 0.962 and 0.969 respectively), achieving small mean absolute differences with respect to the gold standard (percentage change from baseline volume): BSI of 0.23%+/-0.26%; SIENA of 0.22%+/-0.28%. Jacobian integration was guided by both fluid and FFD-based registration techniques and resulting deformation fields and associated Jacobians were compared, region by region, with gold standard ones. The FFD-based technique outperformed the fluid one in all evaluated structures (mean absolute differences from the gold standard in percentage change from baseline volume): whole brain, FFD=0.31%, fluid=0.58%; lateral ventricles, FFD=0.79%; fluid=1.45%; left hippocampus, FFD=0.82%; fluid=1.42%; right hippocampus, FFD=0.95%; fluid=1.62%. The largest errors for both local techniques occurred in the sulcal CSF (FFD=2.27%; fluid=3.55%) regions. For large structures such as the whole brain, these mean absolute differences, relative to the applied atrophy, represented similar percentages for the BSI, SIENA and FFD techniques (controls/patients): BSI, 51.99%/16.36%; SIENA, 62.34%/21.59%; FFD, 41.02%/24.95%. For small structures such as the hippocampi, these percentages were larger, especially for controls where errors were approximately equal to the small applied changes (controls/patients): FFD, 92.82%/43.61%. However, these apparently large relative errors have not prevented the global or hippocampal measures from finding significant group separation in our study. The evaluation framework presented here will help in quantifying whether the accuracy of future methodological developments is sufficient for analysing change in smaller or less atrophied local brain regions. Results obtained in our experiments with realistic simulated data confirm previously published estimates of accuracy for both evaluated global techniques. Regarding Jacobian Integration methods, the FFD-based one demonstrated promising results and potential for being used in clinical studies alongside (or in place of) the more common global methods. The generated gold standard data has also allowed us to identify some stages and sets of parameters in the evaluated techniques--the brain extraction step in the global techniques and the number of multi-resolution levels and the stopping criteria in the registration-based methods--that are critical for their accuracy. PMID:18571436

Camara, Oscar; Schnabel, Julia A; Ridgway, Gerard R; Crum, William R; Douiri, Abdel; Scahill, Rachael I; Hill, Derek L G; Fox, Nick C

2008-08-15

402

In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and radioprotective properties of a novel extremophile from mud volcano: implications for management of radiation emergencies.  

PubMed

A thermophilic bacterium, designated as RH 127, was isolated from mud volcano (Baratang Islands) of Andaman region, India (12°07'N 92°47'E/12.117°N 92.783°E) for the first time. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicate that it belongs to the genus Geobacillus. The strain showed 98% confirmed 16S rRNA gene sequence homology with Geobacillus toebii. The bacteria was extracted in various solvent systems and three different fractions prepared. In the present study, antioxidant and radioprotective activity of extracts (INM-7860, INM-7861, and INM-7862) of bacterium G. toebii (strain RH 127) were evaluated. The fractions were evaluated for their introspective comparison of the relative antioxidant efficiency. The antioxidative activities, DPPH radical scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging effects, membrane protection, antihemolytic activity, and linoleic acid degradation efficacies were assayed. INM-7861 and INM-7862 activated NF-?B expression, as evidenced by reporter assay studies, and thereby contributed to overall radioprotective effect. INM-7862 exhibited best results. This study explicitly shows that the extracts of G. toebii have immense potential as a radiation countermeasure agent. PMID:21461912

Dhaker, Atlar Singh; Marwah, Rohit; Damodar, Rakesh; Gupta, Damodar; Gautam, Hemant Kumar; Sultana, Sarwat; Arora, Rajesh

2011-07-01

403

An evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report represents a remote sensing research effort conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the EPA Office of Inspector General. The objective of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of remote sensing as a technology for postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-510, 42 U.S.C. §9601 et seq.), also known as \\"Superfund.\\" Five delisted Superfund sites in Maryland and Virginia were imaged with a hyperspectral sensor and visited for collection of soil, water, and spectral samples and inspection of general site conditions. This report evaluates traditional and hyperspectral imagery and field spectroscopic measurement techniques in the characterization and analysis of fugitive (anthropogenic, uncontrolled) contamination at previously remediated hazardous waste disposal sites.

Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

2011-01-01

404

Evidence of a shared purpose, critical reflection, innovation and leadership in interprofessional healthcare teams: a realist synthesis.  

PubMed

Abstract Realist synthesis is a theory-driven approach for evaluating complex interventions using empirical evidence, which seeks an explanatory analysis of who a complex intervention works for, how, why, and in what circumstances. Interprofessional teamworking in healthcare is one such complex intervention, as teams are influenced by social and organizational factors, which makes them highly variable and context dependent. This article concludes a series of four articles that report on a realist synthesis of interprofessional teamworking. The synthesis identified 13 mechanisms that are reported in the literature to be the underlying processes through which interprofessional teamworking produces its effects. This article explores four of these mechanisms: a shared purpose; critical reflection; innovation; and leadership. These mechanisms together explain how a team sets and maintains its focus and direction. This article highlights that whilst many assumptions are made within the healthcare literature about how these mechanisms operate within teams, these assumptions are not always founded upon strong empirical evidence. PMID:25051089

Sims, Sarah; Hewitt, Gillian; Harris, Ruth

2014-07-22

405

Radiation Emergencies and Preparedness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information to help people protect themselves during and after a radiation emergency. It also provides information for professionals involved in planning for and responding to this type of emergency.

2010-03-02

406

Household Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... the risk of injury. Before Before a Household Chemical Emergency The following are guidelines for buying and ... is (800) 222-1222. During During a Household Chemical Emergency Get out of the residence immediately if ...

407

ENERGY EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN  

E-print Network

Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) ........................4 National Incident Management System Executive Director Sherry Stoner Project Manager Pat Perez Manager SPECIAL PROJECTS OFFICE Rosella Shapiro, safety, and welfare. #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Energy Emergency Response Plan was prepared from

408

EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN BIOSOLIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and phar...

409

Evaluation of Emerging Contaminants of Concern at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Seasonal Events, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has identified highly treated wastewater as a possible water source for the restoration of natural water flows and hydroperiods in selected coastal areas, including the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands. One potential source of reclaimed wastewater for the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands is the effluent from the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southern Miami-Dade County. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Wastewater Reuse Technology Pilot Project Delivery Team, initiated a study to assess the presence of emerging contaminants of concern in the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant influent and effluent using current wastewater-treatment methods. As part of the study, 24-hour composite and discrete samples were collected at six locations (influent at plants 1 and 2, effluent pump, reuse train, chlorine dioxide unit, and ultraviolet pilot unit) at the plant during: (1) a dry-season, low-flow event on March 2-3, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 83.7 million gallons per day; (2) a wet-season, average-flow event on July 20-21, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 89.7 million gallons per day; and (3) high-rate disinfection tests on October 5 and 20, 2004, with average flow rates of 84.1 and 119.6 million gallons per day, respectively. During these four sampling events, 26, 27, 29, and 35 constituents were detected, respectively. The following transformations in concentration were determined in the waste stream: -100 to 180 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 85 percent at the reuse train on March 2-3, 2004, and -100 to 1,609 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 832 percent at the reuse train on July 20-21, 2004; -100 to -37 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to -62 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -56 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -40 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 5, 2004; and -100 to -4 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to 17 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -40 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -14 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 20, 2004. Samples were tested for detection of household and industrial (organic) wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, antibiotic compounds, and hormones in influent. Two 'known' endocrine disrupting compounds?17 beta-estradiol (E2) and diethoxynonylphenol? and four 'suspected' endocrine-disrupting compounds?1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzophenone, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate?were detected during these sampling events. Phenanthrene and indole showed the greatest concentration ranges and highest concentrations for the organic wastewater compounds. Acetaminophen showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and warfarin showed the smallest concentration range for the pharmaceutical compounds. Sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide) showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and sulfathiozole (also a sulfonamide) showed the smallest concentration range for the antibiotic compounds. Two hormones, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), were detected in influent. Samples were also tested for detection of organic wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, antibiotic compounds, and hormones in effluent. Indole showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and triphenyl phosphate showed the smallest concentration range for the organic wastewater compounds. Dehydronifedipine showed the greatest concentration range and highest concentration, and warfarin had the smallest concentration range for the pharmaceutical compounds. Anhydro-erythromycin (a macrolide degradation product) showed the greatest concentration range, and sulfadiazine (a sulfonamide) and tetracycline showed the lowest concentration ranges for the antibiotic compounds. One hormone, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), was det

Lietz, Arthur C.; Meyer, Michael T.

2006-01-01

410

Stanford University Emergency Preparedness  

E-print Network

Logistics & Finance Public Information Policy Group #12;25 SOCs Emergency Communications Flows SOC 1 SOC2Stanford University Emergency Preparedness Plans and Building Assessment Team Program Earthquake Preparedness and Building Assessment Team (BAT) Response #12;Agenda · Overview of Stanford Emergency Plan

Straight, Aaron

411

Biological Sciences Emergency Instructions  

E-print Network

Biological Sciences Emergency Instructions In the event of an EMERGENCY dial 403-220-5333 for Campus Security or dial 9-1-1 for Police, Fire or Ambulance Additional emergency instructions is found and incapacitate the shooter. Acts or Threats of Violence Attempt to distance yourself from the person if possible

de Leon, Alex R.

412

Modelling weed emergence patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipating weed pressure may be important in selecting and timing weed control measures in order to optimize their effectiveness, and thus reduce herbicide use. Therefore, a predictive model of the time of emergence and the numbers of seedling emerging (the weed emergence pattern) after soil cultivation may be a useful tool in integrated weed management. In this study, a simulation

L. M. Vleeshouwers

1997-01-01

413

Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment  

SciTech Connect

For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

McGinnis, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Bolton, P.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, R.K. [RKR, Inc. (United States)

1993-09-01

414

Emerging Technologies in Physics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three emerging technologies in physics education are evaluated from the interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive science and physics education research. The technologies—Physlet Physics, the Andes Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), and Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) Tools—are assessed particularly in terms of their potential at promoting conceptual change, developing expert-like problem-solving skills, and achieving the goals of the traditional physics laboratory. Pedagogical methods to maximize the potential of each educational technology are suggested.

Krusberg, Zosia A. C.

2007-10-01

415

XCAT/DRASIM: a realistic CT/human-model simulation package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research is to develop a complete CT/human-model simulation package by integrating the 4D eXtended CArdiac-Torso (XCAT) phantom, a computer generated NURBS surface based phantom that provides a realistic model of human anatomy and respiratory and cardiac motions, and the DRASIM (Siemens Healthcare) CT-data simulation program. Unlike other CT simulation tools which are based on simple mathematical primitives or voxelized phantoms, this new simulation package has the advantages of utilizing a realistic model of human anatomy and physiological motions without voxelization and with accurate modeling of the characteristics of clinical Siemens CT systems. First, we incorporated the 4D XCAT anatomy and motion models into DRASIM by implementing a new library which consists of functions to read-in the NURBS surfaces of anatomical objects and their overlapping order and material properties in the XCAT phantom. Second, we incorporated an efficient ray-tracing algorithm for line integral calculation in DRASIM by computing the intersection points of the rays cast from the x-ray source to the detector elements through the NURBS surfaces of the multiple XCAT anatomical objects along the ray paths. Third, we evaluated the integrated simulation package by performing a number of sample simulations of multiple x-ray projections from different views followed by image reconstruction. The initial simulation results were found to be promising by qualitative evaluation. In conclusion, we have developed a unique CT/human-model simulation package which has great potential as a tool in the design and optimization of CT scanners, and the development of scanning protocols and image reconstruction methods for improving CT image quality and reducing radiation dose.

Fung, George S. K.; Stierstorfer, Karl; Segars, W. Paul; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Flohr, Thomas G.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

2011-03-01

416

High resolution image formation method based on the realistic spaceborne SAR modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying image formation methods of the spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), we utilize its modeling and simulation (M&S) to generate its realistic simulated rawdata. Especially, for the spaceborne spotlight SAR, we perform M&S that reflects its real characteristics, and get rawdata that are almost identical to one acquired by the real SAR sensor. Particularly, operations of the spaceborne spotlight SAR are simulated based on models of its dynamics and geometry related to timeline, orbital state vector, antenna beam pattern, azimuth beam steering, and etc. In addition, the target observation of it is modeled as evaluating observation angles related to point targets within the acquisition time. Finally, based on the received echo signal model, rawdata are simulated for point targets taking into account its real operation. For the high resolution SAR image formation, simulated rawdata are focused with the extended chirp scaling algorithm. Especially, its range cell migration (RCM) factor is the key one for the exact range cell migration correction. In order to do it accurately, the Doppler frequency and the effective velocity have to be calculated correctly for all range sample bins. For precise processing, we suggest the method to analyze them using orbital state vectors and scene coordinates based on two way slant range model. In experiments, system parameters and imaging scenarios to simulate rawdata acquisition of the spaceborne spotlight SAR system are defined. The processing results for realistic simulated rawdata of it are presented to evaluate the performance and the effectiveness of proposed methods. Its results show that suggested methods are applicable to form the high resolution spaceborne spotlight SAR image.

Shim, Sangheun; Kim, Seyoung; Ro, Yong Man

2014-10-01

417

Supersolid phases in a realistic three-dimensional spin model.  

PubMed

Supersolid phases, in which a superfluid component coexists with conventional crystalline long range order, have recently attracted a great deal of attention in the context of both solid helium and quantum spin systems. Motivated by recent experiments on 2H-AgNiO2, we study the magnetic phase diagram of a realistic three-dimensional spin model with single-ion anisotropy and competing interactions on a layered triangular lattice, using classical Monte Carlo simulation techniques, complemented by spin-wave calculations. For parameters relevant to experiment, we find a cascade of different phases as a function of magnetic field, including three phases which are supersolids in the sense of Liu and Fisher. One of these phases is continuously connected with the collinear ground state of AgNiO2, and is accessible at relatively low values of magnetic field. The nature of this transition, and its possible observation, are discussed. PMID:20867267

Seabra, Luis; Shannon, Nic

2010-06-11

418

Light Higgsino Dark Matter in a Realistic String CMSSM  

E-print Network

When supersymmetry breaking is dominated by the complex structure moduli and the universal dilaton, a subset of the supersymmetry parameter space in a realistic MSSM constructed from intersecting/magnetized D-branes is equivalent to the mSUGRA/CMSSM parameter space with the trilinear term fixed to be minus the gaugino mass, A_0=-m_{1/2}. More generally, the scalar mass-squared terms for sfermions are split about the Higgs mass-squared terms, m_{Q_L,L_L}^2=m_H^2 - \\Delta m^2$ and m_{Q_R,L_R}^2=m_H^2 + \\Delta m^2, for generic values of the Kahler moduli. The hyberbolic branch/focus point (HB/FP) regions of this parameter space are present for both \\Delta m^2 = 0 and \\Delta m^2 \

Van E. Mayes; Andrew W. Lutz

2014-12-03

419

Design for and efficient dynamic climate model with realistic geography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long term climate sensitivity which include realistic atmospheric dynamics are severely restricted by the expense of integrating atmospheric general circulation models are discussed. Taking as an example models used at GSFC for this dynamic model is an alternative which is of much lower horizontal or vertical resolution. The model of Heid and Suarez uses only two levels in the vertical and, although it has conventional grid resolution in the meridional direction, horizontal resolution is reduced by keeping only a few degrees of freedom in the zonal wavenumber spectrum. Without zonally asymmetric forcing this model simulates a day in roughly 1/2 second on a CRAY. The model under discussion is a fully finite differenced, zonally asymmetric version of the Heid-Suarez model. It is anticipated that speeds can be obtained a few seconds a day roughly 50 times faster than moderate resolution, multilayer GCM's.

Suarez, M. J.; Abeles, J.

1984-01-01

420

Unsteady velocity measurements in a realistic intracranial aneurysm model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms are intensively studied by computational fluid dynamics. To gain confidence in the results of numerical simulations, validation of the results is necessary. To this end the unsteady flow was measured in a silicone phantom of a realistic intracranial aneurysm. A flow circuit was built with a novel unsteady flow rate generating method, used to model the idealised shape of the heartbeat. This allowed the measurement of the complex three-dimensional velocity distribution by means of laser-optical methods such as laser doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV measurements, available with high temporal and spatial distribution, were found to have good agreement with the control LDA measurements. Furthermore, excellent agreement was found with the numerical results.

Ugron, Ádám; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle; Kiss, László; Paál, György

2012-01-01