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Sample records for emerging cultural differences

  1. Cross-Cultural Differences and Sexual Risk Behavior of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tami L.; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Dalmida, Safiya George; Frados, Andrew; Klienert, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined population-specific risk factors that increase emerging adults’ risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papillomavirus (HPV). Design and Method A cross-sectional sample of 335 diverse, emerging adults ages 18 to 24 years was recruited from a health center at a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age was 20.6 ± 1.9 years, majority were females (74.0%), and 61.0% were Hispanic. Results Findings revealed inconsistent condom use, reasons for not using condoms, and a need for more culturally-specific intervention strategies. Discussion and Conclusions Healthcare providers should identify culturally-specific reasons for inconsistent condom use, examine cultural and geographic differences in sexual risk behaviors among groups and communities, and modify communication, educational programs, and interventions accordingly. Implications for Practice By adopting a multi-cultural approach to the control of STIs, nurses can address specific cultural attitudes and behaviors that may influence exposure to STIs, including HPV. PMID:24692340

  2. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  3. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25603371

  4. From Scribbles to Meanings: Social Interaction in Different Cultures and the Emergence of Young Children's Early Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    The cultural components of drawing allow one to consider it a symbolic form of cultural communication. The behavioural and cognitive mechanisms involved in the cultural transmission of symbolic communications are situated in an environment embedded in cultural-historical features that should be taken into account, as they give rise to variations…

  5. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  6. Creativity and the Culturally Different.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Dormalee H.

    This document deals with nurturing creativity in the culturally different. It begins by pointing out that every person has a unique set of experiences and could therefore be considered "culturally different". The same methods are used to encourage creativity in those commonly labelled "culturally different" as are used with any individual. If…

  7. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  8. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  9. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety. Methods A repeated cross-sectional design, using the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire before and after a quality improvement project in two emergency departments at a county hospital and a university hospital. The questionnaire was developed to obtain a better understanding of the patient safety culture of an entire hospital or of specific departments. The Swedish version has 51 questions and 15 dimensions. Results At the county hospital, a difference between baseline and follow-up was observed in three dimensions. For two of these dimensions, Team-work within hospital and Communication openness, a higher score was measured at the follow-up. At the university hospital, a higher score was measured at follow-up for the two dimensions Team-work across hospital units and Team-work within hospital. Conclusion The result showed changes in the self-estimated patient safety culture, mainly regarding team-work and communication openness. Most of the improvements at follow-up were seen by physicians, and mainly at the county hospital. PMID:25005231

  10. Emerging technologies and corporate culture at Microsoft: a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Klein, David; Schmeling, James; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article explores factors important in the study and examination of corporate culture and change. The particular focus is on the technological methods used to conduct a study of accessible technology and corporate culture at Microsoft Corporation. Reasons for particular approaches are explained. Advantages and challenges of emerging technologies that store and retrieve information in the study of corporate culture are reviewed. PMID:15706603

  11. Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

  12. Identity and Culture: Theorizing Emergent Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Justin; Kelsey, Elin; Duque-Aristizabal, Ana Maria

    1999-01-01

    Examines the methodology and findings of the emergent environmentalism research project as reported in Environmental Education Research v4 n4. Challenges the ontological stance implicit in the research as well as explicit epistemology. (Author/CCM)

  13. Increasing Understanding of Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creeden, Jack; Kelly-Aguirre, Eileen; Visser, Aric

    2016-01-01

    Many high school and university students return home from global programs and often report they have changed as a result of the experience. Global educators assume the act of participating in global education programs (such as high school study abroad) will open students' eyes to the complexities of another culture because students have been…

  14. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  15. Cultural Emergence: Theorizing Culture in and from the Margins of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Nathan Brent; Erichsen, Elizabeth Anne; Anicha, Cali L.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching seeks to explore conceptualizations of culture that address contemporary challenges in science education. Toward this end, we unite two theoretical perspectives to advance a conceptualization of culture as a complex system, emerging from iterative processes of cultural bricolage,…

  16. Diagnostic Dilemmas and Cultural Diversity in Emergency Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Charlotte; Sklar, David

    1980-01-01

    Language and cultural beliefs play an extremely important role in the interaction between patients from diverse cultural groups and physicians. Especially in emergency rooms, there are many dangers in missed communications. A patient from a foreign culture, especially one who does not speak English, often expresses symptoms in ways that are unfamiliar to many American physicians. Specific areas of cultural vulnerability can be identified for the major ethnic groups in the United States as they interact with the scientific medical system. A short review of folk medical beliefs and recommendations for improving diagnostic accuracy and treatment may assist emergency room staffs in offering care that is culturally acceptable to patients of diverse ethnic backgrounds. PMID:7347053

  17. After the Disciplines: The Emergence of Cultural Studies. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of essays contains responses to a request to examine the emergence and formation of "cultural studies" within the university and the implications of cultural studies for an economics of "disciplinarity." The majority of the contributors are from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Following an introduction by Michael Peters,…

  18. Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face processing. Adults from…

  19. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  20. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G; Cabral, Reniel B; Flores, César O; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  1. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Flores, César O.; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  2. The emergence of spontaneous activity in neuronal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, J. G.; Alvarez-Lacalle, E.; Teller, S.; Soriano, J.; Casademunt, J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro neuronal networks of dissociated hippocampal or cortical tissues are one of the most attractive model systems for the physics and neuroscience communities. Cultured neurons grow and mature, develop axons and dendrites, and quickly connect to their neighbors to establish a spontaneously active network within a week. The resulting neuronal network is characterized by a combination of excitatory and inhibitory neurons coupled through synaptic connections that interact in a highly nonlinear manner. The nonlinear behavior emerges from the dynamics of both the neurons' spiking activity and synaptic transmission, together with biological noise. These ingredients give rise to a rich repertoire of phenomena that are still poorly understood, including the emergence and maintenance of periodic spontaneous activity, avalanches, propagation of fronts and synchronization. In this work we present an overview on the rich activity of cultured neuronal networks, and detail the minimal theoretical considerations needed to describe experimental observations.

  3. The Influence of Culture in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Badger, Sarah; Wu, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Emerging adulthood refers to a time period (18-25 years of age) between adolescence and adulthood. Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non-Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on…

  4. Developing cultural differences in face processing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David J; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sébastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information holistically, whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information analytically. Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face processing. Adults from Eastern cultures fixate centrally towards the nose when learning and recognizing faces, whereas adults from Western societies spread fixations across the eye and mouth regions. Although light has been shed on how adults can fixate different areas yet achieve comparable recognition accuracy, the reason why such divergent strategies exist is less certain. Although some argue that culture shapes strategies across development, little direct evidence exists to support this claim. Additionally, it has long been claimed that face recognition in early childhood is largely reliant upon external rather than internal face features, yet recent studies have challenged this theory. To address these issues, we tested children aged 7-12 years of age from the UK and China with an old/new face recognition paradigm while simultaneously recording their eye movements. Both populations displayed patterns of fixations that were consistent with adults from their respective cultural groups, which 'strengthened' across development as qualified by a pattern classifier analysis. Altogether, these observations suggest that cultural forces may indeed be responsible for shaping eye movements from early childhood. Furthermore, fixations made by both cultural groups almost exclusively landed on internal face regions, suggesting that these features, and not external features, are universally used to achieve face recognition in childhood. PMID:21884332

  5. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  6. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures. PMID:26621713

  7. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures. PMID:26621713

  8. From "lists of traits" to "open-mindedness": emerging issues in cultural competence education.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Angela C

    2011-06-01

    The incorporation of "culture" into U.S. biomedicine has been increasing at a rapid pace over the last several decades. Advocates for "cultural competence" point to changing patient demographics and growing health disparities as they call for improved educational efforts that train health providers to care for patients from a variety of backgrounds. Medical anthropologists have long been critical of the approach to "culture" that emerges in cultural competence efforts, identifying an essentialized, static notion of culture that is conflated with racial and ethnic categories and seen to exist primarily among exotic "Others." With this approach, culture can become a "list of traits" associated with various racial and ethnic groups that must be mastered by health providers and applied to patients as necessary. This article uses an ethnographic examination of cultural competence training to highlight recent efforts to develop more nuanced approaches to teaching culture. I argue that much of contemporary cultural competence education has rejected the "list of traits" approach and instead aims to produce a new kind of health provider who is "open-minded," willing to learn about difference, and treats each patient as an individual. This shift, however, can ultimately reinforce behavioral understandings of culture and draw attention away from the social conditions and power differentials that underlie health inequalities. PMID:21560030

  9. Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling: Different Meanings in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Three types of parent involvement--communicating, volunteering at school, and learning at home--were explored in two cultures within the United States. Immigrant Chinese parents and European American parents of young children reflect their different traditions in the ways they involve themselves in their child's academic life. European American…

  10. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. PMID:24928150

  11. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    PubMed Central

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  12. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  13. Current and Emerging Cell Culture Manufacturing Technologies for Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Milián, Ernest; Kamen, Amine A.

    2015-01-01

    Annually, influenza virus infects millions of people worldwide. Vaccination programs against seasonal influenza infections require the production of hundreds of million doses within a very short period of time. The influenza vaccine is currently produced using a technology developed in the 1940s that relies on replicating the virus in embryonated hens' eggs. The monovalent viral preparation is inactivated and purified before being formulated in trivalent or tetravalent influenza vaccines. The production process has depended on a continuous supply of eggs. In the case of pandemic outbreaks, this mode of production might be problematic because of a possible drastic reduction in the egg supply and the low flexibility of the manufacturing process resulting in a lack of supply of the required vaccine doses in a timely fashion. Novel production systems using mammalian or insect cell cultures have emerged to overcome the limitations of the egg-based production system. These industrially well-established production systems have been primarily selected for a faster and more flexible response to pandemic threats. Here, we review the most important cell culture manufacturing processes that have been developed in recent years for mass production of influenza vaccines. PMID:25815321

  14. Current and emerging cell culture manufacturing technologies for influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Milián, Ernest; Kamen, Amine A

    2015-01-01

    Annually, influenza virus infects millions of people worldwide. Vaccination programs against seasonal influenza infections require the production of hundreds of million doses within a very short period of time. The influenza vaccine is currently produced using a technology developed in the 1940s that relies on replicating the virus in embryonated hens' eggs. The monovalent viral preparation is inactivated and purified before being formulated in trivalent or tetravalent influenza vaccines. The production process has depended on a continuous supply of eggs. In the case of pandemic outbreaks, this mode of production might be problematic because of a possible drastic reduction in the egg supply and the low flexibility of the manufacturing process resulting in a lack of supply of the required vaccine doses in a timely fashion. Novel production systems using mammalian or insect cell cultures have emerged to overcome the limitations of the egg-based production system. These industrially well-established production systems have been primarily selected for a faster and more flexible response to pandemic threats. Here, we review the most important cell culture manufacturing processes that have been developed in recent years for mass production of influenza vaccines. PMID:25815321

  15. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  16. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  17. Cultural differences in Research project management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.

  18. Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Cecelia Nails

    "Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

  19. Emergence of Syntax: Commonalities and Differences across Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal examination of syntactic skills, starting at the age of emergence of simple sentences and continuing through the emergence of complex sentences. We ask whether there is systematic variability among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds in the early stages of sentence production. The…

  20. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium. PMID:21314780

  1. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2–3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%. PMID:27335646

  2. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2-3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%. PMID:27335646

  3. Role of differential physical properties in emergent behavior of 3D cell co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbman, Dan; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    The biophysics of binary cell populations is of great interest in many biological processes, whether the formation of embryos or the initiation of tumors. During these processes, cells are surrounded by other cell types with different physical properties, often with important consequences. For example, recent experiments on a co-culture of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells suggest that the mechanical mismatch between the two cell types may contribute to enhanced migration of the cancer cells. Here we explore how the differential physical properties of different cell types may influence cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. To this end, we study a proof of concept model- a three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as elastic stiffness, contractility, and particle-particle adhesion, using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our results may provide insights into emergent behavior such as segregation and differential migration in cell co-cultures in three dimensions.

  4. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  5. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  6. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  7. Working with Different Cultural Patterns & Beliefs: Teachers & Families Learning Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process….People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit…

  8. Emergence of Small-World Anatomical Networks in Self-Organizing Clustered Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    de Santos-Sierra, Daniel; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Leyva, Inmaculada; Almendral, Juan A.; Anava, Sarit; Ayali, Amir; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In vitro primary cultures of dissociated invertebrate neurons from locust ganglia are used to experimentally investigate the morphological evolution of assemblies of living neurons, as they self-organize from collections of separated cells into elaborated, clustered, networks. At all the different stages of the culture's development, identification of neurons' and neurites' location by means of a dedicated software allows to ultimately extract an adjacency matrix from each image of the culture. In turn, a systematic statistical analysis of a group of topological observables grants us the possibility of quantifying and tracking the progression of the main network's characteristics during the self-organization process of the culture. Our results point to the existence of a particular state corresponding to a small-world network configuration, in which several relevant graph's micro- and meso-scale properties emerge. Finally, we identify the main physical processes ruling the culture's morphological transformations, and embed them into a simplified growth model qualitatively reproducing the overall set of experimental observations. PMID:24489675

  9. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  10. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model

    PubMed Central

    Ryba, Tatiana V.; Stambulova, Natalia B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes’ psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers’ adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. PMID:27047436

  11. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Tatiana V; Stambulova, Natalia B; Ronkainen, Noora J

    2016-01-01

    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers' adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. PMID:27047436

  12. Cultural Differences, Learning Styles and Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…

  13. Communities of Difference Culture, Language, Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at the implications of educational practices in communities that are differentiated by issues of language, culture, and technology. Trifonas argues that a "community" is at once a gathering of like-minded individuals in solidarity of purpose and conviction, and also a gathering that excludes others. The chapters in this collection…

  14. Administrators Conferences on Language and Cultural Differences: Collected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    These papers were presented at a series of conferences on language and cultural differences organized by the Texas Education Agency to help school administrators deal with bilingual education, racial integration, and implementation of court orders. The papers address five areas of concern: the concept and definition of culture, culture and the…

  15. A General Multidimensional Model for the Measurement of Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.; Martinez, Sergio R.

    A multidimensional model for measuring cultural differences (MCD) based on factor analytic theory and techniques is proposed. The model assumes that a cultural space may be defined by means of a relatively small number of orthogonal dimensions which are linear combinations of a much larger number of cultural variables. Once a suitable,…

  16. Examine Your LENS: A Tool for Interpreting Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracy Rundstrom

    2013-01-01

    One of the most commonly cited reasons students choose to study abroad is to experience a new culture. However, most students and, perhaps, most people do not fully recognize what culture is and the span of its influences. The pervasiveness and seeming incomprehensiveness of cultural differences often surprise and unsettle the traveler, and his or…

  17. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  18. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design.

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  19. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  20. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089

  1. Migrants' and professionals' views on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Hannig, Christian; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to explore the views of migrants and professionals on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care in order to adapt such care to migrants' needs. Interviews were conducted with 41 migrants who had received direct (as a patient) or indirect (as a significant other) pre-hospital emergency care. Furthermore, 20 professionals in the field of pre-hospital emergency care were interviewed. The content analysis showed five distinguishable categories based on the statements by the migrants and six categories based on the statements by the professionals. While migrants gave priority to basic proficiencies of first responders such as 'social/emotional competencies' and 'communication skills', the professionals considered '(basic) cultural knowledge', 'awareness' and 'attitude' the most important. Furthermore, migrants provided practical indications, e.g. regarding areas of cultural knowledge, whereas professionals seemed to view the issue of culturally pre-hospital emergency care from a more theoretical perspective. The issues of the culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care itself, as well as the varying points of view of the two groups interviewed, resulted in eight recommendations for culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care. PMID:26123882

  2. Sex differences and similarities in married couples: patterns across and within cultures.

    PubMed

    Weisfeld, Carol C; Dillon, Lisa M; Nowak, Nicole T; Mims, Koyonne R; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Imamoğlu, E Olcay; Butovskaya, Marina; Shen, Jiliang

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the patterns of sex differences in men and women married to each other in five cultures (China, Russia, Turkey, UK, and the U.S.) to look for universal patterns in behavioral dimorphisms and for cultural variability in those patterns. Over 400 couples in each cultural group completed the 235-item Marriage and Relationship Questionnaire on various aspects of marriage, appropriately translated for each culture. Sex differences were anticipated in responses related to female choosiness, labor performed, emotional expressiveness, interest in sex, physical attractiveness, and jealousy. To measure male-female differences in each culture, t-tests were utilized, and effect sizes were calculated. Significant sex differences (p < .05, two-tailed) emerged in all six areas examined, although cultural differences were also seen in the patterns. For example, on items relevant to female choosiness, women in most, but not all, cultures were more likely than their husbands to endorse these statements: "I have thought of divorcing my spouse" and "My parents played a role in choosing my spouse." In China, where scores on emotional expressiveness were low, sex differences disappeared in the category related to emotions. Results suggest that long-term marriage exhibits a balance between homogamy and dimorphism serving reproductive interests. Moreover, culture may moderate this balance for particular sex differences. PMID:21887587

  3. Latinas' Practices of Emergence: Between Cultural Narratives and Globalization on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Gonzalez, Norma E.; Valdez-Gardea, Gloria Ciria

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to map out the "in-between" space between global and cultural narratives that mediates women's educational trajectories. Case studies of women living on the U.S.-Mexico border make visible these spaces, sites of "practices of emergence": the practices that emerge from incommensurable economic demands and social…

  4. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  5. Preparing for a National Emergency: The Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources, 1939-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In March 1940 the U.S. National Resources Planning Board established the Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources to plan for the protection of federal cultural institutions during national emergencies. The committee provided a mechanism to bring officials together to consider protective measures for and evacuation of valuable books,…

  6. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or ethnological material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act...

  7. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or ethnological material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act...

  8. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104j...

  9. The Emerging Culture in a Residential College Led by Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Susan; And Others

    The culture in a female-managed residential college that focused on communication studies was examined. The college, which was opended in 1981, is a unique living unit under the supervision of a head and associate master, in which 107 students live in a collection of suites representing the academic disciplines of journalism,…

  10. Changing the Cultural Paradigm to Meet Emerging Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.

  11. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  12. Emergence of variants with altered survival properties in stationary phase cultures of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodriguez, A; Kelly, A F; Park, S F; Mackey, B M

    2004-02-01

    During the stationary phase of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11351 viable numbers fluctuate in a characteristic fashion. After reaching the maximum cell count (ca. 2 x 10(9) CFU/ml) in early stationary phase (denoted phase 1), viable numbers subsequently decrease to about 10(6) CFU/ml after 48 h and then increase again to about 10(8) CFU/ml (denoted phase 2) before decreasing once more to a value intermediate between the previous maximum and minimum values. To investigate whether the increase in viable numbers following the initial decline was due to the emergence of a new strain with a growth advantage in stationary phase analogous to the 'GASP' phenotype described in Escherichia coli [Science 259 (1993) 1757], we conducted mixed culture experiments with cells from the original culture and antibiotic-resistant marked organisms isolated from the re-growth phase. In many experiments of this type, strains isolated from phase 2 failed to out-compete the original strain and we have thus been unable to demonstrate a convincing GASP phenotype. However, strains isolated from phase 2 showed a much lower rate of viability loss in early stationary phase and a small increase in resistance to aeration, peroxide challenge and heat, indicating that the emergent strain was different from the parent. These results support the view that dynamic population changes occur during the stationary phase of C. jejuni that may play a role in the survival of this organism. PMID:14751687

  13. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. PMID:25470657

  14. Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence in Chinese FLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…

  15. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  16. Cultural Differences in Social Interaction during Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrenya, William K., Jr.; Barba, Lourdes

    Cross-cultural psychology has begun to analyze cultural differences on collectivism and the implications of these differences for social processes such as group productivity. This study examined natural social interaction during a problem-solving task that required discussion and the establishment of a consensus. The relationship of collectivist…

  17. Mosaic. Hispanic Sub-Cultural Values: Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Inst. for Intercultural Relations and Ethnic Studies.

    This issue of Mosaic magazine contains several articles focusing on the similarities and differences between different Hispanic groups. Each article examines a specific Hispanic culture in order to improve existing and future intercultural education and to foster cultural awareness. The following topics are addressed: (1) values involved in…

  18. Mental Abilities of Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Blanka; Belmont, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Examines pattern of mental abilities exhibited by first-grade, Israeli-born children whose parents emigrated from Europe, Iraq, North Africa, and Yemen. Results indicate that the groups of culturally different children tended to exhibit different patterns of cognitive abilities. Concludes that historical-cultural background of a population has a…

  19. Cultural Differences in Belief Bias Associated with Deductive Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sara J.; Medin, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    Norenzayan, Smith, Jun Kim, and Nisbett (2002) investigated cultural differences in the use of intuitive versus formal reasoning in 4 experiments. Our comment concerns the 4th experiment where Norenzayan et al. reported that, although there were no cultural differences in accuracy on abstract logical arguments, Koreans made more errors than U.S.…

  20. Towards emergent ethical action and the culture of engineering.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Kastenberg, Gloria; Kastenberg, William E; Norris, David

    2003-07-01

    With the advent of the newest technologies, it is necessary for engineering to incorporate the integration of social responsibility and technical integrity. A possible approach to accomplishing this integration is by expanding the culture of the engineering profession so that it is more congruent with the complex nature of the technologies that are now being developed. Furthermore, in order to achieve this expansion, a shift in thinking is required from a linear or reductionist paradigm (atomistic, deterministic and dualistic) to a nonlinear paradigm (holistic, chaotic and subjective). Three aspects of such a nonlinear paradigm (holism, transparency and responsiveness) enable an engineer to shift from "applying ethics" to "being ethical". This culture change can be a basis for developing new curricula to satisfy the ABET-2000 requirements as well as for the practice of engineering in the 21st Century. PMID:12971298

  1. The Cultural Antecedents of Sociolinguistic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Abraham

    1975-01-01

    This paper sought the answer to the question: What is the origin of the sociolinguistic differences described by Basil Bernstein and others in relation to social class, patterns of family organization and socialization, and modes of speech? (Author/RK)

  2. Cultural differences in preferences for shapes.

    PubMed

    Sierzant, K

    1982-12-01

    It was predicted that since there is less sexual restraint in Jamaica the sex difference in shape preference should be larger for native adult Jamaicans than Caymanian adults. Pairs of drawings of a "female" and a "male" object, depicted according to the theory of sexual symbolism, were shown to 200 subjects, who indicated which of each pair they preferred. The larger sex difference found among Jamaicans was interpreted in terms of primary sexual stimulus generalization. PMID:6186983

  3. Cultural differences in music chosen for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Picot, B L; Salem, S G; Chin, C C; Picot, S F; Lane, D

    2000-09-01

    Nurses use music therapeutically but often assume that all patients will equally appreciate the same type of music. Cultural differences in music preferences are compared across five pain studies. Music preferences for pain relief are described as the most frequently chosen type of music for each culture. Findings indicate that in four studies, musical choices were related to cultural background (p = .002 to .049). Although the majority in each group chose among the other types of music, Caucasians most frequently chose orchestra music, African Americans chose jazz, and Taiwanese chose harp music. For culturally congruent care, nurses should become aware of cultural differences in music preference and provide culturally specific selections among other music expected to have a therapeutic effect. PMID:11847812

  4. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate in Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.

    2010-10-01

    Surprisingly, the question “Is there Life in the Universe outside Earth?” has been raised, in rational terms, almost only in the western literature throughout the ages. In a first part I justify this statement. Then I try to develop an explanation of this fact by analyzing the different aspects of the notion of “decentration".

  5. Compassion and contamination. Cultural differences in vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Cheng, Tessa K; Waddar, Mahadevi

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research has shown that Western vegetarians report more concern for animal welfare and environmental sustainability, and endorse more liberal values than do Western omnivores. However, despite the prevalence of Indian vegetarianism, its psychological associations and underpinnings remain largely unexamined. In Study 1, we find that Euro-American vegetarians are more concerned than omnivores with the impact of their daily food choices on the environment and animal welfare, show more concern for general animal welfare, and endorse universalistic values more, yet among Indian participants, these differences are not significant. In Study 2, we show that Indian vegetarians more strongly endorse the belief that eating meat is polluting, and show a heightened concern for the conservative ethics of Purity, Authority, and Ingroup relative to their omnivorous peers, whereas these differences are largely absent among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans. PMID:24045211

  6. Identification of differences between rural and urban safety cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Gerberich, Susan G

    2009-09-01

    The prevailing risk of traffic fatalities is much larger in rural areas compared to urban areas. A number of explanations have been offered to explain this including road design, emergency medical service proximity, and human factors. This research explored the potential contribution of rural driver attitudes that may underlie the increased fatal crash risk in rural environments. This analysis examined differences between rural and urban drivers in terms of self-reported risk taking for driving behaviors associated with fatal crashes and attitudes toward safety interventions using a large-scale survey. The results suggested that rural drivers engage in riskier behavior, such as not wearing seatbelts, because they have lower perceptions of the risks associated with such behaviors. Results also suggested that vehicle type (e.g., pickup trucks versus passenger vehicles) may be related to seatbelt compliance and frequency of driving under the influence of alcohol. Rural drivers perceived the utility of government-sponsored traffic safety interventions to be lower than their urban counterparts. This study provides insights into the role of the human factor in rural fatal crashes and provides policy suggestions for developing safety interventions that are designed with respect to the psychosocial factors that define the rural culture. PMID:19664429

  7. Productive Engagements with Student Difference: Supporting Equity through Cultural Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is on how a group of Australian educators support student equity through cultural recognition. Young's theorising of justice is drawn on to illuminate the problematic impacts arising from the group's efforts to value students' cultural difference associated, for example, with quantifying justice along distributive lines…

  8. Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…

  9. Is There a Difference in Learning Style among Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Darlene

    Each child has a personal learning style that results from innate tendencies and environmental experiences. Because cultural groups often share common values, the experiences of children growing up with those values are reflected in their classroom learning behaviors. This paper discusses cultural differences in children's learning styles. The…

  10. Within- and between-culture variation: individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Cohen, Dov

    2011-03-01

    The CuPS (Culture × Person × Situation) approach attempts to jointly consider culture and individual differences, without treating either as noise and without reducing one to the other. Culture is important because it helps define psychological situations and create meaningful clusters of behavior according to particular logics. Individual differences are important because individuals vary in the extent to which they endorse or reject a culture's ideals. Further, because different cultures are organized by different logics, individual differences mean something different in each. Central to these studies are concepts of honor-related violence and individual worth as being inalienable versus socially conferred. We illustrate our argument with 2 experiments involving participants from honor, face, and dignity cultures. The studies showed that the same "type" of person who was most helpful, honest, and likely to behave with integrity in one culture was the "type" of person least likely to do so in another culture. We discuss how CuPS can provide a rudimentary but integrated approach to understanding both within- and between-culture variation. PMID:21244179

  11. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224

  12. Cross-cultural and gender differences in childhood amnesia.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, S; Uesiliana, K; Hayne, H

    2000-11-01

    In two experiments, we examined cross-cultural and gender differences in adults' earliest memories. To do this, we asked male and female adults from three cultural backgrounds (New Zealand European, New Zealand Maori, and Asian) to describe and date their earliest personal memory. Consistent with past research, Asian adults reported significantly later memories than European adults, however this effect was due exclusively to the extremely late memories reported by Asian females. Maori adults, whose traditional culture includes a strong emphasis on the past, reported significantly earlier memories than adults from the other two cultural groups. Across all three cultures, the memories reported by women contained more information than the memories reported by men. These findings support the view that the age and content of our earliest memories are influenced by a wide range of factors including our culture and our gender. These factors must be incorporated into any comprehensive theory of autobiographical memory. PMID:11145068

  13. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  14. Cross-cultural differences in categorical memory errors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Aliza J; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Gutchess, Angela H

    2014-06-01

    Cultural differences occur in the use of categories to aid accurate recall of information. This study investigated whether culture also contributed to false (erroneous) memories, and extended cross-cultural memory research to Turkish culture, which is shaped by Eastern and Western influences. Americans and Turks viewed word pairs, half of which were categorically related and half unrelated. Participants then attempted to recall the second word from the pair in response to the first word cue. Responses were coded as correct, as blanks, or as different types of errors. Americans committed more categorical errors than did Turks, and Turks mistakenly recalled more non-categorically related list words than did Americans. These results support the idea that Americans use categories either to organize information in memory or to support retrieval strategies to a greater extent than Turks and suggest that culture shapes not only accurate recall but also erroneous distortions of memory. PMID:24628532

  15. Do Between-Culture Differences Really Mean that People Are Different? A Look at Some Measures of Culture Effect Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, David; Grissom, Robert J.; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2001-01-01

    Recommends four measures of cultural effect size appropriate for cross-cultural research (standardized difference between two sample means, probabilistic superiority effect size measure, Cohen's U1, and point biserial correlation), demonstrating their efficacy on two data sets from previously published studies and arguing for their use in future…

  16. Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2010-10-01

    Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness. PMID:22044057

  17. The Emerging Culture of Educational Administration: A UK Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    Organization of the United Kingdom's education system mirrors its political divisions; education is different and somewhat autonomous in each area: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The Department of Education and Science, based in London, oversees the English education system. Education in the United Kingdom has a longstanding…

  18. Cultural Identity and Academic Success in a Multicultural Society: A Culturally Different Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puglisi, Dick J.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that educational models based upon socioeconomic norms which are Anglo and middle class do not meet the needs of minority group children. Suggests that educational models will better serve minority group children if they are based on cultural differences instead of cultural disadvantagement. (Author/DB)

  19. Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

  20. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture. PMID:24570324

  1. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. PMID:23063935

  2. The Emergent Practice of Infant Compliance: An Exploration in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Liebal, Katja; Hicks, Kerry; Jonnalagadda, Srujana; Chintalapuri, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Complying with directives is an important indicator of developing cooperativeness and of the awareness of others' intentions for one's own actions. Nonetheless, little is known about the early emergence of compliance. In the present longitudinal study, we explore this phenomenon in naturalistic settings in two cultural groups. Nine…

  3. Cultural Diversity as Resistance to Neoliberal Globalization: The Emergence of a Global Movement and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan-Tibergien, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While there have been numerous discussions of the impact on educational services made by trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization (WTO), this study looks at the emergence of global resistance to the commodification of culture through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) within the WTO. In line with the Council of…

  4. 75 FR 51825 - Quality and Compliance in Merging and Emerging Cultures; Public Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public conference entitled ``The New Paradigm: Quality and Compliance in Merging and Emerging Cultures.'' The conference, cosponsored with the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA), will focus on challenges facing the medical products industry in navigating regulatory compliance, achieving worldwide quality improvement, and enhancing quality......

  5. Finding the Authentic Self in a Communal Culture: Developmental Goals in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    Finding and cultivating a sense of authentic self is an important life goal for emerging adults. In collectivist cultures, youngsters might need to distance themselves to find and discover their authentic selves separate of the expectations of society and significant others. Creating an autonomous time bubble that focuses on the present allows…

  6. Emergence of Shared Intentionality Is Coupled to the Advance of Cumulative Culture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that the sharing of intentions was an important factor in the evolution of humans’ unique cognitive abilities. Here, for the first time, we formally model the coevolution of jointly intentional behavior and cumulative culture, showing that rapid techno-cultural advance goes hand in hand with the emergence of the ability to participate in jointly intentional behavior. Conversely, in the absence of opportunities for significant techno-cultural improvement, the ability to undertake jointly intentional behavior is selected against. Thus, we provide a unified mechanism for the suppression or emergence of shared intentions and collaborative behavior in humans, as well as a potential cause of inter-species diversity in the prevalence of such behavior. PMID:26516775

  7. Emergence of Shared Intentionality Is Coupled to the Advance of Cumulative Culture.

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D; Newton, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence that the sharing of intentions was an important factor in the evolution of humans' unique cognitive abilities. Here, for the first time, we formally model the coevolution of jointly intentional behavior and cumulative culture, showing that rapid techno-cultural advance goes hand in hand with the emergence of the ability to participate in jointly intentional behavior. Conversely, in the absence of opportunities for significant techno-cultural improvement, the ability to undertake jointly intentional behavior is selected against. Thus, we provide a unified mechanism for the suppression or emergence of shared intentions and collaborative behavior in humans, as well as a potential cause of inter-species diversity in the prevalence of such behavior. PMID:26516775

  8. Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences from Contextual Influences in Parenting

    PubMed Central

    le, Huynh-Nhu; Ceballo, Rosario; Chao, Ruth; Hill, Nancy E.; Murry, Velma McBride; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting section of the Study Group on Race, Culture and Ethnicity (SGRCE) introduce and implement a novel approach toward understanding this question. The goal of this project is to study culturally related processes and the degree to which they predict parenting. An iterative process was employed to delineate the main parenting constructs (warmth, psychological and behavioral control, monitoring, communication, and self-efficacy), cultural processes, and contextual influences, and to coordinate a data analytic plan utilizing individual datasets with diverse samples to answer the research questions. PMID:24043923

  9. Cultural diversity as resistance to neoliberal globalization: The emergence of a global movement and convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan-Tibergien, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    While there have been numerous discussions of the impact on educational services made by trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization (WTO), this study looks at the emergence of global resistance to the commodification of culture through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) within the WTO. In line with the Council of Europe Declaration on Cultural Diversity in 2000 and the UNESCO Declaration on Cultural Diversity in 2001, a global movement has been fighting for a legally binding global convention on cultural diversity under the auspices of UNESCO. The author examines how `cultural diversity' is defined by various groups and nations. She also discusses the potential implications of such a global convention on cultural diversity for `cognitive justice', that is, for affirming the validity of diverse knowledge systems over against the dominance of neoliberal ideology. Finally, she argues that the leading definition of cultural diversity, contrary to its stated intention, actually serves to re-assert the cultural hegemony of the North rather than benefit subjugated knowledges of the South.

  10. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pre-hospital emergency medicine: survey results of medical directors of emergency medical services concerning antibiotics, blood cultures and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Casu, Sebastian; Häske, David

    2016-06-01

    Delayed antibiotic treatment for patients in severe sepsis and septic shock decreases the probability of survival. In this survey, medical directors of different emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany were asked if they are prepared for pre-hospital sepsis therapy with antibiotics or special algorithms to evaluate the individual preparations of the different rescue areas for the treatment of patients with this infectious disease. The objective of the survey was to obtain a general picture of the current status of the EMS with respect to rapid antibiotic treatment for sepsis. A total of 166 medical directors were invited to complete a short survey on behalf of the different rescue service districts in Germany via an electronic cover letter. Of the rescue districts, 25.6 % (n = 20) stated that they keep antibiotics on EMS vehicles. In addition, 2.6 % carry blood cultures on the vehicles. The most common antibiotic is ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin). In total, 8 (10.3 %) rescue districts use an algorithm for patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Although the German EMS is an emergency physician-based rescue system, special opportunities in the form of antibiotics on emergency physician vehicles are missing. Simultaneously, only 10.3 % of the rescue districts use a special algorithm for sepsis therapy. Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock do not appear to be prioritized as highly as these deadly diseases should be in the pre-hospital setting. PMID:26719078

  11. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499

  12. Middle East meets West: Negotiating cultural difference in international educational encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-10-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the views of a number of people with first-hand experience of education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Cultural differences between the Kurdish participants on the proposed programme and its British facilitator are a likely challenge in this kind of project, in particular those associated with collectivist vs. individualist traditions. Focusing on this divide, some marked differences emerge in terms of how learning is viewed and approached in the two different countries. Whilst acknowledging that cultural difference is not confined to national boundaries, the author argues that the degree of collectivism or individualism within a society can be regarded as one of the many significant components of the complex concept of "culture". She does not attempt to offer any empirical evidence to support a "best way" to approach international educational encounters. Rather, the author's aim is to draw some conclusions to inform and facilitate the design and delivery of the proposed programme. At the same time, this paper may also offer some useful insights to those who find themselves in similar situations requiring them to deliver programmes in environments which are culturally removed from their own.

  13. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. PMID:22578420

  14. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901592

  15. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  16. Cultural Differences in Adolescents' Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, G. A.; Hubert, Carol J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined lay explanations for juvenile delinquency given by Australian adolescents from either collectivist (Asian) or individualist (Australian) cultural backgrounds. Student surveys indicated that, after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables, there were small differences between the groups, with individualistic teens tending to…

  17. The ESL Noise Test: Cultural Differences in Affect and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lynne

    This study investigates cultural differences in second language aural comprehension levels among Asians under the constraints of background noise. It is determined that noise is an important component of language proficiency, for it is found where most interactions take place. Students from Hong Kong, Seoul (Korea), Tokyo (Japan), and the South…

  18. Explaining Different Discourse Strategies in Cross-Cultural Business Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheng-Geok

    Some language features are described that could account for feelings of people from different cultures not being on the same "wave length" when they communicate with each other in business negotiations. Candlin's explanatory approach involving a "top-down, bottom-up" methodology is used. It views language as being indeterminate and allows language…

  19. A Comparison of Learning Cultures in Different Sizes and Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paula D.; Finch, Kim S.; MacGregor, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study compared relevant data and information about leadership and learning cultures in different sizes and types of high schools. Research was conducted using a quantitative design with a qualitative element. Quantitative data were gathered using a researcher-created survey. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the means of…

  20. Developing Creative Materials for Teaching the Culturally Different Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Dormalee H.; Swick, Kevin J.

    A persistent problem confronting the teacher of the culturally different child is the need for finding learning materials that the child can relate to and utilize in his learning situation. The increasing availability of mass-produced learning materials for these children, although helpful, has not solved the problem of providing socioeconomically…

  1. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2010-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N = 32), African American (N = 63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N = 54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and…

  2. Modifiers of Perceived Spaciousness and Crowding among Different Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; And Others

    Two studies of graduate students living in a 13-story dormitory examined the effects of natural lighting, usable space, sex, culture, and floor height on perceptions of spaciousness, personalization of space, crowding, and lightness. Previous research had indicated differences between males and females in this area, but had not considered cultural…

  3. "Mind the Gap": Bridging Cultural, Age, and Value Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigrigg, Carin

    Students in a University of New Mexico English extension class at Kirtland Air Force Base differ in age, culture, values, and skills, all of which must be taken into account by the instructor. Most of these students are returning students with past experiences and education which most traditional students do not have, and at least half the class…

  4. Cultural Differences in the Development of Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Robert V.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Ferrer, Emilio; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children ("N" = 509) and four samples of East Asian children ("N" = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated…

  5. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Emerging Pathogen Mycobacterium haemophilum Explains Its Unique Culture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kerantzas, Christopher A.; Vilchèze, Catherine; Calder, R. Brent; Nordberg, Eric K.; Fischer, Jack A.; Hartman, Travis E.; Yang, Eva; Driscoll, Timothy; Cole, Laura E.; Sebra, Robert; Maqbool, Shahina B.; Wattam, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium haemophilum is an emerging pathogen associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, most commonly skin infections in immunocompromised individuals. M. haemophilum exhibits a unique requirement for iron supplementation to support its growth in culture, but the basis for this property and how it may shape pathogenesis is unclear. Using a combination of Illumina, PacBio, and Sanger sequencing, the complete genome sequence of M. haemophilum was determined. Guided by this sequence, experiments were performed to define the basis for the unique growth requirements of M. haemophilum. We found that M. haemophilum, unlike many other mycobacteria, is unable to synthesize iron-binding siderophores known as mycobactins or to utilize ferri-mycobactins to support growth. These differences correlate with the absence of genes associated with mycobactin synthesis, secretion, and uptake. In agreement with the ability of heme to promote growth, we identified genes encoding heme uptake machinery. Consistent with its propensity to infect the skin, we show at the whole-genome level the genetic closeness of M. haemophilum with Mycobacterium leprae, an organism which cannot be cultivated in vitro, and we identify genes uniquely shared by these organisms. Finally, we identify means to express foreign genes in M. haemophilum. These data explain the unique culture requirements for this important pathogen, provide a foundation upon which the genome sequence can be exploited to improve diagnostics and therapeutics, and suggest use of M. haemophilum as a tool to elucidate functions of genes shared with M. leprae. PMID:26578674

  6. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Stringer, Chris B

    2011-04-12

    Crucial questions in the debate on the origin of quintessential human behaviours are whether modern cognition and associated innovations are unique to our species and whether they emerged abruptly, gradually or as the result of a discontinuous process. Three scenarios have been proposed to account for the origin of cultural modernity. The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place approximately 50 ka in Africa among already evolved anatomically modern humans. The second posits that cultural modernity emerged gradually in Africa starting at least 200 ka in concert with the origin of our species on that continent. The third states that innovations indicative of modern cognition are not restricted to our species and appear and disappear in Africa and Eurasia between 200 and 40 ka before becoming fully consolidated. We evaluate these scenarios in the light of new evidence from Africa, Asia and Europe and explore the mechanisms that may have led to modern cultures. Such reflections will demonstrate the need for further inquiry into the relationship between climate and demographic/cultural change in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission at work in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:21357228

  7. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Crucial questions in the debate on the origin of quintessential human behaviours are whether modern cognition and associated innovations are unique to our species and whether they emerged abruptly, gradually or as the result of a discontinuous process. Three scenarios have been proposed to account for the origin of cultural modernity. The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place approximately 50 ka in Africa among already evolved anatomically modern humans. The second posits that cultural modernity emerged gradually in Africa starting at least 200 ka in concert with the origin of our species on that continent. The third states that innovations indicative of modern cognition are not restricted to our species and appear and disappear in Africa and Eurasia between 200 and 40 ka before becoming fully consolidated. We evaluate these scenarios in the light of new evidence from Africa, Asia and Europe and explore the mechanisms that may have led to modern cultures. Such reflections will demonstrate the need for further inquiry into the relationship between climate and demographic/cultural change in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission at work in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:21357228

  8. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu

    2011-05-27

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change. PMID:21617077

  9. Measurement Invariance of Discipline in Different Cultural Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The measurement invariance of mother-reported use of 18 discipline strategies was examined in samples from 13 different ethnic/cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Participants included approximately 100–120 mothers and their children aged 7 to 10 years from each group. The results of exploratory factor analyses and multigroup categorical confirmatory factor analyses (MCCFA) indicated that a seven-factor solution was feasible across the cultural groups, as shown by marginally sufficient evidence for configural and metric invariance for the mother-reported frequency on the discipline interview. This study makes a contribution on measurement invariance to the parenting literature, and establishes the mother-report aspect of the discipline interview as an instrument for use in further cross-cultural research on discipline. PMID:23997855

  10. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  11. Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B A; Gates-Williams, J

    1995-01-01

    Experiences of illness and death, as well as beliefs about the appropriate role of healers, are profoundly influenced by patients' cultural background. As the United States becomes increasingly diverse, cultural difference is a central feature of many clinical interactions. Knowledge about how patients experience and express pain, maintain hope in the face of a poor prognosis, and respond to grief and loss will aid health care professionals. Many patients' or families' beliefs about appropriate end-of-life care are easily accommodated in routine clinical practice. Desires about the care of the body after death, for example, generally do not threaten deeply held values of medical science. Because expected deaths are increasingly the result of explicit negotiation about limiting or discontinuing therapies, however, the likelihood of serious moral disputes and overt conflict increases. We suggest a way to assess cultural variation in end-of-life care, arguing that culture is only meaningful when interpreted in the context of a patient's unique history, family constellation, and socioeconomic status. Efforts to use racial or ethnic background as simplistic, straightforward predictors of beliefs or behavior will lead to harmful stereotyping of patients and culturally insensitive care for the dying. PMID:7571587

  12. Focusing on the negative: cultural differences in expressions of sympathy.

    PubMed

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L

    2014-12-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted 4 studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contain less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in "avoided negative affect" mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans feel focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) to "push negative images away" (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect) from or (b) to "pull negative images closer" (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect) to themselves. Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the "push negative away" condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the "pull negative closer" condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs. positive). We discuss the

  13. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries. PMID:19661101

  14. Cultural differences in therapeutic humor in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Adamle, Kathleen; Chiang, Ling-Chun

    2009-03-01

    Humor has been recognized by nurse researchers and practitioners as a constructive therapeutic intervention and has shown positive psychological and physiological outcomes for patient care. Because cross-cultural research on humor is sparse, this preliminary study investigates how nursing faculty members approach teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom and clinical education in different countries. Through an investigation of classroom (didactic) education and clinical practicum with direct patient care, the study may elucidate the linkage between theory and practice as well as how nursing faculty members view therapeutic humor in general. Researching nursing faculty teaching practices and viewpoints of therapeutic humor may help reveal cultural differences in the use of humor in healthcare settings. This cross-cultural study included 40 nursing faculty at three nursing programs: two in the United States and one in Taiwan. A qualitative approach was used to perform content analysis on responses to the open-ended questionnaires. Research findings revealed cultural differences between faculties from the two countries. Taiwanese faculty members indicated that they teach more theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom than do nursing faculty members from the United States. However, nursing faculty members in Taiwan reported that they observe and practice less therapeutic humor in clinical settings out of respect for the cultural value of "reverence of illness" operating within Taiwanese society. Therapeutic humor was family centered and interdependent on relationships, roles, duties, and responsibilities of family members. In contrast, the U.S. faculty members stated that they teach less theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom but observe and practice humor more in clinical settings. United States faculty approached teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom on an informal basis because the subject was not part of

  15. The development of the specialism of emergency medicine: media and cultural influences.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyse, via a critical review of the literature, the development of a relatively new medical specialism in the United Kingdom, that of emergency medicine. Despite the high media profile of emergency care, it is a low-status specialism within UK medicine. The creation of a specialist College in 2008 means that, symbolically, recognition as a full specialism has now been achieved. In this article, we will show, using a sociology of professions approach, how emergency medicine defined itself as a specialism, and sought to carve out a distinctive jurisdiction. While, in the context of the UK National Health Service, the state was clearly an important factor in the development of this profession, we wish to develop the analysis further than is usual in the sociology of professions. We will analyse the wider cultural context for the development of this specialism, which has benefited from its high profile in the media, through both fictional and documentary sources. PMID:24821928

  16. Describing Polygonum aviculare emergence in different tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of four tillage systems (direct drill, subsoiler, chisel plough and mouldboard plough) on the dynamics of Polygonum aviculare populations were studied over three growing seasons. Densities before and after herbicide application and cumulative emergence on a weekly basis were determined in ea...

  17. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  18. Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia, Ed.

    The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

  19. A Mind-Body Problem? A Reply to Lisa Taylor's Article "Canadian Culture," Cultural Difference and ESL Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courchene, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Comments on the distinction that Lisa Taylor, in a previous article, makes between "cultural diversity" and "cultural difference." The article notes that when new Canadians arrive in Canada, their point of reference is their own culture. The journey for new Canadians toward cultural integration into Canadian society is a progression beginning with…

  20. Cultural Differences in Perceiving Sounds Generated by Others: Self Matters

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer), leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived intensity or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British) comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness) from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation. PMID:26696931

  1. Neural differences in the processing of semantic relationships across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hedden, Trey; Ketay, Sarah; Aron, Arthur; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed functional MRI to investigate the contribution of domain-general (e.g. executive functions) and domain-specific (e.g. semantic knowledge) processes to differences in semantic judgments across cultures. Previous behavioral experiments have identified cross-cultural differences in categorization, with East Asians preferring strategies involving thematic or functional relationships (e.g. cow-grass) and Americans preferring categorical relationships (e.g. cow-chicken). East Asians and American participants underwent functional imaging while alternating between categorical or thematic strategies to sort triads of words, as well as matching words on control trials. Many similarities were observed. However, across both category and relationship trials compared to match (control) trials, East Asians activated a frontal-parietal network implicated in controlled executive processes, whereas Americans engaged regions of the temporal lobes and the cingulate, possibly in response to conflict in the semantic content of information. The results suggest that cultures differ in the strategies employed to resolve conflict between competing semantic judgments. PMID:20139116

  2. Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: relation to depression.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation. PMID:23805826

  3. Cultural and social influences on adolescent smoking dissipate by emerging adulthood among Hispanics in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Results Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Discussion Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed. PMID:24057805

  4. Age differences in cognitive performance: A study of cultural differences in Historical Context.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Natalia; Aretouli, Eleni; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J

    2016-03-01

    Ethnicity and cultural experience can affect neuropsychological performance, but they are rarely assessed in historical context. Attention measures are considered strongly biologically determined and therefore potentially culture-fair. In this study, we assessed the cross-cultural equivalence of Spanish and English versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan, 1958, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276) and the Brief Test of Attention (BTA; Schretlen et al., 1996, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89) in two large samples of Americans (N = 203) and Spaniards (N = 213), divided into younger and older subgroups. The older Spaniards lived under Franco's political regime (1936-1975), whereas the Americans never experienced such repression. Overall, TMT performance was culture-sensitive, whereas BTA performance was not. However, when both groups were stratified by age, cultural differences in TMT performance were restricted to older participants, suggesting that historical experience across generations might have contributed to the observed differences in cognitive performance. Even such basic cognitive processes as attention, working memory, and resource sharing might be shaped to some degree by historical experiences that contribute to cultural differences. PMID:25418760

  5. The neural basis of cultural differences in delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bokyung; Sung, Young Shin; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-03-01

    People generally prefer to receive rewarding outcomes sooner rather than later. Such preferences result from delay discounting, or the process by which outcomes are devalued for the expected delay until their receipt. We investigated cultural differences in delay discounting by contrasting behaviour and brain activity in separate cohorts of Western (American) and Eastern (Korean) subjects. Consistent with previous reports, we find a dramatic difference in discounting behaviour, with Americans displaying much greater present bias and elevated discount rates. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that differences in discounting may arise from differential involvement of either brain reward areas or regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive control. We find that the ventral striatum is more greatly recruited in Americans relative to Koreans when discounting future rewards, but there is no difference in prefrontal or parietal activity. This suggests that a cultural difference in emotional responsivity underlies the observed behavioural effect. We discuss the implications of this research for strategic interrelations between Easterners and Westerners. PMID:22271781

  6. Focusing on the Negative: Cultural Differences in Expressions of Sympathy

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet, we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted four studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contained less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in “avoided negative affect” mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans felt focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) to “push negative images away” (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect), or (2) to “pull negative images closer” to themselves (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect). Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the “push negative away” condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the “pull negative closer” condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect, and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs

  7. Cultural diversity and differences in formal reasoning ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Bealer, Jonathan M.

    To test the hypothesis that cultural diversity contributes to the development of formal reasoning, samples of adolescents from three predominately white middle-class communities located in areas that varied in the extent to which they offered cultural diversity (i.e., rural, suburan homogeneous, suburban heterogeneous) were administered a test of formal reasoning and a test of analytical intelligence. Results showed significant differences in formal reasoning in favor of the suburban heterogeneous sample on complex reasoning items. The suburban groups showed equal performance (but superior to the rural Ss) on the test of analytical intelligence. On the less complex reasoning items and on one item embedded in a rural farming context, the rural Ss showed relatively better performance. Implications for using science instruction to promote formal reasoning are discussed.

  8. The effect of culture on the sex differences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cetingök, M; Chu, C C; Park, D B

    1990-01-01

    Cultural influences on sex differences in clinical characteristics and symptomatology of schizophrenia were studied among 369 schizophrenic patients from the United States and Turkey. Male schizophrenics were more likely to be single, and were younger than female schizophrenics at onset of symptoms and when first diagnosed, treated and hospitalised in both cultures. Turkish male and female schizophrenics were more ambivalent, inappropriate, "silly", euphoric, depersonalised, dissociated, mute, conceptually disorganised, and exhibiting more flight of ideas and thought than American male and female schizophrenics. Irrelevant thought and stereotypic behaviour were most severe in Turkish male and American female schizophrenics. Hallucinatory behaviour was most intense in Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed female schizophrenics and American married male schizophrenics. Turkish married female and Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed male schizophrenics were most disoriented. Turkish single female schizophrenics were most mute. Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed male schizophrenics showed most intense stupor behaviour. PMID:2079398

  9. Cultural orientation: an emerging dimension of quality in women's health services.

    PubMed

    Stone, C E

    2000-01-01

    There are many efforts underway to document the differences in health status and health services access of women in distinct cultural segments in the U.S. Along with the measurable aspects of health status and utilization, each cultural segment carries its unique perspective on what constitutes "quality" in women's health services. These definitions of quality may reflect access, interactions, process, and outcomes. Health care providers that aspire to provide quality women's health care need to identify the distinct cultural segments in their own communities; document the gaps in women's health services; and develop programs that are specific to clinical needs and quality criteria of these populations. PMID:11183584

  10. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  11. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  12. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi

    2015-10-01

    This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling." PMID:26349837

  13. Structure and Function of Bacterial Communities Emerging from Different Sources under Identical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Langenheder, Silke; Lindström, Eva S.; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two major hypotheses concerning the formation of bacterial community composition (BCC) at the local scale, i.e., whether BCC is determined by the prevailing local environmental conditions or by “metacommunity processes.” A batch culture experiment where bacteria from eight distinctly different aquatic habitats were regrown under identical conditions was performed to test to what extent similar communities develop under similar selective pressure. Differently composed communities emerged from different inoculum communities, as determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. There was no indication that similarity increased between communities upon growth under identical conditions compared to that for growth at the ambient sampling sites. This suggests that the history and distribution of taxa within the source communities were stronger regulating factors of BCC than the environmental conditions. Moreover, differently composed communities were different with regard to specific functions, such as enzyme activities, but maintained similar broad-scale functions, such as biomass production and respiration. PMID:16391045

  14. How culture influences perspective taking: differences in correction, not integration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shali; Barr, Dale J.; Gann, Timothy M.; Keysar, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Individuals from East Asian (Chinese) backgrounds have been shown to exhibit greater sensitivity to a speaker’s perspective than Western (U.S.) participants when resolving referentially ambiguous expressions. We show that this cultural difference does not reflect better integration of social information during language processing, but rather is the result of differential correction: in the earliest moments of referential processing, Chinese participants showed equivalent egocentric interference to Westerners, but managed to suppress the interference earlier and more effectively. A time-series analysis of visual-world eye-tracking data found that the two cultural groups diverged extremely late in processing, between 600 and 1400 ms after the onset of egocentric interference. We suggest that the early moments of referential processing reflect the operation of a universal stratum of processing that provides rapid ambiguity resolution at the cost of accuracy and flexibility. Late components, in contrast, reflect the mapping of outputs from referential processes to decision-making and action planning systems, allowing for a flexibility in responding that is molded by culturally specific demands. PMID:24348368

  15. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123

  16. EMERGENT PATTERNS OF SEX DIFFERENCE IN A STUDY OF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MINUCHIN, PATRICIA

    RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO ACQUIRED VS. INHERENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE PRESENTED. FINDING REVEALED THAT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE AFFECTED BY THE ATTITUDES OF THEIR SCHOOLS TOWARD THEM AND TOWARD EDUCATION IN GENERAL. SEX DIFFERENCES IN BASIC INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY…

  17. Complex Networks in Different Languages: A Study of an Emergent Multilingual Encyclopedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pembe, F. Canan; Bingol, Haluk

    There is an increasing interest to the study of complex networks in an interdisciplinary way. Language, as a complex network, has been a part of this study due to its importance in human life. Moreover, the Internet has also been at the center of this study by making access to large amounts of information possible. With these ideas in mind, this work aims to evaluate conceptual networks in different languages with the data from a large and open source of information in the Internet, namely Wikipedia. As an evolving multilingual encyclopedia that can be edited by any Internet user, Wikipedia is a good example of an emergent complex system. In this paper, different from previous work on conceptual networks which usually concentrated on single languages, we concentrate on possible ways to compare the usages of different languages and possibly the underlying cultures. This also involves the analysis of local network properties around certain coneepts in different languages. For an initial evaluation, the concept "family" is used to compare the English and German Wikipedias. Although, the work is currently at the beginning, the results are promising.

  18. Interplay of differential cell mechanical properties, motility, and proliferation in emergent collective behavior of cell co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Leo; Kolbman, Dan; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin; Das, Moumita

    The biophysics of cell co-cultures, i.e. binary systems of cell populations, is of great interest in many biological processes including formation of embryos, and tumor progression. During these processes, different types of cells with different physical properties are mixed with each other, with important consequences for cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. The role of the differences in their physical properties in their collective behavior remains poorly understood. Furthermore, until recently most theoretical studies of collective cell migration have focused on two dimensional systems. Under physiological conditions, however, cells often have to navigate three dimensional and confined micro-environments. We study a confined, three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as deformability, motility, adhesion, and division rates using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our findings may provide insights into how the differences in and interplay between cell mechanical properties, division, and motility influence emergent collective behavior such as cell aggregation and segregation experimentally observed in co-cultures of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  19. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  20. Going against the Grain in an Urban Arizona High School: Secondary Preservice Teachers Emerging as Culturally Responsive Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pablo; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Boozer, April; Clark, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This one year study examines the journey of two preservice urban high-school teachers in Arizona as they enact Culturally Responsive Teaching in a year-long student teaching residency. Factors that influenced their Culturally Responsive Teaching practices are discussed along themes that emerged from interviews and classroom observations.…

  1. [Blood cultures in the paediatric emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in paediatrics. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A practice guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin. PMID:26227314

  2. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing. PMID:24821510

  3. When "Bouba" equals "Kiki": Cultural commonalities and cultural differences in sound-shape correspondences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Huang, Pi-Chun; Woods, Andy; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which meaningless speech sounds are systematically mapped onto rounded or angular shapes, reflects a universal crossmodal correspondence between audition and vision. Here, radial frequency (RF) patterns were adapted in order to compare the Bouba/Kiki effect in Eastern and Western participants demonstrating different perceptual styles. Three attributes of the RF patterns were manipulated: The frequency, amplitude, and spikiness of the sinusoidal modulations along the circumference of a circle. By testing participants in the US and Taiwan, both cultural commonalities and differences in sound-shape correspondence were revealed. RF patterns were more likely to be matched with "Kiki" than with "Bouba" when the frequency, amplitude, and spikiness increased. The responses from both groups of participants had a similar weighting on frequency; nevertheless, the North Americans had a higher weighting on amplitude, but a lower weighting on spikiness, than their Taiwanese counterparts. These novel results regarding cultural differences suggest that the Bouba/Kiki effect is partly tuned by differing perceptual experience. In addition, using the RF patterns in the Bouba/Kiki effect provides a "mid-level" linkage between visual and auditory processing, and a future understanding of sound-shape correspondences based on the mechanism of visual pattern processing. PMID:27230754

  4. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Degani, N.; Pickholtz, D.

    1980-09-01

    The present work compares the effect of ..gamma..-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G/sub 1/ phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G/sub 2/ phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G/sub 1/ phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture.

  5. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  6. Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-07-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  7. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2014-01-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  8. Evaluation of two modified culture media for Leishmania infantum cultivation versus different culture media.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Germano; Galante, Antonella; Lo Verde, Vincenza; Migliazzo, Antonella; Reale, Stefano; Lupo, Tiziana; Piazza, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Bruno, Federica

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes without the use of common, semisolid culture media such as Evans' modified Tobie's medium (EMTM), liquid RPMI 1640, and Peptone-yeast extract medium (P-Y). Although EMTM medium permits the growth of a high number of parasites, it is technically difficult to prepare as it requires the use of fresh rabbit blood from animals bred on farms, while RPMI 1640 and P-Y show lower growth rates than the EMTM. There is, therefore, a need to develop new blood-free and time-saving culture systems. The aim of this paper is to propose new modified microbiological media, named RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, to isolate Leishmania and cultivate parasites for research and diagnostic purposes. This study compares classic culture media to the new media, RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, and demonstrates that the new media have superior performance in terms of time and parasitic load. The growth rate of the parasite was significantly higher at 24, 48, and 72 hr cultivation, based on counts using Bürker's chambers, when compared to classic media. This study was carried out at the National References Centre for Leishmaniasis (C.Re.Na.L.) where the isolation procedures are conducted daily from a number of different biological matrices. PMID:24350586

  9. Immigrants, Schooling, and Social Mobility: Does Culture Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Hans, Ed.; Perlmann, Joel, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of essays by Dutch and American scholars on the complex relationship between structural and cultural forces shaping the life chances of ethnic minorities. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: The Role of Culture in Explanations of Social Mobility" (Hans Vermeulen); (2) "Introduction: The Persistence of Culture versus…

  10. Teaching Tips on Cultural Differences in Vocational Education. A Guidebook of Selected Activities for Teaching Students Who Are Ethnically and/or Culturally Different.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, N. Alan; And Others

    Intended to aid secondary school vocational education teachers, this document provides learning activities for educators to use in meeting the needs of culturally diverse students and outlines strategies to improve teaching effectiveness in overcoming cultural differences. Section I summarizes background information on cultural pluralism and the…

  11. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  12. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  13. Impact of Hourly Emergency Department Patient Volume on Blood Culture Contamination and Diagnostic Yield

    PubMed Central

    Halverson, Schuyler; Malani, Preeti N.; Newton, Duane W.; Habicht, Andrea; Vander Have, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are an important diagnostic site for outpatients with potentially serious infections. EDs frequently experience high patient volumes, and crowding has been shown to negatively impact the delivery of early care for serious infections, such as pneumonia. Here, we hypothesized that other important factors in the early care of infectious diseases, the rate of blood culture contamination and the accurate detection of pathogens, would be sensitive to ED operational stress, as proper collection requires fastidious attention to technique and timing. We related all blood samples collected over 1 year and their rates of recovery of likely contaminants and pathogens to the number of patients being cared for in the ED at the time of sample collection. Likely pathogens and contaminants were classified through combined microbiological and manual chart review criteria. Zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to relate crowding to culture results. Blood samples were obtained from 7,586 patients over 82,521 adult and pediatric patient visits. The unadjusted rates of recovering a likely pathogen or a likely contaminant were 8.0% and 3.7%, respectively. Periods of increased crowding (3rd and 4th quartiles of hourly occupancy) were significantly associated (P < 0.01) with increased rates of contamination (relative risk, 1.23 compared to the least busy quartile). Collecting samples for culture during busy times was also associated with a reduced likelihood of recovering a likely pathogen (relative risk, 0.93 compared to the least busy quartile). ED crowding was associated with degraded performance of blood cultures, both increasing the rate of contamination and decreasing the diagnostic yield. PMID:23515549

  14. Impact of Cultural Differences on Students' Participation, Communication, and Learning in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dazhi; Olesova, Larissa; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Being aware of cultural differences and knowing how to deal with related differences is critical for the success of online learning and training that involves learners from multiple countries and cultures. This study examines the perceived differences of participants from two different cultures on (1) students' participation behaviors; (2)…

  15. Burnout, Engagement, and Organizational Culture: Differences between Physicians and Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout results from a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal workplace stressors. The focus of research has been widened to job engagement. AIM: Purpose of the study was to examine associations between burnout, job engagement, work demands, and organisational culture (OC) and to demonstrate differences between physicians and nurses working in general hospital in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used for assessment of burnout and job engagement. Work demands and OC were measured with Hospital Experience Scale and Competing Values Framework, respectively. RESULTS: Higher scores of dedication, hierarchy OC, and organizational work demands were found in physicians. Nurses demonstrated higher scores of clan OC. Burnout negatively correlated with clan and market OC in physicians and nurses. Job engagement positively correlated with clan and market OC in nurses. Different work demands were related to different dimensions of burnout and/or job engagement. Our findings support job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti and Bakker). CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained can be used in implementation of specific organizational interventions in the hospital setting. Providing adequate JD-R interaction can lead to prevention of burnout in health professionals (HPs) and contribute positively to better job engagement in HPs and higher quality of patient care. PMID:27275279

  16. Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Variability: An Evolutionary Account of East-West Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…

  17. Cultural Differences in Sleeping Practices--Helping Early Childhood Educators Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cultural differences in sleeping practices, focusing on how child caregivers can provide developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive care. Describes co-sleeping as an accepted practice in many cultures with several benefits. Discusses the role of cultural values, beliefs, priorities, and goals and the importance of…

  18. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to

  19. Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne; Mattsson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms PMID:19635159

  20. Examining Culture and Performance at Different Middle School Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Martin Omar; Marcoulides, George A.; Heck, Ronald H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model of school culture and examine data from schools in Southern California to identify educationally important aspects of teacher-perceived cultural variables and how these perceptions differentially impact school performance in K-8 and middle school structures.…

  1. Themes and Images That Transcend Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as tools to aid an instructional framework for international education. The study employed…

  2. Cultural Differences in Children's Emotional Reactions to Difficult Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Bruschi, Carole J.; Tamang, Babu L.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined beliefs about revealing emotion among children from Brahman, Tamang and American cultures. Findings indicated three distinct cultural patterns: Tamang were more likely to appraise difficult situations in terms of shame, while the others endorsed anger. Brahmins were more likely not to communicate negative emotion. Americans…

  3. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  4. Modes and Models for Transcending Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as transcultural tools for international educators. The study employed mixed qualitative…

  5. Measuring individual and cultural differences in implicit trait theories.

    PubMed

    Church, A Timothy; Ortiz, Fernando A; Katigbak, Marcia S; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Emerson, Alice M; Vargas Flores, José de Jesús; Ibáñez Reyes, Joselina

    2003-08-01

    A new measure of implicit theories or beliefs regarding the traitedness versus contextuality of behavior was developed and tested across cultures. In Studies 1 (N = 266) and 2 (N = 266), these implicit beliefs dimensions were reliably measured and replicated across U.S. college student samples and validity evidence was provided. In Study 3, their structure replicated well across an individualistic culture (the United States; N = 249) and a collectivistic culture (Mexico; N = 268). Implicit trait and contextual beliefs overlapped only modestly with implicit entity theory beliefs and were predicted by self-construals in ways that generally supported cultural psychology hypotheses. Implicit trait beliefs were fairly strongly endorsed in both cultures, suggesting that such beliefs may be universally held. PMID:12916574

  6. Doing Culture, Doing Race: Everyday Discourses of "Culture" and "Cultural Difference" in the English as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2015-01-01

    While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…

  7. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    PubMed

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. PMID:26162193

  8. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  9. Cultural Differences in Support Provision: The Importance of Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    Emotional expression is highly valued in individualistic cultures, whereas emotional restraint is prioritized in collectivistic cultures. We hypothesized that high-quality relationships in these cultures would exhibit the forms of support provision congruent with their respective expectations. Study 1 examined support transactions among friends in response to a laboratory stressor and found that objectively judged relationship quality (RQ) more strongly positively predicted emotion-focused support provision behaviors by European Americans than by Asian Americans. Study 2, a questionnaire study, found that self-reported RQ predicted emotion-focused support provision more strongly among European Americans than among Japanese. Study 3 investigated more indirect forms of support and found that RQ more strongly predicted worrying about and monitoring close others enduring stressors and spending time with them without talking about the stressor among Asian Americans compared with European Americans. These findings suggest that RQ is expressed in terms of support provision in culturally normative ways. PMID:26351274

  10. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  11. Use of Cultural Styles or Repertoires of Experience to Guide Instruction: What Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccleave, Anne; Eghan, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    Educators are seeking to meet student needs in increasingly diverse university classrooms. Two contrasting ways of responding to cultural difference are planning instruction on the basis of cultural styles or repertoires of culturally-based experiences (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003). Use of learning styles to address individual differences in learning…

  12. The Art of Globalism, the Culture of Difference, the Industry of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalder, Glenda

    This paper speaks in terms of "globalism" rather than "globalization," of a "culture of difference" rather than of cultural difference, of an "industry of knowledge" rather than of knowing. The paper first considers the argument that new communications technologies and systems are bringing cultures together merely by forging global…

  13. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  14. "They're Just Students to Me": Strategies for Addressing Cultural Differences in the School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiring, Dean

    2003-01-01

    Examines issues related to teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. Provides proactive strategies teachers and administrators can use that begin the process of sharing cultural differences and working toward creating mutually agreeable solutions. (Author/VWL)

  15. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences Among Children With Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Devin M; Steacy, Laura M; Compton, Donald L; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R; Collins, Alyson A

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173) oversampled for children with RD using item-response crossed random-effects models. We distinguish between two subtypes of RD children with word recognition problems, those with early-emerging RD and late-emerging RD. An extensive set of predictors representing item-specific knowledge, child-level characteristics, and word-level characteristics were used to predict item-level variance in polymorphemic word recognition. Results indicate that item-specific root word recognition and word familiarity; child-level RD status, morphological awareness, and orthographic choice; word-level frequency and root word family size; and the interactions between morphological awareness and RD status and root word recognition and root transparency predicted individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition item performance. Results are interpreted within a multisource individual difference model of polymorphemic word recognition skill spanning item-specific, child-level, and word-level knowledge. PMID:25331757

  16. Cultural differences in rated typicality and perceived causes of memory changes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cultural differences in stereotypes and attributions regarding aging and memory. Two subcultures belonging to the same country, Italy, were compared on general beliefs about memory. Sardinians live longer than other areas of Italy, which is a publically shared fact that informs stereotypes about that subculture. An innovative instrument evaluating simultaneously aging stereotypes and attributions about memory and memory change in adulthood was administered to 52 Sardinian participants and 52 Milanese individuals divided into three age groups: young (20-30), young-old (60-70), and old-old (71-85) adults. Both Milanese and Sardinians reported that memory decline across the life span is more typical than a pattern of stability or improvement. However, Sardinians viewed stability and improvement in memory as more typical than did the Milanese. Interestingly, cultural differences emerged in attributions about memory improvement. Although all Sardinian age groups rated nutrition and heredity as relevant causes in determining the memory decline, Sardinians' rated typicality of life-span memory improvement correlated strongly with causal attributions to a wide number of factors, including nutrition and heredity. PMID:23571129

  17. Dual-Language Books as an Emergent-Literacy Resource: Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Rahat; McKeough, Anne; Thorne, Keoma; Pfitscher, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of dual-language book reading in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms is largely uncontested. Yet there are repeated calls for more research to determine how this resource can be used more broadly and effectively by teachers, especially in emergent-literacy learning contexts. In the present study we analysed…

  18. The Emergence of Cultural Self-Constructs: Autobiographical Memory and Self-Description in European American and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the emergence of cultural self-constructs as reflected in children's remembered and conceptual aspects of the self. European American and Chinese children in preschool through 2nd grade participated (N=180). Children each recounted 4 autobiographical events and described themselves in response to open-ended questions. American…

  19. Gender differences in neurologic emergencies part I: a consensus summary and research agenda on cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Tracy E; Seigel, Todd A; Mackenzie, Richard S; Marcolini, Evie G; Wira, Charles R; Healy, Megan E; Wright, David W; Gentile, Nina T

    2014-12-01

    Cerebrovascular neurologic emergencies including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and migraine are leading causes of death and disability that are frequently diagnosed and treated in the emergency department (ED). Although sex and gender differences in neurologic emergencies are beginning to become clearer, there are many unanswered questions about how emergency physicians should incorporate sex and gender into their research initiatives, patient evaluations, and overall management plans for these conditions. After evaluating the existing gaps in the literature, a core group of ED researchers developed a draft of future research priorities. Participants in the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference neurologic emergencies working group then discussed and approved the recommended research agenda using a standardized nominal group technique. Recommendations for future research on the role of sex and gender in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes pertinent to ED providers are described for each of three diagnoses: stroke, SAH, and migraine. Recommended future research also includes investigation of the biologic and pathophysiologic differences between men and women with neurologic emergencies as they pertain to ED diagnoses and treatments. PMID:25422086

  20. Cultural humility: The cornerstone of positive contact with culturally different individuals and groups?

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding cultural and folk psychologies. As noted by Christopher, Wendt, Marecek, and Goodman (2014), "U.S. psychology remains not only overwhelmingly U.S.- centric but also largely unaware of how its cultural roots shape theory and research. PMID:26436316

  1. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G.

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere. PMID:26236301

  2. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere. PMID:26236301

  3. A Cross-Cultural Approach to the Study of Educational Leadership: An Emerging Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    1999-01-01

    Advocates increasing understanding of educational leadership by adopting a comparative, cross-cultural lens. Suggests a framework for comparing cultural influences on educational leadership across national and cultural boundaries. Outlines six cultural dimensions: power distributed/concentrated, group/self-oriented, considerate/aggressive,…

  4. New Imaginations of Difference: On Teaching, Writing, and Culturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Devika; Rodriguez, Amardo

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, we address emerging tensions that are increasingly facing persons, such as ourselves, who choose to reside in borderlands both inside and outside pedagogical settings. Such tensions include matters of location and dislocation, rootedness and uprootedness, diversity and commonality, space and place, time and distance, and so on. The…

  5. Does Brief Intervention Work For Heavy Episodic Drinking? A Comparison of Emergency Department Patients in Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Little has been reported on the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) among heavy episodic drinkers, although this drinking style is known to be especially harmful in relation to negative consequences including alcohol-related injuries. The comparative efficacy of BI is analyzed in two similar randomized controlled clinical trials of emergency department (ED) patients in two different cultures, both of which exhibit similar drinking styles of heavy episodic drinking: Poland and Mexican-Americans in the U.S. Improvements in drinking and problem outcomes are analyzed at 3-month and 12-month follow-up, using random effects modeling, among 446 Polish patients and 698 Mexican-American patients, randomized to screened only, assessment, and intervention conditions in each study. In Poland significant improvement was observed in all outcome measures for the assessed condition at 3-months compared to baseline, but only in the two problem variables at 12-months, while for the intervention condition, significant improvement was found in all outcome measures at both time periods; however, estimates of the interaction terms were not statistically significant. In the Mexica-American study, while significant improvement in nearly all outcome measures were observed at 3 months and 12 months for both conditions, estimates of the interaction terms suggest that for all drinking variables, but not problem variables, outcomes were significantly improved for the intervention condition over the assessed condition at 12 months, suggesting a 12-month intervention effect. Findings here are non-conclusive regarding a treatment effect of BI for heavy episodic drinking in ED patients. Given the mixed findings for BI in other ED studies, future studies need to explore the efficacy of BI in other populations and cultures exhibiting different drinking patterns to help identify what type of drinker would most benefit from BI in the ED setting. PMID:26688611

  6. Beyond the Boundaries: Critical Thinking and Differing Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Sharon; Battersby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    After outlining arguments for the general epistemological presumption in favour of taking into consideration alternative perspectives from other cultures, the article details several examples in which such an examination yields epistemic benefits and challenges. First, our example of alternative conceptions of art demonstrates that a western…

  7. Cultural Differences in Equity Theory Predictions of Relational Maintenance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…

  8. Corporal Punishment, Discipline and Cultural Differences and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Johnny L.

    Schools can no longer be responsible for only the cognitive domain of the child. They must also expand to include the affective domain. When it comes to the corporal punishment or discipline of a disruptive black child, the child's cultural history and history of alienation must be considered. And, because it is the teacher who controls rewards…

  9. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  10. Does Cognitive Style Account for Cultural Differences in Scholastic Achivement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lesley A.; Halford, Graeme S.

    1983-01-01

    Urban and rural Aboriginal- and Anglo-Australian children were tested for reading and math achievement, for nonverbal psychometric test intelligence, and for three cognitive styles. Psychometric intelligence was clearly a more powerful predictor of the effects of culture and location on school achievement than was cognitive style. (Author/CMG)

  11. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning across Cultures: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…

  12. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  13. Factors Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Critical Illness, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Jan; Wu, Chi-Jung; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Shih, Fang-Ying; Wang, Shou-Wen; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Shih, Hsin-I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood culture contamination in emergency departments (ED) that experience a high volume of patients has negative impacts on optimal patient care. It is therefore important to identify risk factors associated with blood culture contamination in EDs. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospectively observational study in a university-affiliated hospital were conducted between August 2011 and December 2012. Positive monomicrobial and negative blood cultures drawn from adult patients in the ED were analyzed to evaluate the possible risk factors for contamination. A total of 1,148 positive monomicrobial cases, 391 contamination cases, and 13,689 cases of negative blood culture were identified. Compared to patients with negative blood cultures, patients in triage levels 1 and 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 2.24), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (IRR = 2.05), and older patients (IRR: 1.02 per year) were more likely to be associated with ED blood culture contamination. Conclusions/Significance Critical patients (triage levels 1 and 2), ESRD patients, and older patients were more commonly associated with blood culture contamination in the ED. Further studies to evaluate whether the characteristics of skin commensals contribute to blood culture contamination is warranted, especially in hospitals populated with high-risk patients. PMID:26448628

  14. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  15. Perceptions of Ways in Which French and American Business Practices Reflect Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hazel

    The literature concerning the corporate culture of the United States is a starting point for comparing the institutions of different cultures. However, teaching about the cultural context of business is not simply a matter of describing non-American companies in American terms, and American-born language teachers usually have little experience…

  16. Cross-Cultural Differences and the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiu-Bai, Qin

    1983-01-01

    A Chinese student of English is often faced with culturally based differences in denotation and connotation, idioms and proverbs, habits, and formulaic use of language. Since the native speaker of any language has built into his language repertoire his unique cultural assumptions and values, a culture-oriented curriculum in language teaching is…

  17. Developing an innovative cross-cultural strategy to promote HIV/AIDS prevention in different ethnic cultural groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Keats, D

    2005-10-01

    The HIV and STIs epidemic in China has had a significant impact among China's ethnic minorities. However, the official traditional approach, which has used an anti-epidemic social campaign, has not paid any attention to the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the many ethnic minority groups. This study carried out in Sichuan Province is the first to explore how to use cultural resources for developing an effective strategy for promoting HIV prevention in different cultural groups in China. One hundred and fifty male volunteers drawn from the Yi (50), Tibetan (50) and majority Han (50) cultural groups were assigned to a direct training programme. After training, these participants spread safe sex messages to other contacts who became an indirect peer diffusion group. A third group of 150 male volunteers from the same three cultural groups but from another relatively comparable community acted as controls. Each participant was interviewed before and after the intervention to assess knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. The study examined the cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of peer-led health message diffusion in promoting condom use through a traditional oral communication approach from the direct training groups to the indirect intervention groups and broad peer networks within the Yi, Tibetan and Han cultural communities. Key findings showed that the peer-based oral communication strategy was effective for encouraging condom use with casual sexual partners in both the direct training group and the indirect peer diffusion group in all three cultural groups. There was no significant change in any of the comparison groups. Although change in the majority Han cultural group was generally greater than in the ethnic minority groups, the results clearly suggest that the methods can be successfully adopted to promote safe sexual behaviour in different cultural groups of China. PMID:16120504

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae, an emerging pathogen for cultured ya-fish, Schizothorax prenanti, in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Huang, X L; Chen, D F; Li, C W; Ren, S Y; Liao, Y T; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, Q F; Du, Z J; Lai, W M

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. S. agalactiae infections are becoming an increasing problem in aquaculture and have been reported worldwide in a variety of fish species, especially those living in warm water. Recently, a very serious infectious disease of unknown aetiology broke out in ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti) farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from moribund cultured ya-fish. The goals of this study were to identify the bacterial strains isolated from diseased fish between 2009 and 2011 in Sichuan Province, China, to evaluate the pathogenicity of the pathogen in ya-fish, crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); and to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to many currently available anti-microbial agents. The virulence tests were conducted by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial suspensions. In this study, four strains of a Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus were isolated from moribund cultured ya-fish (S. prenanti). The coccoid microorganism was identified as S. agalactiae using a commercial streptococcal grouping kit and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. Susceptibility of the isolates to 22 antibiotics was tested using the disc diffusion method. All isolates showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, chloramphenicol, rifampin, vancomycin, azithromycin, florfenicol, cefalexin, cefradine and deoxycycline and resistant to gentamicin, sinomin (SMZ/TMP), penicillin, tenemycin, fradiomycin and streptomycin. Furthermore, the virulence tests were conducted by intraperitoneal injection of the isolated strain GY101 in ya-fish, crucian carp and the Nile tilapia. This coccus was lethal to ya-fish, Nile tilapia and crucian carp. The mortality rates of infected ya-fish were 100%, 100%, 60% and 20

  19. Culturally Responsive Gifted Classrooms for Culturally Different Students: A Focus on Invitational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article expands the notion of culturally responsive learning environments by including Purkey and Novak's (1996) work on invitational learning. Their typology of four types of schools is described and applied to gifted education classrooms, along with associated characteristics of each. Specific attention is focused on implications for…

  20. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  1. Different Leaders: Emergent Organizational and Intellectual Leadership in Children's Collaborative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.; da Costa, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two studies that examine emergent leadership in children's collaborative learning groups. Building on research that finds that leadership moves are distributed among group members during learning activities, we examined whether there were patterns in the distribution of moves, resulting in different types of emergent…

  2. Differences between Girls and Boys in Emerging Language Skills: Evidence from 10 Language Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten; Marschik, Peter B.; Tulviste, Tiia; Almgren, Margareta; Perez Pereira, Miguel; Wehberg, Sonja; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Gayraud, Frederique; Kovacevic, Melita; Gallego, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are…

  3. A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differences.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Eagly, Alice H

    2002-09-01

    This article evaluates theories of the origins of sex differences in human behavior. It reviews the cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor and patriarchy. To explain the cross-cultural findings, the authors consider social constructionism, evolutionary psychology, and their own biosocial theory. Supporting the biosocial analysis, sex differences derive from the interaction between the physical specialization of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies. This biosocial approach treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent given the evolved characteristics of the sexes, their developmental experiences, and their situated activity in society. PMID:12206191

  4. Cultural differences with end-of-life care in the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Doolen, Jessica; York, Nancy L

    2007-01-01

    Critical care nurses are providing healthcare for an increasingly multicultural population. This ever-increasing diversity in cultures and subcultures presents a challenge to nurses who want to provide culturally competent care. It is common for patients and families to face difficult decisions about end-of-life care in critical care units, and minority cultures do not always believe in the Westerner's core values of patient autonomy and self-determination. Knowledge of these cultural differences is fundamental if critical care nurses wish to provide appropriate and culturally competent information regarding end-of-life decisions. PMID:17704674

  5. Cultural Nuance in Orthopedic Foreign Aid: Differences in Patient Concerns.

    PubMed

    Kavolus, Joseph J; Ritter, Merrill A; Claverie, J Guillermo; Salas, Marcos D; Kavolus, Christopher H; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic aid to developing nations is expanding and becoming a unique facet of the specialty. This investigation seeks to compare patient impressions and concerns regarding the care patients receive as part of an itinerant surgical aid trip in 2 nations. In 2013 and 2014, patients from 2 separate nations completed a Likert scale survey assessing impressions of the care they received at the hands of a surgical team from abroad. Mean response scores were calculated and compared using a t test. This is the first investigation to compare patient concerns across 2 nations in a surgical aid trip setting. The results highlight the importance of culture in understanding patients and the impressions of the care they receive. PMID:26350258

  6. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Cultural Differences on the Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpaci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand the impact of cultural differences on mobile learning adoption through identifying key adoption characteristics in Canada and Turkey, which have markedly different cultural backgrounds. A multi-group analysis was employed to test the hypothesised relationships based on the data collected by means of…

  7. On the Meaning of Cross-Cultural Differences in Simple Cognitive Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    A set of 5 reaction time tests of increasing cognitive complexity were administered to 35 secondary school pupils in Zimbabwe and The Netherlands at 4 consecutive school days in order to explore the existence and nature of cross-cultural differences on reaction time tests measuring basic cognitive operations. No cross-cultural differences were…

  8. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies during different phases of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.

  9. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  10. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Hamilton, Derek A; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-02-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  11. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; Terracciano, A; McCrae, R R

    2001-08-01

    Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures. PMID:11519935

  12. Gender differences in the age-changing relationship between instrumentality and family contact in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Joel R; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-09-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women. Both finance and romance instrumentality increased for men and women across emerging adulthood. The growth rate did not differ between men and women in either domain, although men tended to be characterized by higher levels of instrumentality than women. There were noteworthy gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of instrumentality. At age 17, family contact was negatively associated with instrumentality for both men and women; at age 27, the impact of family contact on instrumentality was less negative for women and was positive for men. PMID:16953686

  13. Emergent Characteristics of Effective Cross-Cultural Research: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies characteristics of effective research done in cross-cultural environments; reviews the literature in the years following the publication of Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) seminal article, challenging the basis for the description of cultures as individualistic or collectivistic; and summarizes major issues…

  14. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  15. A Socio-Cultural Perspective on School-Based Literacy Research: Some Emerging Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Enk, Anneke; Dagenais, Diane; Toohey, Kelleen

    2005-01-01

    Much research on reading and writing in schools continues to focus on individual cognitive skills. In contrast, investigations of literacy-learning in out-of-school settings have often taken a socio-cultural perspective, situating reading and writing in social relations and cultural institutions. The last 20 years have seen a proliferation of…

  16. Cultural Misalignment and Emerging Paradigms. Insights on Educational Policy and Practice Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud; Mutchler, Sue E.

    Societal changes of the past three decades call for a fundamental change in the structure of the educational system and in the culture of schooling. Disadvantaged African Americans, Native Americans, and Latinos, in particular, historically have suffered from the cultural misalignment of home, school, and community. The reform of educational…

  17. Correcting Cultural Myopia: The Discovery and Nurturance of the Culturally Different Gifted and Talented in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Neil

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying and developing talent in children from culturally different backgrounds in New Zealand. The paper offers examples of how even applying the recommended "best practice" of multi-dimensional identification approaches can be inadequate for identifying gifted children from Maori, Polynesian, or other…

  18. Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

  19. Testing the Cultural Differences of School Characteristics with Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to model the school characteristics in multivariate structure, and according to this model, aimed to test the invariance of this model across five randomly selected countries and economies from PISA 2012 sample. It is thought that significant differences across group in the context of school characteristics have the…

  20. Exercises Abroad: How Differing National Experiences are Reflected in Emergency Response Planning and Exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2007-04-30

    Recently a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Consequence Management Response Team took part in outreaches and an exercise in different foreign countries. In Brazil and South Korea, the outreaches revolved around a nuclear power plant exercise. In Canada, participation was limited to a table top Consequence Management exercise. This talk will briefly discuss each event and resulting pertinent observations. In each case, it became evident that governments respond to disasters very differently, and that these differences are not only culturally based, but also influenced by each government’s respective experience in dealing with natural disasters.

  1. Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed. PMID:22084635

  2. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…

  3. Gender Differences in Graduate Students' Perspectives on the Culture of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines gender differences in graduate student perspectives on the culture of science in two biology and chemistry departments. Shows that although women have greater access to science, the culture of scientific enterprise continues to be based on the masculine ideals of 17th century England. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/NB)

  4. Thinking Differently about Cultural Diversity: Using Postcolonial Theory to (Re)Read Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading…

  5. Legal Recognition of Cultural Differences in Communication: The Case of Robyn Kina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eades, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a court case in which cultural and linguistic differences obstructed the presentation of Aboriginal evidence. The article argues that a cross-cultural understanding of the assumptions and practices inherent in the interview process are essential prerequisites for any lawyer representing an Aboriginal client. (20 references) (Author/CK)

  6. Global Organizations and E-Learning: Leveraging Adult Learning in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Edward P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a number of issues regarding the leveraged use of global training within multinational organizations. Given a common purpose and using technology that may minimize cultural differences, is it possible for these organizations to overcome some of the cultural barriers to adult learning? In examining this concept, this article…

  7. Differences between Taiwanese and U.S. Cultural Beliefs about Ideal Adult Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Mallinckrodt, Brent S.

    2006-01-01

    Some researchers believe that important tenets of attachment theory are culturally universal, whereas others claim that key constructs are rooted in Western values and should not be generalized further. To explore possible cultural differences in adults, undergraduates from Taiwan (n = 280) and the United States (n = 268) were asked in the present…

  8. Reading Difference: Picture Book Retellings as Contexts for Exploring Personal Meanings of Race and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Sedberry, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In racially and culturally homogeneous school settings, opportunities for children to interact with those who are unlike themselves are not always available. Picture book retellings provide contexts within which students are exposed to racial and cultural differences by allowing them to engage in vicarious events with people they might not…

  9. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  10. Are We Tolerant Enough to Read Each Other's Culture? Evidence from Three Different Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effect of cultural background of second-language-readers in different social contexts. Argues that cultural familiarity helps understanding more than the language of the text. Comprehension results are discussed in light of the role of multiculturalism and "melting-pot" policies in shaping minority students' social orientations.…